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EIA Legislation

Environmental Impact Assessment Notification, 2006 The Union Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) notified the new EIA Notification in September 2006 after putting up the draft notification for public comment for a year. The objective of EIA Notification 2006 is to address the limitations in the old EIA Notification (1994). Therefore, various modifications have been incorporated in the old Notification, which the ministry claims have been done after taking into account the feedback from the different stakeholders. Some of the key differences in the New Notification and the old one are listed in table 1. Table 1: Major differences in New EIA notification 2006 and old notification (1994) EIA Notification 1994 (including amendments)

EIA Notification 2006

1. Projects in Schedule-1 have been divided into two categories, Category A and B. Category A project will require clearance from Central Government (MEF). Category B will require clearance from State Government. However, the state government will first classify if the B project falls under B1 or B2 category. B1 projects will require preparation of EIA reports while remaining projects will be termed as B2 projects and will not require EIA report. This has the potential of being a good move as decentralization of power may speed up the project clearance process. However, it may be misused and there is an urgent need to build the capacity of the state regulators to deal with their new responsibilities.

Proponent desiring to undertake any project listed in Schedule-1 had to obtain clearance from the Central Government.

2. Well defined screening process with projects divided into two categories: Category A: All projects and activities require EIA study and clearance from central government. Category B: Application reviewed by the State Level Expert Appraisal Committee into two categories - B1 (which will require EIA study) and B2, which does not require EIA study. In screening, the project proponent assesses if the proposed activity/project falls under the purview of environmental clearance, than the proponent conducts an EIA study either directly or through a consultant.

3. Scoping has been defined in the new Notification. However, the entire responsibility of determining the terms of reference (ToR) will depend on the Expert Appraisal Committee. This

The final ToR shall be displayed on the website of the Ministry of Environment and Forests and concerned State / Union Territory Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA). experts. . Some of these may have potential social and environmental impact. The public consultation will essentially consist of two components – a public hearing to ascertain the views of local people and obtaining written responses of interested parties. This was not a part of the earlier Notification. The use of “local people” for public hearing raises doubt if the hearing can be attended by interested parties like NGOs. time and exact venue for the conduct of public hearing within 30 days of the date of receipt of the draft Environmental Impact Assessment report. etc. MemberSecretary of the concerned State Pollution Control Board or Union Territory Pollution Control Committee has to finalise the date. There are no clear guidelines like in earlier Notification who all can attend the public hearing. The terms of reference was completely decided by the proponent without any public consultation. Public Consultation. The SPCBs or Union Territory Pollution Control Committee shall arrange to video film the entire proceedings. Some of the projects exempted include expansion of roads and highways. Is the role of NGOs/experts limited to the sending written letters/feedback to the PCB? The Notification makes provision that Ministry of Environment and Forest shall promptly display the Summary of the draft Environment Impact Assessment report on its website. no quorum is required for attendance for starting the proceedings. the proponent can go ahead with their own ToR. No postponement of the time. one of which shall be in the vernacular language of the locality concerned. if the EACs do not specify the ToR within 60 days. This was also absent in the earlier notification and may be considered as a good move to ensure that public hearing is proper. etc or is restricted to only locals.All Category A and Category B1 projects or activities have to undertake public consultation except for 6 activities for which public consultation has been exempted. A minimum notice period of 30 days will be given to the public for furnishing their responses. This may be misused as the The project proponent has to write to State Pollution Control Board to conduct public hearing. and also make the full draft EIA available in Ministry‟s Library at New Delhi for reference. However. Unlike the earlier notification. unless some untoward emergence situation occurs and only on the recommendation of the concerned District Magistrate. It was the responsibility of the State Boards to publish notice for environmental public hearing in at least two newspaper widely circulated in the region around the project. the finalisation of ToR by the EACs will depend on the information provided by the project proponent. and advertise the same in one major National Daily and one Regional vernacular Daily. However. There is however a provision that the EACs may visit the site and hold public consultation and meet experts to decide the ToR. venue of the public hearing shall be undertaken. Scoping was not applicable. modernization of irrigation projects. The responsibility for conducting the public hearing still lies with the state PCBs.will be done in case of Category A and Category B1 projects. 4.

