You are on page 1of 11

1. TABLE OF CONTENTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................. 2I. THE GROWTH OF HSPA ...................................................................................................................... 3II. EVOLUTION OF VOICE SERVICE OVER 3GPP MOBILE NETWORKS .............................................. 5 A. GSM CS VOICE .................................................................................................................................. 5 B. UMTS CS Voice ................................................................................................................................... 5 C. Voice over HSPA ................................................................................................................................. 6 D. Voice over LTE .................................................................................................................................... 8III. BENEFITS OF VOICE OVER HSPA ...................................................................................................... 9IV. VoHSPA TECHNICAL OPTIONS ......................................................................................................... 11 A. IR.58 Minimum Mandatory Feature Set ............................................................................................. 11 1. Non-Radio features ......................................................................................................................... 11 2. Radio (and related Packet Core) features ..................................................................................... 11 B. Additional features ............................................................................................................................. 14V. STATUS OF VoHSPA REALIZATION.................................................................................................. 17VI. CONCLUSION ...................................................................................................................................... 19REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................................ 21ABBREVIATIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 23ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................................................... 25 Page 1 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYOver the next few years HSPA will be, based simply on sheer projected number of devices, theoverwhelming technology for delivering mobile broadband technology to consumers. The consensus isthat this will continue to be the case through the remainder of the decade, even as Long Term Evolution(LTE) begins proliferating.As a result, the mobile industry is continually striving to improve HSPA technology. One important facetof this effort relates to the delivery of voice services. Up to now, mobile voice services have beendelivered by service providers using traditional circuit-switched (CS) technology. Largely absent havebeen the benefits to be derived from leveraging packet-switched (PS) and Internet Protocol (IP) basedtechnologies by operators. (This is in contrast to third party, over the top voice over IP [VoIP] services.)The industry is poised, however, to introduce voice services using PS, IP-based technologies. Oncedeployed, both mobile network operators and consumers stand to benefit significantly from moreinnovative, robust and efficient services.This paper

HSPA stands as the predominant means of providing mobile broadbandservices globally. THE GROWTH OF HSPAGlobally. II. ascompared to 8 percent for LTE and 7 percent for CDMA. In order to better appreciate thesedevelopments. Figure 1. GSM CS VOICECellular service based on GSM technology was launched in the early 1990s.illuminating both the progress that has been made as well as what remains to be achieved to makeVoHSPA a reality for consumers. I. carrier grade telephony service provisioned by mobile operators. transiting on from there toward the core network using dedicated trunkresources. all of the features considerednecessary for a robust VoHSPA service are available now or will be available from vendors in 20122013for operator testing and validation. These trends have some important implications. and up to the present. The first option leverages IPMultimedia Subsystem (IMS) technology developed in conjunction with Long Term Evolution (LTE). with one exception. the main source of revenues for mobile operators. Over the next several years. Based on digital CStechnology to provide full duplex (simultaneous two way) voice telephony. willpreparations to deliver voice services over emerging LTE networks be leveraged to improve mobile voiceservice over existing mobile networks? And what provisions are being made so that legacy voice servicescan coexist and interoperate with newer voice services?The mobile industry is working to address these questions. and moregenerally this paper. by the end of 2015 it is forecast that the totalnumber of HSPA subscriptions will surpass the total number of GSM subscriptions in Latin America. Page 4 5. by 2016 45 percent of all mobile subscriptions will be based on HSPA technology. which has been one of. GSM employs a dedicatedtimeslot over the air interface to carry individual voice communications from the Mobile Station (MS) to theBase Transceiver Station (BTS). some background is provided in the next section. deals with the evolution of mobile voice telephony services in 3GPP based mobilenetworks. One relates to the evolutionary path for mobile voicetelephony service. Figure 2. This method of providing radio resources is referred to as Time Division . that is. Note that this information. and is referred to as CS Voice over HSPA (CSoHS). Page 2 3.As illustrated below.4G Americas hopes that this paper serves as a catalyst for the development of these technologies. And based onthe number of subscriptions. and isreferred to as IMS Voice over HSPA or simply IMS Voice. Latin American Technology Growth Forecast 2011-2016 (Source: Informa) Page 3 4. as of February 1. The other option delivers voice by modifyingexisting circuit-switch based techniques so that those communications can be transmitted over an HSPAinfrastructure.This paper reports on the status of the ecosystem for commercializing the needed technology featuresunder both options. there were 423 HSPA networks in 160 countries in operation.   describes the technological features that are being developed to make Voice over HSPA(VoHSPA) a reality. As detailed later in the paper. in contrast to over thetop (OTT) VoIP service provided by third parties over the operator‟s network but without the involvementof the mobile operator itself in the service provision. Global Mobile Technology Forecast 2011-2016 (Source: Informa)This trend is also evident in the Americas. For example. EVOLUTION OF VOICE SERVICE OVER 3GPP MOBILE NETWORKS A. the gap between HSPA and other technologies will widen. It describes the two potential options for VoHSPA. For example. if not the most important service provided over mobilenetworks. Thisis depicted in the graph below.

