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ABSTRACT THE IMPLEMENTATION OF USING LEXICAL SETS TOWARDS STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY AT THE SECOND SEMESTER OF THE EIGHTH

CLASS OF SMPN 26 BANDAR LAMPUNG IN 2009/2010 By RIA PUSPITA Language is a tool to express the ideas, feeling and thoughts. The language that is used by people from different countries is called International language. English is an International language that is used by almost all of people in the world. As we know there are four language skills in learning English. They are listening, speaking, reading and writing. One of the problems that arise is in mastering vocabulary. Vocabulary is one of the English components included in English skill. Sometimes, the students get difficulties to memorize the words in teaching vocabulary. Many students get difficult in increasing their vocabulary. The students find difficult to memorize many vocabularies. Therefore in solving this problem, the writer will use lexical sets. By using lexical sets teaching vocabulary in the classroom will be effective and more interested, because there are some games inside this technique. The objective of the research is to know whether using lexical sets can increase the students’ vocabulary mastery. The writer used experimental method. The writer used random sampling technique in the taking sample. The samples of the research are 35

RIA PUSPITA students of the second semester at SMP Negeri 26 Bandar Lampung. For the data collecting technique the writer used objective test that was multiple choice test, and in data analysis the writer used t- test formula, before using it the researcher determined the average (X) and variant (S2) of Pre- test and Post- test as follow :
x1 − x 2 n

t test =

2 (n1 − 1) S12 + (n2 − 1) S 2 1 1 With: S = S + n1 + n2 − 2 2

n

The result of the researcher should that t- ratio > t- table = 13.20 > 2.651. So it can be said that there is an influence of using comic strips towards students’ vocabulary mastery.

DECLARATION

I declared that this paper is completely my own work. As long as I know, I did not imitated or plagiarize anybody’s work. The whole content of this paper is my responsibility. I realize that I have quoted some opinion, statements and ideas of some experts.

Bandar Lampung,

2010

Ria Puspita

Her name is Ria Puspita and her nick names are Ria. Nurhayati Agustina. She is a Muslim. She has one younger brother and lives in Kemiling. . She is the first daughter of the great couple of Mr. Rayya or Vita. Then she continued her study at SMA Utama 2 Bandar Lampung and graduated in 2006. Bandar Lampung.CURRICULUM VITAE The writer was born in Bandar Lampung on October 24 th 1988. She graduated from Elementary School of Xaverius Dipasena Citra Darmaja in 2000. In 2006 the writer started studying in English Department of STKIP – PGRI Bandar Lampung and graduated in 2010. She continued her study at Junior High School at SMPN 7 Menggala. Zulkarnaen and Mrs.

DEDICATION I dedicated this paper to:  My beloved Father (Zulkarnaen) and Mother (Nurhayati Agustina)  My beloved family (Chandra. Mbak Imah)  My soul mate  My beloved friends (dita. Aunty Lusi. dara. Kak Doni. miftah. Ibu Not. advice and contribution along my study in STKIP-PGRI Bandar Lampung  SMPN 26 Bandar Lampung . mega)  Whomever that gives me support. Agi.

MOTTO DO WHAT YOU LOVE AND LOVE WHAT YOU DO .

.

Hi. 4. however owing to guidance and motivation from all sides. Imam Subari. The main goal of this paper is to fulfill the requirement to get S-I Degree in English Department of English Language and Art of STKIP-PGRI Bandar Lampung. as The Chief Of Language and Art Department of STKIP-PGRI Bandar Lampung. so this paper can be finished entitled” The Implementation of Using Lexical Sets Towards Students’ Vocabulary Mastery at The Second Semester Of The Eighth Class Of The SMPN 26 Bandar Lampung In 2009/2010”. this paper can be finished on time. Akhmad Sutiyono. as the first advisor who always guides the writer in finishing this paper. M. M. because the writer had finished this paper.M. The writer realizes that the paper still have a lot of deficiency.Pd . as The Chief of STKIP-PGRI Bandar Lampung Drs. Hj. Djuwarsih. S. The writer would like to express her great appreciation and gratitude to: 1. as the second advisor who always guides the writer in finishing this paper.Pd. Drs. 2. Dailami Zain. caused by the limitedness of the writer.PREFACE Thanks to Allah SWT. Drs. 3. .

