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Some Notes on Avogadro's Number, 6.

022 x 10 23 Beberapa Catatan pada Avogadro's Pajak, 6,022 x 10 23
TA Furtsch, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville TA Furtsch, Tennessee Universitas Teknologi, Cookeville

Chemists use Avogadro's number every day. It is a very valuable number for a chemist to know how to use, and use properly. Apotek menggunakan Avogadro's nomor setiap hari. Ini
adalah nomor yang sangat berharga bagi apotek untuk mengetahui cara menggunakan, dan gunakan dengan benar. Where did Avogadro's number come from? Mana Avogadro's nomor datang dari? Did Avogadro himself do all the calculations? Was it just arbitrarily made up? Apakah Avogadro dirinya melakukan semua perhitungan saat ini hanya yang dirampas? How can it be measured? Some possible answers follow. Bagaimana dapat diukur? Beberapa kemungkinan jawaban ikuti. Amadeo Avogadro (1776-1856) Amadeo Avogadro (1776-1856) was the author of Avogadro's Hypothesis in 1811, which, together with Gay-Lussac's Law of Combining Volumes , was used by Stanislao Cannizzaro to elegantly remove all doubt about the establishment of the atomic weight scale at the Karlsruhe Conference of 1860. adalah pengarang Avogadro's hipotesa di 1811, yang bersama-sama dengan Gay-Lussac's Hukum Menggabungkan Volume, telah digunakan oleh Stanislao cicala elegan untuk menghapus semua keraguan tentang pembentukan atom skala berat di Karlsruhe Konferensi dari 1860. The name "Avogadro's Number" is just an honorary name attached to the calculated value of the number of atoms, molecules, etc. in a gram mole of any chemical substance. Nama "Avogadro's Pajak" hanya sebuah nama kehormatan terpasang ke nilai dihitung dari jumlah atom, Molecules, dll dalam gram dari tanggul apapun bahan kimia. Of course if we used some other mass unit for the mole such as "pound mole", the "number" would be different than 6.022 x 10 23 . Tentunya jika kita digunakan beberapa unit massa lain untuk tanggul seperti "setengah kilo tahi lalat", yang "nomor" akan berbeda daripada 6,022 x 10 23. The first person to have calculated the number of molecules in any mass of substance was Josef Loschmidt , (1821-1895), an Austrian high school teacher, who in 1865, using the new Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) calculated the number of molecules in one cubic centimeter of gaseous substance under ordinary conditions of temperature of pressure, to be somewhere around 2.6 x 10 19 molecules . Orang pertama yang telah dihitung jumlah Molecules di setiap massa adalah substansi Josef Loschmidt, (18211895), seorang guru sekolah Austria tinggi, yang pada 1865, baru menggunakan Kinetic molekul Teori (KMT) dihitung jumlah Molecules di

Salah satunya adalah Perrin. Svedberg yang lain. Sebagian besar dari metode ini dikembangkan oleh Perrin. yang mungkin tepat ditujukan" Avogadro's konstan. In his paper Perrin says "The invariable number N is a universal constant. Perrin harus sangat terkenal untuk siapapun yang melakukan perhitungan dalam dinamika molekul. Mereka berada dalam gerakan terus-menerus.775 x 10 25 m -3) When was the first time the term "Avogadro Number" was used? The designation seems to originate in a 1909 paper entitled "Brownian Movement and Molecular Reality.9. Pengukuran-Nya pada gerakan Brownian menunjukkan bahwa teori Einstein's telah sempurna dalam perjanjian dengan kenyataan. atau n. which may