You are on page 1of 14

CHAPTER 16 Motivation

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. a basic understanding of human motivation 2. insights about various human needs 3. an appreciation for the importance of motivating organization members 4. an understanding of various motivation strategies

DETAILED LECTURE OUTLINE

I.

INTRODUCTORY CASE: AMERICAN GREETINGS MOTIVATES THROUGH LATERAL MOVES * American Greetings Corporation used reorganization to not only cut costs and the time needed to bring new products to market but also to motivate. People no longer specialized in one particular type of creative work but worked in teams, and they could transfer among teams so as to be able to do a wider variety of tasks than before. THE MOTIVATION PROCESS A. Defining Motivation * Motivation is the inner state causing an individual to behave in a way that ensures accomplishment of some goal. B. Process Theories of Motivation * Process theories of motivation emphasize how individuals are motivated. 1. The Needs-Goal Model of Motivation (See Figure 16.1) * It hypothesizes that felt needs cause human behavior. * Theoretically, goal-supportive behavior and goal behavior continue until a felt need has been reduced significantly. 2. The Vroom Expectancy Theory of Motivation * Hypothesizes that felt needs cause human behavior and that motivation strength depends on an individual's degree of desire to perform a behavior. * Motivation strength is an individual's degree of desire to perform a behavior. * Motivation strength is determined by: * The perceived value of the result of performing a behavior * The perceived probability that the behavior performed will cause the result to happen 3. Equity Theory of Motivation 1

II.

and love. Alderfer's ERG Theory * An explanation of human needs that divides them into three basic types: * Existence needs * Relatedness needs * Growth needs * Alderfer claims that movement in his hierarchy is not always upward. * Self-actualization needs reflect the human desire to maximize potential. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (See Figure 16. companionship. * As individuals mature. 4. 2 . * Two variables determine the extent of task accomplishment: the individual's perception of what is required to perform the task and the individual's actual ability to perform the task. including the desire for friendship. behaving in many different ways. The Porter-Lawler Theory of Motivation * Hypothesizes that felt needs cause human behavior and that motivation strength is determined primarily by the perceived value of the result of performing the behavior and the perceived probability that the behavior performed will cause the result to materialize. 3. considering a relatively-long time perspective. rest. a state of relative independence. occupying an equal position with other mature individuals. * Social needs reflect the human desire to belong. * Extrinsic rewards are extraneous to the task. Content Theories of Motivation: Human Needs Content theories of motivation emphasize internal characteristics of people. Concerns indicate that Maslow's hierarchy should be considered more a subjective statement than an objective description of human needs.* C. Argyris's Maturity-Immaturity Continuum * Presents a continuum focusing on an individual's natural growth progress from immaturity to maturity. and more awareness of themselves and control over their own destiny. they have increasing needs for: more activity. * The needs are arranged into a hierarchy of importance. and air. * Security or safety needs reflect the human desire to keep free from physical harm. * Emphasizes an individual's perceived fairness of an employment situation and how perceived inequities can cause certain behaviors. deeper interests. * Esteem needs include the desires for self-respect and respect from others. sex. * The perceived fairness of rewards influences the amount of satisfaction produced by those rewards.4) * Maslow states that human beings possess five basic needs: * Physiological needs related to normal functioning of the body and the needs for water. 2. 1. * Stresses three other characteristics of the motivation process: * The perceived reward value is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards * Intrinsic rewards come directly from performing the task.

Managerial Communication * Perhaps the most basic motivation strategy is simply to communicate with organization members. McClelland's Achievement Motivation * Focuses on desires for achievement. * Across Industries—Pharmaceuticals: “Eli Lilly and Company Benefits From Job Rotation” * The company finds that overall training and development benefits plus increased job satisfaction outweigh its impact on costs and productivity. 3. * Herzberg identified two factors influencing the degree of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction: * Hygiene. B. * Motivating factors are items influencing the degree of work satisfaction. * Job rotation moves workers from job to job. and influence the degree of work dissatisfaction. Theory X-Theory Y * McGregor identifies two sets of assumptions about the nature of people: * Theory X is a set of essentially negative assumptions about the nature of people. * Reddin proposes a Theory Z. The Importance of Motivating Organization Members * Managers who are successful at motivating organization members minimize inappropriate behavior and maximize appropriate behavior. III. power. * See Table 16.1. and security. and affiliation as needs that people develop as a result of their life experiences. * Job enlargement also seeks to overcome boredom by increasing the number of operations a worker performs. 4. * Theory Y is a set of essentially positive assumptions about the nature of people.4. 3 . depending on their situation. MOTIVATING ORGANIZATION MEMBERS A. or not requiring workers to perform only one simple and specialized job over the long run. or maintenance factors relate to the work environment. 2. Job Design * Earlier Job Design Strategies * The movement to make jobs simpler and more specialized is aimed at increasing productivity. an effectiveness dimension that implies that managers who use either Theory X or Theory Y assumptions when dealing with people can be successful. * Manager-subordinate communication can satisfy such basic human needs as recognition. a sense of belonging. Strategies for Motivating Organization Members 1. Job Enrichment * Job enrichment is the process of incorporating motivators into a job situation.