The core network supporting UMTS CS voice does not differ much from theone supporting GSM CS voice. VOICE OVER HSPAThe traditional mechanism of mapping the CS voice connection over a Dedication Transport Channel(DCH) in the radio network has been in place since the very first UMTS/W-CDMA standard was Aestablished in version 3. and it allows a frequency pair to carry either 8 (full rate) or 16 (half rate) time slots. VoIP) in conjunction with IP MultimediaSubsystem (IMS) technology standardized in Rel-8. initially designed to carry digital CS voice traffic over the PS HSPA radio layer(CSoHS). UMTS employsWideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) radio access technology to offer greater spectralefficiency and bandwidth for both CS voice and PS data to mobile network operators than TDMA radioaccess offered with GSM. the already digitized voice packets use HSPA channels for transport back to the existing CSinfrastructure immediately beyond the radio access network at the Radio Network Controller (RNC). and thus only PS data could initially be mapped onto it. the limitation preventing CS connections from being mapped to theHSPA radio layer was removed in the Rel-8 specifications. CSoHS and IMS Voice approaches. enabling Voice overHSPA (VoHSPA).  Multiple Access(TDMA). GSM BTS PSTN A SS7 Abis BSC Air 2/3G (Um) MSC/ VLR Iu-cs NodeB RNC Air (Uu) Iub Figure 4.Subsequently a number of voice related optimizations were introduced to HSPA. Figure 3. The followingfigure illustrates the basic network elements for carrying GSM CS voice. Thus. as will be explained further below. a Rel-7 compliant UE is able to support CSoHS even though the feature is technically part of Rel-8specifications.)The graphic below depicts CSoHS implementation. This allows the UMTS and GSM radio access network to share a commoncore network as shown in the figure below. Page 6 7. and was first launched in the early 2000s. This promised to be significantly more efficient than the traditional CS voice over DCH service.both in terms of system capacity and UE power consumption.Only certain relatively straightforward changes are needed in the network and in the UEs to enable PCSoHS. From a radio perspective there is littledifference whether data bits flow over a CS or PS connection. voice over DCH Traditional CS DCH radio Iu-cs DCH flow UE BTS RNC CS core Radio network Voice over IP over HSPA HSPA radio Iu-ps HSPA flow UE BTS RNC PS core Radio network over HSPA CS voice HSPA radio Iu-cs HSPA flow UE . Scheduler prioritizes CS mapped to R99 or HSPA bearer AMR adaptation voice packets depending on terminal capability possible Transport AMR queues etc adapt.Another option for moving voice traffic over these high-speed data channels has emerged more recently. UMTS CS VOICEUniversal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third generation mobile cellular technology fornetworks based on the GSM standard. Illustration of network elements for providing GSM CS voice B. making it “early implementable. An HSPA radio service was only later introduced.0 of 3GPP Rel-99.0. The graphic below highlights the distinctionsbetween traditional Rel-99 CS Voice. Page 5 6. in order to be able to benefit fromvoice related HSPA improvements. CS R99 IuCS HSPA scheduler HSPA Combined to one carrier IuPS PS R99 NodeB RNC Figure 5. (Notably the feature capability indication bitfor UE support of CSoHS was introduced in the Rel-7 specifications.specifically targeting high speed packet access.” thatis. Illustration of CSoHS ImplementationIn CSoHS. Illustration of network elements for providing both UMTS and GSM CS voice service C.This approach will carry voice natively using IP (that is.

