You are on page 1of 30

National Security Policy

Youth Parliament Pakistan

Youth Standing Committee on Interior, Kashmir Affairs, GB and FATA

Contents

Summary ....................................................................................................................................................... 2 STANDING COMMITTEE ON INTERIOR, KASHMIR AFFAIRS, GILGIT-BALTISTAN AND FATA ......................... 3 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 4 Current state of law and order situation in Pakistan .................................................................................... 5 Taliban Insurgency ...................................................................................................................................... 10 Counter Insurgency Strategy ...................................................................................................................... 14 Recommendations To Combat Terrorism And Militancy. .......................................................................... 16 Insurgency And Nationalism In Balochistan................................................................................................ 19 Sectarian Conflict ........................................................................................................................................ 23 Violence in Karachi ...................................................................................................................................... 25 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................... 28 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................ 29

1

Summary
This policy is an effort by the Youth Minister for Interior, Kashmir Affairs, Gilgit- Baltistan and FATA to devise a National Security Policy for Pakistan to identify the threats it is facing and to pinpoint those targets so that the beloved country moves out of this menace. This Security Policy has been carefully devised after taking into account all the local perspectives of the regions. This Document identifies the real causes of Terrorism and Taliban Issue, the real causes of Baluchistan Conflict, the sectarian conflict, the problem of Karachi and South Punjab. In addition. A comprehensive policy involving practical suggestions to combat above mentioned menaces are also be given which will prove catalyst in turning the security situation in our interest vis a vis to sort the issues of security internally as well as from external. Not only the targets have been identified but for each and every target a complete workable solution has been given.

2

STANDING COMMITTEE ON INTERIOR, KASHMIR AFFAIRS, GILGITBALTISTAN AND FATA
Members:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 YP02-BALOCHISTAN01 YP04-BALOCHISTAN03 YP13-KP03 YP14-KP04 YP21-PUNJAB04 YP25-PUNJAB08 YP33-PUNJAB16 YP35-PUNJAB18 YP39-PUNJAB22 Hazrat Wali Kakar (Former Minister Interior) Blue Mateeullah Tareen Usman Jilani (Chairperson) Inam Ullah Marwat Muhammad Ejaz Sarwar (Shadow Minister Interior) Muhammad Nabeel Riaz Sandu Shafqat Ali Saman Zahra Muhammad Kashif Khan Khichi (Interior Minister) Blue Blue Blue Green Blue Blue Blue Blue Balochistan Balochistan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab

3

Introduction
South Asia is one of the most volatile regions on the globe characterized by the fact that South Asian countries still do not have any coherent, consistent or effective policies against terrorism. It is essential to now deploy a viable counter-terrorism (CT) and counter-extremism (CE) strategy for Pakistan, to protect it from enemies within and without. Pakistan is at crossroads at this juncture. Militancy, extremism, insurgency and sectarian killing along with worsening law and order have virtually paralyzed the lives of every individual in Pakistan.it led to breakdown in law and order system in Pakistan. At present, we are lacking a comprehensive national security strategy to combat these issues .Apparently imbalance civil military relations have also affected the making of a well thought out policy to control daunting challenges; facing Pakistan.it is a grim reality in today Pakistan that we are facing existential threat from these brutal forces. It has been more firefighting than a long-term plan of action to counter terrorism and extremism. The absence of a coordinated and coherent counter-terrorism and counter-radicalization policy has given huge space to extremist and militant groups. The lack of political will and consensus among the major political forces has also contributed to the dire situation in which the country finds itself today. A coherent national counter-terrorism strategy is critical for the success of the Pakistan Army’s counterinsurgency campaign in the tribal areas and parts of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, in Balochistan, in Karachi and in South Punjab. The two are inseparable. But, unfortunately, the military operations have not been accompanied by a robust action plan to root out the terrorist networks operating in different parts of the country. The lack of coordination has allowed the militants to move freely from one place to another without being apprehended .National security policy aims at to fill the critical organizational gap hampering Pakistan’s battle against radicalization and violent extremism and provide a comprehensive plan of action in order to liberate the state of Pakistan from the clutches of black forces. Pakistan’s failure to effectively deal with the rising violent extremism and militant insurgency has also contributed towards understanding the nature of the threat and the capacity to deal with the challenge. This policy will provide an insight into security paradigm of Pakistan and guide how will we effectively deal and control these issues grappling our state and security.

4

Current state of law and order situation in Pakistan
In today’s Pakistan there is rampant breakdown of law and order situation. We have become the victim of multiple factors. Some factors are arising due to our own indifferent attitude and flawed approach to issues while some have arisen due to regional factor involving Afghanistan. India and our engagement with war against terrorism. We are at the crucial juncture of our recent history. Pakistan is facing worsening law and order situation and crippling governance.it is unfortunate that we have lost writ of state in some areas which are militancy infested while in Baluchistan we are facing Baloch insurgency .in Karachi we are witnessing target killing and extortionist related violence. Taliban factor has added insult to injury in every major city across Pakistan. Hare is need to tackle these issues on war footing as militancy and talibanization have posed existential threat to social, political, cultural and economic fabric of Pakistan. We are going to analyze those factors which are contributing towards terrorism, sectarianism and target killing.in addition we will also look into remedies and suggest practical steps which will prove a cure to these daunting challenges.

Factors Contributing Behind Terrorism And Worsening Law And Order Situation
Terrorism in Pakistan has assumed a frightening behavior and terribly affecting the social fabric of our country. Today it has become indispensable to avoid or ignore it lest it would distort the social, political and economic structure of Pakistan.  Religious Fanaticism and Exploitation; Religious zealotry and fanaticism do play its role in terrorism especially in Pakistan. The ideology of Pakistan was based on Islam yet it was mistakenly taken as a theologian’s country against the true picture in the elevated mind of our Great Quaid Muhammad Ali Jinnah. The theologians, once against Pakistan’s evolution, tried to occupy it after independence, for the sake of their personal, direct and vested interests. However they could not gain weightage until 1980s when the Government of Pakistan felt their need for proxy war in Afghanistan against Russia. The silent consent of the Pakistan Government and agencies let theologians a loose hand to generate money, organize themselves internally, recruit Jihadis on volunteer basis instigate people for Jihad. They produced provoking literature (Jihadi Literature) for the sake of generating funds and gathering fighters against the infidels in Afghanistan and Kashmir.

