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You are on page 1of 21

C. J. Middleton

1

and J. M. W. Brownjohn

2

1

Research Associate, Vibration Engineering Section, Department of Civil and

Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield.

Email: C.J.Middleton@sheffield.ac.uk

2

Professor, Vibration Engineering Section, Department of Civil and Structural

Engineering, University of Sheffield.

Abstract

Floor vibration serviceability has become an area of interest over recent years.

Lightweight electronic offices, especially those with slender architectural forms, and

high-technology buildings with low vibration environments can often have excessive

floor vibration due to human walking. This can result in a floor which is not fit-for-

purpose. There exist a number of design guides which offer simplified formulae to

analyse these floors. However, the simplistic methods are often shown in be

inaccurate and inappropriate. The alternative, finite element analysis (FEA), which

is often considered more accurate, can be expensive to implement and time

consuming. In addition, modelling techniques required for dynamic analyses are

different to that required for static analysis. This is often overlooked, resulting in

poor inaccurate models. An accurate, simplistic, method is required which is suitable

for everyday design.

This paper examines the current simplified methods of predicting floor response to a

single human walking. The inaccuracies are highlighted, as well as where the

methodology is inappropriate. The paper also introduces new techniques and ideas

to improve design guides in the future.

Introduction

Vibration performance of floors subject to human walking is a relatively modern

concern resulting from two main factors. Firstly, throughout the last century, modern

advances in construction technology have allowed for floors in new constructions to

become more slender, which leads to more economical, aesthetically pleasing,

designs. In offices in particular, the increased slenderness is coupled with a

reduction in mass applied to the floor due to a move from a heavy traditional office

to a light-weight electronic paperless office, making the floors more susceptible to

excessive vibration from walking. Secondly, advances in technology have resulted

in increased use of high-technology electronic devices becoming common in our

383 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

everyday lives. Components in these computers and measurement devices (e.g. in

hospitals) often have sensitive vibration criteria. Thus from the standpoint of both

design, vibration serviceability often governs the design of floors, influencing the

member sizes and structural layout more than strength requirements.

Currently, the most accurate and efficient method for determining the response of a

proposed floor design is by extracting the modal properties using finite element (FE)

analysis, and calculating the response with a characteristic force model or measured

walking force. However, this process is time consuming and costly. It is desirable

for a cost effective method of quickly and economically assessing the floor’s

vibration performance to human induced walking. A number of design guides have

been published which use simplified procedures to calculate the response to walking

based on the response of a single vibration mode.

Unfortunately, these guides tend not to be clear in their application and are not

flexible in their methods. For example, if the structure is not a simple design with a

uniform structural plan, the simple rules become complex, abstract and difficult to

use. Moreover, they often prove to be inaccurate, predicting responses differing

widely from those obtained using finite element analysis or from direct measurement

in situ.

This paper focuses on application of and problems with using the AISC design guide.

It begins by briefly describing how the guide recommends calculating the modal

properties. It then continues to examine the force models recommended. One of the

examples within the AISC design guide is then examined by comparing it with FE

analysis and with a novel method of obtaining modal mass. At each stage, any

inaccuracies in the guidance are highlighted, and where possible avenues of

improvement are suggested.

Current design guides

There exist a number of design guides to aid in assessing a floors performance. The

most recent ones in Europe and America are:

• AISC design guide 11: Floor vibrations due to human activity (USA)

(Murray, Allen, & Ungar, 1997)

• ATC design guide 1: Minimizing floor vibration (USA) (ATC, 1999)

• SCI P354: Design of floors for vibration: a new approach (UK) (Smith,

Hicks, & Devine, 2009)

• CC CCIP-016: A design guide for footfall induced vibration of structures

(UK) (Willford & Young, 2006)

• Hivoss: Vibration design of floors (Europe) (Hivoss, 2007)

384 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

Each guide is similar in approach: calculate modal properties, apply a force and

evaluate the response; however, there are small differences in the calculation

methods, which can cause large differences in the calculated responses. Due to their

similarities, the areas in which errors are introduced are common across the design

guides.