IMS voice will allow operators to increase system capacity even further than with CSoHS. The principal drivers for LTE have been to provide higher bandwidthat the radio interface. III. then this frees up radio resources for additional data. Page 10 .The logic is that if voice calls can be more efficiently delivered from a spectral standpoint over PS ratherthan CS networks.On the other hand.IMS has many options and capabilities.Support for voice in the EPS can be done with IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) or CS Fallback (CSFB).Cthat combine voice with data functions in the packet domain. significant gains are achieved compared to H legacy procedures in call drop rates.  A 2010 evaluation of Rel-8 Enhanced Serving Cell Change functionality (described later in this paper) concluded that when implemented robust mobility for VoHSPA can be achieved. VoHSPA Frees Up Resources for Data (Source: Qualcomm)Simulations involving HSDPA as well as Rel-7 and Rel-8 systems support the potential for significantresource gains with VoHSPA. In order to define some level of interoperability between thecapabilities offered by the device manufacturer and network vendors.   BTS RNC CS core Radio network Figure 6. BENEFITS OF VOICE OVER HSPARecent simulations substantiate the benefits anticipated from VoHSPA. E Figure 7. VOICE OVER LTELong Term Evolution (LTE) consists of a radio access network called the Evolved UMTS Radio AccessNetwork (E-UTRAN). LTE was first standardized in the 3GPP Rel-8specifications. and duration of serving cell changes. D.This is the case whether the technique deployed is CS voice over HSPA or IMS Voice. and is achieved via IMS functionality. IMS based voice service over HSPA. chronicling that under tough urban canyon conditions. Page 8 9. while permittingthe consolidation of their infrastructure on an IP based platform and enabling innovative new applications B. maxing out at better than G triple the capacity when equalizers are used in UEs rather than RAKE receivers. Illustration of CSoHS relation to IMS Voice and traditional CS voice (Note “BTS” synonymous with “NodeB” in HSPA) Page 7 8. GSMA established a profile in IR 92 Dfor offering IMS voice (as well as SMS) over LTE. packet drops.CSFB allows the UE to switch to GSM/HSPA CS services from LTE whenever voice services are needed. and packet core network called Evolved Packet Core (EPC).  A 2010 simulation of CSoHS using an HSPA Rel-7/8 system showed significant in voice capacity over Rel-99 CS voice under similar system conditions and voice quality. Voice over LTE (“VoLTE”) encompasses native support for voice telephony over theLTE radio access. As will be described further below. and better spectral efficiency (the information rate transmitted over a givenbandwidth) and lower latency for packet data. Page 9 10. For example:  A 2011 simulation analyzing the capacity of CSoHS using an HSPA Rel-7 system using discontinuous reception and transmission (described further on in this paper) for best power consumption savings showed results of 190 users/cell with dual antenna UEs. Spectral efficiency is a measure of how much can be“packed” into a given unit of capacity for a given unit of time (and is typically measured in bits/second/Hz).Earlier studies provide additional evidence of the prospects for battery life gains when certain features Iare enabled in the UE. compared to 180 F users per cell when those features were not used. together referred to asthe Evolved Packet System (EPS). as summarized inthe following graphic. Chief among these are increasesin the spectral efficiency of mobile networks. the effortsexpended to establish the IR 92 guidelines have also served as the foundation for developing a similarset of guidelines for delivering an interoperable.

On the other hand. As speed of delivery is not as .. based on either IMS Voice or CSoHS techniques. and include the following basic features:  Generic IMS features (SIP registration. RADIO (AND RELATED PACKET CORE) FEATURES Section 4 of IR 58 describes the minimum radio and relevant packet core features required forIMS Voice. is 244 bits. the signaling information required to perform call control functions (such as establishing and terminating the call) is carried over a transport bearer in RLC acknowledged mode (AM). RoHC is able to compress the RTP/UDP/IP headers down to 3 or 4 bytes a large H percentage of the time. signaling information and voice payload are transported over separate Packet Data Protocol (PDP) contexts. Authentication. etc.)  IMS Media  Other Functionalities (IPv4/IPv6. IV. RoHC provides a high degree of compression while still being very robust to packet drops. Theseare included in Sections 2. (The AMR 12. Immediately following. high quality. IR. we build on that work to outline certain additional features we advise forensuring a robust VoHSPA service.  11. The use of RLC UM improves the delivery speed by eliminating retransmission of packets with errors with which the human ear can cope relatively well (up to a certain error rate). it is sensitive to data loss. This profile was developed to complement to the GSMA‟sestablishment of a profile for the provision of VoLTE in it IR 92 PRD. IR 58 was developed by a globalcross section from industry to provide guidance on a minimum mandatory set of features defined inexisting Rel-8 specifications that should be implemented in order to ensure an interoperable. for example. the transport of voice packets makes use of a special configuration of the Radio Link Control (RLC) protocol – unacknowledged mode (UM) – and certain QoS priorities to ensure timely delivery. NON-RADIO FEATURESIR 58 outlines a number of non-radio features that should implemented in providing IMS Voice.  