5

Persistent Interventions in Political Process: It is the tragedy of Pakistan that from the very beginning, she started facing abnormal atmosphere in the arena of domestic as well as international politics. The hostility of neighboring state, lack of funds, refugee’s influx and their settlement mending international relations and many other important national and international issues were haunting the Government of Pakistan. The confusion got grave by continuous interventions of Military that led the country towards uncertain and unpredictable condition. Zia-ul-Haq’s tenure as martial law administrator and his controversial “Islamization” policies provided oxygen to religious fanaticism. Military dictators made democracy weak and let it not flourish properly. All the three wars with India were fought during military rules.

Poverty and Economic Inequalities: Growing poverty and engulfed economic differences are creating disturbance in the minds of deprived. The social stratification and class difference is increasing. The rich is getting richer and the poor in getting poorer day by day. Middle-class alienation is disturbing the social fabric of society resultantly usurpation and violence is prevailing in the society of Pakistan. Men could be bought easily and violence becomes rampant. The poor feels sense of insecurity and the powerful cares not the life of a common man. As a result weapon and violence becomes a last resort to earn daily bread and butter.

Globalization: Globalization, inequality and the Third World are directly or indirectly linked with Terrorism. Guelke asserted that “economic development is a more important factor to maintain law and order”. The phenomenon of globalization is a reality yet the factor was introduced by the developed world to usurp the resources of the third world countries. It was an economic race to enhance more power and to control the markets of the weak; a new colonial phenomenon. The economically weak countries are ultimately the victims of violence and terrorism and so is Pakistan.

Media Sensation: Media sensation and media publicity itself is a cause of Terrorism. In a direct way it terrorizes the whole society while highlighting certain social issues on the 6

basis of realistic depiction of true face of society. Before 2000 the media was controlled by the government in Pakistan and the news was analyzed by the controlling authority whether to be published or not in the longer interest of Nation. This method was used more for the Government Party’s favor to defame the opposition however both the extremes could not be justified; the controlled media or the unbridled sensational media. Eric Hobsbawn in his book “Globalization, Democracy and Terrorism” suggested that “Terrorism could be controlled if not provided the publicity oxygen”. .  Myopic Policies of Government: Myopic Policies of any Government create dissatisfaction among its subjects and destabilize the peaceful atmosphere when the superficial effects of such policies are faded away. The Government of Pakistan at many issues and in many critical situations could not implement long term and sustained policies rather averted the focus by creating non-issues or temporarily dealt with it. Kashmiris an initial issue which was dealt wrong. As far as economic policies and political decisions are concerned, we could not establish our industries properly rather took decisions like in 1970s and was reversed in 1977 in the shape of privatization. Similarly, the decision of thermal power stations rather than focusing on Hydel Energy production by Government of Benazir. Recently the Income support programs and Sasti Rotti like targeted subsidies and the rental power stations like decisions could not play any effective role in developing the dire economic situation ultimately creating more dissatisfaction and turmoil in the country.

Dispossession: Writ of the state in Balochistan, FATA and some parts of KPK have wiped out due to bad governance which is pathetic and deplorable. They have several reservations however being met with even more pathetic pace. Huge deposits of gas, bauxite, oil, copper, gold, and other minerals lie underneath the rugged terrain they inhabit. It has plunged the region into the throes of bloodshed and mayhem. Their dispossession from their own wealth and their demands towards equal distribution of resources is creating serious dissatisfaction resulting in terrorist attacks on government installations and properties.

7

Illiteracy: Illiteracy and ignorance is the mother of all social vices.it is directly contributing towards terrorism in Pakistan Terrorism has made Pakistan a pray with this social weapon against humanity. Literacy rate in Pakistan is very low and people easily become victimize. Their social, political and economic sufferings let an easy hand to anti-social elements to work for their evil cause. Injustice and inequality play the role of a catalyst while in the execution of the plans of the terrorists.

Vengeance: Social deprivations, poverty, illiteracy, lack of economic opportunities and Terrorism itself are resultantly producing more distress and more poverty which lead people towards vengeance. The areas like Balochistan and North Waziristan are becoming the hub of terrorists. The drone attacks are putting fuel to the fire and letting the tasks of the terrorists more easy to produce avengers for the killings and deprivations of their loved ones. Drone attacks have not only rocked the North Waziristan but the whole country. The survivors of these attacks and the faithful survivors of Bugti’s, Mengals and Marri’s are taking revenge for these brutalities. The debate whether right or wrong is another issue but it is true that zero tolerance policy in such cases produce more terrorists rather than reduction.

Marginalization: Marginalization means exclusion of any group or an individual from meaningful participation in society. When we ignore any group, faction, caste or community from taking part in the development of their country and alienate them from national reconstruction, they are forced to assert their point of view through violence. Baloch have long been marginalized by our governments since the evolution of this country. The continued plunder of Balochistan’s natural resources, its economic and political marginalization and militarization are the major causes of its rising instability and the mounting tension between the Baloch and the state. This caused a real push for Baloch towards Terrorist activities.

International Games and clashes: States have their own priorities and targets. In international relations interests are always the priority. Pakistan is today the hot bed of international power game. The region has recently gained more attention due to several reasons 8

.China is growing economically rapidly. India is gaining international importance and wants to see us down-trodden, USA and her allies are in pursuits of oil and other precious minerals and treasures, Afghanistan gained a pivotal role international games, Iran is focusing over nuclear capability, central Asian states have trillions of dollars’ worth natural resources in their womb and Russia wants to see USA licking the dust in Afghanistan as a revenge of the cold war. The Muslim countries, generally, have their own direct or indirect interests in Pakistan. All these countries are today, playing their interests game in Pakistan resultantly the whole country has become a playground of international powers.  Disgruntled, Disaffected Intelligentsia: The main cause of terrorism is disgruntled, disaffected, intelligentsia. According to him the intelligentsia plays a key role in mobilizing the masses in social and general crisis. Today is the world of media and the importance of Intellectuals and intelligentsia has been multiplied. Europe went through Renaissance only because of intellectuals. An effective intelligentsia occupies the minds of masses and molds them according to the interests and requirements of the contemporary circumstances prevailing in their country. They not only help in policy making but also help in developing National consensus. In Pakistan, unfortunately, where many are working sincerely for the betterment of Pakistan there are also that create sensation and dissatisfaction among masses. Focusing over petty and insignificant issues they detract the whole nation and divert their attention from real issues. There are some who working for special causes, mobilize masses only for negative or certain anti-social causes. Here the disgruntled, disaffected intelligentsia could not cure and combat the negative inculcation of ideas and the terrorists are succeeded in grabbing the favors of general masses or certain faction of society.