a. confidence in subordinates. * Negative reinforcement is a reward that is the elimination of an undesirable consequence of behavior. Punishment * Punishment is the presentation of an undesirable behavioral consequence and/or the removal of a desirable behavior consequence that decrease the likelihood of the behavior continuing. Quality Spotlight * Apple Computer has tried to provide both hygiene and motivating factors to its employees through job enrichment. 6. Applying Behavior Modification * Characteristics of successful behavior modification programs include: * Giving different reward levels to different workers depending on their performance quality * Telling workers what they are doing wrong * Punishing workers privately in order to not embarrass them in front of others * Always giving rewards and punishments when earned to emphasize that management efforts are serious 7. Behavior Modification * Behavior modification focuses on encouraging appropriate behavior as a result of the consequences of that behavior. * System 2's style involves having condescending confidence and trust (such as master to servant) in subordinates. b. while behavior that is punished tends to be eliminated. Reinforcement * Positive reinforcement is a reward that is a desirable consequence of behavior.5. behavior that is rewarded tends to be repeated. * Increases job motivation and satisfaction. * Flextime * Flextime allows workers to complete their jobs within a workweek of a normal number of hours that they schedule themselves. Likert's Management Systems * Likert categorizes management styles into the following systems: * System 1's style has no confidence or trust in subordinates. * Management and the Internet: Managers Punish Pornographic Related Behavior * Organizations are monitoring employees who access pornographic sites using the organization’s computers and are punishing them for doing so c. * System 3's style involves having substantial. * According to the law of effect. but not complete. 4 .

Satisfaction in sequence is not necessary according to Alderfer. security. (2) Alderfer's ERG theory. thereby increasing productivity. (2) relatedness needs. 10. and (4) McClelland'sacquired-needs theory. and also emphasizing quality. He focuses on three needs: (1) the need for achievement. Monetary Incentives * A number of firms make a wide range of money-based compensation programs available to their employees as a form of motivation. (2) the need for power. 9. (6) monetary incentives. and (4) the Porter-Lawler theory. Motivation of organizational members requires satisfying human needs through work. The needs-goal theory is a motivation model that hypothesizes that felt needs cause human behavior. (3) the equity theory. and self-actualization. SUMMARY Motivation explains why people behave the way they do. (See Figure 16. 5 . Four important content theories of motivation are: (1) Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Maslow's hierarchy of needs reflects a sequence of satisfaction of needs: physiological. The Porter-Lawler theory is a more complete theory because it stresses: (1) intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. McClelland's acquired-needs theory focus on the need that people develop through their life experiences.7) 8. (2) Theory X . the firm tends to become more productive over the long run. (3) job design. and (7) nonmonetary incentives. esteem. The Vroom expectancy theory is a motivation theory that hypothesizes that felt needs cause human behavior and that motivation strength depends on an individual's degree of desire to perform a behavior. This continuum focuses on the personal and natural development of people to explain how needs exist. (4) behavior modification. (2) the Vroom expectancy theory. and (3) the perceived fairness of rewards. and (3) growth needs. social. (3) Argyris's maturity-immaturity continuum. (5) Likert's management system. To motivate employees. and (3) the need for affiliation. Motivation increases appropriate behavior. No single strategy will necessarily be more effective for a manager than any other.* * System 4's style involves having complete trust and confidence in subordinates. because the job is interesting and satisfying. (2) task requirements and ability. managers can use (1) managerial communication.Theory Y. Four important process theories that describe how motivation occurs are: (1) the needs-goal theory. The equity theory states that perceived equities can lead to changes in behavior. People Spotlight * Microsoft has found that just because their employees have a lot of money they remain highly productive. Nonmonetary Incentives * Nonmonetary incentives can include a policy of promoting from within. Argyris's maturity-immaturity continuum shows how humans progress through a natural maturation process. * Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) seek to motivate employees by offering company ownership as a benefit. Process theories of motivation are explanations of how individuals are motivated. Alderfer's ERG theory is similar to Maslow's theory except he identified three basic categories of needs: (1) existence needs. Content theories of motivation are explanations of what motivates people. As management styles move toward system 4.