Robust Header Compression (RoHC) RTP/UDP/IP headers add significant overhead to VoIP payloads. Due to these varying requirements. and ultimately different radio bearers with special transport and priority settings.2.1.IR 58 serves as an important point of departure for elaborating on the two technical options forimplementing VoHSPA. Emergency Services. signaling information and the content of the voice communication. but is highly sensitive to delay. RTP/UDP/IPv6 headers are 480 bits). VOHSPA TECHNICAL OPTIONS A. Roaming. etc. With VoIP headers. Call establishment and termination. Below we outline the non-radio and radio features in IR 58 necessary for IMSVoice. The key feature sets are described below. the use of the highest QoS priority („Conversational‟) ensures that packet schedulers will consider the delay sensitivity of the packets and will transmit these in a timely manner even in cases of network congestion. Thus. On the other hand.  HSPA Radio Capabilities  Radio Bearers Page 11 12. While signaling information represents a small fraction of the total payload.58 MINIMUM MANDATORY FEATURE SETGSMA has recently completed a profile for devices and networks offering IMS Voice in its IR 58 FPermanent Reference Document (PRD).)More details are provided in the relevant sections of IR 58. These have different Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. The data information in a voice call is split in two parts. it is essential to use a header compression scheme such as RoHC.2 full rate frame size. according to their profiles.IMS-based telephony service over an HSPA radio access layer. voice content can cope with data loss. Given that voice payload is highly sensitive to delay but can accommodate a certain error rate without significant degradation. Furthermore. to ensure an error-free delivery of the signaling messages. 3 and 5 of the PRD.

2 kbps for regular AMR Narrowband (AMR-NB) or 5. In cases of network overload. It was specifically designed with VoHSPA in mind. In HSPA. UE Discontinuous Reception (DRX) and Discontinuous Transmission (DTX). in turn. providing improved UE battery life (better talk/stand-by times and increased system capacity) when operated together with VoHSPA. A not-so-obvious benefit from turning off the transmitter is to reduce interference from pilot and control-channel-only transmissions. 23. J. Each user receives an F-DPCH channel having one symbol per slot only. introduced under the Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) umbrella. these parameters are indicated in the PDP context with the Guaranteed Bitrate (GBR) and Transmission Delay parameters.WB). Conversational Traffic Class Handling To ensure the quality of real-time services like VoIP under conditions of network congestion. the network must be able to support a special QoS TC (Conversational) that provides certain bitrate and delay guarantees. which are mapped down to the NodeB parameters GBR and Discard Timer. These remaining symbols are consequently allocated to provide power control commands to other users. These modes also allow dynamically turning the UE‟s receiver off whenever there is no data traffic or UL power control to be received in the downlink (DL). UE DTX and DRX are Rel-7 features.” with Traffic Handling Priority (THP) of “1. In networks supporting the Conversational TC. with additional improvements for soft handover support introduced in Rel-7. the Node-B scheduler has a special function to monitor the current connection throughput and packet delay. The value of the GBR parameter should be set according to the bitrate requirements of the Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) codec used (for instance. or for a greater portion of UL capacity to be available for best efforts data users while serving the same number of voice users. F-DPCH allows organizing all DL traffic on HSDPA in a code-efficient way by replacing the existing DL DPCCH code dedicated for each UE with a 2-bit slot carrying the UL power control commands. Fractional DPCH (F-DPCH) UE DTX and DRX allow dynamically switching the UE‟s transmitter off whenever there is no actual data traffic to be sent in the uplink (UL).84 kbps for AMR Wideband (AMR.9 kbps for lower codec modes). yielding improved talk/stand-by times. thus several users can share the same code space for power control information. The Transmission Delay is measured between the UE and the edge of the network. the chosen QoS Traffic Class (TC) is “Interactive. K Page 12 13. and perform expedited transmission of voice packets in case these parameters are not being met. F-DPCH is a Rel-6 feature.” which provides for medium prioritization. critical here. the NodeB may decide to drop voice packets that have not been transmitted in time. Fractional DPCH (F-DPCH) is a prerequisite for UE DTX & DRX operation. which reduce the UL capacity needed to support a voice user. and it . The F-DPCH code resource is timeshared. respectively. F-DPCH is especially useful in conjunction with VoHSPA in that it allows for efficiently supporting a large number of simultaneous voice users in the cell in a code-efficient manner. to provide for efficient UE transmitter and receiver activity management during periods of speech inactivity. while ignoring the other nine symbols in each slot. This. The obvious benefit of turning off transmitters and receivers consists of UE battery conservation. 12. as well as even enabling the transmitter to be turned off in between UL voice packets during an active speech phase. for providing uplink power control commands. allows for supporting either a greater number of voice users. UE DTX and DRX can be used when the UL data traffic is mapped onto HSUPA and the DL data traffic on HSDPA.

