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Networking

SEMINAR ON INDUSTRIAL TRAINING
(June-July, 2013) NETWORKING IN UNIVERSITY (CCNA)

Submitted by HARPREET SINGH Registration Number 10807828 Under the Guidance of MR MUKESH

Discipline of CSE/IT Lovely Professional University, Phagwara June-July, 2013.

Networking

DECLARATION
I hereby declare that I have completed my six weeks summer training at JETKING, CHANDIGARH from 5TH June 2013 to 20th July 2013 under the guidance of Mr Mukesh. I have worked with full dedication during these six weeks and my learning outcomes fulfill the requirements of training.

Name of Student : HARPREET SINGH Registration Number : 10807828

Date : 25th July 2013

Networking

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I am grateful to JETKING ,CHANDIGARH for providing me the opportunity to undertake the project at their organization and for allowing me to use all their resources during the course of the project.I also take this opportunity to express my sincere, humble and deepest gratitude to _________________________ ,our project managers for assigning me the project and assisting throughout the time period of my project. I find it difficult to verbalize the deepest sense of indebtedness to my family and friends for their boundless love and support, which has always been a source of inspiration and kept my going to complete this venture.And above all I must acknowledge with complete humility, the power and the mental ability given to me by the Almighty incompletion of project as well as writing the report.

Networking

INDEX

1 2 3 4 5

Chapter 1- Organization profile Chapter 2- Introduction to technology Chapter 3- Introduction to project Chapter 4- Snapshots Chapter 5- Bibliography

Networking

CHAPTER – 1
ORGANISATION PROFILE

Jetking is the first and only professional CISCO training institute around Haryana, Punjab, Uttaranchal, HP, J & K, Rajasthan which is providing CCIE training, led by a team of highly qualified CISCO trainers. Jetking was born when experts from the field of internetworking who had significant experience both in industry as well as educational training came together to start their own institute. It is providing CISCO training from the basic level to the advanced level, so the students who want to enter into the field of IT do not find any difficulty in acquiring and developing the required expertise. Our motto is to train students from around the world who are looking forward to excel in the field of Internetworking. It has one of the best networking equipment in this region complete in all respects. There is a tremendous dearth of qualified human resource in the internetworking service industry. Even the huge number of academic institutions offering Degrees and Diplomas do not fill this ever widening gap. Jetking has been founded to fill this wide gap by preparing an individual to best fit the industry requirements. We have a highly qualified team for our integration business, which enables us to provide to our students best of real life training in the industrial world. The leadership of Jetking possesses sound technical knowledge to ensure that Jetking trainers are masters in the internetworking technologies in general and are SMEs (Subject Matter Experts) for the courses they deliver. It is the only institute in the region which has CCIE trainers having a past experience of more than 8 years in the training industry.Jetking aims to strategize relations with global IT majors which set the trends and raise our bar to internationally acclaimed IT power house. Association with the standard setters will facilitate the students getting hands on experience and ready resources for complete all round IT training to excel in any of the large list of fields the ITindustry. They had envisaged being the leading provider of CISCO certification training in Mohali when we stared operations and we achieved this in just a few months. We now have our sights set on establishing an international presence through strategically chosen partners who can meet the standards we have set to ascertain the quality we are known & respected for.

Networking CHAPTER – 02 FUNDAMENTALS OF A NETWORK: 2. Fig 2. networking is the practice of linking two or more computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data. is a collection of computers and devices connected by communications channels that facilitates communications among users and allows users to share resources with other users.1 What is a Network? • A network.1: A Computer Network . A computer network allows sharing of resources and information among devices connected to the network. • A computer network is a group of two or more computers connected to each electronically. • In the world of computers. Networks are built with a mix of computer hardware and computer software. This means that the computers can "talk" to each other and that every computer in the network can send information to the others. often simply referred to as a computer network.

2 Network Classification: As a computer network is a system for communication among two or more computers. functional relationship. because they are handling multiple subnets (the different colors). The connectivity can be wired or wireless.Networking Thus networking is the practice of linking two or more computers or devices with each other. 2. Current wired LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology. computer laboratory. Though there are numerous ways of classifying a network. It would be more correct to call them access routers. although new standards like ITU-T G. Those inside the library. which have only 10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet connections to the user device and a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the central router.1 By Range: • Local area network (LAN): A local area network is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as home.2. school. or closely positioned group of buildings. Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications. could be called "layer 3 switches" because they only have Ethernet interfaces and must understand IP. office building. information technology and electronics engineering since it relies heavily upon the theoretical and practical application of these scientific and engineering disciplines. . phone lines and power lines). 2.2: A Typical Local Area Network All interconnected devices must understand the network layer (layer 3). network topology and specialized function.hn also provide a way to create a wired LAN using existing home wires (coaxial cables. Each computer or device on the network is a node. computer science. Fig 2. In a nutshell computer networking is the engineering discipline concerned with the communication between computer systems or devices. the most popular categorization is by range.

in contrast to WANs (Wide Area Networks). 155 Mbps. spanning the globe. 45 Mbps. and provides up-link services to wide area networks and the Internet. IEEE has projects investigating the standardization of 40 and 100 Gbit/s. Transmission rates are typically 2 Mbps. including public packet networks. stock brokerage networks. MANs provide Internet connectivity for LANs in a metropolitan region. Current Ethernet or other IEEE 802. The defining characteristics of LANs. large corporate networks. and use communications circuits to connect the intermediate nodes. and no need for leased telecommunication lines. Organisations supporting WANs using the Internet Protocol are known as Network Service . smaller geographic range. but most do not provide true global coverage. A MAN usually interconnects a number of local area networks (LANs) using a high-capacity backbone technology. A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is a large computer network that spans a metropolitan area or campus. Numerous WANs have been constructed. Some WANs are very extensive. include their higher data transfer rates. 34 Mbps.3 LAN technologies operate at speeds up to 10 Gbit/s. banking networks. Its geographic scope falls between a WAN and LAN. • Metropolitan area network (MAN): A metropolitan area network is a large computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus. A major factor impacting WAN design and performance is a requirement that they lease communications circuits from telephone companies or other communications carriers. 625 Mbps (or sometimes considerably more). and airline reservation networks. military networks. Fig 2.3: A Simple MAN • Wide area network (WAN): The term Wide Area Network (WAN) usually refers to a network which covers a large geographical area. This is the data transfer rate.Networking where the router at the top is a distribution router that connects to the Internet and academic networks' customer access routers. such as fiberoptical links. and connect them to wider area networks like the Internet.

By connecting the NSP WANs together using links at Internet Packet Interchanges (sometimes called "peering points") a global communication infrastructure is formed. NSPs do not generally handle individual customer accounts (except for the major corporate customers). WWANs typically incorporate encryption and authentication methods to make them more secure. but instead deal with intermediate organisations whom they can charge for high capacity communications. Bluetooth. The devices may or may not belong to the person in question. They generally have an agreement to exchange certain volumes of data at a certain "quality of service" with other NSPs. and connectivity offered. Fig 2. Personal area networks may be wired with computer buses such as USB and FireWire. transmission rate. NSPs vary in terms of the transit delay. or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink). Unfortunately some of the early GSM encryption techniques were flawed. • Personal area network (PAN): A personal area network is a computer network used for communication among computer devices. including WWAN. Since radio communications systems do not provide a physically secure connection path.4: Personal Area Network • Virtual Private Network (VPN): A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits . Z-Wave and ZigBee.Networking Providers (NSPs). is no longer secure. but may require the use of one or more other NSP networks to reach the required destination. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication). So practically any NSP can reach any other NSP. and security experts have issued warnings that cellular communication. These form the core of the Internet. in proximity to an individual's body. including telephones and personal digital assistants. A wireless personal area network (WPAN) can also be made possible with network technologies such as IrDA. UMTS (3G) encryption was developed later and has yet to be broken. UWB. The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters.

the Internet) instead of by physical wires. for example. However.. and those in some versions of Ethernet networks.g. many active architectures can also be described as a "bus". but a VPN need not have explicit security features. Thus systems which use bus network architectures normally have some scheme of collision handling or collision avoidance for communication on the bus. such as authentication or content encryption. A VPN may have best-effort performance. Generally. they are not responsible for moving the signal along. VPNs. Bus networks are the simplest way to connect multiple clients. the hardware may be abstracted away completely in . but may have problems when two clients want to transmit at the same time on the same bus. or may have a defined service level agreement (SLA) between the VPN customer and the VPN service provider. including one in the motherboard of most computers. can be used to separate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strong security features. for example. as they provide the same logical functions as a passive bus. A true bus network is passive – the computers on the bus simply listen for a signal. a VPN has a topology more complex than point-to-point. if not a physical one.3 By Network Topology: • Bus network: A bus network topology is a network architecture in which a set of clients are connected via a shared communications line. Fig 2. There are several common instances of the bus architecture.Networking in some larger network (e.2. One common application is secure communications through the public Internet.5: VPN used to interconnect 3 office and Remote users 2. called a bus. quite often using Carrier Sense Multiple Access or the presence of a bus master which controls access to the shared bus resource. switched Ethernet can still be regarded as a logical network. Indeed. The data link layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunnelled through the larger network when this is the case.