Motivation through communication is one of the simplest strategies. Theory X . Nonmonetary incentives include an emphasis on quality. they can better influence their employees to accomplish organizational objectives. This motivation strength or desire is influenced by: (a) the perceived value of the result of the behavior and (b) the perceived probability that the result will materialize. Draw and explain a model that illustrates the needs-goal theory of motivation. Explain Vroom's expectancy theory of motivation. and flextime. 2.1) is based on the premise that motivation begins with an individual feeling a need. Process theories focus on the steps that occur when an individual is motivated. job enlargement. 4. Content theories focus on understanding the needs that people possess and how they can be satisfied. but Vroom goes further and addresses the issue of the strength of the motivation. Yet another motivation strategy is monetary incentives such as bonuses and ESOPs. When managers understand what motivates different individuals. This need is then transformed into goal-supportive behavior. Process theories of motivation are explanations of motivation that emphasize how individuals are motivated. the motivation strength increases. As both of these forces increase. The needs-goal model of motivation (text Figure 16. Describe the difference between process and content theories of motivation. the purpose of which is to reduce the felt need. REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1. job rotation. Job design strategies include work simplification. Define motivation and explain why managers must understand it. Content theories are explanations of motivation that emphasize internal characteristics of people. 3.Theory Y involves managers' assumptions about the nature of people. Behavior modification uses positive and negative reinforcement and punishment to motivate employees. With Likert's management style. Motivation is the part of the inner state of an individual that causes him or her to behave in a way that ensures the accomplishment of some goal. job enrichment. Vroom's model is based on the same premises as the needs goal model. Motivation strength is determined by an individual's desire to perform a behavior. productivity increases as the management style moves from system 1 to system 4. When the feedback from the goal behavior indicates that the need has been satisfied. 6 . the need ceases to be a motivating factor.

the more equitable the rewards are perceived to be. an individual's effectiveness will increase as his or her perception of what is required to perform the task becomes more accurate and as the individual's ability to perform the task increases. these two types of rewards make up the total value of the reward for the individual. might be subject to sampling errors. What does Maslow's hierarchy of needs tell us about the relationship between personal needs and workplace needs? Maslow's hierarchy of needs tell us three things about people's needs. Maslow feels his clinical study on neurosis. and self-actualization needs. (This order of importance corresponds to the order of the list just given. Other management theorists also question the theory's lack of a research base 7 . the lower-level need would once again become the need of primary importance to the individual. esteem. according to the Porter-Lawler theory. What concerns have been expressed about Maslow's hierarchy of needs? Concerns about Maslow's hierarchy have been expressed by both Maslow himself and other management theorists. while extrinsic rewards are extraneous to the task. Intrinsic rewards come from the performance of the task itself. Maslow's hierarchy shows that if a lower need ceased to be satisfied while an individual was working on a higher-level need. Maslow's major concern stems from the study itself and his fear that his limited research will be applied too enthusiastically to industrial situations. A second idea inherent in the Porter-Lawler theory is that the extent to which an individual effectively accomplishes a task is determined by two variables: (1) the individual's perception of what is required to perform the task and (2) the individual's actual ability to perform the task. from which the hierarchy of needs was formed. First. Finally. the perceived fairness of rewards influences the amount of satisfaction produced by those rewards. 6. List and explain three characteristics of the motivation process contained in the PorterLawler motivation theory that are not contained in either the needs-goal theory of motivation or Vroom expectancy theories. 7. Together. security. What is the main theme of the equity theory of motivation? The equity theory looks at an individual's perceived fairness of an employment situation and finds that perceived inequities can lead to changes in behavior. or in the order in which individuals generally strive to satisfy them. Maslow asserts that these needs can be arranged in order of importance. the hierarchy of groups’ needs fall into five basic categories: physiological. the greater the individual's satisfaction. Second. 8. social. In general. The first characteristic is the idea that the perceived value of the reward is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards that result in need satisfaction when a task is accomplished.) Finally.5. Obviously.