a feature was introduced that allows bicasting of RLC UM PacketData Units (PDUs) from the RNC to both the old and the new HS-DSCH serving cells whenneeded. the UE must establish a Packet Data Network (PDN) connection by activating a PDP context with the Interactive TC with THP setting of 1. operation for real-time traffic. Such packet losses can create audible impairments during HS-DSCH SCCprocedures. while necessary for a quality delivery of voice and other real-time services. The UE also implements the de-jitter buffer to remove jitter on the DL. which can result from G factors such as network loading. an Enhanced SCC (E-SCC) procedure is Hrecommended. Jitter can also occur in soft-handover situations where the transmission delay from each NodeB to a particular RNC varies. and minimizes the use of Single Radio-Voice Call Continuity (SR-VCC). The RNC will use information in the packet headers to identify the correct order and timing of the voice frames. and is particularlyimportant for real-time traffic such as voice. the network must establish a PDP context. are advisablefor both IMS Voice and CSoHS. which is transported over RLC UM and hence cannotbe recovered. as is done for a CS call. in order to optimize HSDPA Page 14 15. ADDITIONAL FEATURES4G Americas advises implementation of the following additional features b for VoHSPA. bicasting alone cannotrecover all dropped packets. as described in the M relevant 3GPP specifications. These featuresare over and above the minimum mandatory features in IR 58. then the UE and the network shall support inter-Radio Access Technology (inter-RAT) PS handovers to and from LTE. This is because voice packets may arrive at the RNC from a UE with jitter on the UL. In Rel-6. however. results in a certain capacity loss in the system as compared to schedulers that work in best-effort mode. The basic motivations for these recommendations are to furtherminimize packet losses and variations in packet arrival times that can impair the quality of voicecommunications. and both the HSPA and LTE networks support IMS Voice.Recommended  Bicasting In HSDPA operation. For SIP signaling. The RNC transmits the output of the de-jitter buffer to the MSC synchronously over the IuCS interface.  P-CSCF The UE and the packet core must support the procedures for Proxy-Call Session Control Function (P-CSCF) discovery via GSM and UMTS radio access networks. PS handover allows extended usage of IMS Voice over the larger coverage provided by the LTE and HSPA layers. Bearer Management In order to assure the requisite QoS for IMS Voice.  Inter-RAT Mobility If the UE supports both HSPA and LTE. which means that the inter-arrival times of packets is not constant. Note that the use of GBR and delay sensitive schedulers.  should be set to ensure a low enough mouth-to-ear delay (on the order of 100ms or lower). all packets residing on the old serving HSDSCH cell are dropped for RLC UM bearers. and in these cases. a High Speed Shared ControlChannel (HS-SCCH) order from the target cell is used for indicating an . during the Serving Cell Change (SCC) procedure from an old to a new serving High-Speed Downlink Shared Channel (HS-DSCH) cell.This feature minimizes the amount of packet loss during the SCC procedure. radio access bearers having the appropriate characteristics must be established. For voice calls utilizing Conversational TC handling. that in severe urban canyon scenarios. and unless otherwise noted.B. using interaction with dynamic Policy Control & Charging (PCC) functionality. Page 13 14. Enhanced Serving Cell ChangeIn the Enhanced-SCC (E-SCC) procedure standardized in Rel-8.Required  De-Jitter Buffer (CSoHS only) A de-jitter buffer at the RNC is required for the CSoHS approach. Note.