AISC design guide 11

The design guide is split into a number of parts. It starts by giving an overview of

vibration terminology and principles and continues to discuss acceptance criteria,

which are beyond the scope of this paper. The guide recommends determining the

fundamental modal properties for analysis and offers methods in their calculation.

For walking excitation, there are then two methods of calculation, depending on the

occupancy of the floor: design for walking excitation and design for sensitive

equipment. There is also a section on rhythmic excitation and the guide finishes with

remedial measures for vibration problems, both of which are not within the scope of

this paper.

Mode shape and modal mass

Throughout the AISC design guide, first a floor mode must be determined before any

modal property is calculated. An understanding of the assumed mode shapes is

essential. In addition, as modal mass is defined by:

H = _ _ ¢(x, y)

2

m JyJx

¡mux

¡mìn

xmux

xmìn

Equation 1

where ¢ is a mode shape function in x and y, and m is a mass distribution function,

modal mass is directly linked to the mode shape, and are therefore discussed

together.

In the design guide it is recommended that there is likely to be a mode governed by

the floor joists (left plot of Figure 1), a mode governed by the floor girders (right plot

of Figure 1) or a combination of the two.

385 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

Figure 1: Joist (left) and girder (right) floor modes, illustration from SCI P354

(Smith, Hicks, & Devine, 2009).

One of the key assumptions in the AISC design guide is that partitions and non-

structural elements will confine dynamic response to a localised region; i.e. only one

floor bay needs to be considered and it will act as a two way slab. Finite element

(FE) modal analysis of the whole empty structure, with many uniformly spaced bays,

results in many closely spaced modes spanning the whole structure. The design

guide recommends its simplified single panel approach over the FE analysis as it

implies it is unlikely for the FE modes to exist. As this assumption would

dramatically change the shape and area of a mode shape, this would also have a

significant effect on the modal mass of the assumed mode. It is crucial to accurately

determine the area of the floor participating in the response to calculate the modal

mass.

Measured modal properties of a structure which includes partitions can be used to

investigate the assumption the partitions constrain modes shapes. The left plot of

Figure 2 shows the floor plan of an experimentally measured structure. The partition

layout is clear, with the highlighted area showing the test area. In this case, most of

the partitions are substantial heavy brick partitions. The right plot shows the first and

third vibration modes, which span the whole test area and beyond. It is clear that the

partitions do not break up these modes. There were also more localised modes, but a

number of these also spanned partition lines. The localised modes contributed to the

response more, but the global modes response was still significant enough to require

consideration.

386 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

9.6Hz 4.8%

11.6 Hz 0.9%

Figure 2: Partition layout (left) and the 1st and 3rd vibration modes (right)

from a measured structure with brick partition walls.

The influence of partitions is not understood and is under-researched. Falati, in his

PhD thesis (Falati, 1999), examined the contribution of partitions. He discovered:

• Contribution depends on if they are full height or cantilever.

• Contribution depends on their geometrical position to the mode shape.

• Full height partition acts as a flexible vertical support.

In addition to this, it would be possible to add some common sense assumptions:

• Lightweight partitions would have less influence than massive partitions

• Stiff partitions would have more influence than flexible partitions

Even trying to model partitions with finite elements is difficult due to the variability

in stiffness of the connections as they are not structural. In the author’s experience,

partitions generally reduce the response, but to what extent is very situation-

dependant. As it is difficult to predict how partitions will affect modes shapes, and

in turn modal masses, it should be recommended that they are not included in the

analysis, resulting in a slightly conservative response estimation.

In the AISC design guide, the modal mass is expressed as an effective panel weight:

w = wBI Equation 2

Where w is the distributed weight per m

2

, I is the panel length and B is the effective

panel width. This equation is common in all design guides, but generally it is

expressed with mass, not weight. However, there are various methods of calculating

B and I, but the origin of the methods is never clear or referenced. In the UK design

guides it seems to be based on the beam frequency equation, empirically altered with

parametric studies. In the AISC design guide it is based on a relationship between

387 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

relative stiffnesses of the structural members, but how this has been developed is not

clear. It is commonly known that increasing the number of floor bays in the structure

reduces the response. The AISC design guide includes this by stating: if there is an

adjoining bay with a span 0.7 times this span the mass may be increased by 50%. It

has been shown many times that modal mass estimations using the simplified

methods are very inaccurate and are the biggest source of error in the design guides

(Middleton & Brownjohn, 2007) (Middleton & Brownjohn, 2010).