The hub. or concentrator before continuing to its destination. If the central node is passive.9: Bus Topology • Star network: Star networks are one of the most common computer network topologies. and peripherals) connected directly to a central network hub. However. All peripheral nodes may thus communicate with all others by transmitting to. switch. a star network consists of one central switch. When applied to a busbased network. It is also designed with each node (file waver. and the transmission lines between them. passive bus networks are uncommon in wired networks. Fig 2. almost all current wireless networks can be viewed as examples of passive bus networks. switch. It is also acts as a repeater for the data flow. With the dominance of switched Ethernet over passive Ethernet. hub or computer. with radio propagation serving as the shared passive medium. The failure of a transmission line linking any peripheral node to the central node will result in the isolation of that peripheral node from all others.e. Data on a star network passes through the hub. the hub and leaf nodes. delayed by the two-way transmission time (i. to and from the central node) plus any delay generated in the central node. sometimes including the originating node. but the rest of the systems will be unaffected. The bus topology makes the addition of new devices straightforward. which acts as a conduit to transmit messages. or concentrator. or concentrator manages and controls all functions of the network. The star topology reduces the chance of network failure by connecting all of the systems to a central node. and receiving from. the originating node must be able to tolerate the reception of an echo of its own transmission. The term used to describe clients is station or workstation in this type of network. In its simplest form.Networking the case of a software bus. form a graph with the topology of a star. This configuration is . Bus network topology uses a broadcast channel which means that all attached stations can hear every transmission and all stations have equal priority in using the network to transmit data. An active star network has an active central node that usually has the means to prevent echo-related problems. workstations. Thus. this central hub rebroadcasts all transmissions received from any peripheral node to all peripheral nodes on the network. the central node only. switch.

with each node along the way handling every packet. 802.a ring. maintaining a path to every node along the resulting "C-Ring". The numerous advantages of ring topology include Very orderly network where every device has access to the token and the opportunity to transmit. Performs better than a star topology under heavy network load.Networking common with twisted pair cable.also known as IBM Token Ring networks -.5 networks -.avoid the weakness of a ring topology altogether: they actually use a star topology at the physical layer and a Multistation Access Unit (MAU) to imitate a ring at the data link layer. it can also be used with coaxial cable or optical fibre cable.10: Star Topology • Ring network: A ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other nodes. ring networks may be disrupted by the failure of a single link. Many ring networks add a "counter-rotating ring" to form a redundant topology. forming a single continuous pathway for signals through each node . A node failure or cable break might isolate every node attached to the ring. Because a ring topology provides only one pathway between any two nodes. FDDI networks overcome this vulnerability by sending data on a clockwise and a counter clockwise ring: in the event of a break data is wrapped back onto the complementary ring before it reaches the end of the cable. Does not require network server to manage the connectivity between the computers . Data travels from node to node. Fig 2. However. Can create much larger network using Token Ring.

11.hn and 802. Routers connect two or more logical subnets. data link. or transport (i. hubs. bridges. Fibre Channel. This includes routers. The term switching is generally used to refer to data forwarding between two network devices that share a common network address. or if the data packet must be transferred from one network to another. ITU-T G. Each network interface is a small computer specialized to convert electric signals from one form to another. Switches may operate at one or more OSI layers. While Layer 2 functionality . network.Networking Fig 2. The subnets in the router do not necessarily map one-to-one to the physical interfaces of the router.e. All of these network components are discussed in detail below: • Routers: A router is a device that interconnects two or more computer networks. which may be to different physical types of network or different network standards. A device that operates simultaneously at more than one of these layers is known as a multilayer switch. including Ethernet. and selectively interchanges packets of data between them. A router is a networking device whose software and hardware are customized to the tasks of routing and forwarding information. repeaters. so that each router can build up a table showing the preferred paths between any two systems on the interconnected networks. which do not share a common network address.11: Ring Topology 2. • Switches: A network switch or switching hub is a computer networking device that connects network segments. Where multiple routers are used in a large collection of interconnected networks. ATM. end-to-end). connecting cables. network cards. built-in or modular interfaces make it possible to connect different types of networks.. the routers exchange information about target system addresses. filters. A router has two or more network interfaces. Elements of the network include the entities on which the network runs upon. switches. modems. This connectivity can be at any of the layers mentioned. This allows distributed devices to be managed in a unified way using one management system. including physical. The term "layer 3 switching" is used with the term "routing". This is also called layer 2 switching or LAN switching. In switches intended for commercial use.3 Elements of a Network: A network element is usually defined as a manageable logical entity uniting one or more physical devices. Each data packet contains address information that a router can use to determine if the source and destination are on the same network.

Networking is adequate for speed-shifting within one technology. Some hubs have special (and generally manufacturer specific) stack ports allowing them to be combined in a way that allows more hubs than simple chaining through Ethernet cables. For 10 Mbit/s networks. a switch being a bridge with numerous ports. interconnecting technologies such as Ethernet and token ring are easier at Layer 3. A bridge and switch are very much alike. a large Fast Ethernet network is likely to require switches to avoid the chaining limits of hubs. The device is a form of multiport repeater. Interconnection of different Layer 3 networks is done by routers. If there are any features that characterize "Layer-3 switches" as opposed to general-purpose routers. essentially an network hub is a device for connecting multiple twisted pair or fiber optic Ethernet devices together and making them act as a single network segment. Fig 2. In Ethernet networks. Hubs work at the physical layer (layer 1) of the OSI model. For 100 Mbit/s networks. and any packet entering any port is broadcast out on all other ports. forwarding a jam signal to all ports if it detects a collision. the term Bridge formally means a device that behaves according to the IEEE 802. The need for hosts to be able to detect collisions limits the number of hubs and the total size of a network built using hubs (a network built using switches does not have these limitations). Bridges are similar to repeaters or network hubs. in larger switches. Repeater hubs also participate in collision detection. the limit is reduced to 3 segments (2 hubs) between any two end stations. Since every packet is being sent out through all other ports. it tends to be that they are optimized. devices that . A network hub is a fairly unsophisticated broadcast device. packet collisions result—which greatly impedes the smooth flow of traffic. for high-density Ethernet connectivity. Switch or Layer 2 switch is often used interchangeably with Bridge. Hubs do not manage any of the traffic that comes through them.15: A Simple Hub • Bridges: A Network Bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI model. and even that is only allowed if the hubs are of the low delay variety. up to 5 segments (4 hubs) are allowed between any two end stations.1D standard. • Hubs: A hub. but even so.

In the past. The repeater should magnify the signal enough to get good coverage in the upstairs floor. Modern Ethernet networks use more sophisticated switching devices.17: Network Repeaters • Modems: A modem (modulator-demodulator) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information. with bridging. Devices communicating with an intermediate network repeater will have lower performance stats than those communicating directly with the router.Networking connect network segments at the physical layer. and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode . Bridges are more complex than hubs or repeaters. The repeaters would amplify the data signals before sending them on to the uplinked segment. wired network repeaters were used to join segments of Ethernet cable. Another option is to setup a network repeater on the lower floor. This becomes more of an issue as additional repeaters are used in line. traffic from one network is managed rather than simply rebroadcast to adjacent network segments. several network repeaters can be placed strategically to “draw” the signal where required. Fig 2. Fig 2. however. halfway between the basement and the upstairs office.16: A Network Bridge • Repeaters: A network repeater is a device used to expand the boundaries of a wired or wireless (Wi-Fi) local area network (LAN). thereby countering signal decay that occurs over extended lengths of wire. leaving the wireless flavour of the network repeater a more popular device for use with wireless LANs (WLANs) at work and home. If the building is quite large. though this concept has its limits. Bridges can analyze incoming data packets to determine if the bridge is able to send the given packet to another segment of the network.