the overhead from the HS-SCCH can take a significant portion of theoverall transmit power needed to deliver that packet. an operator may encounter deployment scenarios where its IMS Voice capable radio coverage may not be coextensive with its concurrent CS radio coverage. In addition.O procedures for IMS Voice handovers between HSPA and UMTS/GSM CS coverage. complementing IMS Voice coverage with CS capable coverage may prove advisable. For relatively smallpackets. such as with voice. as more aggressive approaches to deciding on the serving cell. the UE changes its serving cell to the Htarget cell. In such scenarios. HS-SCCH-less operationIn typical HSDPA operation. channelization code) that the UE needs to monitor for the target cell.without the aid of HS-SCCH indicating when it is there. the HS-SCCH channel utilization in the cell will be very highcompared to delivering the equivalent amount of data to high data rate (non-voice) users. The Single-Radio Voice Call Continuity (VCC) procedures provided in the 3GPP specifications define N. SCC to the UE. for large numbers ofsimultaneous VoHSPA users. Thisincreased ratio of HS-SCCH usage per bits delivered for voice may lead the cell occasionally todeplete its HS-SCCH capacity. the target cell will send an indication of its readiness on the HSSCCH channelbeing monitored by the UE. Upon receiving this indication. Furthermore. Page 16 .eliminating the overhead from the initial packet transmission attempt completely. Page 15 16. At theappropriate time.e.  Voice Call Continuity (IMS Voice only) For IMS Voice. Preserving seamless connections during mobility. the scheduler needs to apply a special TC handling to the signaling messagesin order to guarantee that for example the commands ordering the UE to change its serving cell arereceived with very high reliability and minimal latency.In the legacy SCC procedure.A concluding note applies for both CSoHS and IMS Voice. such information is received only as part of the RLCreconfiguration message that prompts an SCC. The UE willcontinue receiving on the assigned HS-PDSCH data channel if there is a voice packet for it. the RNCscheduler needs to be QoS aware in order to properly manage the special conversational TCrequirements. Higher data rates or retransmissions ofmissed voice packets are still scheduled with HS-SCCH. and applies the pre-configured information stored for the target cell.minimizing the execution time and eliminating related connection breaks on the cell change may berequired with a voice connection than what is permissible for more delay tolerant services. while the actual packet is sent over the HS-PDSCH data channel(s). As discussed in several places earlier in this paper. the network indicates to the UE that there is a packet for it using HS-SCCH. and mapping voiceand control signaling to HSDPA entail tighter requirements for SCC performance than with traditionalconfigurations of voice and signaling. and relates less to the specific featureidentified above. but is a more general observation about the scheduler enhancements needed at theRNC to ensure robust mobility.HS-SCCH-less operation allows for transmitting a voice packet without the HS-SCCH indication. The pre-configured information at the UE also includes the particular HS-SCCH channel (i.. In thisprocedure. the network algorithms related toSCC procedures may require adjusting. for a short period of time the UE has to monitor the HSSCCH channel from the targetcell while also simultaneously monitoring the HS-SCCH channel and decoding data from thesource cell.In the E-SCC procedure. the network preconfigures the UE with serving cell related information. In addition. by contrast. and whose reception in urban canyon scenarioscan be unreliable. This feature is referred to “Reduced Lcomplexity HS-SCCH-less operation” in the 3GPP specifications.

V. The second grouping consists of theadditional features that 4G Americas recommends for a high quality VoHSPA service (whether based onCSoHS or IMS Voice). 2registration.B. Sec. Bicasting A. Key Interrelated Dependencies for VoHSPAA key finding in this paper is that virtually all of the features believed necessary for a robust VoHSPAservice are either presently available or will be available from vendors later this year or in 2013 for testingand validation. No plans A. or will be available later this year or in 2013. De-jitter Buffer(CSoHS only) A.3D.The time estimates listed above are best-estimate summary information. 4.5 E. Sec. 4. Page 18 19.A. 4. CONCLUSIONIn general. authentication. 2013C.B.EY2013Additional FeaturesMandatoryA. Generic IMS features (SIP A. 2013 C. 2Q2012-EY2013 A. HSPA Radio Capabilities B.2 Page 17 18.) B. 1Q2012 C.)Radio (& related packet core) featuresA. it should be apparent that that full realization of VoHSPA will involve a number of interrelateddependencies. LTE coexistence and roaming HSPA Interworking technology with legacy CS diffusion technology Standards VoHSPA IMS ecosystem development maturation Terminal Infrastructure enhancements enhancements Figure 8. N/A B. with the notable exception of bicasting enhancements. 2Q2013. Each individual vendor within 4GAmericas and the industry as a whole will have their own specific availability dates for the listed features. N/A A. 2H2012. 4. 2013D. 4. Corresponding references to IR 58 are provided as appropriate in the last column. P-CSF Discovery C. N/AAs outlined above. etc. Bearer Management EY2013 C. N/A C. callestablishment and termination. 