You are on page 1of 7

BIOL 172 Exam 1 Ch: 28, 31-34 Study Guide Chapter 28 • Explain why taxonomically, the name Protist is no longer valid.

PROTISTA used to be a kingdom. But not anymore due to their POLYPHYLETIC nature . Research has shown that some protists are more related to plants and animals than other protists. • Be familiar with the endosymbiosis theory in Eukaryotic evolution (fig. 28.2) and how red and green algae underwent secondary endosymbiosis to give rise to other, diverse groups Cyanobacterium consumed by HETEROTROPHIC Eukaryote= PRIMARY ENDOSYMBIOSIS over time membrane lost and forms 2 differen Alga (red and green) red and green alga consumed again by eukaryotes = SECONDARY ENDOSYMBIOSIS The results further diversify in to plastid bearing eukaryotes. PLASTID evolved from cyanobacterium eaten. fig 28.2, 577 • Know the three ways in which protists obtain energy photoautotrophs, heterotrophs (eating organic molecules), MIXOTROPHS • Know what supergroups the animals, fungi and plants are included in Animals: Unikonts (subgroup Opisthokonts) Fungi: Unikonts (subgroup Opisthokonts) Plants: Archaeplastida

• Excavates: be familiar with the examples we focused on in class and their human and ecologic significance. Diplomonads: Giardia. Intestinal parasite. Latches and feeds on nutrients. PARABASALLIDS: Trichomonas. Attaches to vaginal lining and feeds. Increase STD risk • Chromalveolates: be familiar with the examples we went over in class in terms of human health and ecologic significance. Be familiar with the parasitic life cycle of plasmodium Stramenopiles: include most important photosynthetic organisms. DIATOMS take CO2, die and pump it to ocean floor= less global warming brown algae , used in algin to thicken our foods. Alveolates: Apicomplexans:Eg. Plasmodium causes MALARIA. Infected mosquito injects Plasmodium SPOROZITES via SALIVA  person Sporozites enter Liver cell, divide, become MEROZOITES, and enter BLOOD CELLS. MEROZOITES divide (asex) and eventually break out the blood = Fever + chills Some merozoites become GAMETES. GAmetse picked up by some other mosquito. Gametes form zygote and eventually SPOROZITES AGAIN in mosquito= CYCLE STARTS AGAIN. Fig 28.10, 583

dinoflagellates. (things like house paint. SYMBIONT. importance in aquatic food chains. they were “avoided” by the “non cheating” amoebas and thus were left to die. heterokaryotic.BIOL 172 Exam 1 Ch: 28. dikaryotic. 31-34 Study Guide • Archaeplastida: be familiar with the history and phylogenetic significance of red and green algae Red and green algae are products of a protist EATING a CYANOBACTERIUM (endosymbiosis) Green algae are CLOSELY related to LAND PLANTS (similar CHLOROPLASTS) • Unikonts: Amoebazoans: be familiar with the research focus of cellular slime molds and clues to multicellularity Cellular slime molds experience “multicellularity” when food is scarce when forming a fruiting body. oil. and WE EAT FISH CO2 converted by producers  organic molecules that organisms depend on Also Carbon pumped into floor = less global warming Chapter 31 • Be familiar with the basic nutritional acquisition and morphology of fungi. carbon cycle. Heterotrophic via EXTRACELLULAR DIGESTION (secrete enzymes breakdown consume products) Decomposers (really important). Producer feed animals like FISH. • • RHIZARIANS OPTIONAL Be familiar with the different types of ecological roles we discussed for a variety of protists highlighted in class: different types of symbiosis with fungi and animals for example. While some amoebas can “cheat” from becoming the dying stalk of the multicelled fruiting body. and PRODUCER dinoflagellates in coral = BUILDING CORAL is MUTUALISM (symbiont) plasmodium = malaria is PARASITISM (symbiont) PRODUCERS BELOW diatoms. karyogamy plasmogamy: merging of CYTOPLASM heterokaryotic: containing multiple DIFFERENT nuclei Dikaryotic: each cell containing TWO DIFFERENT nuclei • . mutalists Use Enzymes to digest foods. brown. This gives hint that multicellularity could prove beneficial and could be why it’s a property of animals and plants. green alga doing 30% of photosynthesis (earth) Form foundation of food webs EG. parasites (30%). red. wood) Know life cycle terminology: plasmogamy.