Explain Argyris's maturity-immaturity continuum. social. What are the similarities and differences between Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Alderfer's ERG theory? Both Maslow and Alderfer identified studied human needs and identified basic categories of needs. 11. Summarize the characteristics of individuals who have a high need for achievement. Maslow found five: physiological. the need for physical well-being—relatedness needs. 13. Explain "motivating organization members. Argyris's theory states that as people progress from immaturity to maturity. and growth needs—the need for continuing personal growth and development. Individuals who have high needs for achievement tend to set goals for themselves that are challenging yet achievable. (f) from a superordinate position to aspiring to a more equal and/or subordinate position. shallow interests to deeper interests. as people mature. the need for satisfying interpersonal relationships. (c) from very limited behavioral abilities to a wide range of behavioral abilities. but they assess risk very carefully. Argyris's continuum is based on the natural maturation process from infancy to adulthood. individuals with the need to achieve do not want to fail and will avoid tasks that involve too much risk. Such people do not avoid risk completely. According to Argyris. that movement in his hierarchy in satisfying human needs is not always upward. esteem. (b) from a state of dependence to a relative independence. Alderfer identified existence needs. and self actualization. (d) from erratic. unlike Maslow. and (g) from a lack of self-awareness to control and awareness of self. Argyris's continuum is obviously more subjective in nature than Maslow's hierarchy. What is the need for achievement? The need for achievement is the desire to do something better or more efficiently than it has ever been done before.and wonder whether Maslow accurately pinpointed five basic needs and if they are actually arranged in a hierarchy. Alderfer also found. (e) from a short time perspective to a longer time perspective. 12. their needs change. Basically. security." 8 . Alderfer found that workers may sometimes motivate their higher-level needs before they have completely satisfied their lowerlevel needs. In contrast to Maslow. 10. 9. Since they are motivated by the need to achieve. they move: (a) from a passive state to a more active state.

Communicating can help to determine and fulfill such common needs as recognition. one must accurately assess the situation and the individuals concerned. Reddin. perhaps. Is the process of motivating organization members important to managers? Explain. the most basic strategy for motivating organization members. have little ambition. 14. The process of motivating organization members is of major importance to managers. By contrast. basically states that either theory might be effective. J. 16. and Theory Z? What does each of these theories tell us about motivating organization members? These three theories encompass strategies managers can use to motivate organization members. the feeling of belonging. Theory Z was developed because some experts felt that McGregor had considered only the ineffective application of Theory X and the effective application of Theory Y in recommending a strategy for managers to use in motivating organization members. (b) that managers must use coercion and threatened punishment to get adequate effort toward the achievement of organizational objectives. In effect. Theory X and Theory Y are two sets of assumptions identified by Douglas McGregor. Theory X assumes: (a) that the average worker dislikes work and will attempt to avoid it if possible. Management's failure to satisfy the needs of individual organization members results in frustration for these individuals.Motivating organization members is the process of furnishing organization members with the opportunity to satisfy their needs by performing behavior within the organization. wish to avoid responsibility. 9 . Theory Y. when management successfully motivates organization members. situations do arise when Theory X strategies are the most effective. which then becomes translated into inappropriate organizational behavior. This theory asserts that commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with achievement. developed by W. and (c) that most individuals prefer to be directed. Reddin is saying to managers that to effectively motivate organization members. the result is appropriate behavior and accomplishment of organizational objectives. Theory Z. How can managerial communication be used to motivate organization members? Communicating is. and want security above all. 15. Managers operating according to Theory Y would thus use strategies completely different from those suggested by Theory X to motivate organization members. Although Theory Y is generally more successful in motivating organization members than Theory X. What are Theory X. and security. Theory Y assumes that most individuals see work as being as natural as play or rest and will exercise self-direction and self-control in working toward objectives to which they are committed. depending on the situation.

