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Rede Temática em Engenharia de Materiais UFOP - CETEC - UEMG

_________________________________________________________________________ Ouro Preto, 07 de março de 2000.

Exame de seleção para o ingresso no Mestrado em Engenharia de Materiais. Primeiro semestre de 2000

Prova de Inglês

Instruções ao Candidato: 1. Leia o texto anexo e redija, em português, uma interpretação livre de cada um dos parágrafos presentes no original em inglês. 2. O exame terá uma duração de 2h (duas horas).

Adapted from

University of Florida Materials Science and Engineering Home Page

The Biomedical Engineering Center of Excellence provides leadership for a broad range of joint studies in the colleges of Engineering, Medicine and Liberal Arts and Sciences. It also has collaborations with industry and at other institutions. The ophthalmic biopolymer program and the research on the prevention of surgical trauma using polymer solution tissue coatings are widely recognized as the major academic research programs of their kind in the United States. Research and graduate education aimed at the development of new and improved materials, especially polymeric material. With health care expenditures now exceeding 10 percent of the American gross national product, biomaterials advances for medical instruments, devices, prosthetic implants, diagnostics, pharmaceuticals, etc, represent some of the most rapidly growing and most important elements of health care. The Center’s research programs place strong emphasis on the synthesis and properties of hydrophilic polymers, chemically modified biosurfaces, biodegradable scaffolds for tissue regeneration and macromolecular carriers for localized drug delivery. A central project strategy for biopolymer studies is to address basic scientific problems which have the potential for ultimately achieving significant advances in the practice of clinical medicine. To this end, interactions with clinical investigators and scientists in the medical device and pharmaceutical industries have been essential. Clinically important accomplishments of the program are the development of hydrophilic surfacemodified intraocular lens implants and tissue-protective biopolymer solutions to prevent surgical adhesions. Human clinical trials are in progress. These two novel biosurface developments promise to have a special impact on improving health care for patients requiring cataract, abdominal, gynecological and cardiothoracic surgery. Ophthalmic biopolymers are an important area of research. Center scientists have shown that damage to sensitive tissues of the eye may result from contact with plastic ocular implant surfaces during surgery, due to adhesive interactions with hydrophobic polymer surfaces. Instrumentation has been developed to quantitatively measure the force of such adhesion and the extent of damage to fragile tissue of the corneal endothelium and iris. Additionally, quantitative digital image analysis methods have been applied to gather information for understanding post-operative inflammatory processes and polymer biocompatibility. Central to all biopolymer research is a comprehensive capability for evaluating polymer biocompatibility through sophisticated surface analyses, and in vitro and in vivo test. Implant evaluations are an essential aspect of such studies and are conducted under good laboratory practice and standard operating procedure protocols appropriate for Food and Drug Administration submission. Surgical investigations have included rabbit, cat, rat and primate studies; accelerated implant testing; histopathology of human and animal implant; cell culture and cell-polymer surface interactions; quantitative tissue-polymer adhesion and tissue damage measurement; and evaluation of effects of natural and synthetic and synthetic foreign materials on inflammatory processes and implant performance. Center scientists have pioneered research using tissue-protective hydrophilic polymers to minimize tissue damage and resulting post-oprerative complications, such as surgical adhesions. Normal surgery involves frequent manipulative contacts between tissue surfaces and various metal, glass or plastic surfaces. Such interfacial events, coupled with tissue drying in thoracic or abdominal surgery, can produce severe tissue trauma with consequent post-operative collagenous adhesions. Studies in this area involve synthetic and natural hydrophilic polymers and their evaluation for the protection of tissue surfaces. A family of effective high-molecular

Researchers are working on novel materials and designs for this device. catheters. viscoelastic hydrophilic polymer solutions for ophalmic viscosurgery. Researchers are working with the departments of Plastic Surgery and Pathology to understand current limitations and problems with silicone gel-filled mammary implants. non-silicone mammary implants. Current research includes: hydrophilic polymers for prevention of surgical adhesions. Hence researchers are preparing microencapsulated diagnostic agents for release in the presence of tooth-degrading microorganisms such as S. resorbable membranes for tissue regeneration. hydrophilic polymer surface modification. A similar approach is being applied to regeneration of nervous tissue in conjunction with the University of Florida Neurosurgery department. and improved mammary implant polymers among others. multans.S. researchers have developed a polylactic acid membrane that improves reattachment of the gum to the teeth after periodontal surgery. and improvements are needed. Working with the College of Dentistry. Research programs in biomaterials emphasize the use of polymeric materials for medical devices implanted or inserted into the body. . Many medical devices in current use would work better if improved materials were used for their construction. One project addresses the problems of current caries formation beneath a dental restoration. surfacemodified catheters. Endotracheal tubes also are widely used but multiple problems are associated with their long-term use. Current detection techniques are unsatisfactory.weight polymer solutions and methods for their use in surgery have been developed. Related membranes can be used to release antibacterial agents under specific conditions to ameliorate infections. polymer implant biocompatibility studies. About one million women have such implants in the U. mammary implant and microencapsulated enzymes. drugs or diagnostic aids. Devices currently under study include stents. biopolymers for microsphere and antibody targeted drug delivery. surface modification of ocular implants.. sensors. surface studies and accelerated implant tests. hydrogel synthesis and properties. These systems show surprising tissue-protective properties and are efficacious for reducing the incidence and severity of adhesions.