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Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Campus Hidalgo

Arquitectura Vernácula

Edrey González Cano A01270219 Diseño Bioclimático Perla B. Cruz López 20 de agosto de 2013

What is vernacular architecture? The Letter on Built Vernacular Heritage, Meeting result created by the International Monuments and Sites, UNESCO defines vernacular architecture as the one that includes housing and other buildings product of community participation, production systems result maintains its available resources and technologies using collective knowledge product. In other words, is that which is established as the most authentic regional tradition. In vernacular architecture, the materials used to be regional, are handled in traditional ways. The materials at be linked directly to the site, determine the building systems and image these vernacular housing What are the characteristics to catalogue a construction as vernacular? Many common characteristics that involve vernacular architecture, Gabriel Arboleda (2006) in his article What is vernacular architecture? It enlists five main features. 1. It is testimony to the popular culture in which the use of materials and construction systems are the product of a good adaptation to the environment. 2. It seeks to create comfortable microclimate places, affect the temperature, lighting, humidity levels, etc. Those are the most basic forms of vernacular architecture that makes valid the knowledge acquired in ancient times and evolved over time also historical and cultural heritage of every society. 3. First is presented as an architecture that is based on empirical knowledge evolved from generation to generation, resulting in a building tradition, reproduced and kept alive for future generations.

4. Their aesthetic and structural peculiarities differ from one place to another from one culture to another, yet their essential characteristics stem from the same root. 5. Reply to protection appropriate to the local climate and contains materials according to existing resources in the environment.

What are the characteristics of the vernacular architecture according to the climate you selected? I chose desert, particularly I gave myself the task of researching desert architecture in Mexico. 1. Rural housing is made with local materials, with empirical knowledge building without contaminating influences. 2. Volumes are primarily rectangular and straight lines that dominate in the former Northeast vernacular architecture. 3. The first colonists had a Mediterranean cultural heritage, indigenous influence is minimal by the lack of pre-colonial buildings and is manifested especially in the Jacales. 4. The materials most commonly used are: twigs, reeds, mud, palm, adobe, ashlar, quarry stone face and wood logs. What are the principles behind these characteristics? How do they increase/decrease temperature? How do they deal with rain/drought? As in other countries deserts of flat roofs is often used, hollow doors and small windows to prevent heat penetration. The high railings come to be a response to heat from the northeast, shading them achieved greater deck surface, reducing internal temperature of the

premises. Finishing "aborregado" on the walls collapse sunlight decreasing interior temperature. Corridors grouped into closed spaces to compact as possible construction achieves better volume and lower outer surface exposed to heat, reducing the temperature inside. The courtyard is a vital element as it is very useful to solve the problem of dry heat and climatic implications. When you have water and shade plants, acts as well refreshing and modifies microclimate reducing radiation and temperatures. What are the materials used for construction on this location? Sticks, reeds, mud and palm are used to build jacales. Carrying a frame is made of logs and thick rods, the walls are of reeds or sticks and covered with palm, palm, grass, etc.., Depending on the local flora, usually have a door and do not have windows. The adobe is found in homes with gabled roof and flat roofs. Its use was widespread in the proximity of raw materials and economic processing. The Ashlar is the basement of much of the state, was used to build houses from housing to large estates. The stone face is so strong that you cannot carve, but was fragmented in a cubic or slabs for construction. The baked brick is used in places like southern Coahuila and Camargo, Tamaulipas.

Which of these strategies can be used in a contemporary construction? We can take into account the characteristics used in vernacular architecture to design buildings that fit to the environment, their conditions and especially nature. The use of regional materials from nature allows energy savings while reducing pollution when substitute materials because these are returned to the environment ecologically. We may also use the bioclimatic strategies used in

this architecture to regulate weather conditions without using electrical appliances that consume large amounts of energy.

Bibliography King, J. L. (s.f.). LA ARQUITECTURA VERNÁCULA DEL NORESTE DE MÉXICO. Obtenido de http://lanic.utexas.edu/: http://lanic.utexas.edu/project/etext/llilas/vrp/kingvrp.pdf

Licón, H. J. (2013). ARQUITECTURA VERNÁCULA, ESTRATEGIA Y CLIMA. Obtenido de http://www.sabermas.umich.mx/: http://www.sabermas.umich.mx/index.php/archivo/seccionesanteriores/articulos/24-numero-3/48-arquitectura-vernacula-estrategia-yclima

Verdugo, P. H. (2008). Arquitectura Vernácula Y Diseño: Adecuación Del Espacio Habitable En La Ciudad De Nogales, Sonora. Obtenido de http://topofilia.net: http://topofilia.net/tmtiburcio.pdf

Zarate, G. T. (s.f.). Arquitectura vernácula, fundamento en la enseñanza de sustentabilidad. Obtenido de http://www.arquitecturaypatrimonio.com.mx/: http://www.arquitecturaypatrimonio.com.mx/