Pd. . 6. All management and administration staff of STKIP-PGRI Bandar Lampung. as the chief of scientific of STKIP-PGRI Bandar Lampung who always help the writer in finishing this paper. All lectures of Language and Art Department of STKIP-PGRI Bandar Lampung. Sudarmaji. Drs. I hope this graduating paper will be useful for anyone who reads it.5. 7. M.

. .... iv DEDICATION………………………………………………………………...TABLE OF CONTENT ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………… …...... v MOTTO……………………………………………………………………… ……... i TITLE OF PAPER………………………………………………………………… ii DECLARATION…………………………………………………………… …….ix THE LIST OF APPENDICES………………………………………………………x ........ iii CURRICULUM VITAE…………………………………………………………. vii THE LIST OF TABLE………………………………………………………... vi PREFACE…………………………………………………………………… ……..

LIST OF TABLE .

APPENDICES .

they are able to use English for communication. In Indonesia. speaking. the students who have graduated from each level should master those four skills. teacher should motivate students to master all of skills so. And based on the current curriculum. feeling and thoughts. English is an International language that is used by almost all of people in the world.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. Indonesian government decided that English become a compulsory subject that must be taught start from elementary school up to university. . The language that is used by people from different countries is called International language. Considering the importance of English in our life. As we know there are four language skills in learning English. it is impossible for teacher and students to explain and understand the lesson.1 The Background of the Problem To interact with other in every time and place. It is expected that students are able to speak English effectively and fluently. Language is a tool to express the ideas. To achieve the goal of learning and teaching English. reading and writing. people use language. They are listening. English is taught as a foreign language. Without language.

Therefore. Therefore in solving this problem. Because by using interactive and interesting technique. One of the problems that arise is in mastering vocabulary. Sometimes. It can be proved that most of the students who have finished their study are unable to use English in their real life. it is necessary to teach students by using suitable techniques. unfortunately the goal of curriculum have not achieved yet. By using lexical sets teaching vocabulary in the classroom will be effective and more interested. Not only the method.But. the students get difficulties to memorize the words in teaching vocabulary. . Vocabulary is one of the English components included in English skill. Learning English in Indonesia is still difficult for the students. The students find difficult to memorize many vocabularies. And increasing students’ motivation has become difficult task for the teachers. those will increase the students’ motivation in learning. There are so many ways or method to teach vocabulary. but the teachers need to be innovative and creative to make vocabulary learning process more enjoyable and enable the student to memorize it longer. because there are some games inside this technique. the writer will use lexical sets. The teacher should be able to choose and apply interesting techniques of English teaching in order to get a good result. Many students get difficult in increasing their vocabulary.

1. Based on the background of problem above. The students’ have lack of in mastering vocabulary. They have lack of in vocabulary.2 The Identification of the Problem Based on the background of the problem above. The students’ find difficulties in categorize subgroups of vocabularies. the writer would like to limit the problem of research only for “The implementation of using lexical sets towards students’ vocabulary mastery at the first semester of the eighth class of SMP Negeri 26 Bandar Lampung in 2008/2009”. The teacher never uses this technique in teaching vocabulary before. 2. the writer identifies the problems as follow: 1.” 1. the writer will conduct the research entitle: “The implementation of using lexical sets towards students’ vocabulary mastery at the first semester of the eighth class of SMP Negeri 26 Bandar Lampung in 2009/ 2010.Based on preliminary research the writer found that students’ vocabulary mastery is still low. . 3. Based on the statement above. the writer would like to improve the students’ vocabulary mastery at SMP Negeri 26 Bandar Lampung by using lexical sets as one of the main ways in teaching process.3 The Limitation of the Problem Based on the identification above.

How is the students’ vocabulary mastery? 2.5.1.5 The Objective and the Use of Research 1.5. . How is the implementation of using lexical sets towards students’ vocabulary mastery? 1. To know the influence of using lexical sets towards students’ vocabulary mastery.4 The Formulation of the Problem Based on the limitation research problems above. 1.1 The Objective of Research Based on the formulation of problem the writer formulates the objective of research as follow: 1.2 The Use of Research 1. 2. To give information to the English teacher about the influence of using lexical sets towards students’ vocabulary mastery. To know is there any score increase by using lexical set. the writer formulates the problem as follows: 1.

