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Neutron yield measurements by use of foil activation at JT‐60U

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Magnus Hoek, Takeo Nishitani, Yujiro Ikeda, and Atsuhiko Morioka Citation: Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 885 (1995); doi: 10.1063/1.1146527 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1146527 View Table of Contents: http://rsi.aip.org/resource/1/RSINAK/v66/i1 Published by the AIP Publishing LLC.

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Downloaded 10 Sep 2013 to 128.118.88.48. This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://rsi.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions

0 199.00 Downloaded 10 Sep 2013 to 128. can be evaluated using’ CM SIX= 6me-htl( 1 -e-“Af)C@*(Ei)(T(EI) ’ 0) where C is the measured y counts during measurement time At. where. By using threshold reactions (Si. If the efficiency of the y detector is known then. due to sum-coincidence effects. A.)a(Ei) is the calibration factor which relates the flux at the irradiation position to the total emitted flux from the plasma region. Neutron transport calculations have been performed using Monte Carlo trajectory sampling methods (MCNP code) in order to determine the neutron fluency and energy distribution at the irradiation position. In order to calculate the total neutron yield from the plasma. the relation between the neutron flux at the irradiation position and total neutron yield Corn the whole plasma region. This has been achieved by using Monte Carlo trajectory sampling methods. Instrum. The multichannel analyzer is interfaced to a computer where the y peaks are analyzed. The generated 1 MeV triton is of interest due to its similar kinematics to the 3.5 and 14 MeV neutron emission. thereby generating a 14 MeV neutron which can be measured. The foils mounted in a polyethylene capsule are transferred by a pneumatic rabbit system to the irradiation point in the re-entrant type diagnostic port.Japan Atomic Energy ResearchInstitute. The energy distribution of the neutron flux/source neutron. the efficiency is expected to have large errors (. the foil is transferred to a neutron shielded environment.a) Takeo Nishitani. Naka-Gun. This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract. for some foils a certain cooiing time is allowed before the y-detector measurement. and Z$*(E. Rev. which relates the fluency at the irradiation position to the total fluency from the JT-60U plasma. Sci. the reactions D(D.5 MeV cr particles. Al. the MCNP code. Naka-machi.5 MeV neutron yields obtained from foil activation. the neutron yield measurements have been complemented by a recently installed neutron activation system. make it possible to calculate a calibration factor. 66 (l).n)3He and D(D. The sample to be irradiated. The results from the MCNP calculations together with the known cross sections of the foils. with those obtained from the fission chambers. has been calculated using the MCNP code. The slowing down time of the tritons and the yield of the 14 MeV neutrons have been measured using a silicon surface barrier detector (SBD). a T(D. h is the decay constant of the daughter nuelide. The accuracy of these calculations have been confirmed (-20%) by comparing the total 2. it is possible to distinguish between the 2. Yujiro Ikeda. has to be %TA Postdoctoral Fellowship. tl is the cooling time of the irradiated foil. After irradiation. m is the mass of the foil. This paper describes the time-integrated measurements of the 2. NEUTRON YIELD MEASUREMENTS The measured neutron yield S. In the calculations. The y measurement is done utilizing a HP-Ge coaxial y detector.5 MeV neutron flux. @ *(El) is the flux per source neutron in energy group i and was obtained from MCNP calculations and c+(Ei) is the neutron cross section of the nuclide from the same energy group.10%).5 m) using a pneumatic rabbit system. this kind of detector soon has to be replaced due to radiation degradation. The efficiency calibration of the HP-Ge detector have been performed using a set of calibration sources. However. the induced radioactivity is measured using a high-resolution semiconductor diode (HP-Ge crystal). E is the efficiency of the y detector.4 II. Only lo-mm-thick stainless steel wall including the pneumatic tube exists between the irradiation point and the plasma. due to the intense 2.5 and 14 MeV neutron yields by means of foil activation of different materials with well-known neutron interaction cross sections.aip.Neutron yield measurements by use of foil activation at dT-6OU Magnus Hoek. the JT-60U components are described by -110 surfaces which are combined into the specifications of D 1995 American institute of Physics a85 0034-6748/95/66(1)/685/3/$6.5American Institute of Physics. January 1995 known.p)T have equal probability which implies that tritons (T) are generated in the same rate as the 2. After removal of the sample. When the confined tritons are slowing down and thermalized in the plasma. I. The flux of these 14 MeV neutrons depends on the slowing down of the tritons and how well the tritons are confined. Japan (Presented on 12 May 1994) To study the 14 MeV neutron emission. @ *(Ei). and Atsuhiko Morioka Department of Fusion Plasma Research.n)cr reaction is possible (Yriton burnup”). is positioned very close to the plasma (-1. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://rsi. which might be used for the heating of a DT plasma in a future commercial fusion reactor. M is the molar mass of the nuclide. the neutron flux at the sample can be derived.118. Irradiation polnt and MCNP calculations Figure 1 shows a poloidal cross section of JT-60U to indicate the irradiation point of the activation foils.53 However. from the area under the measured y peak. which were calibrated using a 252Cf source.Naka Fusion ResearchEstablishment. and Cu foils).88.48.’ When deuterium (D) ions fuse. Zbaraki-ken311-01. INTRODUCTION The total neutron yield is a suitable parameter for the evaluation of the plasma performance and is routinely measured by calibrated fission chambers at JT-6OU.org/about/rights_and_permissions .5 MeV neutrons in a DD plasma.

