You are on page 1of 7

RESEARCH ARTICLE

San Joaquin Valley blueberries evaluated for quality attributes
öy Vanessa Bremer, Gayie Crisosto, Richard Molinar, Manuel Jimenez, Stephanie Doliahite and Carlos H. Crisosto

Blueberry production in California was estimated in 2007 at around 4,500 acres and is rapidly increasing. Common southern highbush cultivars with low chilling-hour requirements are being grown from Fresno County southward, including 'Misty'. 'O'Neal', 'Emerald', 'Jewel'. 'Star'and others. We characterized the quality parameters (soluble solids concentre tion, titratable acidity, ratio of soluble solids concentration to titratable acidity, firmness and antioxidant capacity) of six southern highbush blueberry cultivars grown at the UC Kearney Agricultural Center in Parlie in the San Joaquin Valley, for three seasons (200S-2007). We also conducted in-store tests to evaluate the: acceptance by consumers who eat fresh blueberries. We found that the southern blueberry cultivars currently grown under warm San Joaquin New blueberry cuitivars that require fewer hours of chilling have made it possible to Valley conditions are producing grow this specialty crop profitably in hot, dry places such as the San Joaquin Valley. blueberry fruit that is of acceptable Above, a blueberry field day at the UC Kearney Agricultural Center in Parlier. quality to consumers and profitable to growers. Blueberry production in California Agricultural Center in Parlier (Jimenez was estimated in 2007 at around 4,500 et al. 2005). acres (1,821 hectares) and is rapidly inNorth American production of ighbush blueberries (Vaccinium creasing. Common southern cultivars highbush blueberry has been increascorymbosum), native to the northgrown include 'Misty' and 'O'Neal', ing since 1975, due to expansion of eastern United States, are important but other improved southern highbush harvested area and yields through commercial fruit (Jimenez et al. 2005) cultivars are now being grown from improvements in cultivars and producand are the most planted blueberry spe- Fresno southward, such as 'Emerald', tion systems. In 2005, North America cies in the world (Strik and Yarborough 'Jewel' and 'Star' (Hashim 2004). represented 69% of the world's acreage 2()n5}. In tlie United States, blueberries Southern highbush "low-chill" cultiof highbush blueberries, with 74,589 traditionally have been grown in cooler vars are notable for their productivity, acres (30,185 hectares) producing 306.4 northern regions; however, the develop- fruit quality and adaptation (Draper million pounds (139,000 metric tons). ment of new southern cultivars with 2007), and require only 150 to 600 chill- Acreage and production increased 11% low chilling-hour requirements (the ac- hours, making them promising cultiand 32%, respectively, from 2003 to cumulated number of hours below 45°F vars for the San Joaquin Valley's mild 2005. The U.S. West, South and Midwest [7.2°C] necessary to break dormancy) winters (600 to 1,200 chill-hours annu- experienced the highest increases in has made possible the expansion of ally). Since 1998, we have conducted acreage, hi 2005, 63% of the world's problueberry production to the southern long-term productivity and perforduction of highbush blueberries went United States and California (Jimenez mance evaluations of these cultivars at to the fresh market. North America ct al. 2005). the University of California's Kearney accounts for a large part of global high-

H

http://CaliforniaAgriculture.ucop.edu • JULY-SEPTEMBER 2008 91

The sugars of the larger highbush blueberry cultivars that are grown in California are fructose. 17% of thiamine and 15% of niacin consumed in the United States (Kays 1997). some forms of cancer. age-related losses of behavior (Alzheimer's disease and other) and signal transduction were delayed or even reversed. 1994). consumers also value the nutritional quality of fresh fruits and their content of energy. In highbush cultivars. nuts and vegetables has also been related to reductions in heart disease. Some studies have shown that the effects of consuming whole foods are more beneficial than consuming compounds isolated from the food. dietary fiber and many bioactive compounds that are beneficial for human health (Kader 1999).VOLUME 62. while the percentages of succinic. provide an abundant supply of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity. 2007). 