9

Taliban Insurgency
The Taliban insurgency is an asymmetric conflict. The movement has a well-defined ideological inspiration, logistic support from international terrorist groups and uses terrorism to achieve objectives which can be summarized as follows: 1. Implementation of sharia instead of democratic system in the length and breadth of Pakistan by hook and crook i.e. use of force is the main element. 2. Pakistan should come out from pursuing pro west and pro American war on terror. 3. To destabilize state’s security apparatus so that people should look towards the Taliban for protection. 4. To force the government not to interfere in Taliban-controlled areas so that they can continue their activities unhindered. 5. 3. To force the government to bring some structural changes in laws or the constitution, or to bring a new system according to the Taliban agenda. 6. Some of the Taliban groups have sectarian agendas especially against Shias and Sufi followers. They are also well connected with global terrorist groups, like Al Qaeda, which have even more dangerous agendas of destabilizing or toppling the government to capture territory. Until 2004, the main focus of Pakistani Taliban was on protecting foreign militants, recruiting for the war in Afghanistan, training them, and securing their position against security operations. Their main strategic victory that made them the major player in the area, however, came after a tactical change in their operations: they began kidnapping security and state officials.

Factors Nurturing The Insurgent Movement
An insurgent movement cannot grow without some sort of protection. Some of the major factors, which nurture the insurgent movements and which are very relevant to the Taliban insurgency: i) Absence of problem: When an insurgency starts taking shape, states fail to access the potential of the threat and try to ignore it or misjudge the problem. That happened in the case of Taliban also. When the movement was emerging in the tribal areas, the state continued pretending it was not a major issue and Taliban Insurgency could be overcome anytime. The state always assumes that ‘small violent groups’ cannot undermine and/or challenge its authority. But when a movement or group has a cause it should be considered a serious issue. ii) National consensus: Not only the state but also the people live in a fallacy that the writ of state cannot be challenged. The other related problem arises when the state wants to take measures to overcome the insurgency in its initial stage and lacks an undecided public’s backing. But the solidity of a regime is primarily based upon this factor and without national consensus no counterinsurgent strategy can be successful. Sri Lanka is a 10

recent example of a state’s plans to overcome the insurgents not taking off until it managed to build a national consensus to defeat them. iii) Resoluteness of the counterinsurgent leadership: Determination of the counterinsurgent leadership is considered to be a major factor in any conflict because: a) The insurgent has the initial benefit of a dynamic cause; and, b) An insurgency does not emerge suddenly as a national danger and the people’s reaction against it is slow. Consequently, the role of the counterinsurgent leaders is paramount. This factor was very visible in the Taliban case and the political and military leadership were not as resolute as they should have been and very few attempts were made to develop a national consensus on the issue. iv) Counterinsurgent leaders’ knowledge of counterinsurgency warfare: It is not enough for the counterinsurgent leaders to be resolute; they must also be aware of the strategy and tactics required in fighting an insurgency. Initially, the Pakistani armed forces lacked the resolve and fighting capability. They had religious and ethnic considerations and were fighting under great psychological stress. Apart from this constraint, the armed forces were mainly trained in conventional warfare and the fight against rebels required a different strategy. v) Cost and benefit: The insurgent has more warfare and tactical advantages compared to the counterinsurgent. Since the insurgent alone can initiate the conflict, he is free to choose his hour, to wait safely for a favorable situation, unless external factors force him to accelerate his move. The insurgency is inexpensive to create but very costly to prevent. The insurgent is fluid because he has neither responsibility nor concrete assets. He also benefits from propaganda and has a strategic advantage over counterinsurgents. vi) The counterinsurgency tools: The political structure, the administrative bureaucracy, the police and the armed forces are the key instruments to control an insurgency. The Taliban took advantage of lack of political mainstreaming and weak and ruthless administration in the tribal areas. The police or local security forces like Khasadars, Levies and Frontier Constabulary could not help evolve a security mechanism until there was political resoluteness and an effective administrative system. The lack of the first security cover of the police makes the job of the armed forces difficult and most of their energies are consumed to develop alternative apparatus in the insurgency-hit areas. This was the reason why the state applied the traditional tactics of Jirga’s, lashkars, selective operations and peace agreements, but these attempts did not prove fruitful. The peace deals strengthened the hands of Taliban and writ of the state weakened further. Military operations have resulted in the expansion of Taliban and produced a bigger pool of militants. On the other hand, the Taliban know exactly how to target and weaken the domestic opposition against them. The state has also used a strategy to support some Taliban groups, such as those led by Mullah Nazir and Hafiz Gul Bahadar in South Waziristan, to divide them but that was based on a shaky rationale.

