# JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat

CHAPTER 4: HEAT
4.1 : UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to • • Explain thermal equilibrium Explain how a liquid-in glass thermometer works
Thermal equilibrium :Keseimbangan terma

Faster. rate of energy transfer A
Hot object

B

Equivalent to

Equivalent to

Cold object No net heat transfer

Slower rate of energy transfer

1.

The net heat will flow from A to B until the temperature of A is the ( same, zero as the temperature of B. In this situation, the two bodies are said to have reached thermal equilibrium.

2. 3. 4.

When thermal equilibrium is reached, the net rate of heat flow between the two bodies is (zero, equal) There is no net flow of heat between two objects that are in thermal equilibrium. Two objects in thermal equilibrium have the same temperature. The liquid used in glass thermometer should (a) (b) (c) Be easily seen Expand and contract rapidly over a wide range of temperature Not stick to the glass wall of the capillary tube Opaque liquid Does not stick to the glass Expands uniformly when heated Freezing point -390C Boiling point 3570C

5.

List the characteristic of mercury (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

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JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

( Heat, Temperature ) is a form of energy. It flows from a hot body to a cold body. The SI unit for ( heat , temperature) is Joule, J. ( Heat , Temperature ) is the degree of hotness of a body The SI unit for (heat , temperature) is Kelvin, K. Lower fixed point (l 0 )/ ice point : the temperature of pure melting ice/00C Upper fixed point( l 100)/steam point: the temperature of steam from water that is boiling under standard atmospheric pressure /1000C

Temperature, θ =

l - l
θ

0

x 1000C

l100 - l0
l0 l100 lθ : length of mercury at ice point : length of mercury at steam point : length of mercury at θ point

Exercise 4.1 Section A: Choose the best answer 1. The figure shows two metal blocks. Which the following statement is false? 2. When does the energy go when a cup of hot tea cools? A. It warms the surroundings B. It warms the water of the tea C. It turns into heat energy and disappears. Which of the following temperature corresponds to zero on the Kelvin scale? A. 2730 C B. 00C C. -2730 C D. 1000 C

3. A. P and Q are in thermal contact B. P and Q are in thermal equilibrium C. Energy is transferred from P to Q D. Energy is transferred from Q to P

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JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat

4.

How can the sensitivity of a liquidin –glass thermometer be increased? A. Using a liquid which is a better conductor of heat B. Using a capillary tube with a narrower bore. C. Using a longer capillary tube D. Using a thinner-walked bulb Which instrument is most suitable for measuring a rapidly changing temperature? A. Alcohol-in –glass thermometer B. Thermocouple C. Mercury-in-glass thermometer

D. 6.

Platinum thermometer

resistance

5.

When shaking hands with Anwar, Kent Hui niticed that Anwar’s hand was cold. However, Anwar felt that Kent Hui hand was warm. Why did Anwar and Kent Hui not feel the same sensation? A. Both hands in contact are in thermal equilibrium. B. Heat is flowing from Kent Hui’s hand to Anawr’s hand C. Heat is following from Anwar’s hand to Kent Hui hand.

Section B: Answer all the questions by showing the calculation 1. The length of the mercury column at the ice point and steam point are 5.0 cm and 40.0cm respectively. When the thermometer is immersed in the liquid P, the length of the mercury column is 23.0 cm. What is the temperature of the liquid P? Temperature, θ = lθ – l0 x 1000C l100 – l0 θ = 23 – 5 x 1000C 40 - 5 θ = 51.420C 2. The length of the mercury column at the steam point and ice point and are 65.0 cm and 5.0cm respectively. When the thermometer is immersed in the liquid Q, the length of the mercury column is 27.0 cm. What is the temperature of the liquid Q? Temperature, θ = lθ – l0 x 1000C l100 – l0 θ = 27 – 5 x 1000C 65 - 5