2. 1. especially in learning vocabulary.1 The Subject of the Research The subject of research is the students at the first semester of the eighth class of SMP Negeri 26 Bandar Lampung.3 The Place of the Research The research will be conduct at SMP Negeri 26 Bandar Lampung jalan Imam Bonjol no. THINKING AND HYPOTHESIS 2. To motivate the students in learning English.4 The Time of the Research The research would research at the first semester of the eight class of SMP Negeri 26 Bandar Lampung in 2009 / 2010.6. 1.52 Sumberejo Kemiling.6. 3.6. 1. As information for further research with certain interest.6 The Scope of the Research 1. 1. CHAPTER II FRAME OF THEORIES.2 The Object of the Research The object of the research is the implementation of using lexical sets towards students’ vocabulary mastery.1 Teaching English as a Foreign Language .6.

English should be taught from junior high school up to university. English as a foreign language should be learnt by the students in order to develop the quality of human resources in Indonesia. In Indonesia.English as international language has a large influence for human life. A definition about a foreign language given by Wilkins (1980 : 155) that a foreign language is not the mother tongue of any group within the country where it is being learned and has any internal communication either. Teaching English as a foreign language is not simple as teaching English as second language. English is taught as a foreign language therefore. the instruction and technique. the teacher should prepare the material that will be taught. Both of learning and teaching language can be regarded as a process. The learners do not use English for daily communication and they just speak English when they have English class at school. The government of Indonesia has stated that English is the first foreign language that must be taught at school. It means that the students who learn English as foreign . English is used of most of the people around the world. English is not use for daily communication in social intercourse. Their environment and situation don’t support them to speak English for daily communication. As foreign language. In teaching English as foreign language.

The teacher’s knowledge 2. There are some factors to be considered to create a successful lesson. To achieve good result from . The teaching and learning process will be run well if both of teacher and students feel comfortable in the classroom activities. Include game and song 9. Have a varied pace 10. The teacher should be able to make English interesting to be learned. The clear goal for the students 5. It will never be happened without good preparation. The technique of teaching should be suitable with the material. In teaching English as foreign language the teacher should prepare the material well. Give students a sense of achievement Motivate the students is also the important has been done by the teacher because students’ motivation has an important role in the learning process. Good relationship between the teacher and the students 6.language have a little or limited exposure or opportunities to use their English in real life. Make the students feel enjoyable in their learning 8. Make the students feel involved 7. they are: 1. The students’ interest in the subject 4. The appropriate teaching method 3.

their ability will increase rapidly. technique. and also good media which is used to help students in their learning and transferring the message of material given by the teacher. By practicing English continuously. It means that the goal of teaching and learning will never be achieved if both of teacher and students do not work cooperatively. First is qualification in English and second is a teaching qualification. They will have many opportunities to develop their English when they are actively involved in the classroom interaction. It is about the material. Teacher and students must be active in their learning. The second qualification is the ability to manage the class situation. Students should practice their English regularly and intensively both in classroom and outside classroom. Both of them should place their self correctly and do each of their duty as well as possible. Teacher demand must be creative and innovative in facilitating.teaching and learning process the teacher should think and work hard for preparing. method. Because we know that practice makes perfect. designing and supporting the students’ need. Learning English as a foreign language needs a lot of practices. In teaching English. . The teacher plays a role as a model for his/her students. at least there are two qualifications are needed from the teacher.

without vocabulary we can say anything meaningfully. the vocabulary is entirely important for the students to learn in order they can express their mind in making sentence.2 The Concept of Vocabulary According to Longman (1987: 1177) explain that vocabulary is a list of words usually in alphabetical order and with explanation of their meaningless complete than dictionary. .If the students realize how important English for communication and feel curiosity to learn a language. Vocabulary is one of the component parts of a language. we will get the improvement if we learn more words and expressions. If we only learn about grammar. and writing. We can communicate with other by using word or many vocabularies. without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed”. reading. It means that we can not do anything without vocabulary. It is clear that we can say a word when arrange letters in order way and result will make up the meaning. Wilkins states “without grammar very little can be conveyed. 2. speaking. our English will not improve very much. interact and also catch the meaning from the text. So. But. it is not too difficult for them to appear their own motivation to develop and master four language skills: listening. Language can be used to convey our intention and to express the message clearly.