The most commonly used cable in the star topology is the UTP/STP cable. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. In computer networking and especially in the local area networking.18: Modem • Network Cables: Communication is the process of transferring signals from one point to another and there must be some medium to transfer those signals. LAN data communication systems there are different types of cables are used. Modems can be used over any means of transmitting analog signals. They can also be classified by Baud. the number of times the modem changes its signal state per second.Networking the transmitted information. The most familiar example is a voice band modem that turns the digital data of a personal computer into analog audio signals that can be transmitted over a telephone line. which provides the best communication speed. The most common types of the LAN cables are the Ethernet UTP/STP cables. A simple type of a modem is shown below in the figure: Fig 2. The preferable cable in the Ethernet networking is the 100baseT. LAN communication system and other transmission mediums in LAN and WAN. normally measured in bits per second (bit/s. from driven diodes to radio. The most common use of . or bps). Today many standardized communication cables and communication devices are in use the according to the needs of a computer network. UTP/STP cables are same in functionality only a slight difference is that an extra protective silver coated layer surrounds the cable. a modem converts the analog data back into digital. Cable testers are used to test the performance of each cable. A RJ-45 connector is joined with both ends of the cables and one end of the connector is connected with the LAN card of the computer and the other end of the cable is connected with the hub or switch. An Ethernet cable is a twisted pair cable that is consist of eight cables that are paired together to make four pairs. and once received on the other side. UTP/STP is a standardize cable in which data is transferred which provides the transmission speed of 10/100 mbps. there are certain communication mediums. This section provides the basic overview of the network cables. UPT/STP cables are further divided into straight over and cross over cables. Modems are generally classified by the amount of data they can send in a given time.

fixed and modular interfaces in the WAN networking. Ethernet. 2. backbones and in the telecommunication industry.4 Networking Models: Network models define a set of network layers and how they interact. In the internet communication. There is another type of cable which is called Twisted Pair cable that is used connect the consoles of the Cisco Routers and switches and RJ-45 connectors are used to at the both ends of the twisted pair cables. Fiber optic cable acts as a backbone cable when it connects two ISPs with each other. This is a seven layer architecture listed in the next section. • OSI Network Model .The International Standards Organization (ISO) has defined a standard called the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model. ISDN. there is a major role of the fiber optic cable. Fig 2. It is also called the internet model because TCP/IP is the protocol used on the internet. Straight over cables are used to connect the computer with the hub or switch and a cross over cable is used to connect the hub with a hub or with a switch.Networking the UTP/STP cables is the serial transmission. The most important two are: • The TCP/IP Model .19: Types of Cables Coaxial cables are also used in the microwave frequencies but there not as popular as other cables. The most advanced form of the communication cables is the fiber optic cable. Fiber optic cables are designed for high speed data communication for the corporate offices and ISPs.This model is sometimes called the DOD model since it was designed for the department of defence. There are several different network models depending on what organization or company started them. which acts as a backbone. .

Networking 2. Ethernet and collision detection.1 The TCP/IP Model: The TCP/IP model is a description framework for computer network protocols created in the 1970s by DARPA. The TCP/IP Model is sometimes called the Internet Model or the DoD Model. This is the lowest component layer of the Internet protocols. It evolved from ARPANET. while those near the bottom are logically closer to the physical transmission of the data. addressed. This regime is called the link in Internet literature. routed and received at the destination. Data Link Layer: The Data Link Layer is the networking scope of the local network connection to which a host is attached. TCP/IP provides end-toend connectivity specifying how data should be formatted. as TCP/IP is designed to be . describes a set of general design guidelines and implementations of specific networking protocols to enable computers to communicate over a network. The TCP/IP model. Fig 2. The following is a description of each layer in the TCP/IP networking model starting from the lowest level: i. or Internet Protocol Suite. for example. which were the world's first wide area network and a predecessor of the Internet. transmitted. Viewing layers as providing or consuming a service is a method of abstraction to isolate upper layer protocols from the nittygritty detail of transmitting bits over. an agency of the United States Department of Defense.4. Protocols exist for a variety of different types of communication services between computers.20: TCP/IP Model • Layers in the TCP/IP Model: The layers near the top are logically closer to the user application. while the lower layers avoid having to know the details of each and every application and its protocol.

End to end message transmission or connecting applications at the transport layer can be categorized as either connection-oriented. The processes of transmitting and receiving packets on a given link can be controlled both in the software device driver for the network card. such as RPC. IP can carry data for a number of different upper layer protocols. implemented in User Datagram Protocol (UDP).. unless another protocol layer is responsible for safe delivery. The Data Link Layer is used to move packets between the Internet Layer interfaces of two different hosts on the same link. Internetworking requires sending data from the source network to the destination network. and error control. the Transport Layer is the first layer of the TCP/IP stack to offer reliability. implemented in Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). respectively. Network Layer: The Network Layer solves the problem of sending packets across one or more networks. As a result TCP/IP has been implemented on top of virtually any hardware networking technology in existence. or connectionless. ii. and then actually transmit the frame over a physical medium. Since IP provides only a best effort delivery. a vehicle with the responsibility to make sure that its contents (passengers/goods) reach their destination safely and soundly.g. Application Layer: The TCP/IP network interface layer provides network functions such as frame synchronization. e. iv. The network interface layer's functionality is divided between the network interface card–driver combination and the low-level protocol stack driver. congestion control. The Transport Layer provides this service of connecting applications through the use of service ports. It is sometimes referred to as the network access layer. flow control. also can provide reliability. Transport Layer: The Transport Layer's responsibilities include end-to-end message transfer capabilities independent of the underlying network. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) and Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) are protocols 1 and 2. Protocols above transport. In the Internet Protocol Suite. as well as on firmware or specialized chipsets. segmentation. and application addressing (port numbers). the Internet Protocol performs two basic functions: Host addressing and identification and Packet routing.Networking hardware independent. These will perform data link functions such as adding a packet header to prepare it for transmission. iii. This process is called routing. along with error control. media access. The Transport Layer can be thought of as a transport mechanism. and is roughly equivalent to the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model's data link layer. These protocols are each identified by a unique protocol number: for example. IP can run over a reliable data link protocol such as the High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC). Application Layer protocols generally treat the transport layer (and lower) protocols as .

As noted above. the application layer. 1. The OSI reference model is a conceptual model composed of seven layers. A task or group of tasks is then assigned to each of the seven OSI layers. although the applications are usually aware of key qualities of the transport layer connection such as the end point IP addresses and port numbers.2 OSI Reference Network Model: The Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model describes how information from a software application in one computer moves through a network medium to a software application in another computer. is closest to the end user. The following diagram details the seven layers of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model: Fig 2.Networking "black boxes" which provide a stable network connection across which to communicate.21: The OSI Reference Model Showing Seven Layers Characteristics of the OSI Layers: The seven layers of the OSI reference model can be divided into two categories: upper layers and lower layers. The highest layer. more manageable task groups. Both users and application layer processes interact with software applications that contain a communications component. each specifying particular network functions. The lower layers of the OSI model handle data . The model was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1984. The upper layers of the OSI model deal with application issues and generally are implemented only in software. The OSI model divides the tasks involved with moving information between networked computers into seven smaller.4. layers are not necessarily clearly defined in the Internet protocol suite. The term upper layer is sometimes used to refer to any layer above another layer in the OSI model. This enables the solutions offered by one layer to be updated without adversely affecting the other layers. Each layer is reasonably selfcontained so that the tasks assigned to each layer can be implemented independently. and it is now considered the primary architectural model for intercomputer communications.

22: Two Sets of Layers Make Up the OSI Layers Description of the OSI Layers: I. In particular. Finally. Physical layer specifications define characteristics such as voltage levels. Different data link layer specifications define different network and protocol characteristics. The lowest layer. sequencing of frames. such as in a bus or a ring topology. flow control moderates the transmission of data so that the receiving device is not overwhelmed with more traffic than it can handle at one time. . is closest to the physical network medium and is responsible for actually placing information on the medium. The major functions and services performed by the Physical Layer are establishment and termination of a connection to a communications medium. Fig 2. Data Link Layer: The data link layer provides reliable transit of data across a physical network link. and the sequencing of data frames reorders frames that are transmitted out of sequence. II. maximum transmission distances. it defines the relationship between a device and a physical medium. Physical layer implementations can be categorized as either LAN or WAN specifications. including physical addressing. and physical connectors. timing of voltage changes. Network topology consists of the data link layer specifications that often define how devices are to be physically connected. physical data rates. Error notification alerts upperlayer protocols that a transmission error has occurred. network topology. modulation and conversion between the representation of digital data in user equipment and the corresponding signals transmitted over a communications channel. and flow control. Participation in the process whereby the communication resources are effectively shared among multiple users. error notification. Physical Layer: It defines the electrical and physical specifications for devices.Networking transport issues. Physical addressing (as opposed to network addressing) defines how devices are addressed at the data link layer. the physical layer.