Equivalent modal mass estimation

To facilitate improving the modal mass estimation methods of the design guides, a

new method has been developed. This method is based on using the actual deformed

shape of the vibration response to calculate a participating mass using Equation 1.

If a single bay is considered in both directions, there is generally only a single mode

that needs to be considered in the analysis. As such, the shape of the response is the

same as the mode shape, and this shape is very similar to the static deflection of the

floor to a point load at the centre. If the static deflection is used in Equation 1, a

participating mass can be found that is very similar to the modal mass.

The same idea can be applied to multiple bays. The top row of Figure 3 shows the

first three modes shapes of a 3 bay structure. Each one of these modes pertains to the

fundamental mode of a 1 bay structure, and as such have very closely spaced modal

frequencies; in this case they are all within 0.5 Hz of each other. The bottom left plot

of Figure 3 shows the initial dynamic response to an impulse applied in the centre of

the middle bay. If this was animated it could be seen that this shape is preserved for

a significant number of oscillations before the damping and geometrical distribution

of the response effects it. It is clear that this shape is a combination of all three mode

shapes, and as their frequency is closely spaced, they stay pretty much in phase for a

significant number of oscillations. Due to this, it may be possible to approximate the

response of the three modes using a single equivalent mode, with an equivalent

modal mass. The bottom right plot of Figure 3 shows the static deflection to a point

load applied to the centre of the middle bay. Again this deflected shape is very

similar to the shape in the bottom left of Figure 3 and it may be used to approximate

a modal mass for the equivalent mode.

For this structure the response seems to be confined to 3 bays. This is true even if

the number of bays is increased and the mode shapes span the whole structure due to

the way the modes sum. As such, with this structure increasing the number of bays

further would not have a significant influence on the response. Interestingly, this

agrees with the AISC design guides assumption that the response will be localised –

but not due to non-structural elements and partitions, this is due to the support

388 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

conditions. It is likely that this is case specific and depends on the structural layout

and member properties – the number of bays to consider would not always be 3.

Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3

Initial deflection from an impulse

Deflection to a point load

Figure 3: First 3 modes of a 3 bay floor structure (top row), the initial dynamic

response to an impulse (bottom left) and the displacement to a point load at the

centre of the middle bay (bottom right).

Fundamental frequency

The AISC design guide describes the fundamental natural frequency as the most

important parameter in estimating the response and recommends its simplified

procedure over modal analysis. The method presented is based on the two mode

system shown in Figure 1; the frequency is calculated for the beam and girder mode

separately, then a combined mode and the fundamental frequency is the lowest of the

three.

The frequency is estimated from the static deflection due to self-weight plus any

permanent live loads. In these calculations the design guide recommends increasing

the static Young’s modulus by a factor 1.35 due to small strains and to assume full

composite action between beams and the slab. Although written in a slightly

different form in the guidance, the natural frequency calculations are built up by first

assuming the fundamental natural frequency of a beam as:

Equation 3

where is the Young’s modulus, is the second moment of area, is mass per unit

length . The deflection of the beam to a UDL is defined by:

Equation 4

where is acceleration due to gravity. Equation 4 can be substituted into Equation

3 to express the fundamental frequency in terms of deflection:

389 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

¡

1

=

17.7S

√∆

Equation 5

which can be approximated by:

¡

1

=

18

√∆

Equation 6

where ∆ is deflection in millimetres and can be defined as ∆= ∆

]

+∆

g

, where the

subscripts j and g represent the joist and girder respectively. Each deflection can be

considered separately to find the frequency of each mode, or both together to find the

frequency of a combined mode.