• . They form and entrap 2 hyphal extensions between them (each having haploid nuclei) The extensions undergo PLASMOGAMY = HETEROKARYOTIC young ZYGOSPORANGIUM KARYOGOMAY occurs (turn diploid) . Associates w/ roots Increase plant uptake of soil minerals Fungi gets Carbs in return types?> ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhizal ecto? Hyphae grows on ROOT SURFACE Arbuscular mycorrhizal? HYPHAE push THROUGH cell wall of ROOT How does mycorrhizae contribute to the plants move to land? Fossils were found of early vascular plants that contain evidence of EARLY MYCORRHIZAL RELATIONSHIP = cause of plant diversity on land • Be able to give examples of ecological roles of fungi: as decomposers. Ascomycetes. animals. Basidiomycetes. lichens. Describe sexual production? Mycelia of DIFFERENT mating types attract each other. 643 *** Asexual production? spores produced by sporangia are IDENTICAL = NO MATING • Be able to provide example species of each phyla Zygomycetes: Rhizopus (black bread mold) Glomeromycetes: arbuscular mycorrhizae Ascomycetes: Morels. what are the major differences between these life cycles. Lichen MORCHELLA ESCULENTA Basidiomycetes: Dictyphora? Shelf fungi Know the ecological significance of mycorrhizae fungi and the evolutionary significance in terms of helping plants make the move to land Mycorrhizae? mutualism betw plants and fungi.BIOL 172 Exam 1 Ch: 28.3. 31-34 Study Guide Karyogamy: fusion of nuclei • Know the life history cycles of Zygomycetes. as mutualists with plants. then MEIOSIS (haploid spores) Sporangium germinates from zygosporangium and sends spores out to grow into new mycelia fig 31.

retains minerals and H2O Presence indicates GOOD AIR QUALITY • Be familiar with common fungi pathogens of plants and animals discussed in class.BIOL 172 Exam 1 Ch: 28. death • Be familiar with how fungi compete with other organisms for food (think bacteria and herbivores). logs .algae Lichens: symbiosis of fungi and algae grow on rocks. and other elements  ecosystem for PLANTS to uptake Describe the multiple relationships that fungi have with others? Fungus -plant : Mycorrhizal: fungi + plant roots Endophytes: fungi that live inside plant leaves + other parts (mostly ascomycetes) Fungus. neurological dmg. Describe fungi as PATHOGENS? 30% of fungi are pathogens. Chapter 32 and 33 • What are the distinguishing features and characteristics that differenciate animals from fungi. nitrogen. 31-34 Study Guide What do fungi as decomposers decompose? Cellulose + Lignin almost any type of CARBON containing substrate What do they do for plants? releasecarbon. How have humans been influenced by this? Ecological function of making toxins? to deter competitors (like animals) from eating same food source. EG leaf cutter ants + fungus= prevents bad bacteria from colony Fungi. trees. protists and plants? . roof ALGAE provide CARBON and FIX NITROGEN FUNGUS provides home for GAS EXCHANGE and GROWTH.Animal: Fungus in digestive tracts of animals break down plant material. parasites Example? chestnut blight killed chest nut trees Irish potato famine Describe harm of alfatoxins + ergot toxins? cancer causing.

ACOELOMATE Molluscs: bilateral. no body cavity. Arhtropods: bilateral . triploblast. (arthropod.triploblast. ventral nerve . organ systems) of each animal phyla we discussed in lecture (Sponges. 31-34 Study Guide No cell walls. closed circ. open circ Echinoderms:0020 Chordata: • Be familiar with the phylogenetic history of animal phyla in terms of the major clades we discussed (Metazoa. Ecdysozoa. triploblast. PSEUDOCOELOM. Echinoderms. Nematodes. MANTLE.BIOL 172 Exam 1 Ch: 28. Nematodes: bilateral. 2 openings. Bilaterian. Chordata) 2 below are NON DEUTEROSTOME CATEGORIES Lophotrochozoan: animals either develop LOPHOPHORE (feeding struct). triploblast. Arthropods. GASTROVASCULAR CAVITY Platyhelminthes: bilateral. Give representative examples of organisms found in each phyla. Use the phylogenetic tree and the clades to help you. Cnidarians. Secrete exoskeleton to grow. lack true tissue. or start as TROCOPHORE LARVA Ecdysozoa: segmented. Deuterostomia) and be familiar with the basic features of these clades. Platyhelminthes.COELOMATED. Eumetazoa. RADULA. Started by Ctenophora (phyla) Bilaterian: presence of 3 germ layers + bilateral symmetry Caused by CAMBRIANEXPLOSION = diverse amt of bilaterians Deuterostomia: animals that developed anus. have choanocytes to engulf Cnidarians: Radial . COELOMATED. = LEAVE OUT PORIFERA (sponges). body cavities. nematode) • . Also take note of unique adaptations that define the phyla. Sponges: No symmetry. Lophotrochozoan. Have Collagen Have Tissues Have muscle and nerve cells • What is the closest living ancestor to all animals? What animal cell does it most closely resemble? Choanoflagellate. Chordata). Molluscs. triploblast . It Closely resembles a JELLYFISH Be able to explain the body plans (symmetry. then mouth ( Echinoderm. Shell Annelids: bilateral. Diploblastic. tissues. Annelids. coelomates. have fot. Metazoa:ALL animals coming from common ancestor Eumetazoa: animals w/ TRUE TISSUE.