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The distance between 00C and 1000C is 25 cm. θ = lθ – l0 x 1000C l100 – l0 θ = 16 – 0 x 1000C 25 .5cm above the lower fixed point.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat θ = 36.0 cm.5 – 0 x 1000C 28 .0 θ = 87. What is the temperature of the water? Temperature. When the thermometer is put into a beaker of water.5cm 4 .0 x = 7.670C 3. θ = lθ – l0 x 1000C l100 – l0 300C = x – 0 x 1000C 25 . What is the temperature of the water? What is the length of mercury column from the bulb at temperatures i) 300C Temperature. The distance between 00C and 1000C is 28.00C Temperature.50C 4. When the thermometer is put into a beaker of water. the length of mercury column is 16cm above the lower fixed point.0 θ = 64. θ = lθ – l0 x 1000C l100 – l0 θ = 24. the length of mercury column is 24.

50C. (1m) Alkohol ……………………………………………………………………………………………. Luqman uses an aluminium can.5 x = 14. He pours a liquid with linear expansion into the can.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat SECTION C: Structured Questions 1.08cm (d) Why should he use a drinking straw of small diameter? To increases the sensitivity of the thermometer ……………………………………………………………………………………………… (e) What kind of action should he take if he wants to increase the sensitivity of his thermometer? Use a copper can instead of the aluminum can because it is a better thermal ……………………………………………………………………………………………… conductor 5 . (a) Suggest a kind of liquid that expands linearly. 100 = 82. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Upper fixed point = boiling point of water ……………………………………………………………………………………………… (c) If the measurement length of the liquid inside the straw at the temperature of the lower fixed point and the upper fixed point are 5cm and 16 cm respectively. State them (2m) Lower fixed point = freezing point of water. find the length of the liquid at 82. a drinking straw and some plasticine to make a simple thermometer as shown in figure below.5 16-5 x–5 100x – 500 = 907. (b) He chooses two fixed points of Celsius scale to calibrate his thermometer.

6 . The heat capacity of an object depends on the Temperature of the body ………………………………………………………………………………………. The heat energy absorbed or given out by an object is given by Q = mc∆θ. temperature difference between them. Type of material ……………………………………………………………………………………… The specific heat capacity of a substance is the amount of heat that must be supplied to increase the temperature by 1 0C for a mass of 1 kg of the substance. 5. you will be able to • • • • • • 1. What do you mean by heat and temperature? Heat is the energy that transfers from one object to another object because of a …………………………………………………………………………………………….. Unit Jkg-1 K-1 Specific heat capacity ...JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. Define specific heat capacity State that c = Q/mθ Determine the specific heat capacity of a liquid Determine the specific heat capacity of a solid Describe applications of specific heat capacity Solve problems involving specific heat capacity The heat capacity of a body is the amount of heat that must be supplied to the body to increase its temperature by 10C. Mass of the body ………………………………………………………………………………………. High specific heat capacity absorbs a large amount of heat with only a small temperature increase such as plastics. 2. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… : UNDERSTANDING SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY By the end of this subtopic. c = Q__ m∆θ Heat capacity Muatan haba Specific heat capacity Muatan haba tentu 4. (a) (b) (c) 3. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Temperature is a measure of degree of hotness of a body.

water acts as a heat reservoir as it can absorb a great amount of heat before it boils.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat 6. It is used as a cooling agent to prevent overheating of the engine . Conversion of energy Heater Power = P Electrical energy Electrical energy Heat energy Pt = mcθ Potential energy Object falls from A high position Heat energy mgh= mcθ Kinetic energy Moving object stopped due to friction Heat energy ½ mv2= mcθ Power = P 7. Applications of Specific Heat Capacity Faster increase in temperature Small value of c Two object of equal mass Slower increase in temperature Big value of c Equal rate of heat supplied Explain the meaning of above application of specific heat capacity: (a) (i) Water as a coolant in a car engine Water is a good example of substance with a high specific capacity.Therefore. 7 .

