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Plate 1 Results of PET studies using written words in lexical decision and semantic categorization tasks.

Red areas show activated regions. No region showed a significant difference in activation between living and non-living things Source: Tyler and Moss, 2001, Figure 1, p.247

Plate 2 Results of fMRI study using pictures of living and non-living things in a semantic categorization task. The active brain regions are areas associated with non-living things (a), and with living things (b). No regions showed significant differential activation for living and non-living things Source: Tyler and Moss, 2001, Figure 2

Plate 3 Typical stimuli used in Triesman’s experiments. Find the odd item in each of the groups, (a), (b) and (c)

activity is shown for different horizontal ‘slices’ through the brain taken at different points. Figure 2.343 . as quickly as possible. In the fourth row. p. reflecting the difference between phonological and control tasks. 1993.Plate 4 The Stroop effect. Try the first two columns to start with – the task is not too difficult. these areas of increased activity have been mapped onto the cortex of the brain Source: Paulescu et al. The second row shows brain activity for both phonological and control tasks combined. Then try the second two columns. to name the colour in which each word is printed: do not read the words.. The conflicting colour words are very disruptive Plate 5 Brain activity associated with phonological processing. The task is. and indexed by the numbers in the first row. The third row shows increases in activity associated with phonological processing.

Plate 6 Amygdala activations in response to the processing of fearful faces (green squares) or learning about fear (red circles).. p.. Figure 3. The insula activations are shown in purple and basal ganglia activations in red. whereas the insula signals are more evenly distributed across the two hemispheres Source: Calder et al. more towards the top of the head. p. with the eyes at the top end and the back of the head at the bottom. 2001.358 . 2001. whereas learning about fear seems to produce more bilateral activation Source: Calder et al. The two images depict different slices through the brain. The basal ganglia signals are mainly in the right hemisphere. The image on the right is the same sort of slice. Figure 4.357 Plate 7 Insula and basal ganglia activations in response to disgust. but taken higher up. The image on the left is a horizontal ‘slice’ through the brain. There is a tendency for the activation triggered by processing fearful faces to involve the left amygdala.

Plate 8 The standard and emotional Stroop Plate 9 A schematic drawing of the human brain showing the thalamus and amygdala Source: Calder et al. 2001. Non-anxious participants: no difference between emotion condition and neutral condition. Emotional result Anxious participants: emotion condition slowed compared with neutral condition.. Figure 1(a). p.353 .Standard Stroop task trial 1 trial 2 trial 3 etc. BLUE RED BROWN GREEN RED BROWN RED BLUE Incongruent condition compared with GREEN BROWN BLUE RED BROWN BLUE GREEN RED Congruent condition Emotional Stroop task CANCER DANGER ATTACK TUMOUR HORROR DEATH REVENGE EVIL Emotion condition compared with HOUSE LAUGH ANIMAL MODERN PICTURE FATHER BEAUTY COOK Neutral condition Task:‘Name the ink colour as fast as possible’ Standard result Incongruent slowed compared with congruent condition (because word meaning interferes with colour naming on incongruent trials).