Further. Moreover. the consultation process has been divided into public . If needed the SEACs and EACs would visit the site. which was completely missing earlier. there is no cateogrisation of projects requiring EIA based on investment. Further. The New Notification has tried bringing in more number of projects within the purview of the environmental clearance process. The proposed notification also talks about „Scoping‟. The public consultation as was earlier done will still be conducted at the end of the environment clearance process where there is very little scope for the public to play any active role. the new Notification has made few changes that weaken the public consultation process. a revised list of projects and activities has been redrawn that requires prior environmental clearance (see annexure 1). the project proponents can go ahead with their own ToR. 2006 Though. there have been some improvements in the new notification over the previous one. rather size or capacity of the project determines whether it is cleared by the central or state government. The terms of reference (ToR) of the project will now be decided by the SEAC at the state-level and by Environment Appraisal Committees (EAC) at the Central level. especially members of the civil society.Source: Industry & Environment Unit. The new notification has also failed to mention if there would be some sort of monitoring of state level projects by the central government. there is no mention of post monitoring. i. Centre for Science & Environment. For this. Most importantly. significant number of projects will go to the state for clearance depending on its size/capacity/area. hold public consultation and meet experts to decide the ToR. The major difference in the New EIA Notification 2006 from the earlier one (1994) is its attempt to decentralise power to the State Government. public consultation. The area where there could have been major improvements in environment clearance process. the notification has made a provision to form an expert panel. the Environment Appraisal Committees (SEAC) at the State level. this provision can be misused as in many cases state government is actively pursuing industrialisation for their respective state. the new EIA notification is a major disappointment. a very important part of the entire EIA process. as per the new notification. it has certainly failed to meet the expectations of the various stakeholders. Though this seems good on paper. NGOs and local community. however. This can limit the involvement of people.e. The final ToR has to be posted in the website for public viewing. However. There is a provision in the new notification where a public consultation can totally be foregone if the authorities feel the situation is not conducive for holding public hearing. Though there is clear mention of appraisal in the EIA process. The will be decided on the basis of the information provided by the proponent. As a result. if the EAC does not decide the ToR within the stipulated time. Earlier all the projects under schedule 1 went to the Central Government for environmental clearance. however. Though this is a good attempt to reduce the burden on the central government. the proponent itself is providing the information for finalisation of ToR and moreover there is no compulsory provision for public consultation.

modernising or expanding any new project or proposal without getting an environmental clearance from the government. The SPCBs were entrusted to conduct public hearing to get the views and concerns of the affected community and interested parties for the proposed project. It defined the roles and responsibilities of the IAA and has fixed time frame for various stages of the environmental clearance process. It. If this is the case. Many more were to follow. 2005. which will significantly affect the efficiency of the consultation process. The notification specified the type of project/proposal that needed environmental clearance and thus would have to conduct the EIA. The EIA notification 1994 was amended 12 times in 11 years. however. which also strengthened the process. The focus of the New Notification has been to reduce the time required for the entire environment clearance process. While most of the amendments diluted the process of environmental clearance process.5 to 12 months. The notification also made the provision for the proponent to reapply in case it was rejected due to lack of data. There seems to be no justification for this and may result in compromising on the efficiency and transparency of the clearance process. It was also entrusted with forming an EPH committee to ensure fair representation in the public hearing process. 1997: The process of environmental public hearing (EPH) was introduced in the environmental clearance process. 1994 The environment impact process was integrated into the Indian legal system in 1994 when Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Notification came into existence. This amendment also made some changes with reference to the environmental clearance required for power plants. For doing so. It also listed a number of projects/proposals. The Act made it mandatory for all projects listed in schedule 1 to get an environmental clearance from the Central government. be it. the category A project will be completed only in 10. EIA Notification. then NGOs/civil society organisation will not be able to take part in the public hearing process. the notification imposed restrictions on setting up. The notification also made provisions for formation of an Impact Assessment Agency (IAA). . which have been exempted from the environment clearance process or public hearing. The first amendment came within a few months of the notification on July 4. placed a penalty of automatic rejection in case of misrepresentation and concealing of factual data. Several changes were made to the original notification.hearing for local people and submission in writing from other interested parties. Some of the key amendments are discussed as follows:  Amendment on April 10. The objective of the Notification was to push for more sustainable industrialisation process in the country after giving due consideration to environmental and social impacts. which essentially consisted of experts for review of the documents submitted to the MEF for clearance. there were some. which was quite evident from the earlier notification even though the process had more time. The earlier process took around 14-19 months for Rapid EIA and 21 to 28 months for comprehensive EIA. As per the new notification. for setting or expanding any plant anywhere in the country.