Flow control manages data transmission between devices so that the transmitting device does not send more data than the receiving device can process. sound. Virtual circuits are established. These requests and responses are coordinated by protocols implemented at the session layer. define network addresses in a way that route selection can be determined systematically by comparing the source network address with the destination network address and applying the subnet mask. conversion of character representation formats. Conversion schemes are used to exchange information with systems by using . Presentation Layer: The system. IV. These functions ensure that information sent from the application layer of one system would be readable by the application layer of another common data representation formats. Transport Layer: The transport layer accepts data from the session layer and segments the data for transport across the network. such as requesting that data be retransmitted. Because of this. Some network layer implementations. the AppleTalk protocol that coordinates the name binding process. routers can use this layer to determine how to forward packets. the transport layer is responsible for making sure that the data is delivered error-free and in the proper sequence. and terminates communication sessions. Network Layer: The network layer defines the network address. Some examples of session-layer implementations include Zone Information Protocol (ZIP). such as the Internet Protocol (IP). Multiplexing enables data from several applications to be transmitted onto a single physical link. Generally. V. common data compression schemes. which differs from the MAC address. the network layer. to resolve any errors that occur. maintained. VI. enable the interchange of application data between different types of computer systems. Communication sessions consist of service requests and service responses that occur between applications located in different network devices. and Session Control Protocol (SCP). Flow control generally occurs at the transport layer. Session Layer: The session layer establishes. Common data representation formats.Networking III. and video formats. Because this layer defines the logical network layout. much of the design and configuration work for internetworks happens at Layer 3. manages. Some examples of presentation layer coding and conversion schemes include presentation layer provides a variety of coding and conversion functions that are applied to application layer data. or the use of standard image. the DECnet Phase IV session layer protocol. and common data encryption schemes. and terminated by the transport layer. Error checking involves creating various mechanisms for detecting transmission errors. while error recovery involves acting.

there is no requirement that a TCP/IP protocol stack needs to impose monolithic architecture above the Transport Layer. such as EBCDIC and ASCII. the Presentation Layer and the Session Layer—are not distinguished separately in the TCP/IP model where it is just the Application Layer. For example. determining resource availability. the Network File System (NFS) application protocol runs over the Xternal Data Representation (XDR) presentation protocol.400. in turn. which. such as X. . runs over a protocol with Session Layer functionality. Remote Procedure Call (RPC). The Session Layer roughly corresponds to the Telnet virtual terminal functionality which is part of text based protocols such as the HTTP and SMTP TCP/IP model Application Layer protocols. RPC provides reliable record transmission. This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component. It also corresponds to TCP and UDP port numbering. Application Layer: The application layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user. While some pure OSI protocol applications. Some functions that would have been performed by an OSI presentation layer are realized at the Internet application layer using the MIME standard.3 OSI and TCP/IP layering differences: The three top layers in the OSI model—the Application Layer. Such application programs fall outside the scope of the OSI model. which is used in application layer protocols such as HTTP and SMTP. VII. and synchronizing communication. Standard data encryption schemes enable data encrypted at the source device to be properly deciphered at the destination. Application layer functions typically include identifying communication partners.Networking different text and data representations. also combined them. • 2. which is considered as part of the transport layer in the TCP/IP model. so it can run safely over the best-effort User Datagram Protocol (UDP) transport.4. Standard data compression schemes enable data that is compressed at the source device to be properly decompressed at the destination. which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application.

NASDAQ100 Index and the Russell 1000 Growth Index. John Morgridge was appointed CEO. For Cisco's first product. Headquartered in San Jose. Cisco has more than 65.000 employees and annual revenue of US$36.1: Headquarter buildings of the Cisco Systems campus in San Jose Len Bosack and Sandy Lerner. and is also included in the S&P 500 Index the Russell 1000 Index. moving full time to Cisco in 1987. it was one of the first to sell commercially successful routers supporting . The name "Cisco" was derived from the city name. Fig: 3. founded Cisco Systems in 1984. and was succeeded in 1995 by John Chambers.03 CISCO SYSTEMS AND ITS CERTIFICATIONS: 3. networking and communications technology and services.11 billion as of 2009. San Francisco. In 1988. California. later joined by Richard Troiano. which is why the company's engineers insisted on using the lower case "cisco" in the early days. who held the position from 1987 to 1988. Lerner moved on to direct computer services at Schlumberger. While Cisco was not the first company to develop and sell a router.1 Historical Perspective: Cisco is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells consumer electronics. another Stanford employee who later joined Sun Microsystems. The stock was added to the Dow Jones Industrial Average on June 8. 2009. The company's first CEO was Bill Graves.Networking CHAPTER . Bosack adapted multiple-protocol router software originally written some years before by William Yeager. a married couple who worked as computer operations staff members at Stanford University. Cisco is one of the world's biggest technology corporations.

Related to the original inspiration for the Cisco name was an early registered mark of a suspension bridge that is synonymous with San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge." The image combines both elements of Cisco's gateway and bridge electrical products that interconnect local area networks and also a representation of the Bay Area's landmark bridge. with a market capitalization of more than US$500 billion. CSCO was voted stock of the decade on NASDAQ. Lerner was fired. Enterprise Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP). Today. were the biggest deals in the industry when they occurred. Cisco acquired Linksys in 2003. but no one knows when. Cisco's largest routers are primarily used to deliver IP packets. Several acquired companies have grown into $1Bn+ business units for Cisco. Cisco was the most valuable company in the world.Networking multiple network protocols. trademark of "Cisco" on June 13. the importance of multi-protocol routing declined. California. Cisco acquired a variety of companies to bring in products and talent into the company. As the Internet Protocol (IP) became widely adopted. In their trademark filing to the United States Patent and Trademark Office. such as Stratacom. In July 2009. "stylized two-tower suspension bridge similar to a script letter "U" with lines extending form the "U" to a bottom line in the manner of cables holding up a roadway.2: Earlier Logo of cisco The company filed for a U. and only the acquisition of Scientific-Atlanta has been larger. including LAN switching.S. the mark is described as. as a result Bosack quit after receiving $200 million. . Most of those profits were given to charities and the two later divorced. Fig: 3.03 billion.S. The company's first indicated commercial use of the stylized bridge was May 18. This classic Cisco image rendition was first used on product packaging and products. It was the most expensive acquisition made by Cisco to date. the company acquired Cerent Corporation. In 1990. presidential honor to recognize companies "for the exemplary quality of their relationships with employees and communities". 1986. at the height of the dot-com boom. Several acquisitions. During the Internet boom in 1999. and it was granted on June 6. a start-up company located in Petaluma. In late March 2000. a U. with a market cap of about US$108. and home networking. for about US$7 billion. 1988. it is still one of the most valuable companies. the company was listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange. 1989. The company was a 2002-03 recipient of the Ron Brown Award.

Expert. CCDP.3 Entry Level Certification: The lowest level of Cisco's certification is CCENT (Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician). 3. Design. and Architect. CCNA Security.3. The CCENT certification is earned upon passing the Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1 (ICND1) Exam (640-822 ICND1). Network Security. maintain & troubleshoot a small enterprise network. CCNA Wireless and CCIP certifications are valid for 3 years. Associate.3. Training is also available from Cisco Learning Partners. 3.2 Re-certification All CCNA. CCENT certified people can install. CCENT covers basic networking knowledge.3. manage. Voice.Networking 3.3. CCENT is the first step towards a CCNA certification. and Wireless.4 Associate Level Certifications: CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) The CCNA validates the ability to install. All CCIE certifications and Specialist certifications are valid for 2 years.1 Training: Traditional educational institutions that teach Cisco skills are called "the Cisco Networking Academy". CCSP. including basic network security. 3. CCVP. Cisco courses are also offered at collegiate institutions. Cisco Networking Academy Students can request exam vouchers that allow them to take the retired exam for an extended period of time. Routing & Switching. and troubleshoot medium-size enterprise level router and switched networks. This includes design implementation and verification . Service Provider. CCNA Voice. The tests are administered by Pearson VUE. It is appropriate for entry-level network support positions. CCENT. CCNP. configure. or passing a higher level examination. Cisco 360 Learning Program for CCIE and Cisco Learning Network. Storage Networking. CCDA. There are five levels of certification: Entry. Professional. operate. as well as seven different paths. Re-certification requires re-taking the current exam previously passed.3 CISCO Career Certifications: Cisco Career Certifications are IT Professional certifications for Cisco Systems products. 3.

broadband. A CCNA certification is not required to take the CCDA exam (640-863 DESGN). as well as BCMSNlevel knowledge of Cisco-based LANs. WANs. professionals must pass either four separate exams. CCDA (Cisco Certified Design Associate) CCDA certified people can design switched or routed networks of LANs. and broadband services. The CCNA certification is earned upon passing the ICND1 640-822 and ICND2 640-816 exams. but Cisco recommends being familiar with CCNA-level material. Examinees may take the exams separately or the single 640-802 CCNA composite exam. and security-minded features. New CCNA training includes basic mitigation of security threats. There are two exams in common between the CCNP and CCDP . Active CCNA and CCDA certifications are required to earn this certification.5 Professional Level Certifications: Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) certification validates knowledge and skills required to install. VPNs. Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) The CCNP is considered proof of having the ability to work with medium-sized networks with technology such as QoS. In addition to CCNA exams. 3. • • • • 642-901 BSCI: Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks (BSCI) 642-812 BCMSN: Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (BCMSN) 642-825 ISCW: Implementing Secure Converged Wide Area Networks (ISCW) 642-845 ONT: Optimizing Converged Cisco Networks (ONT) Cisco Certified Design Professional (CCDP) The CCDP certification is an advanced network design certification validating knowledge of Cisco devices and the way to interconnect them. A valid CCNA certification is required to obtain and maintain a CCNP certification.Networking of connections to remote sites in a WAN. configure and troubleshoot converged local and wide area networks with 100 to 500 or more end devices. or a composite exam along with two separate exams.3. introduction to wireless networking and Voice.