1Q2012 D.2Q2013-EY2013 B. HSSCCH-less operation C.The timeframes above are intended to provide an overall sense for feature readiness. In the first grouping. and should not be construed ascontractual information or specific to any commercial arrangement. “Availability” in this case means when these featuresare available to mobile network operators for testing and validation. 2H2012 C. 1Q2012. N/A A. 1Q2012-EY2012 B. Vendor responses were aggregatedin order to arrive at the timelines given in the Feature Availability Matrix below. etc.   17. Inter-RAT Mobility D. RoHC (IMS Voice only) A. 3B. Sec. C. N/A D. VI. In addition. STATUS OF VOHSPA REALIZATIONAs part of 4G Americas‟ efforts to complete this report. Sec. N/A EY2013 C. Page 19 . No plans A. 1Q2012 A. 1Q2012. Sec. vendors have indicated that the minimum mandatory features needed for IMS Voiceare either available at the present time.Emergency Services. Sec.The features listed parallel those described in the prior section of the paper. Other functionalities (IPv4 & v6. many ofthe additional features recommended by 4G Americas either are or will be available along the sametimescales. These include important initiatives in the following areas:  Standardization developments  Terminal enhancements  Radio access infrastructure enhancements  Interworking with legacy CS networks and technologies  Coexistence and roaming with emerging LTE networks  Maturation of the IMS ecosystem  Continued diffusion of HSPA technologyThe graphic below encapsulates these considerations. VCC (IMS Voice only) D. Table 1. the IR58 minimum mandatory features necessary for IMS Voice are listed. Feature Availability Matrix Availability Feature CSoHS IMS Voice IR 58 ReferenceIR 58 MinimumMandatory FeaturesNon-Radio FeaturesA. N/A E. 5C. Sec. N/AB. N/A D. 2H2012 D. vendors provided information about whenVoHSPA features would be available from them. The sole exception pertains to bicasting.1B. Sec. N/A A. 1Q2012 B. E-SCC B. Roaming. N/A EY2013RecommendedA.4E. IMS Media C. 2H2012-EY2013 E.

pdfF.zipN. 3GPP.org/ftp/Specs/archive/23_series/23.101 V3. 3rd Generation Mobile System Release 1999Specifications.1.0 (200003)http://www. P.0)http://www.zip Page 21 22.92.4gamericas. IMS profile for Voice and SMS (GSMA permanent reference document IR 92.qualcomm.3gpp.903 -Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network. Further. TS 23.237/23237-870. 3GPP.com/documents/enhanced-hsdpa-mobilityperformance-quality-and-robustness-voip-service)I.pdfD.pdfC. further efforts will need to bepursued within GSMA to ensure the effective crossoperation of those guidelines with other GSMA PRDs P. For example. 3G TS 21. Stage 3http://www. CSoHS Voice Capacity in HSPA Networks (2011)http://www. the industry will continue to remain mindful of the need to ensure that certain critical featuresremain fully functional.gsma.zipO. How to Meet Data Demand (2011)http://www. Page 20 21.3gpp. 3GPP.gsma. Mobile Broadband Explosion (2011)http://www.gsma.    20.IMS Service Centralization and Continuity Guidelineshttp://www.3gpp.3gpp.64. 4G Americas.237 .zipM.216/23216-870. 3GPP TSG Service and Systems Aspects. 58.com/go/download/?file=ir. Evolution of HSPA (2011)http://www. IR 65.pdfB.Qsuch as IR.pdf Page 22 23.64 IMS Centralized Services (ICS) and IR. with respect to the important work concluded by GSMA in IR 58. 4G Americas.IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) Service Continuity.com/documents/ir-58-1-0-ims-profilefor-voice-over-hspa/21986K.65 IMS Roaming. TS 23.com/go/download/?file=ir6550. GSMA. IMS Profile for Voice over HSPA (GSMA permanent reference document IR. HSPA Performance & Evolution.org/ftp/tsg_sa/WG3_Security/_Specs/33908-300. Circuit-Switched Voice Services over HSPA (2010)http://www.4gamericas.216 .0) http://www.3gpp.gsma. Continuous connectivity forpacket data users (Release 7) http://www.org/ftp/Specs/archive/25_series/25.qualcomm.com/go/download/?file=ir6420.0 IMS Roaming and Interworking Guidelineshttp://www. ABBREVIATIONS3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership ProjectAM Acknowledged ModeAMR Adaptive Multi-RateAMR-NB AMR NarrowbandAMR-WB AMR .qualcomm.qualcomm.com/documents/circuitswitched-cs-voice-services-over-hspaH. IR.pdfG.org/ftp/Specs/archive/24_series/24. REFERENCESA. Stage 2http://www.org/ftp/Specs/archive/23_series/23. Qualcomm.pdfQ. 3GPP.229/24229-930. Performance of VoIP Services over 3GPP WCDMA Networks (2008)http://www.org/documents/Mobile%20Broadband%20Explosion_Rysa vy_Sept2011.229 . Wiley (2009)J. Qualcomm.pdfE. Tapia et al.Finally. Enhanced HSDPA Mobility Performance (2010)http://www. Stage 2http://www.com/media/documents/files/csohs-voice-capacity-in-hspanetworks-with-realistic-overhead-channel-modeling.5. Qualcomm.org/documents/4G%20Americas%20White%20Paper_The %20Evolution%20of%20HSPA_October%202011x.com/media/documents/files/how-to-meet-data-demand.20. Qualcomm.Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC).com/documents/performance-voipservices-over-3gpp-wcdma-networksL.IP multimedia call control protocol based on Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) andSession Description Protocol (SDP).qualcomm.0. TR25. GSMA. Qualcomm. IR 58 contains provisions defining the IMS Emergency Servicefeatures that will enable emergency calling services expected by consumers.903/25903-700.1. TS 24.