be appropriately designated "Avogadro's Constant. dan khususnya untuk penemuan sedimentasi keseimbangan ." Tulisan ini telah diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Inggris dari Bahasa Prancis di Sejarah De Chimie et de perawakan oleh Fredric Soddy dan tersedia. etc. The first experimental proof of this theory was given by a German physicist. Perrin. adalah peraih hadiah Nobel Perdamaian 1926 di Fisika untuk karyanya pada struktur terputus-putus dari masalah. New York. I have to speak of Perrin only.6 x 10 19 Molecules. suhu konstan.4. masalah yang telah diambil oleh dua ilmuwan secara bersamaan. n o . Lille. even under conditions of perfect external equilibrium. menjadi suatu tempat sekitar 2. 17/4/1942). " In the presentation of his Nobel prize in 1926 it was said of the work of Perrin: Dalam presentasi dari hadiah Nobel di 1926 dikatakan dari pekerjaan Perrin: It may perhaps be said that in the work which we have just summarized Perrin has offered indirect evidence for the existence of molecules." Oleh Jean Jean Baptiste Perrin (b. Most of these methods were developed by Perrin. Setelah itu.686 7.686 7775 x 10 25 m -3 ) Hal ini biasanya dikenal sebagai "Loschmidt's konstan. dan sebagainya hanya tak terbantahkan penjelasan untuk fenomena ini ascribes pergerakan dari partikel untuk kejutan pada mereka yang dihasilkan oleh Molecules dari cair sendiri. The only irrefutable explanation for this phenomenon ascribes the movements of the particles to shocks produced on them by the molecules of the liquid themselves. A mathematical theory of this phenomenon has been given by Einstein . sekarang terdaftar di NIST sebagai situs web 2. 30/9/1870-d. and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium. France. 17. After him. Mungkin mungkin akan mengatakan bahwa dalam pekerjaan yang telah kami diringkas Perrin telah menawarkan untuk langsung bukti keberadaan Molecules. Percobaan pertama bukti teori ini diberikan oleh Jerman fisika. Sebuah teori matematika dari fenomena ini telah diberikan oleh Einstein. Through these .1942. Saya telah memperkatakan hanya Perrin. is now listed at the NIST web site as 2. Partikel mikroskopis dalam cair tidak pernah di sisanya." by Jean Baptiste Jean Perrin (b. Seddig. was the 1926 Nobel Laureate in Physics for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter.1870-d." (This value. This paper was translated into English from the French in Annals De Chimie et de Physique by Fredric Soddy and is available. One of them was Perrin. They are in perpetual movement. constant temperature. Here. Dalam kertas Perrin mengatakan "The tetap nomor N adalah universal konstan.) Kapan pertama kali istilah "Avogadro Pajak" telah digunakan? Tujuan yang tampaknya berasal dalam 1909 kertas berjudul "Gerakan Brownian dan molekul Realita. Seddig. bahkan dalam kondisi sempurna keseimbangan eksternal." (Nilai ini. His measurements on the Brownian movement showed that Einstein's theory was in perfect agreement with reality. Perrin should be very well known to anyone who does calculations in molecular dynamics. berikut langsung bukti. 30. Prancis. Di sini. Perrin. This is usually known as "Loschmidt's Constant. Microscopic particles in a liquid are never at rest. the problem was taken up by two scientists simultaneously. the other Svedberg.satu sentimeter kubik gas dari substansi di bawah kondisi suhu biasa dari tekanan. follows a direct evidence. New York. Lille.