and opportunity for achievement. Define flextime and behavior modification. job enlargement programs have been more successful than job rotation programs. 18. and motivating factors must be high. motivating factors. Hygiene factors would include salary. relationships with subordinates. Motivating factors are factors in the work itself that influence the degree of job satisfaction. Job rotation entails moving an employee from job to job. personal growth. This innovation permits flexible working hours chosen by individual workers. and behavior that is punished tends to be eliminated. working conditions. feedback aimed at keeping employees informed concerning the relationship between various behaviors and their consequences. hygiene factors must be desirable. b. What is the difference between job enlargement and job rotation? Both job enlargement and job rotation attempt to overcome job boredom. but to allow workers greater flexibility in the exact hours during which they must perform their jobs. Describe the relationship of hygiene factors. Flextime is a scheduling innovation many managers have turned to when faced with problems of motivation and absenteeism.depending on the quality of their importance. evidently because workers eventually become bored with all the simple jobs to which they are rotated. 19. In general. c. Such factors include responsibility. or not requiring the employee to perform only one simple and specialized task over the long run. punishing workers privately so as not to embarrass them and 10 . different levels of rewards for different workers. on the other hand. the organization member will generally be motivated to do a better job. The purpose of flextime is not to reduce the total number of hours employees work.17. Job enrichment is the process of incorporating motivating factors into job situations. Under these conditions. d. What basic ingredients are necessary to make a behavior modification program successful? The basic ingredients of a successful behavior modification program are: a. 20. is an attempt to alleviate boredom by increasing the number of operations an individual performs on the job. For job enrichment to be successful. Job enlargement. Hygiene factors in the work environment influence the degree of job dissatisfaction. The strategy is based on the premise that behavior that is rewarded tends to be repeated. and job enrichment. supervision. telling workers what they are doing wrong. etc. advancement. Behavior modification is a strategy for motivating organization members that focuses on encouraging appropriate behavior as a result of the consequence of certain types of behavior.

d. good working relationships and the increase in motivational factors generally cause an increase in production. Information flow is primarily downward. Decision making is well coordinated and occurs at all levels of the organization. once workers are adjusted to this style or system. System 3. In the short term. The system 4 management style is completely different. 21. While this type of strategy may increase production initially. This style of management involves having no trust and confidence in subordinates. and horizontally. using this management style will usually lead to a production decrease. summarize Likert's four management system. and these adjustments may cause a decrease in production. System 2. System 1. System 4. Broad policies are made by top management. and policies are made by top management. although certain decisions within a prescribed framework are made at lower levels. However. 22. Information flows downward. participative management style takes some adjustments on the part of subordinates.e. but in the long term. Information flows both up and down. it fails to satisfy workers' needs over the long term. Likert's four systems can be described as follows: a. upward. What effect do Likert's systems 1 and 4 generally have on organizational production in both the short and the long terms? Why do these effects occur? In the short term. The system 1 management style motivates through fear and punishment. This style of management involves having substantial (but not complete) confidence in subordinates. c. b. and most decisions are made by top management. This management style involves having condescending confidence and trust in subordinates. This management style involves having complete trust and confidence in subordinates. The opposite is true for a system 4 management style. The reason for the effect of each management style on production involves the relationship between each style and the human needs of employees. always giving rewards and punishments when earned to emphasize that management is serious about behavior modification efforts. 11 . Information flows mostly downward. but specific decisions are made at lower levels. In your own words. managers using a system 1 style may increase production.

Would Beauvais be considered a Theory X. Theory Y. Beauvais offers employees stock in the company. How are the process theories of motivation implemented in the Western Pacific model? The process theories of motivation emphasize "how" the individual is motivated. Maslow's hierarchy identifies five basic needs: (1) physiological. Some likely answers include: promotion from within. Beauvais leans toward the democratic process because he elicits ideas and comments about how to do a better job from the employees doing the job. (3) social. 2. List three nonmonetary incentives that you personally would find desirable as an employee. Nonmonetary rewards are useful because they satisfy esteem and self-actualization needs and growth needs. 12 . Selfactualization usually occurs when all other needs are satisfied and the person feels the need to improve self just for the sake of improving self. 3. and being trusted to set and reach work goals. or Theory Z manager? Why? Beauvais would probably be considered a Y type manager in the strictest sense of the definition. Why would these incentives be desirable to you? A variety of answers is possible here. He hopes that a stake in the company will improve their commitment to the company. Use Maslow's hierarchy to identify the needs addressed in Beauvais's approach to employee relations. Beauvais feels that if people enjoy their work this enthusiasm will be transmitted to the customers they serve. association with an organization that has worldwide respect. Employees have a need to feel that their ideas are important and worthy of consideration. being given more responsibility. Beauvais has created the type of environment where the respect and trust shown to his employees has fulfilled the social and esteem needs. because they have been defined as motivators by Herzberg. If Beauvais were to use the group process more in solving problems. Beauvais tries to create a corporate culture in which the employee is respected and involved. and (5) self-actualization. SUGGESTED ANSWERS TO DISCUSSION QUESTIONS FOR CASE STUDY 1. (4) esteem. and because they are positive reinforcers. his management style would become more like the Z type manager.23. (2) safety. an organizational emphasis on producing quality products.