Chapter 34 • • • • • • • • • Know the 4 derived characteristics of Chordates Use the phylogeny figure at the beginning of this chapter to tie the story together about how chordates evolved over time. tube feet. special features like water vascular system. function of specialized body parts found in annelids (chaetae. lungs to swim bladder. Be familiar with the hypothesis of the origins of mineralized tissues: where did mineralization start? Know the derived characteristics of gnathostomes (jaws. Body symmetry as larvae and as adults. give examples of organisms in the 4 classes. gill slits used for gas exchange as well as feeding. parasitic examples (pork and coke. phagocytosis Sedentary (sessile) Spongocoel: Cavity where water comes in after passing pores. insects) to invade land and be extremely successful o The difference between complete and incomplete metamorphosis Echinoderms: general body plan characteristics. why did coke stimulate a mass exit of juveniles from the meat?) Arthropods: general characteristics of body plan. circulation. Gills protected by operculum. Osteichthyes: general characteristics and differences between ray finned and lobe finned fishes. Know the general characteristics of the 4 classes and be able to give me an example of each class. mineralization of endoskeleton) Chondrichthyans: general characteristics of their body plan. radula) and feeding strategies of the 4 classes. Flows out of OSCULUM Choanocyte: flagellated cells to DRAW WATER thru pores. Cnidarians: functions of the gastrovascular cavity. increase in metabolism. basic cell types and organization within sponge body Suspension feeders. How are cephalopods different? Annelids: general annelid body organization (segmentation. Craniates: what were the evolutionary advantages of a protected head? What other derived characteristics show up in craniates? (neural crest cells. parapodia. Examples. the function of cnidocytes. • • • • • • Molluscs: General mollusc body organization (mantle. waste removal) and feeding strategies. the significance of these features in terms of evolutionary adaptation. Nematodes: ecological importance. muscle and organ complexity) Vertebrates: know the major derived characteristics of vertebrates and increasing complexity of body plan. Focus on the characteristics that allowed arthropods (esp. Invertebrate chordates: lancelets and tunicates: know their general characteristics. Give examples . the derived features that arose. etc.BIOL 172 Exam 1 Ch: 28. 31-34 Study Guide • Sponges: know how they feed. visceral mass. cuticle) ecological and medicinal importance of earthworms and leeches. the difference between polyp and medusa body forms.

Primates: know the major derived characters of primates Humans: know their derived characters and the age of our species: Homo sapiens Bipedalism: when is it thought to have arisen in our lineage? What are some of the hypotheses on why our early ancestors became bipedal? When and hypothesize on why our early ancestors migrated out of Africa. no urinary bladder. amniotic egg and associated membranes. etc. General characteristics of amphibians (gas exchange through skin. metamorphosis) Amniotes: major derived characteristics (watertight skin. egg development in water. hollow bones.) Mammals: derived characteristics. the reptile lineage they evolved from and the possible hypotheses on how flight arose and how all adaptations since flight have been to enhance flight (single ovary. Evolution and radiation of mammals.BIOL 172 Exam 1 Ch: 28. internal fertilization) and how this allowed them to further invade land Birds: be familiar with derived characteristics of birds. How old are the fossils of Neanderthals? Where were they found? Why are they not considered direct ancestors of all humans but a separate lineage that may have interbred? . what caused adaptive radiation in mammals? (hint: extinction of dinosaurs) Monotremes: they are egg layers but what characteristics still classify them as mammals? Marsupials and Eutherians: know the difference in reproductive strategies between the two groups. 31-34 Study Guide • • • • • • • • • • Tetrapods: evolutionary origins of tetrapods.