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# CHAPTER SIX

POLY PHASE AC SYSTEMS
Prepared by Nigatu A.

Arba Minch University
Electrical Engineering Department

  An ac generator designed to develop a single sinusoidal voltage for each rotation of the shaft (rotor) is referred to as a single-phase ac generator. the result is a poly-phase ac generator and so that there are multiple induced voltages to be generated. If the number of coils on the rotor is increased in a specified manner. The number of phase voltages that can be produced by a polyphase generator is not limited to three. Introduction THREE PHASE SYSTEM      The three-phase system is used by almost all commercial electric generators. Three-phase generators simultaneously produce three sinusoidal voltages that are separated by 1200 constant phase angles. This three-phase generation is accomplished by three windings rotating through a magnetic field. Any number of phases can be obtained by spacing the windings for each phase at the proper angular position around the stator .

6. 6. . the voltage induced across each coil will have the same peak value. Since these three windings are identical. The three-phase generator of Fig.1(b. shape. and frequency.6.1(a has three induction coils placed 120° apart on the stator.1 (a) Three-phase generator.Three-Phase Voltage Generation    Three-phase generators have three sets of windings(induction coils) and thus produce three ac voltages instead of one. FIG. and each coil rotates with the same angular velocity. as shown symbolically by Fig. (b) induced voltages of a three-phase generator.

6. the induced voltages eAN. FIG.Cont’d  As the shaft of the generator is turned by some external means.2. (b) Phasor diagram for the phase voltages of a three-phase generator.2 (a) Phase voltages of a three-phase generator. eBN. . as shown in Fig. and eCN will be generated simultaneously. 6.

which is placed ahead of coil AN by 120°. where the effective value of each is determined by The sinusoidal expression for each of the induced voltages in phasor domain. since coil BN is placed 120° behind coil AN.2.(b). produces voltage eCN that leads by 120°. voltage eBN lags eAN by 120°. The sinusoidal expression for each of the induced voltages in time domain (from fig. (a)) is:   The phasor diagram of the induced voltages is shown in Fig.Cont’d  However. 6. coil CN.2.6. . similarly.

.3.TYPES OF THREE-PHASE GENERATORS  Two types of three-phase generators:  The Y-connected generator  The Delta-connected generator THE Y-CONNECTED GENERATOR  A Y-connected system can be either a three-wire or.3 Y-connected generator. when the neutral is used. Figure 6. as shown in Figure 6. a four-wire system. connected to a generalized load.

 Note:  The point at which all the terminals are connected is called the neutral point  The voltages across the generator windings are called phase voltages (Vɸ). and the voltages across the lines are called the line voltages (Vl). the currents in the lines connecting the generator windings to the load are called line currents (Il).  Note that the magnitude of each line current is equal to the corresponding phase current in the Y-connected circuit.  Notice that the phase voltages are always positive at the terminal end of the winding and are negative at the neutral point. the neutral conductor is unnecessary. the neutral current is zero.  When the loads are perfectly balanced. and the currents through the windings are called phase currents (Iɸ). . therefore.  Also.

2  Let’s prove the above equation 6. that is.6. .1 Where ɸ is used to denote a phase quantity and g is a generator parameter.IMPORTANT POINT FOR Y-CONNECTED SYSTEM!!! 1) For the Y-connected system. 2) The magnitude of the line voltage of a Y-connected generator is root-three times the phase voltage: that is ………………………………….6. ECA. and EBC are line voltages Whiles. …………………………………. ECN and EBN are phase voltages.. the line current equals the phase current for each phase.  Consider the following phasor diagram for the phase voltages. EAN.  NOTE: EAB .2. showing the Line and phase voltages of the Y-connected generator..

 By applying KVL for the indicated loop.4 (a) Line and phase voltages of the Y-connected three-phase generator (b) Determining a line voltage for a three-phase generator.Figure 6. .

4. In words. the length x is. . (b).6. From fig. the magnitude of the line voltage of a Y-connected generator is √3 times the phase voltage.   Therefore. In sinusoidal notation. with the phase angle between any line voltage and the nearest phase voltage at 30°.

Figure 6. . The phasor diagram of the line and phase voltages is shown in Fig. below. by definition.5 Phasor diagram of the line and phase voltages of a three-phase generator. positive with respect to the second for a voltages. the phase angle between any line voltage and the nearest phase voltage at 30°.5.  From phasor diagrams you can see that.6.  NOTE: The first subscript is.

3-wire. ICB and IAC are phase current  IAa. delta-connected ac generator. as shown below. Figure 6. EBC.THE ∆(DELTA)-CONNECTED GENERATOR  Each phase is connected between two lines. and ECN are phase voltage . and ECA are line voltage  EAN. and the system is referred to as 3-Ф.6 Where  IBA. EBN. IBb and ICc are line current  EAB.

Where. that is. The magnitude of the line current is equal to √3 times the phase current: that is: In phasor. IAa. 2) It can be shown that.IMPORTANT NOTE FOR DELTA CONNECTED GENERATOR 1) The phase and line voltages are equivalent and equal to the voltage induced across each coil of the generator. IBb. . and ICc. are the line currents.

Figure 6. below. The method used to find the phase-sequence is the same as that described for the line voltages of the Y-connected generator.7    Note: the phase angle between a line current and the nearest phase current at 30°. . The phasor diagram of the currents is shown in Fig. In this book. use ABC phase-sequence.6.7.

Fig.6.Example 1) The phase sequence of the Y-connected generator in Fig. c) Determine the magnitude of each line voltage. a) Find the phase angles θ2 and θ3. is ABC.6.8 .8. b) Find the magnitude of the line voltages. and draw the phasor diagram.

9 .Example: 2) The three-phase ∆-connected generator represented in Fig. 6.6.9. determine the following: a) The polar expressions for the other phase currents b) The polar expressions for each of the line currents c) The complete current phasor diagram Fig. is driving a balanced load such that each phase current is 10 A in magnitude. When lBA= 10 A < 30°.