(c) Sea breeze …………………………………………… …………………………………………… …………………………………………… …………………………………………… …………………………………………… …………………………………………… …………………………………………… ………………… (d) Land breeze …………………………………………… …………………………………………… …………………………………………… …………………………………………… …………………………………………… …………………………………………… ……………… 8 . ………………………………………………………………………………………....... ………………………………………………………………………………………..JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat (b) Household apparatus and utensils ………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………..

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat Exercise 4. 3. How much heat energy is required to raise the temperature of a 4kg iron bar from 320C to 520C? (Specific heat capacity of iron = 452 Jkg-1 0C-1). Why is this done? A. To ensure the thermometer is in an upright position. The temperature of the ethanol rises faster.. Heat energy is supplied at the same rate to 250g of water and 250g of 4. D. The amount of heat energy required to change 1kg of the substance from the solid state to the liquid state. is less dense than water C. is denser than water B. 2. Amount of heat energy required. the mass of the object B.2 SECTION A : Choose the best answer 1. Q = mcθ = 4 x 452 x (52-32) = 36 160J 9 . has a smaller specific heat capacity than water In the experiment to determine the specific heat capacity of a metal block. the type of substance the object is made of C. The amount of heat energy required to raise 1kg of the substance by 10C. To ensure a better conduction of heat B. To reduce the friction between the thermometer and the wall of the block. C. the quantity of heat received Which of the following defines the specific heat capacity of a substance correctly? A. The change in the temperature of an object does not depend on A. the shape of the object D. A. To reduce the consumption of electrical energy C. The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of the substance B. some oil is poured into the hole containing thermometer. ethanol. This is because the ethanol. has a larger specific heat capacity than water D. SECTION B: Answer all questions by showing the calculation 1.

Q = Amount of heat released. Q = mcθ = 2.5 kg of water from 320C to 820C. Amount of heat required.6 x 4200 x (θ .JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat 2. 000J 4. . Calculate the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 0.2 x 4200 x ( 70.30) θ = 400C SECTION C: Structured questions 10 .5 x 4200 x (82-32) = 525. Find the amount of heat is released. Q mcθ = mcθ 0.75 x 900 x (120-45) = 50 625J 5. 750g block of a aluminium at 1200C is cooled until 450C.θ) = 0.2 kg of water at 700C is mixed with 0.6 kg of water at 30 0C. 0. (Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 C-1). Calculate the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 2.8 x 400 x (60-35) = 8 000J 3. find the final temperature of the mixture. Q = mcθ = 0. (Specific heat capacity of aluminium = 900 J kg-1 C-1). (Specific heat capacity of copper = 400 J kg-1 C-1). Q = mcθ = 0. Amount of heat released. Assuming that no heat is lost.8 kg of copper from 350C to 600C. (Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 C-1) Amount of heat required. Amount of heat required.

25 x 400 x (θ . Q = Amount of heat released.25kg A B 1000C 200C Assume that there is no energy loss to the surroundings. In figure below. Find the final temperature of A and B if they are in thermal equilibrium. (a) respectively. Amount of heat required.67 = 60 000J (c) Suggest one method to reduce the energy loss to the surroundings.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat 1.0x 900 x ( 100.θ) = 2. Given the specific heat capacity of A and B are 900 Jkg -1 C-1 and 400 Jkg-1 C-1 11 . block A of mass 5kg at temperature 100 0C is in contact with another block B of mass 2. Put them in a sealed polystyrene box.670C (b) Find the energy given by A during the process.. 5kg 2.20) θ = 86. ………………………………………………………………………………………….25kg at temperature 200C. Q mcθ = mcθ 5. Energy given = mcθ = 5 x 900 x (100 – 86.