BGP. and Gateway Gatekeeper and must have a valid CCNA Voice certification. MPLS.Networking (642-901 BSCI & 642-812 BCMSN) so that a CCNP and CCDA certified person can attain CCDP certification by passing a single test (642-873 ARCH). To attain this certification. Cisco IP Telephony. To attain this certification tests must be passed in the areas of routing.0) 642-426 TUC: Troubleshooting Cisco Unified Communications Systems (TUC v1. The required exams for a CCVP certification are as follows: • • • 642-642 QoS: Quality of Service (QoS) 642-436 CVOICE: Cisco Voice over IP (CVOICE v6. Cisco VoIP. Required Exams: • 642-901 BSCI: Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks (BSCI) or 642-902 ROUTE: Implementing Cisco IP Routing 642-642 QOS: Quality of Service 642-611 MPLS: Implementing Cisco MPLS 642-661 BGP: Configuring BGP on Cisco Routers • • • Cisco Certified Voice Professional (CCVP) The CCVP is a certification covering all aspects of IP Telephony/VOIP networks and applications. Quality of service and the routing exam from the CCNP track (642-901 BSCI).0) . Required Exams: • 642-901 BSCI: Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks (BSCI) or 642-902 ROUTE: Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) 642-812 BCMSN: Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (BCMSN) or 642-813 SWITCH: Implementing Cisco IP Switched Networks (SWITCH) • • 642-873 ARCH: Designing Cisco Network Service Architecture Cisco Certified Internetwork Professional (CCIP) The CCIP certification is a professional certification covering the end-to-end protocols used in large scale networks. IP Telephony Troubleshooting. five tests must be passed in the areas of Quality of service.

later changing it to the one day format used today. it was voted as such in CertCities magazine.Networking • 642-446 CIPT1: Implementing Cisco Unified Communications Manager Part 1 (CIPT1 v6. Alternatively candidates may rent "rack time" online and practice lab scenarios on Cisco equipment hosted on the Internet for that purpose. and on average will spend thousands of dollars and 18 months studying before passing. Fewer than 3% of Cisco certified individuals attain CCIE certification. 2010 there are 20.0) 3. It has also been voted the most technically advanced IT certification by CertMag and is generally reported as the highest salaried certification in IT salary surveys. Many candidates build training-labs at home using old Cisco equipment. As of January 6. . selling it again to other candidates after passing. There are five active CCIE tracks.810 people with active CCIE certifications in the world and from 2002 to 2005.0) • 642-456 CIPT2: Implementing Cisco Unified Communications Manager Part 2 (CIPT2 v6. as shown below.6 Expert-level certifications Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert is the highest level of professional certification that Cisco currently provides and is considered one of the hardest certifications in the world. Cisco began its CCIE program in 1993 originally with a two day lab.3.

which are held in the routers' memory. but multipath routing techniques enable the use of multiple alternative paths. General-purpose computers with multiple network cards can also forward packets and perform routing. electronic data networks (such as the Internet). typically hardware devices called routers. bridges. including the telephone network. Because structured addresses allow a single routing table entry to represent the route to a group of devices. structured addressing (routing. Most routing algorithms use only one network path at a time. Routing is often contrasted with bridging in its assumption that network addresses are structured and that similar addresses imply proximity within the network. Routing is performed for many kinds of networks. gateways. In more narrow sense of term. is very important for efficient routing. Thus. though they are not specialized hardware and may suffer from limited performance. though bridging is still widely used within localized environment 4. and has become the dominant form of addressing on the Internet. constructing routing tables. in the narrow sense) outperforms unstructured addressing (bridging) in large networks. and transportation networks. Here we are concerned primarily with routing in electronic data networks using packet switching technology In packet switching networks. the transit of logically addressed packets from their source toward their ultimate destination through intermediate nodes. firewalls. routing directs packet forwarding. The routing process usually directs forwarding on the basis of routing tables which maintain a record of the routes to various network destinations. or switches.Networking CHAPTER – 04 ROUTING: 4.3 Classification of Routing: .1 Definition: Routing (or routeing) is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic.

most of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) uses pre-computed routing tables. Dynamic routing is further classified into different algorithms which can be classified on the basis of the method on which any routing protocol decides the path either on the basis of distance or on the basis of processing done by CPU. This classification is as follows: 4. it only knows of its immediate neighbours. one should not suppose that networking technology has developed to the point of the complete automation of routing. sends to each neighbour its own current idea of the . Networks have to be prepared for disaster. Each node. 4.1 Distance vector algorithms: Distance vector algorithms use the Bellman-Ford algorithm. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). For larger networks. static routing is avoided. Nodes will send information from point A to point B via the path that results in the lowest total cost (i. the sum of the costs of the links between the nodes used). Hence the classification comes out to be: Static routing and dynamic routing 4.3. making the manual construction of routing tables unfeasible.Networking Routing can be classified on the basis of route telling scheme to the router about neighbouring networks. When a node first starts. with fallback routes if the most direct route becomes blocked (see routing in the PSTN).3. by additional planning.2 Dynamic routing: Adaptive routing or Dynamic routing attempts to solve this problem by constructing routing tables automatically. either we can tell the router about the neighbouring networks statically or they can be told dynamically. This approach assigns a number. based on information carried by routing protocols. Examples for (Dynamic routing) or Adaptive routing algorithms are Routing Information Protocol (RIP). to each of the links between each node in the network. and is manually engineered.1 Static routing: Small networks may involve manually configured routing tables (static routing) or NonAdaptive routing. For (static routing) or Non-Adaptive routing there is no algorithm.2.e. Nevertheless. The algorithm operates in a very simple manner.3. Dynamic routing dominates the Internet. while larger networks involve complex topologies and may change rapidly. This can be done in two ways. However. The advantage of this routing type is maximum computing resources are saved but are conditioned. and allowing the network to act nearly autonomously in avoiding network failures and blockages. on a regular basis. the cost. the configuration of the routing protocols often requires a skilled touch. and the direct cost involved in reaching them.

An administrative distance is an integer from 0 to 255. The advertised route with the lowest metric will be placed in the routing table.4. Route source Connected Static route EIGRP RIP IGRP OSPF External EIGRP Unknown Default AD 0 1 90 120 100 110 170 255 (this route will never be used) . If one of the advertised routes has a lower AD than the other.1 Administrative distance The administrative distance (AD) is used to rate the trustworthiness of routing information received on a router from a neighbour router. 4. and create new routing-table information.3.2. When one of the nodes involved goes down. The neighbouring node(s) examine this information. Using this map. each node uses as its fundamental data a map of the network in the form of a graph. the first thing the router checks is the AD. all the nodes in the network will discover the best next hop for all destinations. This tree then serves to construct the routing table. 4. Over time. where 0 is the most trusted and 255 means no traffic will be passed via this route. then routing protocol metrics will be used to find the best path to the remote network. which specifies the best next hop to get from the current node to any other node. To produce this. each node floods the entire network with information about what other nodes it can connect to.Networking total cost to get to all the destinations it knows of. and each node then independently assembles this information into a map. If a router receives two updates listing the same remote network. The result is a tree rooted at the current node such that the path through the tree from the root to any other node is the least-cost path to that node. If both advertised routes to the same network have the same AD.2 Link-state algorithms: When applying link-state algorithms. anything which represents an improvement on what they already have. then the route with the lowest AD will be placed in the routing table. each router then independently determines the leastcost path from itself to every other node using a standard shortest paths algorithm such as Dijkstra's algorithm. they insert in their own routing table(s). those nodes which used it as their next hop for certain destinations discard those entries. They then pass this information to all adjacent nodes. which then repeat the process. and compare it to what they already 'know'.4 Routing Protocol Basics: 4. and the best total cost.

inoperable.2 Technical details RIP is a distance-vector routing protocol. published in RFC 2080 (1997). 4. resulting in RIP Version 2 (RFC 2453). even if the routers had been initialized at random times. RIP has also been adapted for use in IPv6 networks. RIP prevents routing loops by implementing a limit on the number of hops allowed in a path from the source to a destination. As networks grew in size.5.1 RIP The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a dynamic routing protocol used in local and wide area networks. These are some of the stability features of RIP.1: Administrative Distances 4. or otherwise undesirable routes in the selection process. however. As such it is classified as an interior gateway protocol (IGP). also limits the size of networks that RIP can support. With its help. they are considered to have been made technically obsolete by more advanced techniques such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and the OSI protocol IS-IS. route poisoning and hold down mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from being propagated. The hold down time is 180 seconds. which employs the hop count as a routing metric. The protocol has since been extended several times. Both versions are still in use today. it became evident there could be a massive traffic burst every 30 seconds.1. routing tables were small enough that the traffic was not significant.Networking Table 4.5. It is also possible to use the so called RIP-MTI algorithm to cope with the count to infinity problem. however. It was first defined in RFC 1058 (1988). however. it's possible to detect every possible loop with a very small computation effort. RIP implements the split horizon.5 Major Routing Protocols: 4. RIP is implemented on top of the User Datagram Protocol as its transport protocol. A hop count of 16 is considered an infinite distance and used to deprecate inaccessible. a standard known as RIPng (RIP next generation). The maximum number of hops allowed for RIP is 15. It uses the distance-vector routing algorithm. It is assigned the reserved port number 520. Originally each RIP router transmitted full updates every 30 seconds. . In the early deployments. This hop limit.