Schematics of a poloidal cross section of JT-60U to indicate the irradiation point of the activation foils.5 MeV neutrons directly by utilizing the (n. 1. respectively. with a large cross section around 2. we obtain a neutron flux of 6. ratio r.88. the daughter nuclide decays by pf giving rise to 511 keV annihilation photons. RESULTS AND ERROR ANALYSIS The dominant errors for the calculation of the neutron yield are the values of the measured y counts.1. The advantage with copper foils. The errors of the cross sections which have been obtained from FNS. As long as all .H (ml FIG.p) reactions. Sci.c. The cross section of the 64Zn(n. these errors are statistical errors from the Monte Carlo calculations and to get an estimated error of the calibration factor we have assumed that the error of the fluency from each energy group is .’ competing neutron reactions make it necessary to make two successive y measurements.2n) and (n. in the purpose of cross calibration with the fission chambers.2n) reaction decays by P+. However.p1’ ) reaction is at 0. apart from the relatively large’ sensitivity for competing 14 MeV neutrons.Further.5 MeV neutrons.3X 10m6 cm-?.5 Further. The error bars of the neutron yield from the indium foils are Plasma diagnostics Downloaded 10 Sep 2013 to 128. To obtain a number which could be compared to other tokamaks. The 14 MeV neutrons have been measured by activating 28Si. Also. Therefore it is surprising that the obtained neutron yield from activation of indium is 10%-20% higher than the yield from the fission chambers.5”as a toroidal neutron emitting cutoff angle. Indium is the most sensitibe of . The calibration factor has been calculated with a polyethylene capsule surrounding the foil but without the stainless steel (SS) tubes which surrounds the capsule. 27Al./l?.04 g) and aluminum (-0.7 g and no measurements have so far been successful at JT-60U. and floor and building walls.5 MeV). and the value of the calibration factor. The correction procedure is described in Ref. January 1995 should be reliable.aip. Instrum. 88. However.B’ annihilates in the sample.hese materials. poloidal and toroida1 coils. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://rsi. the efficiency of the y detector. The geometrical descriptions also include the vacuum vessel with the horizontal port box. This means that the is -2. Further.p) reactions] have given reasonable y-counting statistics. in the case of thin samples. The neutron flux at a distance of 150 cm from a toroidal line source at a poloidal angle of 0” and with 10.5-2. The total necessary neutron yield from the JT-60U plasma for sufficient y-counting statistics is -5X1014 neutrons assuming a typical mass of -0. This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract. No.2n) must be corrected for. The activation of silicon (-0.2 g). -190 cells.5 MeV) of 1. The error of the flux integral depends on the errors of both the cross sections and the calculated flux from MCNP. 1. the y measurement 888 Rev. see Eq. 7. The errors of the flux can be obtained from MCNP. the advantage with Ni is the possibility to obtain the fraction between the 14 and 2.2n) reaction is very large and total necessary emitted neutron yields are as low as -lOI neutrons for typical masses of -0. and 63Cu. carbon tiles. Figure 2 shows the ratio of measured neutron yield from activation of In and Zn and the neutron yield measured by fission chamber versus the neutron yield measured by the fission chamber.7 g. The foils For the measurement of the yield of 2. The error of the neutron yield measured by the fission chamber is -10%.1X10F7 cm ‘ . However.6 are -5% per energy group. With these assumptions. leading to annihilation in the surrounding material. assuming similar amount and composition of neutron scattering material.10%. the threshold of the (rz.118. the center column assembly. 5. The neutron yields from zinc are even higher. a substantial amount of p+ may escape the foil.org/about/rights_and_permissions . is that the cross section for the 63Cu(n.p) reaction is small and needs neutron yields in the order of --5X 1Ol6 neutrons for sufficient statistics (-0.y) and 65Cu(n.5 MeV (maximum at 2. Nickel demands very high total neutron yields (-1017 neutrons for a mass of -0. for the calculation of the neutron flux assuming no scattering and attenuation.2 g) [both (n. probably due to the sensitivity of 14 MeV neutrons. possible isotopes may be ‘ IsIn “4Zn and 58Ni.2 mm) sample.48. This value can be compared to the MCNP value (integrated over neutron energy 0. The error of the efficiency of the y detector is not known.3 MeV which effectively limits the contribution from low energy scattered neutrons. we have used an expression. The daughter nuclide of the 63Cu(n. we have assumed that the error is better than 10% at the first measurement position. assuming the total neutron yield consists of -1% 14 MeV neutrons. (1).. me SO”rCe B. derived in Ref. the competing reactions 63Cu(n. This error should then cover the error due to the flux dependency of the plasma position and errors due to modeling. Further. generally becomes better than 15%.3 g. too many measured y counts may be the case due to escaping pf from the thin (CO. The necessary total neutron yields are -5X 1015neutrons for sufficient statistics. However. giving too many measured y counts. the final error of the calibration factor. Vol. Components around the irradiation point such as the capsule and the diagnostic port are carefully modeled. III.