Q= ml 3. Complete the diagrams below and summarized. Gas Boiling Latent heat absorbed Condensation Latent heat released Solid Solidification Latent heat released Liquid 2. 12 . The heat absorbed or the heat released at constant temperature during a change of phase is known as latent heat.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat UNDERSTANDING SPECIFIC LATENT HEAT By the of this subtopic. you will be able to • • • • • 1. Four main changes of phase. State that transfer of heat during a change of phase does not cause a change in temperature Define specific latent heat State that l = Q/m Determine the specific latent heat of fusion and specific latent heat of vaporisation Solve problem involving specific latent heat.

(c) Solidification Temperature ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… Time ………………………………………. (d) Condensation Temperature ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… 13 Time ……………………………………… ……………………………………….JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat (a) Melting Temperature ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… Time (b) Boiling Temperature ………………………………………. . ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… Time ……………………………………….

. The S. Latent heat of fusion …………………………………is the heat absorbed by a melting solid. The specific latent heat of vaporisation is the quantity of heat needed to change temperature 1kg of liquid into gas or vapour of its boiling point without any change in ……………………. Latent heat of vaporisation ………………………………….JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat 4. The S. The specific latent heat of fusion is the quantity of the heat needed to change 1kg of solid to a liquid at temperature its melting point without any increase in ………………………. is heat of vaporisation is heat absorbed during boiling..I unit of the specific latent heat of fusion is Jkg-1.. Latent heat absorbed ( boiling) water 14 heat lost ( condensation) gas . Latent heat absorbed ( melting) ice heat lost ( freezing) water 5..I unit is Jkg-1.

With its large latent heat. the condensed water ……………………………………………………………………………………………… vapour releases a quantity of latent heat and heat capacity. This heat flows to the ……………………………………………………………………………………………… food. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Preservation of Food The freshness of foodstuff such as fish and meat can be maintain by placing ……………………………………………………………………………………………… them in contact with ice. When food is steamed. When the ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ice melts a large amount of heat (latent heat) is absorbed and this lowers the ……………………………………………………………………………………………… temperature of the drink. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… (g) Killing of Germs and Bacteria Steam that releases a large quantity of heat is used in the autoclave to kill germs ……………………………………………………………………………………………… and bacteria on surgery equipment in hospitals.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat 6. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… (f) Steaming Food Food is cooked faster if steamed. : (d) Explain the application of Specific Latent Heat above: Cooling of beverage When ice melts. This is more efficient than boiling the food. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… (e) 15 . its large latent heat is absorbed from surroundings. Beverage can be cooled by adding in several cubes of ice. This property ……………………………………………………………………………………………… makes ice a suitable substance for use as a coolant to maintain other substance at a ……………………………………………………………………………………………… low temperature. ice is able to absorb a large ……………………………………………………………………………………………… quantity of heat from the foodstuff as its melts. Thus food can be kept at a low ……………………………………………………………………………………………… temperature for an extended period of time.

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… EXERCISE 4. It is possible to cook food much faster with a pressure cooker as shown above. B. C. The graph in figure below shows how the temperature of some wax changes as it cools from liquid to solid. The voltage of the electricity supply C. A. The temperature change of the ice. The time taken for the ice to melt B. Which section of the graph would the wax be a mixture of solid and liquid? A. Why is it easier to cook food using a pressure cooker? Figure show a joulemeter used for measuring the electrical energy to melt some ice in an experiment. PQ QR RS ST 3. To find the specific latent heat of fusion of ice. The mass of water produced by melting ice D. 2.3 Section A: 1. D. what must be measured? 16 .