RIPv2. making RIP vulnerable to various attacks. a compatibility switch feature allows fine-grained interoperability adjustments. There is also no support for router authentication. all subnets in a network class must have the same size. RIPng RIPng (RIP next generation). RIP version 2 (RIPv2) was developed in 1993 and last standardized in 1998. While RIPv2 supports RIPv1 updates authentication. defined in RFC 1058.Networking 4. is an extension of RIPv2 for support of IPv6. This limitation makes it impossible to have different-sized subnets inside of the same network class. In other words. the next generation Internet Protocol. the hop count limit of 15 remained. lacking support for variable length subnet masks (VLSM). The main differences between RIPv2 and RIPng are: • • Support of IPv6 networking. In addition. In an effort to avoid unnecessary load on hosts that do not participate in routing. RIPv2 has facilities to fully interoperate with the earlier specification if all Must Be Zero protocol fields in the RIPv1 messages are properly specified.1.If there is more than 16 hops between two routers it fails to send data packets to the destination address. • RIPv2 allows attaching arbitrary tags to routes. and RIPng. RIPng does not. IPv6 routers were. The RIP version 1 works when there is only 16 hop counts (0-15). It included the ability to carry subnet information. thus supporting Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR). RIP version 2 Due to the deficiencies of the original RIP specification.0.3 Versions There are three versions of the Routing Information Protocol: RIPv1. To maintain backward compatibility. supposed to use IPSec for authentication.5. uses classful routing. at the time. as opposed to RIPv1 which uses broadcast. RIPng does not. Unicast addressing is still allowed for special applications.0. RIPv2 multicasts the entire routing table to all adjacent routers at the address 224.9. defined in RFC 2080. . The periodic routing updates do not carry subnet information. RIP version 1 The original specification of RIP.

making IGRP an obsolete routing protocol. Because the protocol has no field for a subnet mask.2 Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a distance vector interior routing protocol (IGP) invented by Cisco.Networking • RIPv2 encodes the next-hop into each route entries. using a formula which can be adjusted through the use of pre-set constants. the router assumes that all interface addresses within the same Class A. 4. RIPng requires specific encoding of the next hop for a set of route entries. IGRP supports multiple metrics for each route. including bandwidth. 4. This contrasts with classless routing protocols that can use variable length subnet masks. 4.5. IGRP was created in part to overcome the limitations of RIP (maximum hop count of only 15. In Cisco IOS versions 12.5.1. and a single routing metric) when used within large networks. • • • Most RIP networks are flat. and routing updates are broadcast every 90 seconds (by default). IGRP is completely unsupported. Classful protocols have become less popular as they are wasteful of IP address space. In the . and reliability. Hop count cannot exceed 15.3 and greater. RIP has slow convergence and count to infinity problems. EIGRP has completely replaced IGRP. load. Variable Length Subnet Masks were not supported by RIP version 1. Cisco created EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol). EIGRP adds support for VLSM (variable length subnet mask) and adds the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) in order to improve routing and provide a loop less environment. Class B.1 Advancement: In order to address the issues of address space and other factors. IGRP is considered a classful routing protocol. There is no concept of areas or boundaries in RIP networks.4 Limitations • Without using RIP-MTI. The maximum hop count of IGRP-routed packets is 255 (default 100). or Class C network have the same subnet mask as the subnet mask configured for the interfaces in question. to compare two routes these metrics are combined together into a single metric. MTU. in case if it exceeds it will be considered invalid. delay.5. IGRP is a proprietary protocol. Without using RIP-MTI.2. It is used by routers to exchange routing data within an autonomous system.

into routing areas to simplify administration and optimize traffic and resource utilization. a shortest path first algorithm. Identical copies of the LSDB are periodically updated through flooding on all OSPF routers. IGRP is mentioned only briefly. OSPF was designed to support variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) or Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) addressing models. An ABR maintains separate link state databases for each area it serves and maintains summarized routes for all areas in the network. familiar from IPv4 address notation.1 Overview OSPF is an interior gateway protocol that routes Internet Protocol (IP) packets solely within a single routing domain (autonomous system).5. Each additional area must have a direct or virtual connection to the backbone OSPF area. administrators select the IP address of a main router in an area as the area's identification. very quickly and converges on a new loop-free routing structure within seconds.0 represents the core or backbone region of an OSPF network. expressed either simply in decimal. The updates for IPv6 are specified as OSPF Version 3 in RFC 5340 (2008). area 0 (zero) or 0.0. The topology determines the routing table presented to the Internet Layer which makes routing decisions based solely on the destination IP address found in IP datagram’s. Such connections are maintained by an interconnecting router.0. or subdivided. such as link failures. OSPF detects changes in the topology. It computes the shortest path tree for each route using a method based on Dijkstra's algorithm. An OSPF network may be structured.5. . It is defined as OSPF Version 2 in RFC 2328 (1998) for IPv4. operating within a single autonomous system (AS). The identifications of other areas may be chosen at will. or often in octet-based dot-decimal notation. it is a link-state routing protocol and falls into the group of interior gateway protocols. It gathers link state information from available routers and constructs a topology map of the network. By convention. 4. Specifically. often.3.Networking new Cisco CCNA curriculum (version 4). 4. as an "obsolete protocol".3 OPEN SHORTEST PATH FIRST (OSPF): Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a dynamic routing protocol for use in Internet Protocol (IP) networks. known as area border router (ABR). The link-state information is maintained on each router as a link-state database (LSDB) which is a tree-image of the entire network topology. Areas are identified by 32-bit numbers.

Stub area A stub area is an area which does not receive route advertisements external to the autonomous system (AS) and routing from within the area is based entirely on a default route.5. It has many features that allow the imposition of policies about the propagation of routes that it may be appropriate to keep local. Modifications to the basic concept of stub areas exist in the not-so-stubby area (NSSA). IS-IS. several other proprietary variation have been implemented by systems vendors.0) forms the core of an OSPF network. This reduces the size of the routing databases for the area's internal routers.3 Area types in OSPF: Backbone area The backbone area (also known as area 0 or area 0.0. both an extension in Cisco Systems routing equipment. In addition. All other areas are connected to it. can be tuned for lower overhead in a stable network. and inter-area routing happens via routers connected to the backbone area and to their own associated areas.1 Introduction .3. and for selective route importing more than IS-IS. . It is the logical and physical structure for the 'OSPF domain' and is attached to all nonzero areas in the OSPF domain. and guarantee loop-free paths. in the sense that many OSPF domains can coexist in the same Internet-visible autonomous system. in contrast.5. RFC1996.Networking 4. Note that in OSPF the term Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR) is historic. 4. the sort more common in ISP than enterprise networks.5 EIGRP 4.5. for load sharing.4 Applications OSPF was the first widely deployed routing protocol that could converge a network in the low seconds.5.0. such as the totally stubby area (TSA) and the NSSA totally stubby area.5.3.

a successor and a feasible successor are identified and stored in the table if they exist. Most of the routing optimizations are based on the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) work from SRI. i.(EIGRP) is a Cisco proprietary routing protocol loosely based on their original IGRP. it effectively contains only the aggregation of the routing tables gathered from all directly connected neighbours. after which only changes are sent. Routers that support EIGRP will automatically redistribute route information to IGRP neighbours by converting the 32 bit EIGRP metric to the 24 bit IGRP metric. the routing table is populated from the topology table with every destination network that has its successor and optionally feasible successor identified (if unequal-cost load-balancing is enabled using the variance command).e. Unlike most other distance vector protocols.Networking Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol . • Topology Table: Confusingly named.5. 4. The successors and feasible successors serve as the next hop routers for these destinations. • Routing table: Stores the actual routes to all destinations. or "Active" when the topology has changed and the router is in the process of (actively) updating its route to that destination.2 Basic operation The data EIGRP collects is stored in three tables: • Neighbour Table: Stores data about the neighbouring routers. EIGRP does not rely on periodic route dumps in order to maintain its topology table. Every destination in the topology table can be marked either as "Passive". EIGRP is an advanced distance-vector routing protocol. Also for every destination. . which is the state when the routing has stabilized and the router knows the route to the destination. with optimizations to minimize both the routing instability incurred after topology changes. which guarantees loop-free operation and provides a mechanism for fast convergence. rather. Routing information is exchanged only upon the establishment of new neighbour adjacencies. as well as the use of bandwidth and processing power in the router.5. this table does not store an overview of the complete network topology. This table contains a list of destination networks in the EIGRP-routed network together with their respective metrics. those directly accessible through directly connected interfaces.