Dan dengan 1933 masih tidak ada kesepakatan universal seperti apa yang harus disebut. In these measurements he has found another method for determining Avogadro's number. 1933. 68. Tiga metode yang telah diberikan berikut jawaban untuk pertanyaan ini: 68. Sheffield. 65 x 10 22 . but Avogadro made no quantitative estimate of either of the above-mentioned constants. Dalam kertas yang berjudul "Loschmidt's Pajak". Jumlah ini sering disebut sebagai "Avogadro's Pajak. Melalui pengukuran ini baru penentuan Avogadro's nomor telah diperoleh. Pertama sebenarnya perkiraan jumlah Molecules dalam satu sentimeter kubik dari gas di bawah standar kondisi dibuat oleh Loschmidt di 1865. From the . Inggris mengatakan: This number is frequently referred to as "Avogadro's Number. dan dari jumlah ini Molecules (atom) dalam gram molekul (atom) kemudian dievaluasi. 1933. a physicist at The University. The theory of this rotation was developed by Einstein. pp. Teori rotasi ini dikembangkan oleh Einstein. and is appropriately associated with his name. Sheffield. SE Virgo." istilah "Loschmidt's Pajak" yang kemudian untuk jumlah Molecules dalam sentimeter kubik dari gas di bawah kondisi standar. England says: Pekerjaan Einstein Perrin dan memberikan beberapa bukti konkrit yang pertama untuk keberadaan Molecules. and from this the number of molecules (atoms) in a gram molecule (atom) was later evaluated. 68." the term "Loschmidt's Number" being then reserved for the number of molecules in a cubic centimetre of a gas under standard conditions. Sayangnya. Molekul menghasilkan dampak yang tidak hanya maju gerakan dari partikel didistribusikan dalam cair. Dan Avogadro's Pajak memiliki nilai yang harus diukur eksperimental. but also a rotational movement. v. Dalam pengukuran ini ia telah menemukan metode lain untuk menentukan Avogadro's nomor.measurements a new determination of Avogadro's number was obtained. 634649). The first actual estimate of the number of molecules in one cubic centimetre of a gas under standard conditions was made in 1865 by Loschmidt. pp. Measurements in relation herewith were carried out by Perrin. The molecular impacts produce not only a forward movement of the particles distributed in a liquid. Berlaku untuk pekerjaan dan Loschmidt Perrin ilmuwan banyak dilakukan banyak percobaan menggunakan berbagai teknik untuk tiba di nilai yang paling akurat untuk ini jumlah Molecules di satu dermaga dari substansi. And by 1933 there was still no universal agreement as to what the number should be called. Pengukuran dalam hal ini dilakukan oleh Perrin. tetapi juga sebuah gerakan pemutaran. SE Virgo. In a paper entitled " Loschmidt's Number ". Avogadro's hipotesa penting tentang identitas dari jumlah Molecules sama dalam volume berbagai gas di tekanan yang sama dan suhu telah dirumuskan 1811. What then is the result of these researches ? Apa itu adalah hasil dari penelitian ini? How many molecules are there in two grams of hydrogen? Berapa Molecules ada di dua gram hidrogen? The three methods have given the following answers to this question: 68. yang fisika di Universitas. Unfortunately.8 x 10 22 . masih banyak badan yang tidak menyadari bahkan menjadi awal 1900's.2 x 10 22. entities many still did not recognize even into the early 1900's. 27 . published in 1933 ( Science Progress . And Avogadro's Number has a value that must be measured experimentally. The work of Einstein and Perrin gave some of the first concrete evidence for the existence of molecules.2 x 10 22 . 65 x 10 22. seringkali tersebut interchanged. tetapi tidak Avogadro dibuat kuantitatif memperkirakan dari salah satu dari yang disebutkan di atas-konstan. 27. Avogadro's important hypothesis on the identity of the numbers of molecules in equal volumes of different gases at the same pressure and temperature was formulated in 1811. dan tepat yang terkait dengan nama-Nya. these designations are often interchanged. 634-649). yang diterbitkan di 1933 (Progree Sains. v.8 x 10 22. Subsequent to the work of Loschmidt and Perrin many scientists carried out many experiments using a variety of techniques to arrive at the most accurate value for this the number of molecules in one mole of substance.