reserve forests and breeding and spawning grounds of fish and other marine life. o It exempted pipeline and highway projects from preparing the EIA report. sanctuaries. Amendment on September 2003: Site clearance was made mandatory for green field airport.000 sq. ecologically sensitive areas. Amendment on 7th May 2003: The notification was amended to expand the lists of activities involving risk or hazard. in case of hydel power projects. (both sides put together) along the existing alignments. tiger reserves and reserve forests. national parks. This amendment prohibited certain processes and operations in specified areas of the Aravalli range. there will be social impacts due to displacement. biosphere reserves.000 hectares or project cost was less than Rs. For example. the amendment added that no public hearing was required for offshore exploration activities. village boundary. irrespective of the investment. beyond 10 km from the nearest habitation. coral reefs. Amendment on August 4th 2003: This amendment was similar to the one in February 2003 that tried bringing in location-sensitivity in the entire environmental clearance process. Amendment on June 13. marine parks. Any project located in a critically polluted area. within a radius of 15 kilometres of the boundary of reserved forests. In this list. It took into consideration location-sensitivity into the environment clearance process. 2002: This amendment diluted the purpose of the notification exempting many industries from the EIA process or from the entire environment clearance process on the basis of level of investment. goothans and ecologically sensitive areas such as.m). and any State. o A number of projects were totally exempted from the Notification if the investment was less than Rs 100 crore for new projects and less than Rs. o No EIA was required for modernisation projects in irrigation sector if additional command area was less than 10. corals. sanctuaries. 50 crore for expansion/modernisation projects. o Most of the industries exempted from the clearance process had a very high social and environmental impact even if the investment was less than Rs 100 crore. petrochemical complexes and refineries. river valley projects including hydel power projects. Moreover. had to obtain environmental clearance from the Central Government. but these projects would have to conduct public hearings in all the districts through which the pipeline or highway passes.     . provided such canals does not pass through ecologically sensitive areas such as national parks. 100 crore. mangroves (with a minimum area of 1. sanctuaries. Amendment on 28th February. which include national parks. 2003: This amendment added a little tooth to the notification. major irrigation projects and their combination including flood control project except projects relating to improvement work including widening and strengthening of existing canals with land acquisition up to a maximum of 20 metres.

relax the requirement of obtaining prior environmental clearance and may.   The Union Ministry of Environment and Forest proposes to once again modify the EIA notification 2006. grant temporary working permission on receipt of application in the prescribed format for a period not exceeding two years. It came up with draft notification on January 19. For more information read CSE‟s comment on draft notification. The draft notification is a major disappointment for civil society as it proposes to further dilute the environmental clearance process. in public interest. This was the reason why Union Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) initiated the process of bringing in some significant modifications in the environment clearance process. after satisfying itself. during which the proponent shall obtain the requisite environmental clearance as per the procedure laid down in the notification. 13th Amendment on 4th July 2005: The amendment provided that projects related to expansion or modernisation of nuclear power and related project. on case to case basis. harbours and airports. There was a wide spread opinion that the EIA notification was not able to address all the concerns and had several weaknesses which was making the entire clearance process weak. 2004: It made EIA mandatory for construction and industrial estate. 2009. river valley project. 2005. A draft notification was published on September 15. ports. The Central Government in the Ministry of Environment and Forests may. The grant of temporary working permission would not necessarily imply that the environmental clearance would be granted for the said project. which has been sent to the ministry for consideration. Amendment on July 7th. which could pose a major risk to environment security of the country. which has now been put up for public comment. thermal power plants and mining projects with a lease area of more than 5 hectares could be taken up without prior environmental clearance. . This was put up for public comment for a year and has recently been notified in September 2006.