5. increasing the metrics by the cost of the link to that respective neighbour. every successor is also a feasible successor. the hop count is not used in metric calculation. however. and selecting the neighbour that yields the least total distance. Thus. they do not provide the least distance).5.4 Important Terms Used in EIGRP Successor A successor for a particular destination is a next hop router that satisfies these two conditions: • • it provides the least distance to that destination it is guaranteed not to be a part of some routing loop The first condition can be satisfied by comparing metrics from all neighbouring routers that advertise that particular destination. 4. there might not be any feasible successors.e. Feasible Successor A feasible successor for a particular destination is a next hop router that satisfies this condition: • it is guaranteed not to be a part of some routing loop This condition is also verified by testing the Feasibility Condition.Networking EIGRP also maintains a hop count for every route. There can be multiple successors for a destination. however. Routes having a hop count higher than the maximum will be advertised as unreachable by an EIGRP router. It is only verified against a predefined maximum on an EIGRP router (by default it is set to 100 and can be changed to any value between 1 and 255). The second condition can be satisfied by testing a so-called Feasibility Condition for every neighbour advertising that destination. depending on the actual topology. in most references about EIGRP the term "feasible successor" is used to denote only those routers which provide a loop-free path but which are not successors (i. for a reachable destination there is always at least one successor. . However. From this point of view.

is the most widespread wired LAN technology. Fig 5. Ethernet was inspired by ALOHA net which Robert Metcalfe had studied as part of his Ph. FDDI. the total count of successors and feasible successors for a destination stored in the routing table is limited to four.4). Xerox . CHAPTER . this range is between 1 and 16.1: A standard 8P8C (often called RJ45) connector 5. along with the fiber optic versions for site backbones.1 Layer 2 Switching: Ethernet is a family of frame-based computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs). It has been in use from around 1980 to the present. The combination of the twisted pair versions of Ethernet for connecting end systems to the network. Also. In 1975.05 SWITCHING 5.1 History Ethernet was developed at Xerox PARC between 1973 and 1975. The name comes from the physical concept of the ether. Ethernet is standardized as IEEE 802.Networking The feasible successor effectively provides a backup route in the case that existing successors die. largely replacing competing LAN standards such as token ring. D.3. when performing unequal-cost load-balancing (balancing the network traffic in inverse proportion to the cost of the routes).g. It defines a number of wiring and signalling standards for the Physical Layer of the OSI networking model as well as a common addressing format and Media Access Control at the Data Link Layer. the feasible successors are used as next hops in the routing table for the load-balanced destination. and ARCNET. In more recent versions of Cisco IOS (e. 12.1. By default. This limit can be changed in the range from 1 to 6. dissertation.

Metcalfe left Xerox in 1979 to promote the use of personal computers and local area networks (LANs). The first standard draft was first published on September 30. 1980 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).e. only well-formed Ethernet packets are forwarded from one Ethernet segment to another. Token Ring and Token Bus. With bridging. He convinced Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). Thinnet Ethernet was introduced. Bridges learn where devices are. collisions and packet errors are isolated. the so-called "DIX" standard.1. they still forwarded all traffic to all Ethernet devices. such as cable breakages. and due to the competitive Token Ring proposal strongly supported by IBM. for "Digital/Intel/Xerox". Also as the entire network was one collision domain and all hosts had to be able to detect collisions anywhere on the network.5 Bridging and switching: While repeaters could isolate some aspects of Ethernet segments. Finally segments joined by repeaters had to all operate at the same speed. after the system was deployed at PARC. Intel. and do not forward packets across segments when they know the destination address is not located in that direction. In 1976. These created practical limits on how many machines could communicate on an Ethernet network. the number of repeaters between the farthest nodes was limited. with 48-bit destination and source addresses and a global 16-bit Ether type field. Support of Ethernet's carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) in other standardization bodies (i. . Digital's Ethernet implementation utilized a coaxial cable about the diameter of a US nickel which became known as Thick Ethernet when its successor. Metcalfe and Boggs published a seminal paper.Networking filed a patent application listing Metcalfe. To alleviate these problems. The emphasis was on making installation of the cable easier and less costly. Chuck Thacker and Butler Lampson as inventors. making phased-in upgrades impossible. Through the first half of the 1980s. ECMA. Thinnet use a cable that was a version of the cable television cable of the era. Ethernet initially competed with two largely proprietary systems. 5. bridging was created to communicate at the data link layer while isolating the physical layer. by watching MAC addresses. David Boggs. and Xerox to work together to promote Ethernet as a standard. it specified the 10 megabits/second Ethernet. IEC and ISO) was instrumental in getting past delays of the finalization of the Ethernet standard due to the difficult decision processes in the IEEE. forming 3Com.

and some of them were significantly slower than hubs (multi-port repeaters) at forwarding traffic. 5. traditional routers use microprocessors to make forwarding decisions. this is misleading as performance will only double if traffic patterns are symmetrical (which in reality they rarely are).2 Layer 3 Switching: The only difference between a layer 3 switch and router is the way the administrator creates the physical implementation. especially when handling many ports at the same time. Also. When a twisted pair or fiber link segment is used and neither end is connected to a hub.Networking Prior to discovery of network devices on the different segments. improving overall performance. Layer 3 switching is all hardware-based packet forwarding. it only forwards network traffic to the necessary segments. and the switch performs only hardware-based packet switching. However. Bridges also overcame the limits on total segments between two hosts and allowed the mixing of speeds. which are listed here • Determine paths based on logical addressing . some traditional routers can have other hardware functions as well in some of the higher-end models. and all packet forwarding is handled by hardware ASICs. 200 Mbit/s) to account for this. This was in part due to the fact that the entire Ethernet packet would be read into a buffer. However. the destination address compared with an internal table of known MAC addresses and a decision made as to whether to drop the packet or forward it to another or all segments. passing all traffic between segments. Ethernet bridges (and switches) work somewhat like Ethernet hubs. as the bridge discovers the addresses associated with each port. The elimination of the collision domain also means that all the link's bandwidth can be used and that segment length is not limited by the need for correct collision detection (this is most significant with some of the fiber variants of Ethernet). both of which became very important with the introduction of Fast Ethernet. Layer 3 switches can be placed anywhere in the network because they handle high-performance LAN traffic and can cost-effectively replace routers. Layer 3 switches really are no different functionally than a traditional router and perform the same functions.g. full-duplex Ethernet becomes possible over that segment. Early bridges examined each packet one by one using software on a CPU. However. Broadcast traffic is still forwarded to all network segments. and there is no collision domain. This doubles the aggregate bandwidth of the link and is sometimes advertised as double the link speed (e. In full duplex mode both devices can transmit and receive to/from each other at the same time.

Telnet or FTP). For example. extended access lists can filter packets based on layer 4 port numbers. . based on the need for video conferencing. or application. The largest benefit of layer 4 switching is that the network administrator can configure a layer 4 switch to prioritize data traffic by application.3 Layer 4 Switching: Layer 4 switching is considered a hardware-based layer 3 switching technology that can also consider the application used (for example. or band-width. For example. a number of users can be defined as a Video group and be assigned more priority. program. Layer 4 switching provides additional routing above layer 3 by using the port numbers found in the Transport layer header to make routing decisions. These port numbers are found in Request for Comments (RFC) 1700 and reference the upper-layer protocol. which means a QoS can be defined for each user. Layer 4 information has been used to help make routing decisions for quite a while.Networking • • • • Run layer 3 checksums (on header only) Use Time to Live (TTL) Process and respond to any option information Update Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) managers with Management Information Base (MIB) information • Provide Security The benefits of layer 3 switching include the following • • • • • • • • Hardware-based packet forwarding High-performance packet switching High-speed scalability Low latency Lower per-port cost Flow accounting Security Quality of service (QoS) 5.

Bridge loops must be avoided because they result in flooding the internet network. address summarization. Routers in VLAN topologies provide broadcast filtering. or obtain an address from a different DHCP server. It is standardized as 802. without the danger of bridge loops. 5. In the OSI model for computer networking.1D.1 Uses VLANs are created to provide the segmentation services traditionally provided by routers in LAN configurations. Virtual LANs are essentially Layer 2 constructs. but it allows for end stations to be grouped together even if they are not located on the same network switch.6. Network reconfiguration can be done through software instead of physically relocating devices. This is also useful if someone wants to create multiple Layer 3 networks on the same Layer 2 switch. is a group of hosts with a common set of requirements that communicate as if they were attached to the same broadcast domain. regardless of their physical location. or the need for manual enabling/disabling of these backup links. switches may not bridge IP traffic between VLANs as it would violate the integrity of the VLAN broadcast domain. compared with IP subnets which are Layer 3 constructs. and traffic flow management. security.5 Spanning Tree Protocol: The Spanning tree protocol (STP) is a link layer network protocol that ensures a loop-free topology for any bridged LAN. A VLAN has the same attributes as a physical LAN. As the name suggests. commonly known as a VLAN. the basic function of STP is to prevent bridge loops and ensuing broadcast radiation. For example. leaving a single active path between any two network nodes. STP falls under the OSI layer-2. 5. security. Thus. VLANs address issues such as scalability. In an . Spanning tree allows a network design to include spare (redundant) links to provide automatic backup paths if an active link fails. and disables those links that are not part of the spanning tree. and network management. if a DHCP server (which will broadcast its presence) is plugged into a switch it will serve any host on that switch that is configured to get its IP from a DHCP server. By definition. it creates a spanning tree within a mesh network of connected layer-2 bridges (typically Ethernet switches).Networking 5. By using VLANs you can easily split the network up so some hosts won't use that DHCP server and will obtain link-local addresses.6 Virtual LAN A virtual LAN.