022 141 99 x 10 23 mol -1 atoms per mol (obtained from NIST web site) is the best average for measurements using the best methods available. tidak ada kesepakatan jelas seperti apa yang harus disebut." sebagai hampir selalu dilakukan di Jerman literatur ilmiah. dari x-ray satu data yang dapat menentukan bahwa titanium (TI) memiliki tubuh-berpusat kubik unit sel (iethere Nangkring depan Komputer Seharian atom adalah dua unit per sel) dan panjang tepi 330." and of "Loschmidt's number per cubic centimetre. Virgo goes on to say that by that year more than eighty separate determinations had been made to discover the true value of the number "as it is a basic atomic constant its most probable value is of great importance in atomic physics. That the number today has 8 significant figures is a testament to the quality of modern experimental methods. from x-ray data the one can determine that titanium (Ti) has a body-centered cubic unit cell (iethere are two Ti atoms per unit cell) and an edge length of 330.88 g). there was no clear agreement as to what the number should be called. Saunders College Publishing. Bahwa jumlah hari ini memiliki 8 angka signifikan merupakan bukti kualitas modern metode percobaan. Davis and Peck.6 pm.401 g / cm 3. Virgo pergi ke oleh yang mengatakan bahwa lebih dari delapan puluh tahun terpisah determinations telah dibuat untuk menemukan nilai benar nomor "karena merupakan dasar atom konstan yang paling mungkin adalah nilai yang sangat penting dalam fisika atom. 6ed. Davis dan Peck. 2000. The experiments are often very difficult to carry out. can be calculated as follows: ( General Chemistry ." dan "Loschmidt's nomor per kubik sentimeter. even by 1933.88 g). This terminology avoids ambiguity. Jadi. and has been adopted here. hal 523): Today's best experimental value of 6.For contoh.6 pm.401 g/cm 3 . The number of moles of Ti in a mole of Ti (47. One can also find that the density of Ti metal is 4.quantitative view-point it thus seems preferable to speak of "Loschmidt's number per grammolecule (atom). The earliest attempts at using this method are reviewed in Virgo's paper. Penghitungan mencerminkan metode ini sering ditemukan dalam teks kimia umum modern books. Avogadro's Number. dapat dihitung sebagai berikut: (Umum Kimia. bahkan dengan 1933. Hari ini terbaik percobaan nilai 6. Whitten. Eksperimen seringkali sangat sulit untuk dilaksanakan." as is almost invariably done in the German scientific literature. Terminologi ini untuk menghindari kemenduaan. Secepat-cepatnya upaya di menggunakan metode ini akan ditinjau Virgo di koran-koran. 6ed.For example.022 141 99 x 10 23 mol -1 atom per mol (diperoleh dari NIST situs web) adalah rata-rata terbaik untuk pengukuran menggunakan metode terbaik yang tersedia. "modern yang terbaik untuk nilai-nilai apa yang kita panggil sekarang" Avogadro's Pajak "adalah hasil x-ray difraksi pengukuran jarak dari berkisi-kisi di logam dan GARAM dapur. Avogadro's Pajak. ." The best modern values for what we now call "Avogadro's Number" are the result of the x-ray diffraction measurement of lattice distances in metals and salts. Saunders College Publishing. p. dan telah diadopsi di sini. So. 523): Jumlah moles dari Nangkring depan Komputer Seharian di dermaga dari Nangkring depan Komputer Seharian (47. Anda dapat juga menemukan bahwa kepadatan Nangkring depan Komputer Seharian dari logam adalah 4. Calculations reflecting these methods are often found in modern general chemistry text books. Whitten. Dari kuantitatif melihat-titik maka tampaknya lebih baik untuk berbicara dari "Loschmidt's nomor per gram-molekul (atom). 2000.