The accuracy of the frequency estimate using this displacement approach depends on

how well the static displacement matches the mode shape. This can be illustrated

simply with a spring and mass system where the fundamental natural frequency can

be defined as:

¡

1

=

1

2n

_

k

m

Equation 7

where k is the spring stiffness and m is its mass. The deflection of a spring to a load

is defined by:

∆=

mg

k

Equation 8

which can be substituted into Equation 8 to express the fundamental natural

frequency in terms of displacement:

¡

1

=

1

2n

_

g

∆

Equation 9

Assuming a spring mass system with two masses in series, with equal masses and

equal stiffnesses, the deflection can be defined as:

∆=

2mg

k

+

mg

k

=

Smg

k

Equation 10

which, if substituted into Equation 7 to express the fundamental natural frequency in

terms of displacement gives:

¡

1

=

u.S774

2n

_

g

∆

Equation 11

390 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

and the corresponding mode shape would be x

1

= 1, x

2

= 1.S. However, this is

different from an exact analysis of a double spring mass system in series, which can

be defined as:

¡

1

=

u.618u

2n

_

g

∆

Equation 12

and the corresponding mode shape would be x

1

= 1, x

2

= 1.618. The discrepancy

in result due to assuming the Equation 9 Is also suitable for a double spring mass

system in series gives an error in frequency of approximately 6.5% due to the

mismatch in mode shape assumption. If the spring approximation was used for a

beam and plate the error would be approximately 11% and 22% respectively. The

same calculation can be performed starting with the beam frequency equation and

calculating the error for spring mass system and a plate, but it is not so clear to

present. If the calculation is performed the error found is approximately 11% for

both cases. This means that if the modal frequency is estimated using Equation 6,

but the mode of vibration is predominantly a plate mode, an error of up to 11% may

be introduced.

Modal damping

The AISC design guides states that until recently damping determined from filtered

heel drop tests. The test were performed by performing heal drop, filtering out high

frequency modes and estimating damping using logarithmic decrement. This method

generally overestimated the modal damping and values ranging from 4-12% we

reported. The over estimation was due to the contribution of closely spaced modes

of vibration, which cause geometric dispersion of the response. When the response

was filtered a number of closely spaced modes can still contribute to the response,

but the separate contributions are not distinguishable in the time history response.

Estimating the corresponding damping for each mode requires more sophisticated

modal analysis techniques.

Damping cannot be modelled as easily as mass and stiffness; it is not related to the

material properties of the structure, but derives from frictional forces in joint,

connections and not structural elements (Jeary, 1985). As such, guidelines can be

given for typical structures but these must be used with engineering judgement and

the analyst’s experience and are also amplitude-dependent. The AISC design guide

recommends 2-5% for offices, 2% for shopping malls and 1% for footbridges. The

large range for offices depends on its type (open plan, many partitions, traditional of

electronic, etc.)

391 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

Force Modelling

For typical floors (e.g. office floors), the AISC design guide uses harmonic

amplitudes from footfall forces:

F

ì

= Po

ì

cos (2ni¡

p

t) Equation 13

where P is the persons weight, o

ì

is the harmonic amplitude of the ith harmonic, ¡

p

is

the pace rathe in Hz and t is time. The values of o are given as 0.5, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05

for the 1

st

, 2

nd

, 3

rd

and 4

th

harmonic respectively. The values of the harmonics

reported in the literature vary significantly, and in any case are stochastic parameters

that depending on pacing rate. A good overview is presented by Zivanovic

(Zivanovic, Pavic, & Reynolds, 2005). Figure 4 shows the harmonic amplitudes for

the first and second harmonic, each dot represents a different study. It is clear to see

why the values have been disputed over the years. For the first harmonic, the

amplitudes have a clear trend proportional with pace rate, although there is still a

large degree of variation. For the second, and, although not shown, higher

harmonics, the distribution is much more scattered and a line of best fit does not

describe the data – it is clearly a random process. From Figure 4, one can conclude

the AISC values are likely to be conservative. The problem with the harmonic

method is that above the last significant harmonic (approximately the fourth

harmonic) there is no force, so negligible response. As such, this method cannot be

used to analyse modes above approximately 10 Hz

Figure 4: Harmonic amplitudes after Zivanovic (Zivanovic, Pavic, & Reynolds,

2005) for the first (left) and second (right) harmonic; each different type of dot

is representing a different study. The solid line is a line of best fit.