informing decision makers. EIA compares various alternatives for a project and seeks to identify the one which represents the best combination of economic and environmental costs and benefits. through construction. A decision making tool. What is EIA? Environment Impact Assessment or EIA can be defined as the study to predict the effect of a proposed activity/project on the environment. . decommissioning. and beyond site closure. operations. Properly conducted EIA also lessens conflicts by promoting community participation. proposes measures to mitigate adverse effects and predicts whether there will be significant adverse environmental effects.Industry & Environment » EIA        Industry & Environment Home Green Rating Programme EIA Community Support Mining and Environment Regulators Programme Environmental Governance Newsletter Print | Email | Share + Understanding EIA Environment Impact Assessment or EIA can be defined as the study to predict the effect of a proposed activity/project on the environment. even after the mitigation is implemented. such as protection of environment. By considering the environmental effects of the project and their mitigation early in the project planning cycle. environmental assessment has many benefits. EIA systematically examines both beneficial and adverse consequences of the project and ensures that these effects are taken into account during project design. Benefits of integrating EIA have been observed in all stages of a project. EIA compares various alternatives for a project and seeks to identify the one which represents the best combination of economic and environmental costs and benefits. from exploration and planning.       What is EIA? Evolution of EIA History of EIA in India The EIA process Forms of impact assessment Comparative review of EIA procedures and practices 1. It helps to identify possible environmental effects of the proposed project. and helping lay the base for environmentally sound projects. optimum utilisation of resources and saving of time and cost of the project. A decision making tool.

Australia and New Zealand became the first countries to follow NEPA in 1973-1974. which legislated EIA. Thirty-seven years ago. Limited consideration given to environmental consequences. there were some developing countries as well.Columbia (1974). Canada and New Zealand established administrative procedures. However. it is a formal process in many countries and is currently practiced in more than 100 countries. like Canada. In 1989. procedures including public participation requirement instituted. Standard methodologies for impact analysis developed (e. Early/mid – 1970s EIA introduced by NEPA in 1970 in US. Australia. there was no EIA but today. Other industrial and developing countries introduced formal . Late 1970 and early 1980s More formalised guidance. Major public inquires help shape the process's development. checklist and network). which introduced EIA relatively early . in which a borrower country had to undertake an EIA under the Bank's supervision (see table 1: Evaluation and history of EIA). Basic principle: Guidelines.g. the World Bank adopted EIA for major development projects. matrix. EIA as a mandatory regulatory procedure originated in the early 1970s. The EIA process really took off after the mid-1980s. with the implementation of the National Environment Policy Act (NEPA) 1969 in the US. Table 1: Evolution and history of EIA Development of EIA Pre-1970 Project review based on the technical/engineering and economic analysis. Unlike Australia. and New Zealand (1973-74). Canada.2. A large part of the initial development took place in a few high-income countries. Evolution of EIA EIA is one of the successful policy innovations of the 20th Century for environmental conservation. Philippines (1978).

Spread of EIA process in Asia. 1990s Requirement to consider trans-boundary effects under Espoo convention. Increasing efforts to address cumulative effects. Philippines. 1977). Greater emphasis on ecological modelling. 1978) or adopted elements. China. began to use the process informally or experimentally ( Netherlands. Ireland). Provision for public involvement. Indonesia) Strategic Environment Assessment[1] (SEA). World Bank and other leading international aid agencies establish EA requirements. 1976. Mid 1980s to end of decade In Europe. as part of development applications for planning permission (German states [lander]. EC Directive on EIA establishes basic principle and procedural requirements for all member states. prediction and evaluation methods.EIA requirements (France. Use of EA by developing countries (Brazil. . Sustainability principal and global issues receive increased attention. Philippines. risk analysis included in EA processes[2]. Coordination of EA with land use planning processes. such as impact statements or reports. India also adopted the EIA formally. Increased use of GIS and other information technologies.

under the Environmental (Protection) Act 1986. Certain activities permissible under the Coastal Regulation Zone Act. June 1996. This was subsequently extended to cover those projects. Risk represents the likelihood and significance of a potential hazard being realized 3. harbours and airports) and industries including very small electroplating or foundry units to get environment clearance. final report. The MoEF recently notified new EIA legislation in September 2006. promulgated an EIA notification making Environmental Clearance (EC) mandatory for expansion or modernisation of any activity or for setting up new projects listed in Schedule 1 of the notification. The EIA process The stages of an EIA process will depend upon the requirements of the country or donor. highway. environmental clearance from the Central Government was an administrative decision and lacked legislative support. However. Additionally.Formulation of EA legislation by many developing countries. the new legislation has put the onus of clearing projects on the state government depending on the size/capacity of the project. which required the approval of the Public Investment Board. On 27 January 1994. Since then there have been 12 amendments made in the EIA notification of 1994. Prepared by Barry Sadler. plans and programmes [2]Definition of risk assessment: An instrument for estimating the probability of harm occurring from the presence of dangerous conditions or materials at a project site. [1]Definition of SEA: Policy tool to assess the environmental consequences of development policies. Source: International Study of the Effectiveness of Environmental Assessment. unlike the EIA Notification of 1994. 4. river valley. Till 1994. 1991 also require similar clearance. donor agencies operating in India like the World Bank and the ADB have a different set of requirements for giving environmental clearance to projects that are funded by them. It started in 1976-77 when the Planning Commission asked the Department of Science and Technology to examine the river-valley projects from an environmental angle. Rapid growth in EA training. Government of India. infrastructure (road. thermal power plants. ports. . History of EIA in India The Indian experience with Environmental Impact Assessment began over 20 years back. the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests (MEF). The notification makes it mandatory for various projects such as mining. Environmental assessment in a changing world.

