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CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION

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DAIRY INDUSTRY
India is the world’s largest producer of dairy products by volume, accounting for more than 13% of world’s total milk production, and it also has the world’s largest dairy herd. As the country consumes almost all of its own milk production, India was neither an active importer nor an exporter of dairy products prior to year 2000. However, since the implementation of Operation Flood Programme, the situation changed significantly and imports of dairy products reduced to very small quantities. From 2001, India has become a net exporter of dairy products and after 2003 India’s dairy import has dipped while exports have increased at a fast rate. Yet the country’s share in global dairy trade still remains at minor levels of 0.3 and 0.4 percent for exports and imports respectively. This is due to the direct consumption of liquid milk by the producer households as well as the demand for processed dairy products that has increased with the growth of income levels, which have left little dairy surpluses for export. Nevertheless, India consistently exports specialty products such as casein for food processing or pharmaceuticals. The Indian dairy sector is also different from other dairy producing countries as India places its emphasis on both cattle and buffalo milk. In 2010, the government and the National Dairy Development Board have drawn up a National Dairy Plan (NDP) that proposes to nearly double India’s milk production by 2020. This plan will endeavor to increase the country’s milk productivity, improve access to quality feeds and improve farmer access to the organized market. These goals will be achieved through activities that focus on increasing cooperative membership and growing the network of milk collection facilities throughout India. Despite its huge production volume, India nevertheless faces a milk supply gap due to increasing demand from a growing middle class population. Estimation suggests that Indian dairy production is growing at a rate of about four percent per year, yet consumer demand is growing at approximately double that rate. Apart from the rapidly increasing demand for milk and dairy products, other reasons such as the increased cattle feed cost and low availability of dairy farm labour in the rural areas have also resulted in increase in the cost of production. On the other hand, the strong pressure from EU to open up its market as well as the proposed free trade agreement with Australia and New Zealand may also put India’s dairy sector in the risk of being jeopardized. In order to maintain the development of its dairy industry, focus needs to be placed on several areas. First, cost of production has to be reduced through increasing productivity of

exports from India were insignificantly small and it was not until 2000 onwards. the Indian dairy market is growing at an annual rate of 7%. consuming almost all of its own milk production. Milk production in India has developed significantly in the past few decades from a low volume of 17 million tons in 1951 to 110 million tons in 2009. Although India has imported some milk powder and butter oils as aid between 1970 and 1990.3 animals. Currently. about three‐fourth of the population live in rural areas and about 38% of them are poor. dynamic demographic patterns. Second. dairy products provide a critical source of nutrition and animal protein to millions of people in India. . as well as the large vegetarian segment of the country’s population. The country accounts for more than 13% of world’s total milk production and is also the world’s largest consumer of dairy products. Indian dairy industry needs to further develop proper dairy production. This means that there is an urgent need for the growth rate of the dairy sector to match the rapidly growing Indian economy. Dairying has been regarded as one of the activities that could contribute to alleviating the poverty and unemployment especially in the drought‐prone and rain‐fed areas. In India. India can focus on buffalo milk based specialty products. Therefore among these people. when Indian dairy products started having more presence in global markets. India was not noticed by most international dairy companies. Prior to year 2000. BACKGROUND INFORMATION India is the world’s largest producer of dairy products by volume and has the world’s largest dairy herd. such as Mozzarella cheese. improve animal health care and breeding facilities and management of dairy animals. a demand supply gap has become imminent in the dairy industry due to the changing consumption habits. which is capable of meeting international quality requirements. Third. processing and marketing infrastructure. in order to meet the needs of the target consumers. as the country was neither an active importer nor an exporter of dairy products. Despite the increase in production. and the rapid urbanization of rural India.