2007). such as flavanoids (flavonols. glucose and traces of sucrose. The composition of organic acids is a Fresh blueberries are becoming a profitable distinguishing characteristic among species. ashei) the predominant organic acids are succinic and malic. For example. However. 2/ii and 5%.DkUk. NUMBER 3 (~ 83%). with percentages of 50% and 34%. flesh firmness and antioxidant activity (Kader 1999). stroke and other chronic diseases. These different proportions of organic acids affect sensory quality. supplying vitamins. the predomi. the combination of citric and malic acids gives a sour taste. h m«[<>r«1plT ni>llli< iltïlilli Nilth. nuts and vegetables are of great importance for human nutrition. which are related to fruit soluble solids (mainly sugars). they provide 91% of vitamin C. while citric acid accounts for only about 10% (Ehlenfeldt et al. ln general. like other berries. anthocyanins and others) and phenolic acids (Schotsmans et al. the ratio of soluble solids to titratable acidity. malic and quinic acids are 11%. For example. fresh blueberries are becoming a profitable specialty crop. we .r Ilkt on LIU Ultlilii l. In addition to flavor. subsequent purchases are dependent on the consumer's satisfaction with flavor and quality. representing 67% of the fresh and 94% of the processed markets (Brazelton and Strik 2007). respectively. Because fruit consumption is mainly related to visual appearance. 2005). The daily consumption of fruits.lki nodmlilï UlB ••rymntli Uk* Consumers at a Fresno supermarket participated in taste tests of new southern highbush blueberry cultivars. 27% of vitamin B6. vitamins. minerals and dietary fiber. which is encouraging increased production. especially in early production areas nant organic acid is usually citric such as the San Joaquin Valley. a study performed in rats showed that when they were fed diets supplemented with 2% blueberry extracts. while succinic acid gives a bitter taste (Rubico and McDaniel 1992). especially in early production areas such as the San Joaquin Valley (Jimenez et al. (Kalt and McDonald 1996). 92 CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE . Fruits. flavor and antioxidant properties. and radiation-induced losses of spatial learning and memory were reduced (Shukitt-Hale et al. such as sugars and organic acids. an^ustifolium) —which are wild. minerals. titratable acidity (organic acids). smaller and grow mostly in Maine — lack sucrose. However. respectively. a consumer's first purchase is dictated by fruit appearance and firmness (texture).specialty crop. in "rabbiteye" blueberries (V. such as dietary supplements and nutraccuticals. Blueberry consumption is increasing. hush blueberry production. Lowbush blueberries (V. 48% of vitamin A. Vaccinium species differ in chemical composition. As a result. Blueberry samples were presented in random order for consumers to taste and rate on a 9-point hedonic scale (dislike extremely to like extremely). Blueberries.

soluble solids concentration (shown. and three nonpatented cuitivars — 'Reveille'. Japan) and expressed as a percentage. Radiometer Analytical. Highbush blueberry evaluation Field plots. esculeiitu^).16 inch (4 millimeters) and the maxiniLim value of force was expressed in pounds force (lbf) (1 lbf = 4. atit)ns.7 centimeters). right. Lyon. and two or three herbicide treatments of paraquat (Gramoxone).5 centimeters) flat tip at a speed of 0. Gayle Crisosto with refractometer). center.5. 'Jewel' (US Plant Patent 11807) and 'Star' (US Plant Patent 10675).3 kilograms) nitrogen per acre at planting.ucop.4 meters) apart.9 meter) apart. resulting in a pH ranging from 5. we used three patented southern highbush blueberry cultivars — 'Emerald' (US I'lant Patent 12165). firmness and antioxidant capacity) of six southern highbush blueberry cultivars grown in the San joaquin Valley for three seasons (2005-2007). 