1. There are over a million people in some form of incarceration in the United States. 13 . Suppose you have a position within a prison to help find employment for those who will be getting out. Have you ever lacked motivation in a course you have taken? If not. SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES 1. Show which of the motivational concepts covered in the chapter would most likely be useful. If Beauvais is truly serious about creating an atmosphere of trust and open communication. 2. and they could transfer among teams so as to be able to do a wider variety of tasks than before. No. and the Skills Exercise calls upon students to analyze the change using Maslow╞s hierarchy. Suppose you have identified some potential employers. The wrap-up questions deal with that strategy.4. Chupa should spend a lot of his time motivating because motivated employees in creative operations that are designing products are his key to business success. Do you think it would be unusual for a manager like Chupa to spend a significant portion of his time motivating his work force? Explain. Why do you think Beauvais considers his style of management to be critical to the success of the company? Students' answers will vary according to their understanding of how top management's actions give credence to the policies being enacted. and how you would recommend that they be applied by the employers. why they would be useful. The wrap-up for the case has the following questions. has there ever been a course in which you were not as motivated as is usually the case? Develop recommendations as to how students in such a class might have been better motivated by using what you have learned in this chapter. TEACHING NOTES FOR THE INTRODUCTORY CASE The introductory case discussed how American Greetings Corporation used reorganization to not only cut costs and the time needed to bring new products to market. People no longer specialized in one particular type of creative work but worked in teams. he must reinforce this behavior by welcoming and handling open criticism without fear of reprisal. Those in your prison have a long record of continual failure throughout their lives and tend to have very little self-esteem. but they are seeking advice as to how to motivate these people. but also to motivate.

On the other hand. Secondly. By adopting these assumptions. over time. will increase morale and productivity. that employees seek and accept responsibility. Students will likely point out that neither the new nor the old jobs will likely involve any difference regarding the very bottom level of that hierarchy but there could be an impact on the higher level needs. Chupa is allowing the employee the flexibility to create his/her own work environment. To the extent that some may have been limited in what they could do before and were thus held back from achieving self-fulfillment. the very highest level in MaslowÆs hierarchy. explain why the reorganization probably would not satisfy those needs. Selfactualization needs—could be satisfied by being the best design group in the entire operation. people will still have a job. and that employees as a whole are imaginative. Safety needs—every worker will be guaranteed a position in the company after the reorganization. an employee who previously had a satisfactory amount of interaction with those the employee enjoyed being around and was already finding self-fulfillment might now be compelled to associate with those in which the social interaction tends to be negative and must now sacrifice oneÆs own individual creativity to the wishes of the team.2. 3. creative and ingenious. that the employee can be self-directed in goal accomplishment. Two major strategies that Chupa could use to motivate his employees would be to establish better employee-manager communications to help satisfy the employees' need for recognition. Which of the needs on Maslow's hierarchy of needs would the restructuring at American Greetings probably help satisfy? Why? If you have omitted one or more of the needs. that the employee properly rewarded will be encouraged to become even more productive. Physiological needs—guarantee no pay cuts with reorganization. 14 . The exact impact on those higher level needs will be very much dependent on the employee and the older job of the specific employee versus the new job as well as those who are in the teams of the newer job. people need to maintain their standard of living. belonging. The Skills Exercise asks students to consider whether there is a difference between the needs employees could satisfy between the new and older jobs and to use Maslow╞s hierarchy in the analysis. the new job could result in greater satisfaction. Student answers will vary. and security. should it be one of more responsibility with a likelihood of promotion or good pay increases will go a long way in fulfilling the esteem needs. Chupa could also assume that work is as natural as play. Working in teams may help some to better meet socialization needs than before if the previous job involved a high level of specialization and little interaction with others. Esteem needs—comes from the position people will hold after the restructuring. Can Chupa's restructuring succeed in both cutting production time and motivating workers? Explain fully. Social needs—everyone is being put in work teams to satisfy a need to be a part of the group. which.