the situation changed significantly and imports of dairy products reduced to very small quantities.4 Below are some key statistics for India’s dairy industry: Key Statistics: Annual Milk Production (2008‐9) Annual Export Volume (2008‐9) Share of world dairy production (2010) Share of world trade in dairy products (2003) Milking herd size Number of milk producers’ cooperative unions Number of local dairy cooperatives Number of state cooperatives Per capita consumption (Drinking milk) Estimated percentage of dairy farmers in organized sector % of dairy produce consumed by unorganized sector Dairy industry workforce 108.790 Tonnes 15% 0. butter and dry milk powders were imported to meet the needs of urban consumers. although tariff rate quotas .3% 115. India has become a net exporter of dairy products. and from 2001. In the 1990s imports and exports kept edging each other out. yet the country’s share in global dairy trade still remains at minor levels of 0. India consistently exports specialty products such as casein for food processing or pharmaceuticals. Nevertheless. India was primarily an import dependent country and anhydrous milk fat.5 million 170 96. After 2003. which have left little dairy surpluses for export. with the implementation of Operation Flood Programme in 1971 (see “Key Players and Ownership” section). India is a very minor player in the international market. Import of milk and milk products is permitted without any quantitative limitations. and milk powder (eight percent).5 Million Tonnes 70.3 and 0. However.000 15 250g/day 40‐50% 65% 75 million women/ 15 million men Trade Despite having the world’s largest milk production. around half of India’s total dairy import by volume consists of butter and other dairy derived fats.4 percent for exports and imports respectively. India’s dairy import has dipped while exports have increased at a fast rate. followed by lactose (33 percent). This is due to the direct consumption of liquid milk by the producer households as well as the demand for processed dairy products that has increased with the growth of income levels. Prior to the 1970s. In 2009.

and other processed dairy products in 2009 (See Figure 1 for Indian dairy exports by product types). as indigenous milk products and desserts are becoming popular with the ethnic population spread all over the world and there is a strong likelihood that the export demand for these products will grow. there future outlook for export of Indian dairy products is rather positive. Indian Dairy Exports by Product Types (2008/9) . On the other hand. neighboring countries in South Asia and the Middle East are the main buyers. followed by casein. in terms of exports. Almost all of India’s dairy exports are meant for Asian and African countries. Export figures clearly illustrate that the Indian dairy export is still developing and the surpluses are neither systemic nor consistent. milk and cream. the United States. However. India has not been able to breach the European markets.E.5 apply and import permits are required. In Asia. U. Figure1. Around half of India’s exported dairy products are shi pped to Bangladesh. butter and other fats. while the market in South America remains untapped.A. milk powders and baby food constituted more than 40 percent of India’s total dairy exports by volume. and Singapore (see Figures 2 and 3 for Indian dairy export volume and value by destination). Despite many efforts.

India’s Dairy Export Destinations by Value and Dairy Exports in Asia by Value (2005/6) . Exports of Indian Dairy Products by Country Figure 3.6 Figure 2.

as the organized sector procures more milk. Of the total milk distributed jointly by both the organized and unorganized sector. butter. Of the milk that enters the formal and informal market. .7 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE. PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION Industry Structure While it is estimated that around 40 to 50 percent of Indian dairy farmers are employed by the organized sector. Vendors and milk dealers dominate the informal market where the former generally procures milk from producers and sells them to urban households. while the latter supplies to private processing units. and the producers themselves. 46 percent are buffaloes and 14 percent are imported European or North American cattle crossbreeds. wholesalers. retailers. yogurt and milk powder. PRODUCTION The Indian dairy sector is different from other dairy producing countries as India places its emphasis on both cattle and buffalo milk. Out of all bovine population in India. Out of the nation’s total milk production. milk powders. khoa. buffalo milk has been preferred for its high milk fat content. there were around 770 dairy processing units in the organized sector. approximately 65 percent of milk in India is consumed (in fluid or processed forms) on farm or by the unorganized sector including local milk vendors. almost 45 percent is consumed in the raw form while the remaining is processed to produce ghee. including dairy cooperatives and the private sector. cottage cheese. However. During 1999‐2000. dairy cattle becoming more popular due to their increased yields and shorter dry periods. India’s milk processing industry is small compared to the large amount of raw milk produced every year. Almost 55 percent of the milk produced is consumed by the producer household. about 55 percent comes from buffaloes. two‐third is sold in informal markets and 15‐16 percent of the total milk produced in India is processed by the organized market. Of the remaining. etc. around 46 percent of the milk is consumed in fluid form and the rest is processed into various milk products such as butter. curd. 40 percent are indigenous cows. Please see below (Table) for an overview of India’s milk production volume by State. and the remainder from dairy traditionally.

Artificial insemination services are expected to grow in the future. as the government of India continues to develop protocols for imported genetics products. those farmers working directly with buyers from the organized sector generally have access to modern extension services. feeding. the Indian dairy industry is growing its milk production in several ways. Many of these extension service providers offer artificial insemination services that aim to further improving milk yields with new dairy cattle genetics. commercial dairies are also continuing with strengthening their presence in India. India nevertheless faces a milk supply gap due to increasing demand from a growing middle class population. In response to increasingly strong demand for milk products. Finally. fertility and veterinary care. yet consumer demand is growing at approximately double that rate. which provide support for the dairy farmers to improve management. DEVELOPMENT AND FUTURE OUTLOOK . dairy farmers have responded to increasing dairy prices by increasing herd sizes. Estimation suggests that Indian dairy production is growing at a rate of about four percent per year. In addition. For example. Indian Milk Production by State (in thousand tones) CONSUMPTION GROWTH AND INDUSTRY RESPONSE Despite its huge production volume.8 Table .