10 and 15 days after harvest. fruit texture analyzer). with each delivering 0. Fruit from each of the seven plant blocks was harvested and a composite sample of 80 random berries per each replication was used for quality evaluations. Ore. Irrigation frequency was two to three times per week in the spring and daily during June and July.2 kilograms) the second year. GS. The juice was used to determine soluble solids concentration (SSC) with a temperature-compensated handheld refractometer (model ATC-1. replicated in four rows. Strand. A complete (NPK) granular fertilizer (15-15-15) was broadcast-applied at a rate of 400 pounds per acre (448 kilograms per hectare). Berries were randomly selected from each replicatit)n for quality evaluation at the first harvest time for each respective season (2005-2007).5 centimefers) with flood irrigation.edu • JULY-SEPTEMBER 2008 93 . We characterized the quality parameters (soluble solids concentration.8 kilograms) the third year and 120 pounds (54.{) to 5.decided to evaluate fruit quality attributes. 'O'Neal' and 'Misty'. During the 2007 season. antioxidant capacity and consumer acceptance of the early-season blueberry cultivars currently being grown in California. Before planting these cultivars in 2001. the trial plot was fumigated to kill nut grass (Cyperus rotuudus and C. and evaluated their acceptance by consumers who eat fresh blueberries. and measured for firmness 15 days after harvest and for antioxidant capacity 5. the plot's soil was acidified with sulfuric acid. Tokyo.2 meters) between plots. The plants were mulched with 4 to 6 inches (10. the plants received one insecticide treatement of spinosad (Success) for thrips management. which was incorporated to a depth of 10 to 12 inches (25. Vanessa Bremer with automatic titrator) and. 60 pounds (27. The emitter spacing was 18 inches (45. Twenty-eight plants per cultivar were planted in a randomized block design using seven plants per block (row) as an experimental unit. with a space of 4 feet (1.5 Newtons). Sixty berries per replication were then wrapped together in two layers of cheesecloth and squeezed with a hand press to obtain a composite juice sample. /eft. with the plants in the rows spaced 3 feet (0. Because blueberries require acidic conditions. In year three. 90 pounds (40. Some samples that had a high viscosity were centrifuged with a superspeed centri- http://CanforniaAgriculture. South Africa) (Slaughter and Rohrbach 1985). as well as in subsequent growing seasons. Fruit was harvested at times when it would have been commercially viable if it had been in a commercial field. harvested berries were stored at 32"F (0"C) in plastic clam shells. Three replications per cultivar (2005-2007 seasons) were measured for each quality parameter. The initial firmness of 10 individual berries per replication was measured with a Fruit Texture Analyzer (FTA) (Güss. For the quality evaluations at UC Kearney Agricultural Center. blueberries were tested for. Annual pest control was limited to one application of Pristine fungicide (a combination of the active ingredients pyraclostrobin and boscalid) in February for botrytis management. France) and reported as a percentage of citric acid. The plants were started from tissue culture and then grown for two seasons by Fall Creek Farm and Nursery in Lowell. one on each side of the plant row.53 gallon (2 liters) per hour of water acidified with urea sulfuric acid fertilizer to a pfi of 5. in addition to the initial quality evalu- • After harvest. Quality measurements.4 kilograms) the fourth year. Each berry was compressed on the cheek with a 1-inch (2. The rate was 80 pounds (36.14. titratable acidity (shown. Twenty-one hundredths of an ounce (6 grams) of the same juice sample was used to determine titratable acidity (TA) with an automatic titrator (TIM850 auto-titrator. ratio of soluble solids to titratable acidity.2 to 15 centimeters) of pine mulch and irrigated with two drip lines on the surface of the mulch. The plot received an application of nitrogen in the first season.2 inch per second (5 millimeters) to a depth of 0. as well as other qualities. firmness (shown.. titratable acidity. Rows were spaced 11 feet (3.4 ti> 30. Atago Co.0.