For sensitive occupancies, the AISC design guide recommends using the kf method

developed by Ungar (Ungar & White, 1979). The method is based on a pulse

approximation of a footfall force, which is illustrated in Figure 5. It is assumed that

disregarding the characteristic peaks and trough of a footfall force will only

introduce minor errors.

392 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

Figure 5: Measured footfall force (dotted line) with the idealised pulse over laid.

The analysis of the response is based on an amplification factor and static deflection.

Although the presentation in the AISC design guide differs slightly, the velocity of

the nth mode can be derived:

I = 2n¡

n

X

mux

Equation 14

where X

mux

is the maximum dynamic displacement and is given by:

X

mux

=

F

m

k¡

0

2

2¡

n

2

Equation 15

where F

m

represents a person’s dynamic force, k is the point stiffness of the floor

and ¡

0

is related to a person’s pace rate. If Equation 15 is substituted into Equation

14, the resulting velocity expression is:

I =

nF

m

k¡

0

2

¡

n

Equation 16

which shows that an increase in the natural frequency will decrease the velocity. As

frequency is related to stiffness and mass by:

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

Time (s)

F

o

r

c

e

(

N

)

2.0 Hz Pace Rate

393 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

¡

n

=

1

2n

_

k

m

Equation 17

reducing the mass, while the stiffness remains constant, will increase the frequency

and reduce the response, which is intuitively incorrect. This method has often been

shown to be inaccurate and non-representative of response to measured forces

(Brownjohn & Middleton, 2008).

The reason for the inaccuracy with this method is shown in Figure 6. The kf method

calculates the residual response considering no damping, i.e. the response after the

duration of the pulse. The column on the left shows no damping with the top, middle

and bottom row showing the force, velocity response of a 10 Hz oscillator and

velocity response of a 15 Hz oscillator respectively. It can be seen that with the

correct oscillator frequency, the residual response can be 0. This does not happen in

the design guide as the exact amplification factor is fitted with a crude curve for the

remainder of the calculation. The right column shows the response with 3%

damping. It is clear that this considerably changes the response. In addition, Figure

7 shows the response of SDOF oscillators to a measured walking force. The

response is clearly very different to that of the idealised pulse in Figure 6. The

response of kf method does not represent the characteristic response from a walking

force, and as the method disregards the response during the force (which is important

in the response) it is recommended that this method is not used

The response of the 10 Hz oscillator is not intuitive and may require some further

explanation. In this method the rise of the pulse is defined with a sine wave, and in

this example the period of that sine wave (the rise time) matches the period of the

oscillator. If displacement is considered, the oscillator would displace with exactly

the same shape as the pulse force. It displacement increases with the rise and would

halt at the plateau – there is no momentum and the restoring force is balanced by the

static force of the pulse’s plateau. The plot in Figure 6 is the velocity, which is

simply the displacement response differentiated

394 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

Figure 6: Velocity response of the idealised pulse. The left column is with no

damping and the right column is with 3% damping. The top row is the force,

the middle row is the response of a 10 Hz oscillator and the bottom row is the

response to a 15 Hz oscillator.

The AISC design guide categorises floors by the occupancy. For office floors, it

recommends using the harmonic method, which is only suitable for modes up to

approximately 10 Hz. For sensitive floors it recommends the kf method for all

frequencies. It does not make sense that there should be an overlap of frequencies, if

the harmonic method is accurate below 10 Hz, then it should also be suitable for

sensitive occupancies. Indeed, if a force model is accurate and characteristic of a

walking force, it should be suitable for all cases.

As the response of a floor changes from a resonant response to a transient response

(illustrated in Figure 7) after the fourth harmonic, a more logical step is to have a

difference force model depending on floor frequency. This split is present in the UK

guidance; floors are known as low frequency floors (LFFs) when the response with

resonance to walking and high frequency floors (HFFs) when they response

transiently. For high frequency floors, the force model used is the effective impulse

developed by Arup (Willford, Field, & Young, 2006).

395 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

Figure 7: Low frequency (top) and high frequency (bottom) floor response to a

measured force with a 2 Hz pace rate.