VTP provides a mapping scheme that enables seamless trunking within a network employing mixed-media technologies. although it is possible to have multiple subnets on one VLAN or have one subnet spread across multiple VLANs. it does have disadvantages that are normally related to the spanning tree protocol (STP) as a bridging loop propagating throughout the network can occur. By using VLANs. These inconsistencies can result in security violations. They also could become internally disconnected when they are mapped from one LAN type to another.Networking environment employing VLANs. . Virtual LANs and IP subnets provide independent Layer 2 and Layer 3 constructs that map to one another and this correspondence is useful during the network design process. VTP minimizes the possible configuration inconsistencies that arise when changes are made. Ethernet to ATM LANE ELANs or FDDI 802.3 Cisco VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) On Cisco Devices. 5. VTP uses Layer 2 trunk frames to manage the addition. VTP provides the following benefits: • • • • • VLAN configuration consistency across the network Mapping scheme that allows a VLAN to be trunked over mixed media Accurate tracking and monitoring of VLANs Dynamic reporting of added VLANs across the network Plug-and-play configuration when adding new VLANs As beneficial as VTP can be. VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) maintains VLAN configuration consistency across the entire network. one can control traffic patterns and react quickly to relocations. deletion. VLANs provide the flexibility to adapt to changes in network requirements and allow for simplified administration. a one-to-one relationship often exists between VLANs and IP subnets.6.10 VLANs. for example. and renaming of VLANs on a network-wide basis from a centralized switch in the VTP server mode. VTP is responsible for synchronizing VLAN information within a VTP domain and reduces the need to configure the same VLAN information on each switch. because VLANs can cross connect when duplicate names are used.

Before creating VLANs on the switch that will be propagated via VTP. VTP effectively creates more opportunities for a bridging loop to occur. As a device enters the network. the device queries a database for VLAN membership.6. Switches in different domains do not share VTP information. With a VLAN Management Policy Server (VMPS). Static VLAN assignments are created by assigning ports to a VLAN.4 Establishing VLAN memberships The two common approaches to assigning VLAN membership are as follows: • • Static VLANs Dynamic VLANs Static VLANs are also referred to as port-based VLANs. the network administrator must manually make a port-to-VLAN assignment for the new connection. . Using VTP. If the user changes ports and needs access to the same VLAN. the device automatically assumes the VLAN of the port. a VTP domain must first be set up. All switches in the same management domain share their VLAN information with each other. each Catalyst Family Switch advertises the following on its trunk ports: • • • Management domain Configuration revision number Known VLANs and their specific parameters 5. As a device enters the network. and a switch can participate in only one VTP management domain.6. Dynamic VLANs are created through the use of software. See also FreeNAC which implements a VMPS server.5 Port-based VLANs With port-based VLAN membership. and since VTP propagates VLANs across the campus LAN.Networking Cisco switches run an instance of STP for each VLAN. This means all users attached to the port should be members of the same VLAN. The network administrator typically performs the VLAN assignment. an administrator can assign switch ports to VLANs dynamically based on information such as the source MAC address of the device connected to the port or the username used to log onto that device. A VTP domain for a network is a set of all contiguously trunked switches with the same VTP domain name. the port is assigned to a specific VLAN independent of the user or system attached to the port. 5.

or metropolitan area networks (MANs) which are usually limited to a room. The device simply knows that it is a member of a subnet and that the device should be able to talk to all other members of the subnet by simply sending information to the cable segment.e.06 WIDE AREA NETWORKS 6. building. so that users and computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in other locations. a city) respectively.1. The device that is attached to the port likely has no understanding that a VLAN exists. built by Internet service . This approach is quite simple. or national boundaries). regional.1 Introduction: A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area (i. After a port has been assigned to a VLAN.Networking The port configuration is static and cannot be automatically changed to another VLAN without manual reconfiguration. any network whose communications links cross metropolitan. fast. 6. the port cannot send to or receive from devices in another VLAN without the intervention of a Layer 3 device. the packets forwarded using this method do not leak into other VLAN domains on the network. This is in contrast with personal area networks (PANs). and easy to manage.1 WAN design options WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networks together... As with other VLAN approaches.g. campus or specific metropolitan area (e. The switch is responsible for identifying that the information came from a specific VLAN and for ensuring that the information gets to all other members of the VLAN. Many WANs are built for one particular organization and are private. local area networks (LANs). Others. The switch is further responsible for ensuring that ports in a different VLAN do not receive the information. CHAPTER . campus area networks (CANs).

Network protocols including TCP/IP deliver transport and addressing functions. a router connects to the LAN on one side and a hub within the WAN on the other. Protocols including Packet over SONET/SDH. MPLS. and is often considered to be the "grandfather" of Frame Relay as many of the underlying protocols and functions of X.25 was an important early WAN protocol.25 are still in use today (with upgrades) by Frame Relay. provide connections from an organization's LAN to the Internet. CHAPTER – 07 PROJECT DETAILS 7.Networking providers. WANs can also be built using less costly circuit switching or packet switching methods. X. ATM and Frame relay are often used by service providers to deliver the links that are used in WANs. Leased lines can be very expensive. Instead of using leased lines.1 About Networking in College: . WANs are often built using leased lines. At each end of the leased line.

Networking The concepts of networking used to demonstrate and configure the networks are as follows:• Routing Protocols o Link State Routing Protocol ( OSPF ) o Distance Vector Routing Protocol ( RIP ) • Access-Lists o Standard o Extended • • • • Domain Name System The elements of networks used in the configuration are as follows:Routers ( Cisco 2811) Switches ( Cisco 2960 24 TT ) .

0/24 network is used for connecting computers of department 2.0/8 network Network Cables o Serial cables o Straight Ethernet Cables o Crossover Ethernet Cables • Servers OSPF NETWORK TOPOLOGY . • • The College Server uses 22. thus using class C private addresses. • 192.Networking COLLEGE NETWORK • • • The college network comprises an autonomous system which uses OSPF which is a Link State Routing Protocol. thus using class A private addresses. 10. There are 2 routers used in the network.168.0.21.0.0.0.0/8 network is used for connecting computers of department 1.

1.0. 00:00:29. Serial0/1/1 .0/8 [120/2] via 34.0.Networking RIP NETWORK TOPOLOGY ROUTES R4#show ip route R 10.0.0.

Serial0/0/0 192.0.1.1.0. Serial0/0/0 56. 00:00:00. Serial0/0/0 R 22.0/0 [120/1] via 45. Serial0/1/1 [120/2] via 45.0/8 [120/2] via 34.1.1.0.0.0.0.0/8 [120/2] via 34. 00:00:00.0/8 [120/2] via 34. 00:00:00.0.0.0/24 [120/2] via 34.0.0. 00:00:00. Serial0/1/1 34.0.168.1. Serial0/0/0 R 20.0. Serial0/1/1 45.0.1. 00:00:24.0.0.0.0.0.0.1.1.Networking [120/2] via 45. 00:00:00.0. Serial0/1/1 [120/2] via 45.0.1.0/8 [120/2] via 34.0.0.0.0.0.0. 00:00:29. Serial0/1/1 30. 00:00:29.0.0. Serial0/0/0 The TCP/IP configuration of computers:- .21. 00:00:24.0.0.0.0.0/8 is directly connected.0.0/8 is directly connected.0. Serial0/1/1 [120/2] via 45.0.1. Serial0/0/0 R R C C R R 23. 00:00:29. 00:00:00. Serial0/0/0 R* 0.0.0/8 [120/1] via 45.0.1.

168. if we want to control the access to all the machines.0.21.This section specifies the destination machine we want to control access to Instead. TCP – Represents only the packets which use Transmission Control Protocol UDP . we do it by writing ‘any’ like:Permit ip any any .0.60 .Represents only the packets which use the User Datagram Protocol ICMP .50 – This section specifies the source machine we want to control access to Host 60.Networking Different parts of an Access List Deny – Specifies the permission whether to permit/deny the access Tcp – This specifies the type of traffic we want to permit/deny The type of traffic we can control is:IP – Represents all the traffic flowing on the internet.Represents only the packets which use Internet Control Message Protocol Host 192.

H and Rosenburg.H and Rosenburg. New York.vovida. available from Vovida Networks. Inc. [2] Schulzrinne. A. Feb 1999. “Internet Telephony: architecture and protocols – an IETF perspective” Computer Networks. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. “On Incorporating Payout Adaption and Loss Recovery in VoIP Applications”.Networking BIBLIOGRAPHY: [1] Muthukrishnan. [3] “Vocal Installation Guide”. Department of ECSE.. www. 31. Pp237-255.org [4] Schulzrinne.J.J. vol. “The Session Initiation Protocol: Providing .

com [8] Todd.google.com [7] www. Sixth Edition. Lammle. Exam 640-802”.101-asp-tutorials. .com/asp/database/ [6] www.tutorial-web. Pp144-159 [5] www. “CCNA: Cisco® Certified Network Associate Study Guide. October-December 1998.Networking Advanced Telephony Services across the Internet” Bell Labs Technical Journal.