11

vii) Geographic conditions: “Geography can weaken the strongest political regime or strengthen the weakest one.” In the tribal areas, Taliban hold geographical advantages, as they are familiar with the mountainous terrain and the climate. The large pool of insurgents and their presence among the civilian population makes counterinsurgency operations difficult. But counterinsurgency becomes more complex if it erupts in the border areas and gets external moral or political support. In Taliban’s case, they have no moral or political support from neighboring states. But the insurgents get connected with smugglers and mafias in the border regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan and have support from international terrorist networks, which makes the situation as difficult as that of an insurgency that is getting external help. Significantly, when an insurgency becomes the field of covert wars of different international and regional spy agencies and players, it distracts the counterinsurgent and the focus shifts from countering the insurgency to countering covert wars. Pakistan has reservation over the presence of Indian consulates in Afghanistan near the Pakistani border and the hostile attitude of Kabul towards Islamabad. The issue is linked to geo-strategic interests in the region. viii) Geo-strategic perspective and ‘strategic assets’: Another important and unique factor in the counterinsurgency in the tribal areas is the geo-strategic perspective of Pakistan and neighboring states. This is another factor which has been undermining the state’s counterinsurgency efforts and insurgents and counterinsurgents have remained unclear on how long the security operations would continue. Indeed insurgents have mostly remained consistent and inflexible in advancement of their cause but counterinsurgents have got confused in evaluating the geostrategic disadvantages of eliminating the insurgents. Before 9/11, Pakistani policy-makers considered the Taliban a strategic asset and even after 9/11 they were reluctant to dispose of these assets. There were many arguments and perceptions to sustain this option: a) The US was not serious in eliminating resistance in Afghanistan and wanted to prolong its stay in that country; b) The Pakistani government also found that the trouble in Balochistan was being sponsored by India on US encouragement. It was in this context that the Taliban became assets for the Pakistani establishment; c) There is a perception that the US, India, Afghanistan and other countries are also using many Taliban groups as strategic assets to destabilize Pakistan. Pakistani security establishment believes that it faces a US-Indian-Afghan alliance and a separate Iranian-Russia alliance, each aimed at undermining Pakistani influence in Afghanistan and even dismembering the Pakistani state. Some, but not all, in the establishment see armed Militants within Pakistan as a threat but they largely consider it one that is ultimately controllable. Despite these arguments the US focus in the region remained on the elimination of Al Qaeda, from whom it perceived internal threat, and largely ignored the broader insurgency, which remained marginal until 2005.

12

= LEADERSHIP NETWORK OF TTP Source: ISPU

13

Counter Insurgency Strategy
1. Built-in disadvantages in Taliban insurgency: The Taliban have four major disadvantages, which the counterinsurgent can exploit. At the same time these disadvantages are barring the Taliban movement from getting converted into a revolutionary movement. a) Taliban have failed to establish any political agenda in line with the mainstream political system. They are against democratic system and there are few chances that the Taliban would morph into a populist political movement. Even the religious political parties denounce Taliban’s anti-democratic agenda, which has kept them alienated from the urban population. b) Sectarian differences among Taliban ranks and the Deobandi tag on the movement are significant factor isolating the insurgency from the mainstream religious community and keeping it confined to specific areas. Taliban are also divided on ethnic lines and attempts by some Taliban leaders to bind them into ‘Islamic brotherhood’ have not been successful so far. Tribal differences cause mistrust, and further divisions occur at clan level. At the same time, Taliban do not represent all the tribes. In fact, they have cut themselves off from the main tribes and values. The system that they want to impose in the areas under their control or in the country lacks wide appeal. It is not supported even by the prominent religious scholars and religious political parties. This factor undermines Taliban efforts to win popular support for their system. Their involvement in terrorist activities is making them unpopular. It depends on the counterinsurgent or the state how it manipulates insurgents’ disadvantage in its favor. But the task requires vision, will and capacity and so far there are no signs that the state is successfully playing on this tactical front.

c)

d)

e)

2.

Strategic level: Few general principles for the counterinsurgents are presented. Many of these are already in practice and some need attention of the policy-makers. a. “An insurgent war is 20 percent military action and 80 percent political is a formula that reflects the truth.” In this perspective, the political leadership (not only the government but also the opposition) needs to show commitment and should realize the gravity of the situation. They should be on one page and on board regarding any strategy to be adopted in course of peace talks. Due to the lack of continuity of elected governments and military dictatorships, the military leadership has obligations to help and strengthen the political government’s efforts. b. Concentrate enough armed forces to destroy the main body of armed insurgents only after the peace talks fail and this should be used as a last option. c. Detach for the area sufficient troops to oppose an insurgent network in strength, install these troops in hamlets, villages and towns where the population lives. 14

d. Establish contact with the population and control its movements in order to cut off its links with the guerrillas. e. To undermine the political influence of insurgents, empower local political forces; make administrative and judicial mechanisms smooth and effective. f. Engage the local authorities by assigning them various concrete tasks. Replace the soft and the incompetent; give full support to the active leader. g. The operation should be irreversible and should continue until the last insurgent element is won over or suppressed. h. Ideological response is important but the most important factor is winning the hearts and minds of the people in the insurgency-hit areas. This can be done through the collaborative efforts of the state and civil society. 3. Terrorism front: The international and local terrorist groups, who have association with Taliban insurgents and use their terrorist cells, are changing their targets and tactics rapidly. As has been observed, terrorists have applied different new tactics in their terrorist operations in Pakistan, such as attack on PNS Mehran, Kamra Airbase Attack, GHQ Attacks, and the Jailbreaks of Bannu and DI Khan. It is imperative to develop improved counter-terrorism strategies not only at the level of enhancing the security forces’ capacity, but also a coordinated intelligence surveillance system. Incoherent efforts by various intelligence agencies not only badly impact the security situation; they also spoil their efficiency, effectiveness and impact on their capabilities. There is a need to build Pakistani intelligence agencies’ capacity and ensure better coordination among various agencies and law enforcement departments. See NACTA 4. Regional and global perspective As discussed earlier, the insurgency in the tribal areas has a regional dimension as well. Not only are Pakistan’s strategic interests at stake but regional and global powers also want to secure their interests in the area. In short, the key issues of conflict are: a. Pakistan wants a friendly government in Kabul because Afghanistan had created a lot of trouble for Pakistan in the past. Kabul directly remained involved in provoking separatist and nationalist movements in Balochistan and NWFP until the 1980s. At that time India was on the same page with Afghanistan and had good intelligence and strategic coordination with Kabul. Afghanistan again seems more committed to strategic cooperation with India. The Indian and Afghan involvement in Balochistan and in Pakistan’s tribal areas has Islamabad perplexed on whether to treat the insurgents as enemies or assets. b. Pakistan had not made comprehensive diplomatic efforts to take the international community into confidence to secure its strategic interests and depended on nonconventional tactics. c. The nature of US-Iran, US-China, Central Asian and the Russia-West interests is very complex. These conflicting interests have a direct bearing on stability in Afghanistan and Pakistan and both states are perplexed on how to secure their strategic, internal security and economic interests. This also creates bilateral misunderstandings, which leads to further confrontation. 15