The effective impulse is based on the velocity response of a mass to a given impulse,

which is defined as:

I = I¡H Equation 18

where I is the velocity of a body, H is its mass and I is the impulse applied in Ns

-1

.

If the mass is set to 1, it can be seen that the resulting velocity is equal to its impulse.

To obtain the effective impulse values in the design guides, measured walking forces

were applied to a SDOF oscillator with a known frequency and unit mass. The

resulting peak velocity is equal to an impulse that would give the same peak velocity,

and is termed the effective impulse of the force. The procedure was repeated at

different oscillator frequencies. As an impulse is representative of an instantaneous

force, it is not suitable for resonance. Arup performed these analyses for a range of

pace rates and oscillator frequencies and curve fitted the results. The empirical

expression for the effective impulse with a 25% chance of exceedance is given by:

I

c]]

= S4¡

p

1.43

¡¡

n

1.3

Equation 19

This method has been shown to be reasonably accurate (Brownjohn & Middleton,

2008), and much more so than the kf method for HFFs. A simple test of the accuracy

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

-0.2

-0.1

0

0.1

0.2

Resonant Response

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

x 10

-3

Time (s)

Impulsive Response

Response

(m/s)

396 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

can be obtained by comparing the response of an SDOF oscillator to the measured

force against the response from the corresponding effective impulses.

Although Arup recommend analysing the response to just one pace, in reality there

would be multiple paces. Multiple paces will be used in this example as it is more

realistic. The left plot in Figure 8 shows the response of a 15 Hz SDOF oscillator to

a measured walking force with a 2 Hz pace rate. This force was generated using an

instrumented treadmill with metronome-prompted walking. This gives the most

stable pacing rate possible, however variation does still exist. The middle plot shows

the response to the corresponding curve fitted effective impulse, but with the pace

rate variations kept. The characteristics of the response have been preserved,

including the larger response towards the end of the signal. The plot on the right

shows the response with the impulses at exactly 2 Hz, with no variation. In this case

the characteristics of the response have been removed, and the peak response at the

end of the signal has been eliminated. This demonstrates that not only does the force

of an individual step need to be modelled appropriately, but so does the variation in

timing between successive steps. This would also vary the harmonic amplitudes.

Figure 8: 15 Hz SDOF oscillator response to a measured walking force time

history (left), effective impulse including pace rate variation (middle) and the

effective impulse without pace rate variation (right).

With the two force models that depend on floor frequency, it is possible to calculate

much more accurate responses, but as was shown, these force models are not perfect.

In addition, having two models is not ideal. For lightweight floors there often exist

low frequency global modes, and at high frequency, low mass local modes, with both

contributing significantly to the response. Ideally, a universal force model would be

appropriate, that includes variation in pace rate.

Comparison of FE analysis Vs. AISC design guide 11

To assess the accuracy of the AISC guide, example 4.3 presented in the guide will be

analysed with FE analysis and with the modal mass from displacement of a point

load. In the example only one bay is described, but it is implied that it is continuous

over the supports. As such, the floor will be considered as 1x1 bay, 3x3 bay, 5x5

bay, 7x7 bay, 9x9 bay to see how the structural size changes response and modal

0 5 10 15

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

0 5 10 15

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

0 5 10 15

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

397 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

properties. Columns have not been modelled, but pinned supports have been applied,

which is more in keeping with the design guides calculations, however it is

commonly known that columns may have an influence on the response (Middleton &

Brownjohn, Response of high frequency floors: A literature review, 2010). The 1x1,

3x3 and 5x5 bay models are shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9: Underside of the FE model showing the beam locations for the 1x1 bay

(left), 3x3 bays (middle) and 5x5 bays (right) models.

For each model, the FE model modal properties are extracted for the mode grouping

that pertains to the first mode of a single bay. As this example is concerned with

accuracy of the modal properties, not the force, the response is calculated with a unit

impulse to remove any errors introduced by force assumptions in the guidance. This

impulse is applied to the centre point of the middle bay and the response will be

calculated assuming 3% damping.

