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CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK SAMPLE

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Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is pneumonia that occurs after 48 to 72 hours of endotracheal intubation. It is a fatal nosocomial and common infection in the intensive care. It I associated with raised morbidity and mortality, increased mechanical ventilation duration, prolonged hospital stay in the intensive care unit and increased hospitalization costs. There Ventilator care bundle has four components that help improve the end result in patients that are mechanically ventilated.Under compliance with VAP Bundle, there are several interventions that fall into the category. They include: first, oral care, head of the bed elevation, sedation vacation, gastric prophylaxis and DVT prophylaxis. Ventilator Bundle forms part of an effective method that reduces the rates of VAP in the intensive care units. They form part of the model that guides individuals in coming up with strategies that reduces VAP in patients. Under compliance with VAP Bundle, there are several interventions that fall into the category. They include: first, oral care, head of the bed elevation, sedation vacation, gastric prophylaxis and DVT prophylaxis. Ventilator Bundle forms part of an effective method that reduces the rates of VAP in the intensive care units. They form part of the model that guides individuals in coming up with strategies that reduces VAP in patients. Oral care should be emphasized as an improved Ventilator Bundle with regard to the prevention of VAP. Head of the bed elevation reduces proximity to VAP and in the long term. The best head of bed elevation should be at an angle of between 30˚ and 45˚. Next, sedation vacation also reduces VAP infection in patients. Gastric prophylaxis and DVT prophylaxis are the other two methods that aids in preventing VAP. There is need for the expansion of the ventilator bundle so that it fits as an effective way of VAP reduction. Behavioral change theory can be used to improve VAP compliance. One such theory that can be used is Prochaska and DiClements’ change theory that includes six stages. The first is the determination of the fact that VAP is a problem and needs to be solved. VAP is a problem that affects patients in the intensive care unit and there is need for a change of behavior through the stages mentioned by Prochaska and DiClemente. The first stage is pre-contemplation – the nursing officers have no idea about changing behavior so that patients do not acquire VAP infection. Secondly, contemplation – the nursing officers realizes the need for changing having noticed that VAP is indeed a problem. Next, the nursing officers will prepare strategies of engaging in VAP prevention measures. That will be followed by action; this is where the strategies are practically employed regularly. It will be followed by maintenance of that culture while the last bit is transforming into the initial stage (Kritsonis, 2005). The framework is related to the study variables because following VAP prevention strategies to the letter reduces infection in patients in the intensive care unit. The nursing officers need to comply with the VAP bundle strategies as a way of encouraging safety in their ICUs. Those strategies need to be effectively implemented so that further reduction is realized. Lastly, they are supposed to be educated thoroughly on the VAP bundle so that safe practices are enacted in health care institutions. Using Prochaska and DiClemente’s behavior change theory, there would be an improved VAP care among patients in the intensive care units in various hospitals. In other words, the variables are important in enhancing effective prevention of VAP in patients by all means.

Conceptual framework (‘model’) RM&W D.Goldblatt HS '11 10/11/2011

w ental model, incl. hypotheses

conceptual analysis of the problem. May involve formulating, refining, or modifying existing theory (esp. in disciplinary research). des theoretical link between objectives and the methods and procedures.

field and adapt them. appropriate. - acceptable in master’s thesis.