the samples were prepared in the produce room out of sight from the testing area. Titratable acidity varied from 0. titratable acidity. homogenized using a polytron (Ultra-Turrax TP 18/101 SI. One hundred consumers who eat fresh blueberries. U. the consumer was asked to taste it. 1995).) at 15. except ior 'Misty'. Samples were extracted in methanol to assure a good phenolic representation. The cultivars studied have an erect plant stature. At planting. The harvest period for 'Star' began the first week of May and ended after the third harvest. Staiifen. and then asked to indicate which statement best described how they felt about the sample on a 9-point hedonic scale (dislike extremely to like extremely).05) with the Lab assistant Megan Bishop prepares blueberry samples for antioxidant analysis. Antioxidant analysis. 'Reveille' had the highest average value (14.830 7.128 19. Statistical analysis. In a similar manner. a water-soluble vitamin E analogue.S. 'Star' had an unexpectedly high productivity in 2007.0) divided by the total number of consumers within that sample (Lawless and Heymann 199S). However. representing a diverse combination of ages. Junke & Kunket. The supernatant was analyzed against the standard. Germany) and centrifuged (Sorvall RC5C. Trolox. A sample consisted of three fresh whole blueberries presented in a 1-ounce (30 milliliters) soufflé cup labeled with a three-digit code.70% to 0.54VÍ-) than the rest of the tested cultivars. Based on the berry size (table 2).) for 23 minutes. 0. using methods described previously (Crisosto and Crisosto 2001). 'Jewel' and 'Star') and medium berry ('Reveille'. Yield increases for all varieties were due to the maturity of the plants. An in-store consumer test was conducted on 'jewel'. Consumer tests. 'Jewel' (1L7%) and 'O'Neal' (11.966 9.157 Yield was calLuidted ffom 21 feet of row including seven plants spaced 3 feet apart. the cultivars studied would be separated into large berry ('Emerald'. 'O'Neal' and 'Star' blueberry cultivars in 2006.3%).523 23.821 7. Cultivars segregated into three groups based on their soluble-solids-to-titratable-acidity Each consumer was presented with a sample of each blueberry cultivar in random order at room temperature. which has a spreading stature that nukes hand-harvest difficult. SSC:TA and TEAC) and data on degree of liking were analyzed with analysis of variance (multifactor ANOVÁ) and LSD mean separation (P <. Fruit quality. the tissue-culture plants were 2 years old. Quality attributes such as soluble solids concentration.4'X) had the lowest soluble solids concentration within this group. Wilmington. 'Emerald' and 'Jewel' had the highest productivity for 2005 to 2007 (table 1). Production of six southern highbush blueberry cultivars (2005-2007)' fuge (SerVall type SS-1. as they matured.039 7.747 8. 'Emerald' (12%) and 'Star' (11. Consumers were instructed to sip bottled water between samples to cleanse their palates. were surveyed in a major supermarket in Fresno County. 'O'Neal' and 'Misty'). SAS program. Titratable acidity within cultivars was less variable. Del.U) the sample was calculated. ethnic groups and genders. Consumer acceptance was measured as both degree of liking (on a scale of 1 to 9) and percentage acceptance.9%). Blueberry cultivar performance Production. which was calculated as the number of consumers liking the sample (score > 5. 68"F (20^C). Cultivar Emerald Jewel Star Reveille O'Neal Misty 2005 10.A. NUMBER 3 . Most other cultivars required five or more harvests.494 26.000 rpm for 5 minutes. SSC. they all produced larger yields.232 8. 94 CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE • VOLUME 62. and on the six blueberry cultivars studied in 2007.0) and neither liking nor disliking (score = 5.411 3. For each sample. 1 week apart. Quality values (firmness. followed by 'Misty' (12. There was wide variability in soluble solids concentration among cultivars. At the supermarket.TABLE 1. Among the studied cultivars.375 2006 Ib/acre 2007 -• • 18. in order to get liquid juice for soluble solids concentration and titratabie acidity measurements (both methods were compared and no differences were observed [data not published]).708 11. Du Ponf Company.968 7. soluble-solids-totitr¿itable-acidity ratio and firmness were significantly different among cultivars and seasons (table 3). The ratio of soluble solids concentration to titratable acidity was calculated.081 3. The fruit samples were held for 2 days after harvest at 32°F (0°C) prior to tasting. and only 'O'Neal' had a significantly lower average value (0.80% within this group with the exception of 'O'Neal'.198 8.313 9.228 17.4%) of the 2005 to 2007 seasons. the percentage of consumers disliking (score < 5. TA. Antioxidant capacity (Trolox Equivalent Antitixidant Capacity [TEAC]) was measured in the 2005 and 2007 seasons. Eighteenhundredths of an ounce (5 grams) of berries (not used for quality measurements) per replication was used to determine the level of antioxidiints by the ÜPPH free-radical method (BrandWilliams et al. and reported in micromoles Trolox equivalents per gram of fresh tii:-sue (iimoles TE/g FW).