It means that we get success in learning a language especially in learning international language. read and write. listen. Learning vocabulary from definition . We would be able to speak. 2. the writer use three possible ways: 1. the writer assumes that vocabulary is very important. One can communicative with others if they master the vocabularies well.2. who will learn a language. No vocabulary there is any language. If we have got familiar with the words which are used in daily communication it will easy for us to get the interaction with other. means she should try to learn the vocabularies first. The statement above tells that vocabulary is an essential thing in language learning. the writer believe that everyone will be able to understand what someone else says and we can communicate with other easily. By knowing vocabulary.1 The Concept of Teaching and Learning Vocabulary Vocabulary plays an important role in language learning especially in learning English. Learning vocabulary from context clues 2. Learning vocabulary from guessing 3. In this case. One.Considering the statement above.

It means that both the teacher and the students must have the responsibility for their learning. The second is how learners manage the input he/ she has obtained and processed it. Thornbury said that vocabulary learning is a memory task. 2. She has taught English and trained teachers in the Middle East.At the first the learner will get information about vocabulary such as: how to spell. Jordan. but it also involves creative and personalized use.3 The Concept of Lexical Sets Andrea Schindler is the Regional English Language Officer at the American Embassy in Amman. . And the second one is how they use it in their daily life. Thornbury said that what the implications for teaching vocabulary is how the words learnt by the students and the teacher have the role in the activity. especially for vocabulary expansion. It means that after we learn about vocabulary. Asia. how to pronounce. how to use words in appropriate sentences as well as meaning. She promotes English language teaching and gives English teacher-training workshops and seminars throughout the Levant. we should use it in our communication. and the United States for over 20 years. When it necessary in form spoken and written symbols.

there have been numerous splits and mergers. For example. It is not . Use in English One common use of lexical sets is for vowel categories or equivalence classes in the English language. Throughout the phonological history of the English language.org/wiki/Lexical_set lexical sets is a group of words which share a similar phonetic feature.wikipedia. look. function or form. This is another student-centered activity that allows students to review and critically evaluate vocabulary in categories. some speakers of English pronounce luck and look identically. Luke. only that all the words in that set will have more or less the same pronunciation for that feature. This will engage them in thinking till you end it up. And based on the statement in http://en. while still others distinguish between all three of luck. This activity requires higher thinking skills to categorize vocabulary appropriately. Then. with the result that various accents and dialects make different distinctions between vowels. The lexical set says nothing about the specific realization of its feature (its exact pronunciation). while others pronounce look and Luke identically. give each pair or group of students a lexical set and tell them to categorize them in different logical ways. The teacher has to make cards that can be arranged into categories and subcategories.Andrea Schindler explained Lexical set is a group of words with the same topic.

the words luck. FOOT. look.they do not say whether or not this vowel is distinct from that of. regardless of whether all those distinctions are present in any particular variety. this takes some preparation on your part. GOOSE. However. for example. sound A in dialect X corresponds to sound B in dialect Y. to say that. say. for example. Purpose This is another student-centered activity that allows students to review and critically evaluate vocabulary in categories. lexical sets are intended to convey all distinctions that occur in the varieties of English under consideration. therefore. Luke belong the lexical sets STRUT. and use these to talk about. for example. In the example above. . respectively. thus using critical thinking skills while reviewing vocabulary items. bush) with the same vowel -. luck or Luke. Again. it is possible to identify a number of lexical sets: groups of words which will have the same vowel sound in all or most varieties of English. to identify the entire set.possible. Lexical sets mean. full. that people pronounce words in FOOT (such as good. the specific pronunciation of the vowel characterizing a particular lexical set in a particular variety of English. Students must analyze the relationship between items. A common convention is to choose a particular keyword which is part of the set and to use this word. In other words. in upper case.

hum) (full. defined the Standard Lexical Sets of English. word games such as the chaining game 'I went to the market and bought…'. hem) (bad. dramatically. air. crowd) Near (beer. for) (floor. and class poster projects. rob. tortoise. fierce) square (care. ebb. The following 24 sets for stressed syllables and 4 sets for unstressed syllables allow one to describe a very wide range of varieties of English from across the world. in his book Accents of English. noun. goldfish. dog. ore) (poor. angrily' is part of the syntactic lexical set adverbs. storm. dance) Cure . gerbil' is part of the topical lexical set pets.Example 'Cat. only that all the words in that set will have more or less the same pronunciation for that feature. Wells. and 'quickly. John C. coarse. dim) (step. Odd One Out. pier. fury) (staff. rip. look. clasp. The lexical set says nothing about the specific realization feature (its exact pronunciation). rub. happily. cab. swan) (cub. farm) (war. could) mouth (pouch. sharp. Activities include asking learners to sort words into groups. wear) Start North Force (far. completely. In the classroom Lexical sets are a way of looking at new vocabulary that some learners find useful. ham) (stop. Lexical Set as "a group of words which share a similar phonetic feature. and Stop. tour. Lexical set Kit Dress Trap Lot Strut Foot Bath Examples (ship.