d. The international community, particularly the United States views the situation through its internal security threat prism, but Pakistan wants the US to see the issue in its regional context and fix the problem on a permanent basis. e. Pakistan faces double-edged media propaganda; internally and externally. The popular national press is very critical of Pakistan’s counterinsurgency collaboration with the US and the West. On the other hand, the international press is skeptical about Islamabad’s operational efforts. The national and international media are oversimplifying the complex nature of the insurgency and its regional dimensions. This is fueling misperceptions among the international community about the issue and hurts Pakistan’s diplomatic efforts to find a comprehensive solution f. Pakistan was hopeful that US President Barak Obama would address the issue in the broader regional perspective in his new AfPak policy. But the US put further liabilities on Pakistan while not taking any concrete step except the announcement of a regional contact group. The central purpose of the contact group as suggested and agreed by many American and Pakistani think tanks includes reassuring Pakistan that all international stakeholders will show their commitment to its territorial integrity and to help resolve Afghan and Kashmir border issues to better define Pakistan’s territory. It was also expected that India would be urged to become more transparent about its activities in Afghanistan, especially regarding the role of its intelligence agency, the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW).

Recommendations To Combat Terrorism And Militancy.
After going through some historical facts, it is to suggest that following steps must take into account which helps in improving the law and order situation in Pakistan. 1. Ensure civil military intelligence coordination. 2. It is a fact that police or civilian institution lack required capacity to beat Taliban unsurgency.as military led security agencies are more resourceful and effective in intelligence so it is need of the hour that there must be a close coordination between civil and military intelligence.in this way, Pakistan will get rid of a formidable threat which has severely undermine the writ of state.in addition through this initiative attacks against security installations and jail breaks can be prevented. 3. Effective action and dismantle sanctuaries. Government needs to dismantle Taliban network which is extended from FATA to Afghanistan to Baluchistan to south Punjab and some settled districts .in addition security establishment must keep an eye over proscribed terrorist outfits.in addition, training camps of suicide attacks and militants must be detected and then neutralize them at the earnest.

16

4. Integrate the Provincially Administered Tribal Areas (PATA) into KPK province fully by: a) Removing Articles 246 and 247 from the constitution, thereby ending PATA’s tribal status and allowing all laws passed by the national and provincial legislatures to be applicable; b) Merging PATA into the legal mainstream by abolishing the Nizam-e-Adl Regulation 2009; and c) Abolishing the Actions (in Aid of Civil Power) Regulations 2011 for PATA and FATA. 5. Mitigate the impact of conflict on PATA’s economy and ensure the provision of humanitarian assistance by: a) Lifting all curbs on travel, including No Objection Certificate (NOC) requirements for foreigners visiting Malakand Division; and b) Removing restrictions on international and local NGOs in PATA, easing the process for foreign NGO workers to obtain residence and visit visas and directing the civil bureaucracy to phase out and ultimately end NOC requirements for international NGOs. 6. Revise the draft Fair Trial Bill 2012 to: a) Include a provision for federal and provincial parliamentary oversight and require standing committees on interior and home and tribal affairs in the National Assembly and KPK’s provincial assembly, respectively, or subcommittees formed under them, to inquire into complaints of unjustified invasions of privacy under the bill; and b) Require the higher judiciary to oversee the provision and issuing of warrants under the law and hold lower court judges accountable if they issue warrants without justification or fail to ensure that warrants are not abused by state authorities. 7. Refocus on the basics of law enforcement and criminal justice, in addition to new surveillance measures under the Fair Trial bill, by: a) Enhancing protection afforded to witnesses, prosecutors and judges in terrorism-related cases; b) Modernizing KPK’s police force, including by investing in crime scene units in individual police stations equipped with forensics and other modern investigative tools; c) Overhauling and modernizing KPK’s forensic science laboratory; d) Extending ongoing efforts to upgrade and increase the number of police stations in Peshawar and Swat to Lower Dir, Upper Dir and Chitral, focusing initially on the more conflict-prone towns; e) Following through on recommendations to raise the number of female police officers and ensuring all have the same career advancement prospects as their male counterparts; and f) Raising the number of officers relative to constables in the KPK police and then maintaining a ratio of around 60/40 of constables to officers. 8. Strengthen civilian-led law enforcement further by: a) Abolishing Levies and other parallel law enforcement entities in PATA and absorbing their personnel into the regular KPK police after meeting requisite training, vetting and other formal requirements;

17

b) Dismantling all state-supported tribal lashkars (militias), terminating the practice of delegating security functions to unofficial entities; and c) Removing all military personnel from security check posts, replacing them with police, including female personnel where conditions allow. 9. Order the closure of all military-controlled internment centers, transferring detainees to judicial custody; and end all military-run de-radicalization and rehabilitation programs for captured militants, requiring that any such programs are civilian-led and under judicial oversight. 10. Investigate allegations of extra-judicial killings. Through investigation hate and anger against security will be removed and people will come to know the actual story of conflict in war infested areas over run by the Taliban militia. In addition, torture, illegal detention and other human rights abuses in PATA and FATA should be carefully checked and take disciplinary action against any security personnel, including senior officials, found responsible.