Table 1 shows an overview of results for the 1x1 bay structure and Figure 10 shows

the response time histories of the impulse excitation. It is clear that the frequencies

are not too different, with a maximum of 0.75 Hz between the AISC design guide

and FE analysis. However, when considering the modal mass the AISC design guide

value is approximately 5 times more that from the FE analysis. This translates to the

response being considerably underestimated. However, the modal mass calculated

using the static deflection is very similar to value from the FEA modal analysis.

Table 1: Results comparisons for AISC design guide, FEA and modal properties

from static deflection.

AISC Example FE with modal

analysis

From static load

deflection

Fundamental modal

frequency (Hz)

4.15 4.9 4.6

Fundamental modal

mass (kg)

46800 8500 8200

Peak velocity from

1N/s impulse (m/s)

0.23x10

-4

1.17x10

-4

1.23x10

-4

X Y

Z

X Y

Z

X Y

Z

398 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

Figure 10: Time history response for the 1 bays structure for each analysis

technique

The left plot in Figure 11 shows how the fundamental natural frequency changes

with increasing bays using FE modal analysis and static deflection from the FE

model. In both cases the frequency increases, but interestingly (although not shown

here) if columns are modelled the frequency decreases. The right plot shows the %

difference between the modal analysis frequency and the frequency calculated with

deflection using Equation 6. Interestingly the maximum error is approximately 11

%, which is close to the maximum error when calculating natural frequency with the

beam equation but using displacement from a slab. One example is not conclusive,

but this indicates why there is a discrepancy in the frequency results.

Figure 11: How fundamental natural frequency changes with increasing bays

(left) and the difference in the calculation methods (right).

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

x 10

-4

Time (s)

R

e

s

p

o

n

s

e

(

m

/

s

)

1 bay FE

AISC

1 bay static

0 2 4 6 8 10

4.4

4.6

4.8

5

5.2

5.4

5.6

5.8

6

Number of bays

F

u

n

d

e

m

e

n

t

a

l

f

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

(

H

z

)

Modal analysis

Deflection

0 2 4 6 8 10

-12

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

Number of bays

D

i

f

f

e

r

e

n

c

e

(

%

)

399 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

Figure 12 shows how the peak velocity changes due to the impulse with the number

of increasing bays. In this case, the response approximately halves between 1 and 3

bays. As the response to an impulse is proportional to the mass, this means the mass

participating in the response must approximately double – much more than the AISC

design guide’s 50% increase recommendation. In this case, after 3 bays there is no

significant reduction in response with increasing the number of bays.

Figure 12: Peak velocity response from the unit impulse with increasing bays.

Figure 13 shows the time history response for the AISC and modal FE analysis

overlaid. Due to such a large overestimation in mass, the AISC response is lower

than all the FE responses, even for the largest structures. Another interesting point is

that although there is a large number of closely spaced modes, the response of all the

time histories appear to be dominated by one frequency. If the response of the 3x3,

7x7 and 9x9 bays are compared to the AISC design guide it is clear that they decay

much quicker although they were all analysed with 3% damping. This is due to the

geometrical spread of energy.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

x 10

-5

Number of bays

P

e

a

k

r

e

s

p

o

n

s

e

(

m

/

s

)

400 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

Figure 13: Time history response for the AISC and modal FE analysis overlaid.

The lines for the 1 bay analyses are made thicker for clarity.

Discussion and conclusions

Although only AISC design guide was assessed in this study, all guides have similar

inaccuracies in estimating modal properties, especially with modal mass. All design

guides have similar procedures and calculations and it was shown that their methods

are not always appropriate for assessing floor vibration response, especially for

multi-bay structures.

The response of multi-bay structures is made up of many modes, but because the

frequencies are closely spaced the total response appears to be dominated by one

single frequency, but with a higher damping ratio due to the geometrical spread of

energy. The individual closely spaced modes span the whole floor area, but the

summed response results in a localised response. It appears that the combined

response of all the modes is similar to a single localised mode. It seems plausible

that the simplified method in the design guides based on a single mode of vibration

may be able to represent accurately the response of large floors if a set of equivalent

modal properties can accurately be determined. For this an equivalent mass,

frequency and damping ratio is required. This paper has shown a possible method

which provides a reliable equivalent mass and has shown where errors in frequency

maybe introduced, although damping estimation has yet to be addressed. Past results

from heel drop tests, which overestimated the damping ratios may actually be useful.