bra. steak) (calm. Here's how I would analyze my speech. work) (seed. aisle) (boy. bivouac) Of course. broad) (soap. tribe. long. group. hawk. home) (who. merry) (beggar. key. Lexical set Kit Dress trap/bath lot/cloth Transcription [ɪ] [ɛ] [æ] [ɒ ] . visor) (China.Cloth Nurse Fleece Face Palm Thought Goat Goose Price Choice (cough. rein. seize) (weight. soul. gone) (hurt. sofa. Tony. martyr. term. situation. father) (taut. about) (influence. void coin) There are also four lexical sets for unstressed vowels: Lexical set Examples Happy Letter Comma Into (silly. few) (ripe. each of those lexical sets is realized as a vowel.

before a voiceless consonant:[əɪ] [oɪ] [aʊ]. before a voiceless consonant:[əʊ] [iɚ] [ɛɚ] [ɑɚ] [oɚ] [ʊɚ] [i] [ɚ] [ə] [ʊ] [ə] These lexical sets.Strut Foot Nurse Fleece Face [ʌ ] [ʊ] [ɝ ] [i] [eɪ] palm/thought [ɑ] Goat Goose Price Choice Mouth Near Square Start north/force Cure Happy Letter Comma Into [oʊ] [u] [aɪ]. can be placed upon a vowel chart. showing their relationships in terms of where the vowels are made in mouth: . based upon pronunciation.

We can make a group of the lexical sets by vowel placement: Front Monophthongs: fleece. cure. price. lot.3. such as things found in a school. Make a list of 25 to 30 words from this group. choice.1 The Procedure of Teaching Vocabulary through Lexical Set Preparation 1. arrange the words into subgroups. goat Centering Diphthongs: near. such as furniture (chair. desk. crayons). foot/into. Then. comma. nurse. mouth. Pick a category of vocabulary. square. You should make four to eight different subgroups of . trap/bath Central Monophthongs: strut. 2. thought/palm Diphthongs: face. north/force. table). things you write with (pen. dress. letter Back Monophthongs: goose. kit. pencil. etc. start 2.

With advanced young learners. 6. This activity focuses to their attention on the vocabulary and makes them critically think about hierarchy and grouping. Divide the students into pairs or groups of three. You can organize the subcategories any way you want. After they have worked for a bit. tell them the number of categories. but make sure there is some logic. which are higher order thinking skills than mindless. 3. After another bit. They will groan and then reanalyze their subcategories yet again. Again. Make sets of little cards with each word on one card. 4. Tell them that they have to put the pile of words into categories. more time-on-task equals more learning. a part-owner of the learning process.vocabulary. . Give each pair a lexical set. depending upon how many students you have. 5. a sense of being a stakeholder. Make 12 to 15 sets of the 25 to 30 words. This activity will engage your class until you put an end to it. Remember. With preliterate young learners. tell them exactly how many items are in each different category. decontextualized memorization. you can use pictures of items already learned instead of words. you could have pairs of students to create the lexical sets and then use a different pair’s set each time you run the activity. They will moan and then rework their groups. is incredibly motivating for students.

Based on all the previous explanation above. the writer assumes that teaching vocabulary by using lexical sets can motivate students to enjoy the vocabulary lesson during learning and teaching process. The components of the language are grammar or structure. reading and writing. speaking. An interesting lexical set also helps students to find the ideas in learning vocabulary. spelling etc are needed. It is important in order to master four language skills those are listening. vocabulary. Implementation of using lexical sets Students’ vocabulary mastery 2.2. pronunciation. Using lexical sets is more interesting and guides them to reanalyze the subcategories of vocabulary.4 The Frame of Thinking Teaching vocabulary using lexical sets can reinforce and increase students’ motivation in learning English.5 The Hypothesis .

Based on the theories and frame of thinking above. 2. There is increase score by using lexical sets. There is positive influence of using lexical sets towards students’ vocabulary mastery. . the writer would like to propose the hypothesis as follows: 1.