It is feared that entering into a free trade agreement with Australia and New Zealand would bring adverse effects to the dairy sector in India. have made dairy imports into India attractive. India is now facing strong pressure to open up its market to dairy products from Europe. India is finding it difficult to sustain exports of dairy products. In contrast. as the cost of milk production in Australia and New Zealand is far lower than in India due to their pastoral system. Other than the strong pressure from EU to open up its market. In the past. despite Indian governments fear about how small dairy farmers could suffer from import liberalization. India’s dairy sector may also become jeopardized by the proposed free trade agreement with Australia and New Zealand. Often these imports have been highly subsidized and can be sold at lower prices than domestically produced goods. On the other hand. Currently the plan is to also reduce the tariff rate for New Zealand and Australia to encourage trade. with rural families allocating 15 per cent and families in the urban area allocating over 18 per cent. As the country’s dairy sector employs 90 million people. A recent survey has revealed that on average. it is predicted that the demand for milk is going to rise faster than seen in the previous decade. combined with continuing global economic downturn. However. As income continues to increase. Due to low global dairy prices and high domestic costs. therefore the cost of production is much higher. India has not been permitting free import of dairy products. It is predicted that dairy commodities will be the first large‐scale imports and will be used by Indian dairy cooperatives and companies to make reconstituted milk and other branded dairy products. This may be followed by Imports of branded dairy products. India had entered into a Free Trade Agreement with South Korea and ten other countries in 2009. India has advocated that milk and cheese be excluded from the scope of free trade agreement under negotiations with the European Union. Moreover.9 While the decade of 2000‐10 has seen positive level of dairy exports from India. factors such as the reintroduction of subsidies by European Union. the overall demand is growing rapidly compared to milk production. in India dairy animals are raised by concentrate feed and fodder. the next decade is predicted to be different and signs of change are already visible. The higher GDP . devaluation of currency of New Zealand (a major dairy exporting country). There are arguments suggesting that removing such tariff would leave India’s farmers unable to withstand competition from European imports. an Indian family allocates 17 per cent of the household food expenditure on milk and milk products.

India can focus on buffalo milk based specialty products. This can be achieved through increasing productivity of animals. 3. Apart from the rapidly increasing demand for milk and dairy products. It is estimated that the demand for milk will grow at 7% per annum at current rate of income growth.4% in the near future. processing and marketing infrastructure. Strategy and Infrastructure Development: Indian dairy industry should further develop proper dairy production. other reasons such as the increased cattle feed cost and low availability of dairy farm labour in the rural areas have also resulted in increase in the cost of production. which is capable of meeting international quality requirements. Focus on Specialty Products: Dairy industry in India is unique with regard to the availability of buffalo milk. enhanced income of rural households and the farm debt waiver are influencing the demand for milk both in the rural and urban areas. The Government and dairy industry will need to play a vital role in this direction. A comprehensive strategy for producing quality and safe dairy products should also be formulated with suitable legal backup. such as Mozzarella cheese. 2.10 growth rate. In this case. improve animal health care and breeding facilities and management of dairy animals. while the growth in milk production is likely to continue at the present rate of 4. efforts should be made to reduce cost of production. Production Cost Reduction: In order to increase the competitiveness of Indian dairy industry. in order to meet the needs of the target consumers. . A number of suggestions to the future development of India’s dairy industry have been proposed by Karmakar & Banerjee (2006): 1.

the best-selling brand name for Milk Specialties Limited which is an IS/ISO 9001:2000 & HACCP certified integrated Milk processing plant in the Punjab area.11 MILK SPECIALITIES LTD Milk Time". . We have the best infrastructure and use advanced machinery supplied by world leader M/s ALFA LAVAL backed by M/s PASILACAN HYDRO of Denmark. we have been adopting and applying advanced methods which have enabled us to purchase high quality milk from the doorstep of 10000 milk producers. in northern part of the Indian sub-continent. we carry out extensive research and adopt modern methods for production and quality control of Milk and Milk products. Milk Specialties Limited was established in 1993 with an aim to establish a superior milk collection system at village level so that we can buy milk from milk producers easily from their doorsteps which can help in providing efficient market access and higher return to the Milk producers. At Milk Specialties Limited. material and machines. We are committed to meet the highest international quality standards by applying the perfect mix of men . Our state of art and high tech milk processing plant is situated in the fertile foot hills of Himalayan Range. In order to achieve our goal of expanding our operations across Indian as well as foreign markets.5 million liters of milk per day which is expandable to 1 million liters of milk per day. In order to achieve this goal. we are focused towards gaining 100% customer satisfaction by providing our customers with pure and safe Milk and Milk products. We are equipped to process 0. Our brand name MILK TIME has become highly popular and has been successful in building a huge customer base by providing the best quality of Milk & Milk products.