18

Insurgency And Nationalism In Balochistan
The current scenario for the conflict in Balochistan started building up when the federal authorities in Pakistan started developing Gwadar Port with road and rail links. The development projects of the coastal highway and the Gwadar port have been also opposed tooth and nail by Baloch nationalists. Balochi resistance to defy government’s efforts to start Gwadar was based on the charge that it will change Balochi ethnic culture. Balochi disaffection grew more in the aftermath of the attack on the Taliban in Afghanistan and the establishment of US bases in Pasni, Gwadar, Dalbandin and Jacobabad in Sindh. This was not so much because of the US military presence, but because the then administration decided to establish some army cantonments in Balochistan. During the eight years of Musharraf’s military rule in Pakistan, the absence of political process that is necessary to deal with the insurgencies resulted in the further alienation of even moderate Baloch nationalist from the Federation of Pakistan. It shut the doors of negotiation process with the Baloch Leaders. This conflict became more intense, in 2006 when Nawab Bugti, the Baloch tribal leader and ex chief minister and governor of Balochistan was killed in an army operation. He had been accused by Pakistan’s government for series of bomb blasts, killings of his own people and mainly the rocket attack on the then President of Pakistan. He was lauded as a leader of Baloch by the nationalists who had died fighting for their cause and was turned into a hero. During this time the political parties did not play their role to raise the issues of deprivation and neglect at the serious level. This was not limited to the ruling parties; unfortunately opposition also ignored the Balochistan issue. In the All Parties Conference that was held in 2007, to plan a collective line of action to deal with the different problems faced by Pakistan, the Balochistan problem was not even included in the agenda. To summarize the nationalist’s complaints are mix of old and new. Older complaints consist of lack of autonomy, exploitation of resources and lack of development. In addition since then, the new complaints are that hundreds of people are missing in action and there has been a silent war that nationalists allege state is waging upon them. Above analysis make two things absolutely clear. One that there is virtually no chance that the problems confronting Islamabad arising from the current resurgence of Baloch nationalism can be swept aside. While the actual scale of the rebellion may be a matter of considerable controversy, the danger is present and clear; and the reasons underlying it are genuine and real. Second, there is Considerable Avenue of hope with majority still willing to work within the state framework and through political methods.

19

Government’s Policy
Pakistan government has correctly adopted a two-pronged approach to deal with the present situation in the province, i.e., seriously address the political, economic and social concerns of the people, and to use security forces in areas where there are armed insurgent elements. During the last decade or so, a number of positive steps have been taken by the government which will go a long way in meeting the demand for an autonomous status and improving the lot of Balochistan province. These are: Solutions which have been taken to address the problem;

a. This landmark 18th constitutional amendment has made provinces fully autonomous.it will remove doubts of insurgents leaders in the coming years. b. It is for the first time in Pakistan that through N F C award, instead of the sole criterion of population, multiple criteria for resource distribution has been adopted which includes population, human development index, inverse population density and revenue generation. This has resulted in nearly doubling the share of Balochistan from the federal divisible pool, i.e., from 5.11 to 9.09 per cent. c. Aghz e haqooq Baluchistan package has already been initiated by the federal government. Under this employment opportunities for baloch and other facilities will be ensured to mitigate their sense of deprivation. d. Construction of Gawadar deep sea port will go a long way on resolving Baloch insurgency. it will also serve as an alternative to Karachi port. e. Construction of a coastal highway (750 km) linking Gwadar to Karachi and other inter provincial roads will provide Baluchistan a way to integrate with the rest of Pakistan. f. Construction of two new dams, Mirani and Subakzai not only provide employment opportunities to Baluchistan but also empower them. g. Construction of Kachi Canal (500 km long) will prove a catalyst for agriculture sector in Baluchistan. h. Halt construction of cantonment in Marri and bugti areas in order to placate them.

Solution: What needs to be done in future?
Pakistan needs to learn that the problem of Balochistan must be given urgent attention and top priority in good faith and measure. The governing elite in Pakistan have to be sensitive to the genuine demands placed on the federal government by the Balochis. These demands are protected and guaranteed by the constitution of Pakistan. The government has to adopt a multi‐pronged anti‐insurgency strategy to placate the Baloch people. The use of force will not lead to a peaceful solution. “History is witness to the fact that suppression

20

further ignites such movements”. The situation calls for strongest possible political will to deliver and implement the solution among all concerned. It is true that insurgency still does not command the majority support. This fact must be capitalized on. By taking serious and urgent socio economic measure and by providing justice and fair play as basis of governance, the back of the insurgency can be broken. There is still an attitude among the Pakistanis establishment led by military that insurgency depends on some individuals. This is no longer the case and grass root support has widened in past few years. This can only be countered by urgent and fair governance. This can be achieved if the federal government, in conjunction with the provincial government, applies the will to ensure that the legitimate rights of the people of Balochistan are granted and delivered immediately. In this regard following steps can be considered;  Military should stop kill and dump policy against Baloch nationalist merely on the bases of suspicious involvement in insurgency because it is creating hate and anger against army and Pakistan. Government should prosecute those insurgents who are bent on killing people from other communities, attack security installations through dispensation of justice and provided them an opportunity of fair trial. Government should draw out a clear cut policy giving due share in natural resources to the province. The revenue from the developmental projects in Balochistan must be spent on its development. Development work should be carried out in the fields of infrastructure development, water for irrigation and drinking, education, health, energy and productive economic activity. The delivery system of basic social services like health, education, water and sanitation needs to be strengthened and easily accessible to common people. Royalties, duties, development surcharges and other levies owed to the province by the center must be paid on fair basis. Pakistan Army should also make its image better in that province. The government must implement the plans of canceling the constructing cantonments away from the border region. There must be no unnecessary presence of military forces in the province. Pakistan Army should run a recruitment drive for Baloch. On the political level, the government must involve the political and nationalist groups in the mainstream politics. The Baloch leaders must be engaged by the political leadership to neutralize the extremist/separatist segments of their groups. The Baloch must be given due representation in state institutions. Balochistan’s cities, towns and villages should be given priority and preference for Sui gas, minerals, and other basic necessities of life. Judiciary should play its role‐ SC must act as to ensure justice in the province and the provision of basic national rights to the Baloch people in capacity of equal Pakistanis. 21

     

 

  

       

Action is needed on the missing persons form federal executive and judiciary. Peace and rule of law must be ensured. As an ancillary point this must not be used as an excuse to perpetrate state sanctioned crimes. Governance and Economic Management Programmes should be developed and implemented. Budgetary controls should be given to Local Bodies, with nominated Official in order to ensure the benefits reaches at the grass root levels. Provincial government should tackle education, health, housing, law and order, security, communication, roads and transport as top most priority. The long‐held fear of the Baloch people that investors may take their resources away needs to be addressed by the safeguard investment policies of assurance by the government. The Baloch Nationalists, if sincere with a peaceful resolution of the years old conflict, must negotiate the issues with the political leadership in order to resolve the conflicts. By creating major opportunities—specifically, by turning Balochistan into an important energy conduit in the region—to address Baloch nationalist demands in a positive and mutually acceptable manner. The central government and the establishment should stop seeing this as a foreign instigated phenomenon only, as was done in the case of East Pakistan.