W.5 MeV neutron yield from foil activation and fission chambers has been shown. 1 $ . ‘ G. are the values of the measured y counts. 3T. JAERI-M 92-073. the efficiency of the y detector.aip. For the measurement of the 14 MeV neutron yield.5 MeV neutron yields. No.4 10’ 5 10’ 6 Total Yield. to a y detector where the induced radioactivity is measured. Fission Chamber FIG.48. and the value of the calibration factor which determines the fraction of the neutron flux at the irradiation position to the whole plasma. Takeuchi. Nishitani. Ikeda. 2. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://rsi. Ikeda. 1986. Figure 9 in Ref. Iguchi. and -15%. and the indium measurements are -lo%. SUMMARY The neutron yield measurements at JT-60U have now been complemented by foil-activation technique. Morioka.2n) reaction are very sensitive for 14 MeV neutrons but the calculation of the neutron yield is complicated due to the measurement of annihilation photons (including background) and the necessity of two successive y measurements. Further. The dominant errors for the calculation of the neutron yield.p>‘ 7Mg] and copper [63Cu(n. 23437. This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract.5 m) without any regards of radiation damages to detectors or electronics. J. R. the silicon and aluminum samples should give the most reliable values of the T/D fraction due to the relatively high sensitivity to the 14 MeV neutrons. Utilizing zinc and copper foils implies the difficulty in measuring annihilation radiation. A sample is exposed to a flux of neutrons for a period of time. JAERI-M 94-002.org/about/rights_and_permissions .6 1. Morioka. Using zinc gives a larger error mainly because of the uncertainty in the measurement of the number of annihilation photons and the low cross sections. the estimated errors for silicon [?Si(n.5 MeV neutron yield. 1993. Z&I. the fractions between 14 and 2. U-7396-M. and silicon foils are -20% giving a 25%-30% error of the triton burnup.p j28Al]. If it is assumed that the errors of the efficiency of the detector and the calibration factor are -10% and -15%. Rev.? 0. D. Foil activation of zinc gives even higher neutron yields. The error of the yield from the fission chamber. respectively. aluminum. with the subsequent background correction.5 MeV neutrons have been measured for a few ..n’ )“51n] and zinc [64Zn(n. become -15% and -2O%. Barnes.1. A. H. respectively. indium is the most suitable material. the necessary equipment is simple and reliable. 321 (1981). and the necessity of two successive y measurements due to unavoidable competing neutron reactions.6 w @z 0. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Report No. The neutron activation system has recently been installed and good agreement of the measurements of the 2. the zinc measurements. Nucl.8 z u $ . and then removed by a rabbit system. Hoek. among the materials tested for neutron activation at JT-60U for the measurements of the 2.pulses and seem to yield reasonable values. 242-245. Y. 267-270.0. Nishitani. 1. For the measurement of the 14 MeV neutron yield. The conclusions from the error analysis and the measurements done so far. LANL Report No.88. T. Rev.2n)62C~] are -20%. The main disadvantages are that high neutron yields are ‘ necessary (-1016) and that every measurement have to be done manually due to that an automatic procedure is not trivial. 88.p)64Cu]. For the measurement of 14 MeV neutrons. pp.4 0 . have given best results (relatively small errors).118. utilizing silicon and aluminum. are that for the measurement of the 2. ‘ Y. 1993. pp. The error bars of the neutron yield from copper. The main advantage of foil activation is that the samples can be positioned very close to the plasma (-1. The 63Cu(n. and T. Nishitani and Y. the errors of the measured 2. indium should give the best overall error (-15%). respectively. Ikeda er a& Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Report No. and A. 1988. 4Los AIamos Monte Carlo Group. JAERI-M 93-057. Japan Atomic Energy Research institute Report No.6 f 1. Methods 185. JAERI-M 92-073. ‘ T. Vol. 2. utilizing indium [‘ 151n(n. pp. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Report No. Instrum.5 MeV neutron yield. The experiences have shown that. Further. January 1995 Plasma diagnostics 887 Downloaded 10 Sep 2013 to 128. and Y. Sci. Nishitani. Ratio of neutron yield from neutron activation of foils and the fission chamber vs the yield measured by the fission chamber. 1994. and J. IV.5% and that the tritons are better confined for larger values of the plasma current as expected. ‘ h/I. The obtained neutron yields from foil activation of indium are generally lo%-20% higher than those obtained from the fission chamber. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Report No. aluminum [27Al(n. Schmotzer. Instrum. C. 1992. JAERI 1312. estimated to -15% while the errors of the zinc measurements are -20%.2 1 ii ‘ . Strachan. -2O%. Pettus. 5 shows that the measured values of the triton burnup are -0. ‘ T. Ikeda. W. Lewis.

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