Typically. Scoping: This stage identifies the key issues and impacts that should be further investigated. requires an EIA and if it does. most EIA processes have a common structure and the application of the main stages is a basic standard of good practice. Decision-making: It decides whether the project is rejected. Impact analysis: This stage of EIA identifies and predicts the likely environmental and social impact of the proposed project and evaluates the significance.However. Post monitoring: This stage comes into play once the project is commissioned. Review of EIA: It examines the adequacy and effectiveness of the EIA report and provides the information necessary for decision-making. Reporting: This stage presents the result of EIA in a form of a report to the decision-making body and other interested parties. It checks to ensure that the impacts of the project do not exceed the legal standards and implementation of the mitigation measures are in the manner as described in the EIA report. . the EIA process begins with screening to ensure time and resources are directed at the proposals that matter environmentally and ends with some form of follow up on the implementation of the decisions and actions taken as a result of an EIA report. This stage also defines the boundary and time limit of the study. approved or needs further change. The environment impact assessment consists of eight steps with each step equally important in determining the overall performance of the project. Mitigation: This step in EIA recommends the actions to reduce and avoid the potential adverse environmental consequences of development activities. The eight steps of the EIA process are presented in brief below:  Screening: First stage of EIA. which determines whether the proposed project.        The overview of the EIA process is represented in figure 1. then the level of assessment required.

2002 5.Figure 1: Generalised process flow sheet of the EIA process Source: The manual in perspective. United Nations Environment Programme. Strategic environment assessment Strategic Environment Assessment (SEA) refers to systematic analysis of the environmental effects of development policies. beyond . EIA Training Resource Manual. plans. This process extends the aims and principles of EIA upstream in the decision-making process. programmes and other proposed strategic actions. Forms of impact assessment There are various forms of impact assessment such as Health Impact Assessment (HIA) and Social Impact Assessment (SIA) that are used to assess the health and social consequences of development so that they are taken into consideration along with the environmental assessment. which is briefly discussed below: i. One of the forms of impact assessment is strategic environment assessment.

SEA represents a proactive approach to integrating environmental considerations into the higher levels of decision-making. 2002. after major alternatives and directions have been chosen (see table 3: Difference in EIA and SEA). iterative Focuses on sustainability agenda. It takes place relatively late at the downstream end of the decision making process. EIA has certain shortcomings as a tool for minimising environmental effects of development proposals. 2nd edition. Table 3: Difference in EIA and SEA Environment impact assessment  Takes place at end of decision-making cycle  Strategic environment assessment  Takes place at earlier stages of decision making cycle § Pro-active approach to development proposals  Reactive approach to development proposal Identifies specific impacts on the environment Considers limited number of feasible alternatives Limited review of cumulative effects  Also identifies environmental implications. lower level of detail to provide a vision and overall framework Multi-stage process. clear beginning and end       Focuses on standard agenda. high level of detail Well-defined process. treats symptoms of environmental deterioration  Source: EIA Training Resource Manual. United Nations Development Programme . Despite its wide use and acceptance. issues of sustainable development Considers broad range of potential alternatives Early warning of cumulative effects Emphasis on meeting environmental objectives.the project level and when major alternatives are still open. policy level is continuing. gets at sources of environmental deterioration      Emphasis on mitigating and minimizing impacts Narrow perspective. overlapping components. maintaining natural systems Broad perspective.