Water does not react with many other substance C. Food absorbs more heat energy from the high pressure steam 4. C. Boiling point of water in the pressure cooker is raised D. This is because… A. Water is readily available B. determining the mass of ice that melts as a result of heat from the surroundings 6. Q = ml = 0. Figure below shows the experiment set up to determine the specific latent heat of fusion of ice. C. steam has a high specific latent heat.3 x 330 000 kJ kg-1 = 99 000kJ Question 2-7 are based on the following information 17 300g of ice at 00C melts. Which of the following is not a characteristics of water that makes it widely used as a cooling agent? A. How much energy is required for this . determining the average value of the specific latent heat of fusion of ice.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat A. ensuring that the ice does not melt too fast. D. Steam has a high specific heat capacity. Water has a large specific heat capacity D. Water has a large density A. Scalding of the skin by boiling water is less serious then by steam. A control of the experiment is set up as shown in Figure (a) with the aim of SECTION B: Answer the question by showing the calculation 2. the boiling point of water is less than the temperature of steam B. determining the rate of melting of ice B. the heat of boiling water is quickly lost to the surroundings C. D. More heat energy can be supplied to the pressure cooker B. Heat loss from the pressure cooker can be reduced. 5.

34 x 105 500 x t t = 501 000 = 1002s 300 g of water at 400C is mixed with x g of water at 80 0C. Calculate the amount of heat released when 2 kg of ice at 0 0C is changed into water at 00C.26 X 106 J kg-1 An immersion heater rated at 500 W is fitted into a large block of ice at 0 0C. How long does it take to melt 1. 300C. Find the value of x 4. 5. The final temperature of the mixture is 700C. Specific heat capacity of water = 4 200 J kg-1 C-1 Specific heat capacity of ice = 2 100 J kg-1 C-1 Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 3. at 1000C Find the amount of heat needed to convert 0.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat • • • • 3.5 kg of ice at —15 0C into steam 18 .34 X 105J kg-1 Specific latent heat of vaporization of water = 2.5 x 3. 6. Calculate the amount of heat needed to convert 3 kg of ice at 0 0C to water at 7.5kg of ice? Q = ml Pt = 1.

Calculate the amount of heat needed to convert 100 g of ice at 0 0C into steam 9. How much heat will be absorbed when 3. temperature and volume in terms of the behavior of gas molecules. at 1000C.2 kg of water is boiled off at its boiling point.V • m 3 • • Explanation The molecules move freely in random motion and fill up the whole space in the container. UNDERSTANDING THE GAS LAW By the end of this subtopic. The volume of the gas is equal to the volume of the container 19 . you will be able to : • • (i) (ii) (iii) • • 1. Determine the relationship between pressure and volume volume and temperature pressure and temperature Explain absolute zero and the absolute/Kelvin scale of temperature Solve problems involving pressure. Explain gas pressure. Property of gas Volume. temperature and volume of a fixed mass of gas Complete the table below. The specific latent heat of vaporization of water is 2300 kJ kg-’.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat 8.

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat Temperature.P • Pa(Pascal) • • The molecules are in continuous random motion. The kinetic theory of gas is based on the following assumptions: (a) The molecules in a gas move freely in random motion and posses kinetic energy (b) The force of attraction between the molecules are negligible.1 Boyle’s Law Pα1 V That is PV = constant Or P V = P V 1 1 2 2 Small volume molecules hit wall more often. Boyle’s law can be shown graphically as in Figure above 0 20 (a) P inversely proportional to V (b) P directly proportional to 1/V 1/V 0 V . (c) The collisions of the molecules with each other and with the walls of the container are elastic collisions 4. 2. greater pressure Relationship between pressure and volume 1.T • K (Kelvin) • The molecules are in continuous random motion and have an average kinetic energy which is proportional to the temperature. there is a change in momentum and a force is exerted on the wall • The force per unit area is the pressure of gas 2. P Boyle’s P law states that for a fixed mass of gas. Pressure. the pressure of the gas is inversely proportional to its volume when the temperature is kept constant. When a molecules collides with the wall of the container and bounces back.4.

find the volume of the air bubble when it reaches the surface of the sea. 2. the volume of the gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature when its pressure is kept constant. If the atmospheric pressure is 10m of water. 3. The volume of an air bubble at the base of a sea of 50 m deep is 250cm 3. larger volume to keep the pressure constant Lower temperature 1. faster molecules.5 x 10-3 m3 = V2 4. Charles’ law states that for a fixed mass of gas. The temperature -2730C is the lowest possible temperature and is known as the absolute zero of temperature. Temperature Celsius scale (0C) Kelvin Scale(K) 21 . P2= 10m PI=50m + 10m P1V1 = P2V2 60m (250 x 10-6)m3 = 10m x V2 1.2 Charles’s Law V1=250cm3 VαT that is V = constant T Relationship between volume and temperature Higher temperature.4. Fill the table below.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat 3.