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13 CHAPTER-2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .

The present is based on some objectives and these objectives are listed below:- . Research methodology plays an important role in any investigation. It is the voyage of discovering new facts. One can define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. Research is thus an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement.14 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research in common parlance refers to the search of knowledge. This inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method employed in this quest is known as research. Unless the methodology is correct. the analysis and conclusion may not be scientific. Research methodology is an attempt to solve the research problem systematically.

e.  To study the purchasing behavior i.  To find the opinion of customers with regard to various schemes available or schemes offered by Milk Specialties Ltd  To know the degree of importance of various factors which people consider while purchasing dairy products  To find out the most popular brand of dairy products in Ambala.  To find the expectation of customers from Milk Specialties Ltd. . The study will cover Ambala City and Ambala Cantt and shall revolve around following objectives. of different types of customer in different areas.  To study the various factors affecting the customer-buying pattern especially in case of dairy products.15 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY THE PRESENT study is an attempt to analyze the Consumer Behavior Regarding dairy Products in Ambala.

which defines method to measure and find a method of measuring it along with a clear-cut definition of population. has a great bearing on the reliability of the results arrived at and as such constitutes the firm foundation of the entire evidence of the research work.16 RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is an arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to research purpose with economy in procedure. which are concerned with describing the character of a group. appropriate. It should try to minimize biases and maximize reliability of the data collected and analyzed is considered a good design. The researcher makes a plan of the study his research work. Descriptive Research Design Descriptive research design studies are those studies. A good research design should be flexible. That will enable the researcher to save and resources such a plan of study or blue print or study is called a research design . Thereby making research as efficient as possible yielding maximal information with minimal expenditure of efforts. In the other words we can say that research design is advance planning of research. In fact the research design is the conceptual structure with in which the research is conducted. Research design is needed because it facilitates the smooth sailing of the various research operations. time and money Research design. The design must give the smallest experimental error and it should yield maximum information. and efficient and so on. in fact. The present study is attempt of descriptive in nature.

Hence. The company can come to know various factors affecting the customers buying behavior Company comes to know about customers expectations & need for future purchase. Primary Method   Face to Face interview Questionnaires Secondary Method    Magazines Internet sites on Dairy Products Internet websites of popular Dairy Brands . and Customers. this market study will provide information to Company. The sample size taken for this project is 100 Respondents.17 SCOPE OF THE STUDY This study will be beneficial to Milk Specialties Ltd. to know about the Consumer behavior towards Dairy Products in Ambala. DATA COLLECTION: Data was collected by using primary as well as secondary methods of data collection.

nor too small.Potential Buyers and Actual Buyers : . This is a major problem before every researcher. which fulfills the requirements of efficiency representatives.Ambala City & Ambala Cantt d) Sampling Procedure:.Descriptive sampling . The size of sample should neither be excessively large. reliability and flexibility.     a) Sample size b) Sample element c) Sample extent : . It should be optimum.18 SAMPLE SIZE Size of samples refers to the numbers of items to be selected from the universe to constitute a sample.The overall sample size was Hundred : . An optimum sample is one.

 Summer season was main hurdle for this survey.  The response from the respondents was fair enough but not up to the mark or good enough.  The survey area were too far as the city is big enough which caused many transportation.  Data was not sufficient and also difficult to gather.19 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY  The time duration of this survey was 50 days only.  Peoples are not interested to provide any details. .

20 CHAPTER-3 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION .

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS .21 CHAPTER-4 IFINDINGS.

22 FINDINGS .

23 CONCLUSION .

24 SUGGESTIONS .

html  .25 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS  Research Methodology-C.iuf.org/files/Indian%20Dairy%20Industry.org/sites/cms.pdf  http://www.com/about-us.html  http://www.com/dairyprofile.milktimeindia.page 31 INTERNET  http://cms.R Kothari(IInd Edition).aavinmilk.iuf.

26 APPENDIX .

27 QUESTIONNARE .