Comparative review of EIA procedures and practices Developed countries Well-framed EIA legislation in place. This makes the process more robust and gives a fair idea of issues. a number of countries in developed economies adopted SEA. 6. active involvement of all participants including competent authority. Integrated approach to EIA followed. In developed countries. Mainly environmental aspects considered. It has been enacted by making an amendment in the Environment Protection Act 1986. Limited involvement of public and government agencies in the initial phases. For instance. This often results in poor representation of the issues and impacts in the report. However. etc have introduced SEA requirements through reforms in EIA legislation and in case of United Kingdom through environmental appraisal. Canadian Environmental Assessment Act regulates EIA while EU countries are guided by Directive on EIA (1985). Proper consideration of alternatives in EIA EIA in developing countries Lack of formal EIA legislation in many developing countries. which need to be addressed in the initial phase of EIA. in Canada. For instance. The adoption of SEA is likely to grow significantly in the coming years especially with directives by European Union and Protocol to the UNECE Convention on Transboundary EIA by signatory countries (with a provisional date of May 2003 for completion). plans and programmes separately from EIA legislation and procedure. Slovakia. it is a part of resource management or biodiversity conservation regimes. All aspects including social and health taken into account.SEA had limited development and implementation till 1990. . EIA is not mandatory in many African countries EIA in India Formal legislation for EIA. government agencies and affected people at early stages of the EIA. Poor on social or health aspects. Other countries such as Czech Republic. after 1990. While in New Zealand and Australia. No provision in place to cover landscape and visual impacts in the Indian EIA regulations Same as developing countries The consideration of alternatives in developing countries is more or less absent. Some countries such as Canada and Denmark have made provision for SEA of policy. adversely affecting the quality of the report. Limited involvement of public and government agencies in the initial phases.

there is a list of activities that require EIA but without any threshold values. there is no public consultation during scoping. Moreover. scoping is often directed towards meeting pollution control requirements. In some case. rather than addressing the full range of potential environmental impacts from a proposed development. ADB and ERDB have provision for consultation with the affected people and NGOs during identification of issues in scoping exercise. Scoping process in most developing countries is very poorly defined.The process of screening is well defined. However. Earlier scoping was done by consultant or proponent with an inclination towards meeting pollution control requirements. executive summary is translated into . Most reports in local language Most reports in English and not in the local language. Netherlands. federal authority determines whether an environmental assessment is required or not. in EU countries competent authorities decide whether EIA is required after seeking advice from developer. a term of reference is followed for scoping while in some countries like Ghana. In countries where it is undertaken. In Japan. rather than addressing the full range of potential environmental impacts from a proposed development. Taiwan and Chile. In developing countries. Canada and Europe. In some countries like in Nigeria and Indonesia. in most developing countries. In many countries like US. Pakistan. the new notification has put the onus of scoping on the expert committee based on the information provided by the proponent. Scoping process is comprehensive and involves consultation with all the stakeholders. In most cases. Besides this. etc. Screening done on the basis of a defined list. NGO and statutory consultees. funding organisations such as World Bank. the involvement of the public and their concern are addressed in the scoping exercise. In Canada. For instance. In many countries including China. there is no provision for scoping. a general checklist is followed. Threshold values on the size of the project has been used to decide whether the project will be cleared by the state government or the central government. screening practice in EIA is weak. Most reports in English and not in the local language. Consultation with public is optional and depends on the discretion of the expert committee. screening decision is made by the authorizing agency with respect to certain criteria.

conduct. Two tier of EIA review. No representation of NGO in IAA. In most cases. students from the developing countries go to the developed countries to gain knowledge of the subject. Involvement of expert with expertise in different areas. Source: Compiled by Industry & Environment Unit. A multi-disciplinary approach. EIA review is not upto the marks. Therefore. In India too. The review agency called Impact Assessment Agency (IAA) lacks inter-disciplinary capacity. which is a violation of the EIA notification. Centre for Science & Environment. 2006 . Lack of trained EIA professionals often leads to the preparation of inadequate and irrelevant EIA reports in developing countries Same in India.local language. The major portion of teaching about environmental assessment also takes place in industrial countries. Expertise in this area is developing. the selection criterion for the organisation is fees/cost rather than the expertise of EIA team. One conducted after the completion of EIA to check the adequacy and effectiveness of EIA and the second done before decisionmaking. Poor review or monitoring. The expertise in EIA is slowly developing. Preparation of EIA is done by consultants. Expertise in EIA: The International Association for Impact Assessment (AIA) and other organisations demonstrate that there are a large number of individuals with the capability to design. review and evaluate EIAs from countries of the North.