Science Progress . Tetapan Loschmidt karena itu lebih tepat sebagai nama untuk nilai terakhir ini. 1933. Satu mol mengandung partikel sebanyak tetapan Avogadro (sekitar 6. Namun penggunaan mol terbatas pada pengukuran struktur subatomik. keduanya merupakan angka yang tetap. pp. "Loschmidt's Pajak".(from Carmen Giunta's classical chemistry page ) Avogadro's Esai 1811 di mana dia hypothesizes yang sama volume gas berisi jumlah yang sama Molecules. Perkiraan terbaik terakhir untuk angka ini adalah:[3] Nilai angka ini pertama kali diperkirakan oleh Johann Josef Loschmidt. 634-649 . Namun dalam kepustakaan berbahasa Jerman "tetapan Loschmidt" digunakan baik untuk nilai ini maupun jumlah entitas dalam satu mol. Science Progress. Karena kebiasaan dan besarnya dibandingkan satuan lainnya mol tidak praktis dipakai untuk kegunaan lain.02214 x 1023). "Satu mol" analog dengan "selusin". v. atau NA). Mol (simbol: mol) adalah unit dasar SI yang mengukur jumlah bahan. [sunting] Definisi . Partikel dapat berupa atom atau molekul. yang dapat dikatakan berbanding lurus dengan bilangan Avogadro. (Dari Carmen Giunta's klasik kimia halaman) "Loschmidt's Number".Some Links related to this essay: Beberapa Link yang berkaitan dengan esei ini: Avogadro's 1811 Essay in which he hypothesizes that equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules. v. yang pada 1865 menghitung jumlah partikel dalam satu sentimeter kubik gas dalam keadaan standar. 1933. adalah banyaknya "entitas" (biasanya atom atau molekul) dalam satu mol[1][2] . dan dapat mendeskripsikan objek elementer apapun (objek yang terdiri dari atom). 27. atomik ataupun molekuler. 634-649.012 kilogram) karbon-12 dalam keadaan dasarnya. Avogadro's Hypothesis Avogadro's hipotesa A Biographical interview with Amadeo Avogadro A biografis wawancara dengan Amadeo Avogadro Bilangan Avogadro (lambang: L. juga dinamakan sebagai tetapan Avogadro atau konstanta Avogadro. pp. yang merupakan jumlah atom karbon-12 dalam 12 gram (0. Mol adalah unit penghitungan. 27 .

yang mengandung entitas elementer atau partikel sebanyak atom-atom yang berada dalam 0. Jumlah atom dalam 12 gram karbon-12 dikenal sebagai tetapan Avogadro. . Avogadro submitted this essay to a French journal. where he taught for another twenty years. he lost his chair in 1823 (or the university officially declared. After the downfall of Napoléon in 1815. In 1811. and in 1809 started teaching them at a liceo (high school) in Vercelli. de Chimie et d'Histoire naturelle (Journal of Physics. Avogadro had been recalled to the university in Turin in 1833.02214279(30)×1023 mol-1 Biography Amedeo Avogadro was born in Turin to a noble family of Piedmont. he dedicated himself to physics and mathematics (then called positive philosophy). it was "very glad to allow this interesting scientist to take a rest from heavy teaching duties. Chemistry and Natural History) so it was written in French. et les proportions selon lesquelles elles entrent dans ces combinaisons ("Essay on Determining the Relative Masses of the Elementary Molecules of Bodies and the Proportions by Which They Enter These Combinations").012 kilogram (12 gram) karbon-12 bebas. As a result. He was active in the revolutionary movements of 1821 against the king of Sardinia (who became ruler of Piedmont with Turin as his capital). He married Felicita Mazzé and had six children. yang dapat diukur secara empiris. Italy. Well before this. Little is known about Avogadro's private life. northern Italy was under the rule of the French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte. in order to be able to give better attention to his researches")[citation needed] . He graduated in ecclesiastical law at the early age of 20 and began to practice. where his family had property. dan dalam keadaan dasar (tidak tereksitasi[1]. tidak bergerak. which contains Avogadro's hypothesis. not Italian. he published an article with the title Essai d'une manière de déterminer les masses relatives des molécules élémentaires des corps. northern Italy came under control of this kingdom.) In 1820. Soon after.Definisi resmi satu mol adalah jumlah bahan suatu sistem. he became professor of physics at the University of Turin. Nilai tetapan ini adalah 6. Charles Albert granted a Constitution (Statuto Albertino) in 1848. which appears to have been sober and religious. (Note: In 1811. Eventually. De Lamétherie's Journal de Physique.