There was a significant interaction between cultivar and season for all these quality attributes (table 3). which reached 0.6 bc 0.6 b 19.0 b 18. Quality attributes were also significantly affected by the season.87 a 1. all of the cultivars yielded soluble solids concentrations higher than 10%. 64-91 berries/cup (6 oï.1 b 15.57 1. t Same letters within the same column indicate no significant difference between means. Like the rest of the quality attributes. 2 = dislike very much.00 a 0.83 a 0.001 1.27 bed 1.3 82. TABLE 4.43 1.9 4-9 6.0 8. 'Misty' had the highest average TEAC (19. early/midseason = 7 days later Number of berries per 5 oz.2 edt 6.6'Mmol TE/g FW) followed by 'Reveille' (173) and 'Emerald' (16. The rest of the cultivars formed an intermediate group in which the soluble-solids-to-titratableacidity ratio ranged from 17 to 20.05 P value Degree of liking' Acceptance Neither like nor dislike Dislike 1-9 6.2 b 11. 5 = like slightly. 'O'Neal' had the highest ratio.4 bc 11.57 ab 0.44 < 0.1 ef 13. Source: Jimenez et al.imo/ TE/g FW) 19.1 80.2 67.05 P value SSC % 12.2 Cd 11. Acceptance of six southern highbush blueberry cultivars by U.7 ab 12.001 SSCTA 1 ratio 18.57 1.13 1.2 inch/se( (5 mm/sec). there was a significant interaction between cultivars and seasons for antioxidant Cultivar Emerald Jewel Star Reveille O'Neal Misty • t F I Plant stature Erect Erect Erect Very erect Erect Spreading Harvest period* Early/midseason Early Early Early Early Early/midseason Fruit sizet 50-80 60-100 50-70 100-130 100-130 80-130 Berry graded Large Large Large Medium Medium Medium Hand-harvest ease [ Moderately easy Moderately easy Very easy Moderate Easy Difficult Harvest period sppcifies ¡nitiation of harvest. while 'Jewel' had the lowest ratio due to its high titratable acidity.90 a 1. in consumer test during 2007 season Cultivar Emerald Jewel Misty O'Neal Reveille Star LSD 0.77 a 0.9 •* Degree of liking: 1 = dislike extremely. and 'Misty' and 'Reveille' the firmest.7 be 11. forming an intermediate group (1.48 0.70 ab 0.53 ab 0.9 d 7. medium.edu • JULY-SEPTEMBER 2008 95 .3%. Antioxidant capacity was significantly different among the cultivars but not between seasons (table 3).2 lbf).70 ab 0.4 to 20.4 b Firmness* Ibf 1. H Same letters within the same column indicate no significant tiifference between means.18 liter) cup.4 b 18.88 0.9 ab 17.0) had the lowest TEAC within this group.13 1. i ef 10.6.4). followed by the rest of the cultivars with ratios from 11. 7 = like moderately.4 b 20.0%.77 a 0. http://CaliforniaAgriculture.3 bdf 11.Sdef 10. Soluble solids concentration across all cultivars was highest in 2007 and lowest in 2006. while titratable acidity was highest in 2006.3 b 40.30 1. which has been proposed as a minimum quality index for blueberries (Kader 1999).16 inches (4 mm) using a fruit texture analyïer with a 1-inch {2.7d 17.8% in 2006 for 'O'Neal' and the highest was 15.3 92.5 a 22.4 b 20.}.9 2.5) and 'Reveille' (22. Characteristics of six southern highbush blueberry cultivars ratio.0001 ••••• 12.5 def 15. while 'Reveille' and 'Misty' had the highest (1. Early = initial harvest.9 cdef 12.9 19.8% for 'Reveille' in 2007.2 % 11.9 ef n .3 d 21. TABLE 3. S = iiice wery much.0001 13.6 def 1.8 a 11. 'O'Neal' (40.8 cd 12.90 a 1.8 5.27 b 0-70 ab 0-67 ab 0.41 < 0.1 d N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2006 ^ H i ••••• ii.0001 72.50 abc 0.07 1.0 b 17. (0.8 12.57 1.60 1. There was a wide variability of TEAC within cultivars. 5 = neither like nor dislike.07 < 0. Soluble-solids-to-titratableacidity ratio and firmness were significantly higher in 2007 than the other years.6 ed 13. t Firmness represents the maxirnum value of force exprMsed in pounds force (Ibf) (1 Ibf = 4.9 12. Based on average fruit size: extra large.6) and 'Jewel' (11.30 bed 1.50 ab d ab bed bed ab bed cd bed cd ab abc TEAC§ ((.3 cdef 12.5 b 20.80 a 0.8 def 14.1 cdef Tl 11.3 ab 12.9 15.1 b 16.2 cdef 11.1 b 18.5 lbf). Quality attributes of six southern highbush blueberry cultivars growing in the San Joaquin Valley.73 ab 0.60 ab 0.9) had the highest soluble-solids-to-titratableacidity ratio.4 a 6. During this 3-ycar period.1 ab 10.9 b 5.TABLE 2.S-centimeters) ftât tip at a speed of 0.0 b 17.ucop. Titratable acidity was similar among cultivars in these three seasons except for 'O'Neal' in 2007.7 d 0-0042 • Soluble solids concentration. 