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Abstract

Aim of this paper is to analyze the performance of an innovative high-efficiency steam power plant by means of two “life cycle approach” methodologies, the life cycle assessment (LCA) and the “extended exergy analysis” (EEA). The plant object of the analysis is a hydrogen-fed steam power plant in which the H2 is produced by a “zero CO2 emission” coal gasification process (the ZECOTECH© cycle). The CO2 capture system is a standard humid-CaO absorbing process and produces CaCO3 as a by-product, which is then regenerated to CaO releasing the CO2 for a downstream mineral sequestration process. The steam power plant is based on an innovative combined-cycle process: the hydrogen is used as a fuel to produce high-temperature, medium-pressure steam that powers the steam turbine in the topping section, whose exhaust is used in a heat recovery boiler to feed a traditional steam power plant. The environmental performance of the ZECOTECH© cycle is assessed by comparison with four different processes: power plant fed by H2 from natural gas steam reforming, two conventional coal- and natural gas power plants and a wind power plant.

Keywords
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H2; CO2 sequestration; Life cycle assessment; Extended exergy accounting

Figures and tables from this article:

Fig. 1. The ZECOTECH© cycle drawn on the Mollier's diagram. Figure options

Fig. 2. The ZECOTHEC© process configuration. The numbering refers to the cycle representation on the Mollier's diagrams (Fig 1). (a) Combustion chamber, (b) medium-p,

(k) regenerative feedwater heater: the hot CO2 stream is the heat donor. Material and immaterial flows included in a life cycle inventory phase. ZECOTECH© electricity production: contribution analysis for the GWP indicator (functional unit: 1 MJ electric net output). (i) heat recovery boiler: generates the steam for the coal gasifier by partial recovery of the heat released by the CO2 separation. Figure options Fig. Figure options Fig. 6. (d) condenser. (l) regenerative superheater: the hot CO2 stream is the heat donor.high-T steam turbine. (g) decarbonation heat recovery unit: supplies the power plant with the heat released by the CO2 sequestration. (n) steam compressor. (j) shift/decarbonator reactor. 5. 4. (m) calcinator reactor: regenerates the CaCO3 into CaO+CO2. Figure options Fig. Environmental profile (in terms of the GPW100 indicator) of the MJel generated by different power plants (normalized with respect to a conventional coal-fired power plant). Figure options Fig. (c) low-p steam turbine. (h) coal gasification reactor. 3. Synthetic overview of the main processes included in the system boundary for LCA. . (e) heat recovery boiler. (f) high-pressure steam turbine.

and the control volume also includes labour and capital costs allocable to O1 output [10]. Figure options . Figure options Fig. Each one of the final effluents is at its reference conditions [12]. 8. and a wind power plant.Figure options Fig. Figure options Fig. (a) 7 The effluent O2 is not at reference conditions. Comparison between the extended exergy efficiencies of the examined configurations of ZECOTECH©. 7. the two conventional power plants (with and without CO2 capture and sequestration). Notice the inclusion of bio-degradation. 9. (b) Real treatment of O2. Each one of the final effluents is at its reference conditions.