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Tensors and All That 11 Inner and Outer Products of Quaternions 13 Quaternion Analysis 23 Topological Properties of Quaternions 28 Quaternion Algebra Tool Set Classical Mechanics 32 Newton’s Second Law 35 Oscillators and Waves 37 Four Tests of for a Conservative Force Special Relativity 40 Rotations and Dilations Create the Lorentz Group 43 An Alternative Algebra for Lorentz Boosts Electromagnetism 48 Classical Electrodynamics 51 Electromagnetic Field Gauges 53 The Maxwell Equations in the Light Gauge: QED? 56 The Lorentz Force 58 The Stress Tensor of the Electromagnetic Field Quantum Mechanics 62 A Complete Inner Product Space with Dirac’s Bracket Notation 67 Multiplying quaternions in Polar Coordinate Form 69 Commutators and the Uncertainty Principle 74 Unifying the Representations of Integral and Half-Integral Spin 79 Deriving A Quaternion Analog to the Schrödinger Equation 83 Introduction to Relativistic Quantum Mechanics 86 Time Reversal Transformations for Intervals Gravity 89 Unified Field Theory by Analogy 101 Einstein’s vision I: Classical unified field equations for gravity and electromagnetism using Riemannian quaternions 115 Einstein’s vision II: A unified force equation with constant velocity profile solutions 123 Strings and Quantum Gravity 127 Answering Prima Facie Questions in Quantum Gravity Using Quaternions 134 Length in Curved Spacetime 136 A New Idea for Metrics 138 The Gravitational Redshift 140 155 A Brief Summary of Important Laws in Physics Written as Quaternions Conclusions . Vectors.1 INDEX Introduction 2 What are Quaternions? 3 Unifying Two Views of Events 4 A Brief History of Quaternions Mathematics 6 Multiplying Quaternions the Easy Way 7 Scalars.

Unfortunately. and divided. I am trying to continue the project of applying four-dimensional quaternions to the four-dimensional spacetime we live in. I use the quotes because from my viewpoint. Quaternions are composed of four numbers that work together as one. and divided. and curl . Some enthusiasts thought quaternions would be able to express everything that could happen in our three dimensions of space and one for time because quaternions naturally had that form too. hinted at by the Latin. and made more "general". . subtracted. Math accidents do not happen .were stripped out of their initial context. vectors.2 What Are Quaternions? Quaternions are numbers like the real numbers: they can be added. There is something odd about them. They were discovered by several people back in the eighteen hundreds. grad. multiplied.they revel deep things about how Nature works. div. Useful ideas born from initial quaternion work . there is nothing more general than a number that can be added. multiplied. subtracted.for example the notion of scalars. the big fans of quaternion mathematics claimed far more than they would deliver.