-273 0 100 θ 0 273 373 ( θ + 273 ) -273 100 θ/0C 4.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat Absolute zero Ice point Steam point Unknown point 4. Complete the diagram below. EXERSICE 4. greater pressure 1.3 Pressure’s Law PαT That is P = constant T Relationship between pressure and temperature Higher temperature molecules move faster.4.4Gas Law 22 . The pressure law states that for a fixed mass of gas. the pressure of the gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature when its volume is kept constant.

Find the pressure now. 3. The volume of an air bubble at the base of a sea of 50 in deep is 200 cm3. A mixture of air and petrol vapour is injected into the cylinder of a car engine when the cylinder volume is 100 cm3. If the atmospheric pressure is 10 in of water. Given that its volume is 15 mm3 when it is at a depth of 2 in. An air bubble has a volume of V cm3 when it is released at a depth of 45m from the water surface.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat 1. (Atmospheric pressure = 10 m of water) 23 . Its pressure is then 1. 2. The valve closes and the mixture is compressed to 20 cm3. (Atmospheric pressure = 10 m of water) 4. Find its volume (V) when it reaches the water surface. find the value of h.0 atm. find the volume of the air bubble when it reaches the surface of the sea. The volume of an air bubble is 5 mm3 when it is at a depth of h in below the water surface.

fixed? The air pressure in a container at 330C is 1. The volume of a gas is 1 cm 3 at 150C.4 X 1O5 N m2.0 X 105N rn2) 24 . Find the new pressure of the gas if the volume of the container is constant. The container is heated until the temperature is 550C.(Atmospheric pressure = 1. A gas of volume 20m3 at 370C is heated until its temperature becomes 870C at constant pressure. The gas is heated at fixed pressure until the volume becomes triple the initial volume.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat 5. Calculate the final temperature of the gas. 8. What is the increase in volume? 6. The container is heated and temperature of the gas increases to 980C. An enclosed container contains a fixed mass of gas at 25 0C and at the atmospheric pressure. What is the final air pressure if the volume of the container is 7.

we should open the lid slightly.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat 9. To allow microwave to reflect more times inside the lunch box D. F. which of the following processes does not involve a transfer to material? A. To allow microwave to penetrate deeper into the lunch box. .2 x 10 5 Pa to 9 x 105 Pa at 400C. The temperature of the iron sphere will be lower than 500C In the process to transfer heat from one object to another object. If the volume of the gas is constant. G. Radiation D. Which of the following statements is correct when they reach thermal equilibrium? D. Vaporisation C. The copper sphere will have a temperature of 500C. Evaporation 3. otherwise the box will explode C. Convection 25 B. find the initial temperature of the gas. Both the sphere have the same temperature. The pressure of a gas decreases from 1. To allow microwave to go inside the lunch box B. A 5kg iron sphere of temperature 500C is put in contact with a 1kg copper sphere of temperature 273K and they are put inside an insulated box. PART A: CHAPTER 4 1. Which of the following explanations is correct? A. 2. A iron sphere will have a temperature of 273K E. When we use a microwave oven to heat up some food in a lunch box. To allow the water vapors to go out.