92-134 berries/cup (6 oz.70 ab 0.57 ab 0. During this 3-ycar period.3. 9 = like ejttremely.1).).8 f 13.).9 8.6 b 14.2 84. 'Jewel' and 'O'Neal' also had the lowest firmness (1.37 1. 'Jewel' and 'O'Neal' were the softest cultivars. 'O'Neal' (12.60 ab 1. Because of its low titratable acidity. large. 5 TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity).9a 13. 4 = dislike slighliy. 'Emerald' and 'Star' wore significantly different than these two groups. i = dislike moderately. The lowest soluble solids concentration was 10. t Titratable acidity.2b 17.5 Newtons) required to tompre« the fruit 0.''Star' (12.9 bcde TAt % Citnc add 0. 2005-2007 (values per cultivar and season) Cultivar 2005 Emerald Jewel Misty O'Neal Reveille Star Emerald Jewel Misty O'Neal Reveille Star 2007 Emerald Jewel Misty 0-Neal Reveille Star LSD 0.3 cdef 13. < 64 berries/cup (6 oz.60 ab 0.6 lbf).9 10. 2005.7d 20.7 b 6.40 1. and 'Jewel' and 'Emerald' in 2006 with about 1.

During the 2007 season.NY: Chapman Hall.9%. Draper A. Choosing a variety The six southern highbush blueberry cultivars studied ('Emerald'. y. In this test. Degree of liking for 'Jewel' and 'Star' were similar (from slight to moderate) during the two seasons. which could have affected 'O'Neal' ripening. which remained between 10. Slaughter DC.205-13. Kader AA. 1994. 'Misty' and 'Star'. J Am Soc Hon Sei Kays SJ. Trans Am Soc Agrie Eng 2 8(3): 986-92 Strik B.3%). Bersei C 1995. indicating that the solublesolicis-to-titratable-acidity ratio is not a goiid indicator of consumer acceptance for blueberries.H.3% in 2007 that only occurred in 'O'Neal'. http:/Avesternfarmpress. Doilahite is Research Assistant. ripening. degree of liking varied from liking slightly to moderately. Ehlenfeidt MK. 'O'Near and 'Star'. et al. These results indicated that blueberries with very low titratablf acidity (0. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. which appears to bo independent of other cultivars. The percentage of consumers that disliked these cultivars varied from 5. there were significant differences in degree of liking between the six cultivars tested (table 4). and C. Rubico SM. MacKay B. Crisosto. with an acceptance range of 73. Blueberry production trends in North America. despite acceptable soluble solids concentration. We are not sure of the reasons for the low titratable acidity in 2007 of 'O'Neal' fruit. 2005. Carey AW. Carpenter F. Molinar and M. located at the UC Kearney Agricuitural Center. Crisosto CH. References Brand-Williams W. 'Star'. Bremer is Research Assistant. Meredith Fl.3% (2007) for 'O'Neal'. Perspective on the U. Degree of liking of 'Misty' and 'Jewel' was significantly lower than 'Reveille'. J Am Pom Soc 61(3)140-3. and G.9/¿ to 19. despite soluble solids concentrations between 10% and 12%. 'Reveille'.8%. Neurobiol Aging 28(8): 1187-94. Molinar RH. 2001. Sensory Evaluation of Food: Principles and Practices.capacity (data not shown).9) degree of liking with an acceptance of 92. Sensory evaluation of acids by free-choice profiling.Improving the unwild blueberry. highbush blueberries. firmness and degree of liking. Crisosto is Associate Specialist. Unique organic profile of rabbiteye vs. except for 'O'Neal' and 'Misty'. 