In Short there are three components to the comprehensive solution to Balochistan problem.    One, recognition of the legitimate demands of Baloch people and assessment of the ground reality. Second developments of sound policies and plans that would address the economic deprivation and sociopolitical issues and empower people; Third and final, immediate, direct, accountable and transparent delivery through provincial and local governors.

22

Sectarian Conflict
Sectarian violence is among the critical threats to Pakistan’s internal security and stability. Besides sectarian-related attacks and targeted killings by violent sectarian groups, sectarian discrimination is also increasingly penetrating individuals’ attitudes and behaviors in Pakistan. Despite the government’s repeated bans on sectarian groups, they are becoming more active and defiant across country, particularly in Karachi, Quetta and South Punjab. Some of them including Lashkar-e-Jhangvi have strong ideological and operational nexus with the Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and Al-Qaeda. According to Pak Institute for Peace Studies’ (PIPS) Pakistan Security Report 2012 the overall incidents of sectarian violence, including sectarian-related terrorist attacks and clashes, increased significantly, by about 53 percent, in 2012 as compared to 2011. More than 85 percent of such attacks and clashes and 68 percent of the people killed in these incidents were concentrated in four cities/regions of Karachi, Quetta, Gilgit and Kurram Agency. Apart from nexuses among militants, it is also important to understand the political dynamics of sectarian violence in Pakistan. Many of the banned sectarian organizations wear political hats and take part in electoral politics, whether with different names and independent candidates or through making alliances with mainstream political parties. Religious education in Pakistan is also divided along sectarian lines. There are five religious education boards (Wafaqul Madaaris) catering to educational needs of Barelvi, Ahle Hadith, Deobandi, Shia and Jamaat-e-Islami madrassas. Sectarian-oriented curricula and publications of madrassas are considered a key factor in promotion of sectarianism in Pakistan. Another important factor of sectarian-motivated violence, which usually has not received as much attention, is the administrative side of the problem, or how local administrations deal with issues involving different sectarian groups, such as disputes over mosques, routes for Ashura and Eid Milad-unNabi processions, allotments of plots for religious purposes, and allocation of auqaf property, etc.

Recommendations to combat sectarian menace Can this sectarian violence in Pakistan be stopped? Though it has reached alarming proportions, Pakistan can control this menace by initiating certain measures both internally and externally.

1. Strong action against sectarian militants outfits involved in attacks. For this lashkar e jhangvi, Punjabi Taliban, jandullah group are the main culprits behind atrocities mainly against shia Muslims and sometimes against barelvies. Government must purge their sanctuaries and training centers which are south Punjab, Waziristan and other parts of country. 2. Better policing is the need of the hour to combat sectarian menace.in addition civil security agencies should be provided with necessary counter terrorism training and modern weapon. 3. Interaction and dialogue among religious scholars and madrassa students and teachers belonging to all religious schools of thought, or sects, are direly needed to remove widespread misperceptions among religious sects about one another.

23

4. Effective Governance is required. Many examples prove that religious and sectarian disputes are initially local in nature and their prudent handling by administrations can nip them in the bid. The local administrations and bureaucracy also need ideological overhauling to refresh their vision. 5. The state should encourage the religious parties to play a positive role in bringing down sectarian violence. While many credit the military regime with controlling sectarian violence after 1999, they have undermined the role played by various religious parties after the formation of the MMA. It is no coincidence that sectarian violence in Pakistan has reduced after the Sunni parties belonging to Wahabi, Deobandi and Brehlvi faiths along with the Shia political parties came together under the MMA banner. It should also be remembered that the religious parties did make efforts in the past, though unsuccessfully, to achieve sectarian amity within the country. 6. There should be zero tolerance for violent sectarian groups and their leaders. ‘Political advantages’ should not bar political leadership from taking a principled position against those who are challenging the writ of the state. 7. The military should seriously reconsider its jihad policies. Not all jihadi groups in Kashmir are involved in sectarian violence inside Pakistan, but military support for these organizations in Afghanistan and Kashmir has encouraged the sectarian divide. Unless the military stops supporting jihad, these organizations would continue to mobilize funds inside Pakistan. The easy availability of small arms inside Pakistan is no doubt due to this jihad policy pursued by successive governments, democratic or military. 8. Government should strive in consultation with representatives of all madrassa boards to provide an opportunity to madrassas students to study viewpoints of different religious schools of thoughts. The madrassa curricula should emphasize religious education and not sectarian education. 9. Government should partner with representatives of all Wafaqs, or madrassa education boards, to check production and dissemination of provocative and hate material.

24

Violence in Karachi
Violence is major constraint to development. Investment and Business stay out of the area which is violent, leading to unemployment and poverty. Karachi, the financial and commercial capital of Pakistan, has been facing the severity of target killing and extortion problem as no one is safe. The worsening law and order situation in the city, which generates 35% of national GDP, presents one of the biggest challenges government must overcome to fulfill the requirement to set Pakistan on a path to faster growth. The National Security policy should adopt following reforms in order reinstates peace in Karachi. Police Reforms: o In Karachi, Killing is done by political and religious groups with some of them in power. Police in general is extremely corrupt and can easily be bribed. Criminals are released if ever caught by the police because of instructions from higher ranking official. Karachi, which is one of the 15 largest cities of the world, desperately needs apolitical and impartial policing system. A separate Karachi Metropolitan Police (KMP) should be formed with following attributes: o KMP personal should be appointed strictly on merit regardless of political, ethnic and religious affiliations. These security personals should be trained in anti-terrorism techniques and guerilla warfare. KMP personals should be equipped with latest weapons and other performance enhancing tools like night vision glasses etc. o Each Metropolitan Police Station should have highly trained investigators. These investigators should be trained in crime detection, evidence collection, investigation improvisation and critical analysis tools. o The most important aspect of police reforms is to develop an effective Intelligence system. This is high time to devolve intelligence system to lower levels. Police has comparative advantage of performing intelligence duties because they are more aware of the ground realities of a particular area. So instead of putting all the responsibility on National Intelligence agencies like ISI and IB an effective intelligence system should be integrated in KMP system. The mandate of new intelligence system in Karachi should be of a great range. They should be responsible for taking care of serious matters like terrorism, target killings, sectarian violence as well as of local disputes. Intelligence department should also be equipped with state of the art technologies and equipment. There should be a proper coordination mechanism between operational forces, investigation wings and Intelligence cells. o In addition to it, primary focus should be given to form a rapid response system while developing Karachi Metropolitan Policing system. o Karachi Metropolitan Police stations should be computerized with other facilities such as internet, latest security related software’s and other performance enhancing equipment’s. o Policemen should be given decent pays so that financial constraints do not remain a cause of corruption. This will help in reduction in corruption and will improve performance of police officials as well. o One of the reasons of inaction and poor performance of police in Karachi is lack of protection by the state. Many honest, competent and able police officials were killed in the past and there is no trace of culprits of these killings. Karachi Metropolitan Policing system should clearly identify steps to remove this insecurity in police department and should also contain some welfare measures for police. These measures will help to increase sense of duty in the police department. 25