the rate of collision between the gas molecules and the walls increases A plastic bag is filled with air. Steam can cut off the supply of oxygen C. Water is generally used to put out fire. at all times because evaporation and condensation occur any time C. Water is easily available D. The internal energy of the object is increased when condensation occurs C. B. the number of gas molecules increases C. 26 . only when water vapour is saturated B. A. D. Gas molecules collide elastically with the walls of the container C. D. Based on the kinetic theory of gas which one of the following does not explain the behaviour of gas molecules in a container? A. Water molecules change their states between the liquid and gaseous states Which of the following statements is false? A. Which of the following statement is correct? A. B. Water has a high specific heat capacity B. the average distance between the gas molecules increases D. The temperature of this sample will increase 10C when 5 000 J energy is absorbed by this sample. 6. Gas molecules move faster as temperature increases D. Water can react with some material Given that the heat capacity of a certain sample is 5000 J0C-1. only when the water is boiling 8. It is immersed in the boiling water as shown in diagram below. Gas molecules move randomly B. C. The mass of this sample is 1kg. Which of the following is correct? A. 9. The total mass of the object is kept constant when fusion occurs. The energy needed to increase the temperature of 0. 5. Energy is absorbed when condensation occurs. Gas molecules collide inelastically with each other A cylinder which contains gas is compressed at constant temperature of the gas increase because A. 10.5kg of this sample is 2500J. Which of the following explanation is not correct? A. 7. Energy is absorbed when vaporization occurs. the average speed of gas molecules increases B.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat 4. The volume of the plastic bag increases. only when the vapour molecules produce a pressure as the same as the atmospheric pressure D. The energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 kg of this sample is 5000 J.

The instrument used to measure the temperature is a liquid in glass thermometer. A research student wishes to carry out an investigation on the temperature change of the substance in the temperature range -500C to 500C. The pressure of air molecules increases C.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat B. The repulsive force of boiling water slows down the movement of air molecule PART B. Thermometer Liquid Freezing point of liquid (0C) Boiling point of liquid (0C) Diameter of capillary tube Cross section A Mercury -39 360 Large B Mercury -39 360 Small C Alcohol -112 360 Large D Alcohol -112 360 Small 27 . 1. The air molecules in the bag move faster D.

........5 = 64 0C (ii) State two thermometric properties which can be used to calibrate a thermometer......... On the basis of the information given in Table 1.......Thus the …………………………………………………………………………………………… alcohol will not boil....B C and D.(5 m) ………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… Alkohol – freezing point is less than -50C................ respectively.............5 cm at 00C and 1000C. This means that the component of the system …………………………………………………………………………………………... (ii) Briefly explain the principle stated in (a)(i) (3m) A system is in a state of thermal equilibrium if the net rate of heat flow between ………………………………………………………………………………………….. the length of the mercury column is 14... the component of the system is zero...........JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat Table 1 (a) (i) State the principle used in a liquid.......0cm and 18........in –glass thermometer.. explain the characteristics of.... …………………………………………………………………………………………… Small diameter increases sensitivity of the thermometer …………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………….. (c) The length of the mercury column in uncalibrated thermometer is 6.... …………………………………………………………………………………………… Capillary tube has small diameter will produce a large change in the length thus …………………………………………………………………………………………… making the change clearly visible.................. and suggest a suitable thermometer for the experiment..... When the thermometer is placed in a liquid......0 x 100 12.... (6m) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… • Change of volume of gas with temperature • Change of electrical resistance with temperature ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 28 ... boiling point higher than 50C. (b) Table 1 shows the characteristic of 4 types of thermometer: A....(1m) Principle of thermal equilibrium ....0cm (i) Calculate the temperature of the liquid The temperature of the liquid = 8...... are at the same temperature ………………………………………………………………………………………….......