Published in the Journal of Physics.0221415 × 1023. about gas densities. Mémoire sur la manière de . ou densités présumées de leur gaz. the number of molecules in one mole was named Avogadro's number. and these molecules are composed of atoms. and weights and measures (he introduced the metric system into Piedmont) and was a member of the Royal Superior Council on Public Instruction. and on Determination of the Masses of Atoms) and shortly afterwards. the relative molecular mass of a gas can be calculated from the mass of sample of known volume. publié dans le Journal de Physique. Hence. he published Mémoire sur les masses relatives des molécules des corps simples. Avogadro developed this hypothesis after Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac had published in 1808 his law on volumes (and combining gases). It is approximately 6. In 1814. In honour of Avogadro's contributions to the theory of molarity and molecular weights. For instance. juillet 1811 ("Note on the Relative Masses of Elementary Molecules. pour servir de suite à l'Essai sur le même sujet. [edit] Accomplishments Avogadro's Law states that the relationship between the masses of the same volume of different gases (at the same temperature and pressure) corresponds to the relationship between their respective molecular weights. as distinguished from weight. As a Follow-up to the Essay on the Same Subject. or Suggested Densities of Their Gases. more attention was given to the definition of mass. Nouvelles considérations sur la théorie des proportions déterminées dans les combinaisons. often referred to as the Loschmidt number in German-speaking countries (Loschmidt constant now has another meaning). et sur la détermination des masses des molécules des corps (New Considerations on the Theory of Proportions Determined in Combinations." including an "elementary molecule" (our "atom"). He believed that there were three kinds of "molecules. et sur la constitution de quelques-uns de leur composés. Avogadro's number is used to compute the results of chemical reactions. July 1811") ([1]). John Dalton did not consider this possibility. and on the Constituents of Some of Their Compounds. Avogadro did not actually use the word "atom" as the words "atom" and "molecule" were used almost without difference. stating that gases are composed of molecules.Some historians suggest that he sponsored some Sardinian revolutionaries. Also. meteorology. One of his most important contributions was clearly distinguishing one from the other. In 1821 he published another paper. The greatest problem Avogadro had to resolve was the confusion at that time regarding atoms and molecules. NA or "Avogadro's constant". who were stopped by the announcement of Charles Albert's constitution. Johann Josef Loschmidt first calculated the value of Avogadro's number. It allows chemists to determine the exact amounts of substances produced in a given reaction. Avogadro held posts dealing with statistics.

Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff showed that Avogadro's theory also held in dilute solutions. so Avogadro's hypothesis was not immediately accepted. as announced at Karlsruhe Congress in 1860. . Thus. In 1911. related experiments with some inorganic substances showed seeming exceptions to the law.ramener les composès organiques aux lois ordinaires des proportions déterminées (Note on the Manner of Finding the Organic Composition by the Ordinary Laws of Determined Proportions). with his kinetic theory on gases. four years after Avogadro's death. ossia Trattato della costituzione materiale de' corpi. Avogadro is hailed as a founder of the atomic-molecular theory. and that Avogadro's law determined not only molecular masses. King Victor Emmanuel III attended. André-Marie Ampère achieved the same results three years later by another method (in his Sur la détermination des proportions dans lesquelles les corps se combinent d'après le nombre et la disposition respective des molécules dont leurs particules intégrantes sont composées -. This was finally resolved by Stanislao Cannizzaro. but the same indifference was shown to his theory as well. a meeting in Turin commemorated the hundredth anniversary of the publication of Avogadro's classic 1811 paper. Rudolf Clausius. Unfortunately. Only through studies by Charles Frédéric Gerhardt and Auguste Laurent on organic chemistry was it possible to demonstrate that Avogadro's law explained why the same quantities of molecules in a gas have the same volume. Avogadro's great contribution to chemistry was recognised.On the Determination of Proportions in which Bodies Combine According to the Number and the Respective Disposition of the Molecules by Which Their Integral Particles Are Made). but atomic masses as well. In 1841. he published his work in Fisica dei corpi ponderabili. gave another confirmation of Avogadro's Law. He explained that these exceptions were due to molecular dissociations at certain temperatures. 4 volumes. [edit] Response to the theory The scientific community did not give great attention to his theory.