De-weaponzsation: Media reports show that the availability of unregulated and illicit weapons fuel instability and undermines development initiative. The proliferation of arms is a major source of violence in the city. Considering the fact that on average 13 people are being killed in a day, de-weaponization has become need of the hour. Government should do this in two steps. Firstly, there are around 36 entrance or exit road routes of Karachi. Government must stop arm smuggling from all these routes by putting high-level security at all the entrances and exits. Secondly, government should carryout operations to clean the city from unregistered weapons. Rewards should be announced for those who voluntarily surrender their illicit weapons. All the check posts should be pressed to search for illegal weapons on 24/7 basis. A wellcoordinated police patrolling mechanism for Karachi should be in place as early as possible. Targeted action against miscreants and terrorists; It is the need of the hour to initiate targeted operation against miscreants and terrorists involve in target killing, extortion, sectarian attacks and other criminal activities. Government needs to deal with them through use of required in order to liberate Karachi from their clutches, in addition, they have wreaked havoc in the lives of people and made commercial capital at stand still. Judicial Reforms: Judicial deadlock, lengthy trials, lenient punishments and lack of implementation on punishments are the reasons which create space for more troubles. When a target killer or extortionist is caught, he must be brought to justice at the earliest and the news of his criminality, arrest and punishment must be made public. So that people could see justice happening before their eyes. In addition to there is dire need of speedy trials of target killers, terrorist and other violent elements. For that the National Security policy should clearly identify judicial reforms to make judicial system more compatible with the dangers of terrorism and new forms of violence. Delimitation: It is a non-fact that Karachi’s present electoral divisions have divided people strictly on the basis of ethnic lines. Different ethnicities have different geographical locations as their strong holds. This has created a power imbalance on the political scenario of Karachi. With political parties having their political wings, these political strongholds have become no go areas for people belonging to other ethnicity. There is also an understanding that present divisions in Karachi are biased in favor of certain ethnicity. So there is a great need to revise electoral divisions in Karachi so that democracy could prevail in its real sense and strongholds could be broken to restore peace.

26

Immediate Steps: Immediate steps should be taken by the government to contain the activities of following politico-militant groups as well as sectarian organizations. o MQM's militant wing o People's Aman Committee o ANP's Militant wing o Sunni Tehreek's militant wing o Sipah e Sahaba/ Jash e Muhammad/ TTP (Combined) o Sipah e Muhammad o Kuchi Rabita Committee  In addition to it there is great concern that Taliban have made safe heavens and hiding places in Karachi too. Intelligence agencies should take immediate steps to search for wanted people and runaway terrorists in Karachi and its surroundings.

27

Conclusion
It is the need of the hour that keeping in view precariou s law and order in Pakistan recommendations mentioned earlier to combat extremism, Taliban insurgency, and Baloch menace; should be implemented in letter and spirit. Policy of appeasement will be fatal not only for the state of Pakistan but for all stakeholders. Today, Pakistan is facing existential threat from militancy and extremism. There is need to revamp the whole system in the light of new i nternal and external realities. To be fair with our motherland, threat from within our own ranks is the basic cause of headache rather than from external. TSUN ZU, Unrenowned strategist said, IF YOU KNOW YOURSELF, IF YOU KNOW YOUR ENEMY THEN YOU WILL GET VICTORY BUT IF YOU DO NOT KNOW THE STRENGTH OF YOURSELF AND YOUR ENEMY THEN IMMENINTLY YOU WILL BE DEFEATED MISERABLY. Mos t of Pakistani’s are peace loving and liberal; they always stand in the face of adversity with thick and thin. Diversity is the strength of our country instead of threat, as few people see it.Government needs to take effective steps and ensure rule of law, good governance, enhance the capacity building of law enforcement agencies, bring to justice perpetrators of suicide attacks, bomb blast and indiscriminate killing in public places, mosques, imambargah ’s and against our national assets. Those who accept the writ of state, sanctity of the constitution and lay down their arms and renounce violence will be welcomed in our national bondage and those who are at odds with the state of Pakistan and trying to undermine our security, politician and administrative app aratus will be dealt with iron fist. As the members of YOUTH PARLIAMENT PAKISTAN ,I assure the rest of my country fellows and government factories through PILDAT that we are on the same page and will effectively play our role in the success of national secu rity policy and to combat with internal and external threat. It is our conviction we will overcome these hard days and soon see Pakistan a peaceful.

28

REFERENCES
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Report of ‘INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP REPORT ON PAKISTAN 2012.’ Pakistan institute of peace study report on; PERILOUS SECURITY SITUATION’. MALEEHA LODHI, Pakistan beyond crisis state, published in 2011,oxford university press. DAWN, the English daily, Sunday reviews, May, June, July 2013. HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION OF PAKISTAN annual report 2012. AHMED RASHID, Taliban, Islam ,oil and the NEW GREAT GAME IN Afghanistan;I.B.tauris;Yale university press,2010 ANTHONY CORDESMAN 2009, more troops, fewer caveats. Let’s get serious ’the times London. ZAHID HUSSAIN, The scorpion‘s tail; the rise of Islamic militants in Pakistan, 2010.

29