the water temperature rises to 420C.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat 2. He prepares a cardboard tube 50.500 x c x(100 -42) A student performs an experiment to investigate the energy change in a system. Block P is then transferred into the water at a temperature of 300C in a polystyrene cup. 29 .{Specific heat capacity of water 4 200 j kg-1 C-1) Calculate (a) the quantity of heat gained by water the polystyrene cup Q = mcθ = 0. Lead shot of mass 500 g is placed in the tube and the other end of the tube is also closed by a stopper.250 x 4200 x (42-30) = 12 600J (b) the rate of heat supplied to the water Rate of heat supplied to the water = 12 600J 120s = 105 Js-1 (c) the specific heat capacity of the metal block P = 12 600J c 3. The mass of water in the polystyrene cup is 250 g.0 cm long closed by a stopper at one end. = 434 J kg-1 C-1 Heat supplied by metal block P = heat gained by water 0. After 2 minutes. Figure 2 Assuming that the heat absorbed by the polystyrene cup and heat loss to the surroundings are negligible. A metal block P of mass 500 g is heated is boiling water at a temperature of 1000C.

Figure 3... Gravitational potential energy → kinetic energy → heat energy ………………………………………………………………………………………….JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat The height of the lead shot in the tube is 5.2 (a) State the energy change each time the tube is inverted. S = ut + ½ at2 0.0 cm (b) (c) Calculate the time taken by the lead shot to fall from the top to the bottom of the tube. The student then holds both ends of the tube and inverts it 100 times (Figure 3. the temperature of the lead shot is found to have increased by 30C.500 x 10 x 0.0 cm as shown in Figure 3.45 = 0 + ½ (10)t2 t = 0. What is the average distance taken by the lead shot each time the tube is inverted? 45.2).1. After inverting the tube 100 times.45 30 .1 Figure 3.3s (d) i. Work done = (100) mgh = 100 x 0. Calculate the work done on the lead shot. ………………………………………………………………………………………….

Luqman measured again the air pressure of the tyre as shown in Figure (b) He found that the air pressure had increase to 245 kPa.. Luqman measured the air pressure the tyre of his car as shown in Figure (a) He found that the air pressure of the tyre was 200 kPa. [1 mark] Design an experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in (b). Before travelling on a long journey. Calculate the specific heat capacity of lead. After the journey. In your description. State the assumption used in your calculation in (d)ii. Figure (a) Figure (b) Choose suitable apparatus such as pressure gauge. mc θ = 225 J c = 225 (0.. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. a round-bottomed flask and any other apparatus that may he necessary.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat = 225 J ii.500 x 3) = 150 Jkg-1 C-1 iii. No heat loss to the surroundings/All the gravitational potential energy is converted ……………………………………………………………………………………………… into heat energy ………………………………………………………………………………………………. PART C: EXPERIMENT 1. [1 mark] State appropriate hypothesis for an investigation. Luqman also found that the tyre was hotter after the journey although the size of the tyre did not change. state clearly the following: 31 . Using the information provided by Luqman and his observations on air pressure in the tyre of his car: (a) (b) (c) State one suitable inference that can be made.

v. ii. vi.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat i. the air pressure increase as the temperature increases To investigate the relationship between the air pressure and the temperature at constant volume. vii. iv. the air pressure depends on the temperature At constant volume. Aim of the experiment. iii. The way you would analyse the data. Constant variable : Air temperature 32 . Arrangement of the apparatus. The way you would tabulate the data. List of apparatus and materials. Variables in the experiment. [10 marks] Inference Hypothesis Aim Variable At constant volume. The procedure of the experiment including the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable.

thermometer. Arrangement of apparatus Procedure • • • The apparatus is set up as shown in the diagram above. rubber tube. When the water temperature increases by 100C. • The water is heated and constant stirred. stirrer. wire gauze. The water is stirred and the initial temperature reading taken.JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat Manipulate variable : Air pressure Material and Apparatus Responding variable : Volume of air Round-bottom flask. tripod stand and Bunsen burner. The temperature and pressure readings of the trapped air are recorded in the table • Tabulation of Data The above procedure is repeated until the water temperature almost reaches boiling point. Bourdon gauge. 33 . the Bunsen burner is removed and the stirring of water is continued. beaker. The beaker is filled with ice-cold water until the flask is completely immersed. The pressure reading from the bourdon gauge is also taken.

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4: Heat Analysis of Data 34 .