2007. Beneficial effeas of fruit extracts on neuronal function and behavior in a rodent model of accelerated aging.blueberry_production_gaining. with the exception of 0. Yarboiough D. Athens. while only 67% for 'O'Neal' and 72% for 'Emerald'. Chemical composition of lowbush bluebeny cultivars. Department of Plant Sciences. A similar situation has been observed in white and 96 yellow flesh peaches and nectarines with very low acidity (less than 0. Chemical Senses 17(3):273-89. with 'Misty' and 'Reveille' the cultivars with higher antioxidant capacity for the 2005 and 2007 seasttns. Consumer acceptance. Cuvelier ME. This reduction in consumer acceptance can be explained by the change of titratahle acidity from 0. early fresh blueberry market. McDaniel MR 1992.2 to 1. UC Davis. HashimJ 2004 Blueberry production gaining in California. Strik BC. and quaiily relationship. are not acceptable to consumers. During the 2006 season.8% for the 2005 to 2007 seasons. Jenkins D. This reduction in consumer acceptance also points out that the ratio of soluble solids to titratable acidity is not a good indicator ior blueberry taste when titratable acidity is low. UC Cooperative Extension. Western Faim Press. 532 p Lawless HT.4%) (C. Heymann H. Criso5to GM. personal communication). but higher than 'Star' and 'Emerald'. Ballington JR. Firmness ranged from 1. 1999. The 2007 season was characterized by high chilling accumulation and a hotter than normal spring. Molan A. Titratable acidity ranged from 0. Acta Hortkulturae (iSHS) 485:203-8. GA: Exon Pr. Jimenez are Farm Advisors. 2005. Blueberry breeding. whose firmness was reduced slightly but not significantly (data not shown). KaltW. 1998. Crisosto is Postharvest Physiologist. Postharvest Biol Technol 44:277-85 Shukitt-Haie B. Blueberries with very low titratable acidity.6 lbf. 'Reveille' had the highest (7.3%. 2007. these cultivars are all good options for our fast-growing. 1992 to 2003 and predictions for grovi-lh. There were no significant differences in degree of liking betw'een 'Jewel'. Brazelton D. Schotsmans W.4) and 'O'Neal' the lowest (5. and global blueberry industry. Controlled atmo5phere storage of rabbiteye blueberries enhances postharvest quality aspects. 'Jewel'. had lower consumer acceptance and degree of liking. respectively. 2007. HortScience 29(4):321-3.8% and 11. NUMBER 3 . Food Science Texts Series. Thanks to the UC Smali Farm Center and Kearney Agricultural Center for their support on the development of this work. Fruit maturity. 827 p. S. 'Reveille' and 'Misty' had the lowest dislike percentage and 'O'Neal' the highest. Rohrbach R R 1985 Developing a blueberry firmness standard. Antioxidant capacity ranged from 10 to 22 Mmoles TE/g FW. For San Joaquin Valley conditions. This reduction of titratable acidity for 'O'Neil' was independent of soluble solids concentration. 2007. 'Reveille' was the cultivar with the highest soluble solids concentration. In these three cultivars the percentage of consumers disliking these fruit reached about 17% (data not shown). Jimene? M.3% to 80/0. McDonald JE 1996. 'O'Neal' and 'Misty') grow ing in the San Joaquin Valley had soluble solids concentration levels above the 1 0 % > proposed for a minimum quality standard. Urideritdnding consumer acceptance of early harvested 'Hayward' kiwifruit Postharvest Bid Technol 22. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft Technologie 28:25-30. Acceptance was near 80% for 'Jewel'. J Am Pom Soc 61(3)1144-7. respectively. the degree of liking decreased from like slightly-moderately to like slightly.6%* to 0. Fresno and Tulare counties.S. HortTechnol 15:39I-S.8% in previous years down to 0. Blueberry research launches exciting new California specialty crop. our in-store test results indicated that consumers liked the three tested cultivars slightly to moderately. and R.1% and 67.6% to 0. et al. CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE • VOLUME 62. Cal Ag 59(2t:65-9. For 'O'Neal'. conVmag/{arming_. Storage of the six blueberry cultivars at 32°F (0°C) for 15 days did not affect either antioxidant capacity or firmness. 1997 Positiarvest Physiology of Perishables Plant Producís. Antioxidant capacity and firmness of the cultivars studied was not affected by storage up to 15 days at 32°F (0°C). G.