Although the damping values do not match each individual mode found in a modal

analysis, they may be appropriate in determining the response of an equivalent mode.

Ideally, the reduction in response due to the geometric effects should be calculated

and added to an appropriate damping value. Ironically, if the work within this paper

is validated further, simplified floor design may do a full circle. Originally

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

x 10

-4

Time (s)

R

e

s

p

o

n

s

e

(

m

/

s

)

1 bay FE

AISC

3 bay FE

7 bay FE

9 bay FE

401 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

(unintentionally) geometric damping was included in the analysis, this was then

removed as it was not modal damping. One mode was always used in the response

calculations, but recently the design guides have proved to be inaccurate and multi-

modal analysis using FE was recommended. With the results in this paper, it may be

possible to represent a number of closely spaced modes as a single mode, and if

geometric dispersion is included in the damping ratio, the response is very similar to

a multi-modal response. However, this time round, an appropriate equivalent modal

mass is required.

Even if modal properties can be accurately determined, or if an equivalent mode can

be obtained, the results are meaningless if there is not an accurate and appropriate

force model. The current state-of-the-art is to have different force models for

different floor frequencies. This indicates that neither model truly models the

walking force. It is desirable to have a single model, which is suitable for all floors,

and all structures subject to human walking.

A floor should not have a binary pass or fail, the very nature of the analysis is

stochastic and should be reflected in the guidance. There is a large degree of

randomness of a walking force, not only between different people, but with each step

of the same person. In addition, the modal properties of the floor are not fixed.

Modal analysis gives a linear fit of a non-linear structure. All structures have

amplitude dependant frequency and damping. Finally, classifying a floor with a

maximum response may not be characteristic of the floor. If that response is only for

5% of the floor area, it may still be acceptable.

The aim of this paper was to highlight common inaccuracies in all design guides, and

to suggest possible avenues for improvements. In addition, the whole procedure of

analysis and classification of the floor was discussed. Although the study presented

here is large enough to be conclusive, it should serve as an indicator for future

research.

References

ATC. (1999). Minimizing floor vibration. ATC.

Brownjohn, J. M., & Middleton, C. J. (2008). Procedures for vibration serviceability

assessment of high frequency floors. 30(6), 1548-1559.

Falati, S. (1999). The contribution of non-structural components to the overall

dynamic behaviour of concrete floor slabs. Oxford: University of Oxford.

Hivoss. (2007). Vibration design of floors: Guideline. Research fund for coal and

steel.

402 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

Jeary, A. P. (1985). Damping in tall buildings. Conference on tall buildings.

Middleton, C. J., & Brownjohn, J. M. (2007). Response of high freqeuncy floors to a

footfall. IMAC XXVI. Orlando, Florida: SEM.

Middleton, C. J., & Brownjohn, J. M. (2010). Performance of high frequency

industrial floors. ASCE Structures Congress (pp. 890-901). Orlando, Florida:

ASCE.

Middleton, C. J., & Brownjohn, J. M. (2010). Response of high frequency floors: A

literature review. 32, 337-352.

Murray, T. M., Allen, D. E., & Ungar, E. E. (1997). Floor vibrations due to human

activity. AISC.

Smith, A. L., Hicks, S. J., & Devine, P. J. (2009). Design of floors for vibration: A

new approach. SCI.

Ungar, E. E., & White, R. W. (1979). Footfall-induced vibration of floors supporting

sensitive equipment. 10(3).

Willford, M. R., & Young, P. (2006). A design guide for footfall induced vibration of

structures. The Concrete Centre.

Willford, M. R., Field, C., & Young, P. (2006). Improved methodologies for the

prediction of footfall-induced vibrations.

Zivanovic, S., Pavic, A., & Reynolds, P. (2005). Vibration serviceability of

footbridges under human induced excitation: a literature review. 279, 1-74.

403 Structures Congress 2011 © ASCE 2011

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