e. T-Mobile USA and Telefónica. as well as the contributions of Etienne Chaponniere of Qualcomm. América Móvil.Nokia Siemens Networks. facilitate and advocate for the deployment and adoption of the3GPP family of technologies throughout the Americas. Huawei. Cable & Wireless. HP.. CommScope. Rogers. f/k/a GSM AssociationHS-DSCH High-Speed Downlink Shared ChannelHS-SCCH High-Speed Shared Control ChannelHSDPA High-Speed Downlink Packet AccessHSPA High-Speed Packet AccessHSUPA High-Speed Uplink Packet AccessIMS IP Multimedia SubsystemIP Internet ProtocolIPv4 IP version 4IPv6 IP version 6IR International Roaming (a GSMA document citation tool)LTE Long Term EvolutionMS Mobile StationNodeB Base Station in HSPA networksPCC Policy and Charging ControlP-CSCF Proxy .Call Session Control FunctionPDN Packet Data NetworkPDP Packet Data ProtocolPDU Packet Data UnitPRD Permanent Reference Document (a GSMA document citation tool)PS Packet-SwitchedQoS Quality of ServiceRAB Radio Access BearerRAT Radio Access TechnologyRLC Radio Link ControlRoHC Robust Header Compression Page 23 24. Research In Motion (RIM). Ericsson. Openwave.  WidebandAPN Access Point NameBTS Base Transceiver StationCDMA Code Division Multiple AccessCPC Continuous Packet ConnectivityCS Circuit-SwitchedCSFB CS FallbackCSoHS CS Voice over HSPADCH Dedicated Transport ChannelDL DownlinkDRX Discontinuous ReceptionDTX Discontinuous TransmissionEPC Enhanced Packet CoreEPS Enhanced Packet System (i. AT&T. Gemalto. 4G Americas Board of Governor members includeAlcatel-Lucent. LTE + EPC)E-SCC Enhanced Service Cell ChangeE-UTRAN Enhanced UMTS Radio Access Network (a/k/a LTE)FDPCH Fractional Dedicated Physical ChannelGBR Guaranteed Bit RateGSM Global System for Mobile CommunicationsGSMA Global organization for 3GPP technologies. Powerwave. Page 25 . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe mission of 4G Americas is to promote. Qualcomm. RRC Radio Resource ControlRTCP RTP Control ProtocolRTP Real-Time ProtocolSCC Serving Cell ChangeSIP Session Initiation ProtocolSR-VCC Single Radio Voice Call ContinuityTDMA Time Division Multiple AccessTHP Traffic Handling PriorityUDP User Datagram ProtocolUE User EquipmentUL UplinkUM Unacknowledged ModeUMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications SystemUTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access NetworkVoHSPA Voice over HSPA (using either Circuit-Switched or IMS approaches)VoIP Voice Over IP (typically refers in this paper to IMS Voice over HSPA)W-CDMA Wideband CDMA Page 24 25. and KarriRanta-Aho and Curt Wong of Nokia Siemens Networks. as well as representatives from the othermember companies on 4G Americas‟ Board of Governors who participated in the development of thiswhite paper.4G Americas would like to recognize the significant project leadership and important contributions of BobCalaff of T-Mobile USA.