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Universidad Catlica de Temuco Departamento de Lengua Centro de Idiomas Ingles Tcnico I 2012 SMP

Unit 1: The past, present, and future of

Text N 1 Container Shipping: Past, present and Future*.


By Thorsten Boeck, on October 21st, 2010

Introducing OnOn Shipping, a new kind of shipping line bringing the lessons of the low cost airlines to the container shipping industry. In our view, existing container lines are focused on serving their biggest clients, often to the disadvantage of other customers. They do so operating according to business models designed decades, if not centuries ago. In earlier eras, shipping lines consumed large amounts of capital establishing their operations, supported by government approved conferences guaranteeing pricing to incentivize investment. Without those incentives world trade may never have come to where it is today. Today the world is a very different place, with technology superseding much of the physical structure while at the same time, improving communication and transparency. Despite the potential to take advantage of this transformation, the industry as a whole continues to operate according to traditional custom and practice. OnOn Shipping aims to be the alternative. Low cost airlines Our approach mimics the way low cost airlines have challenged the prevailing business models of major carriers. The low cost operators relentlessly focus on the things that matter to the customer, such as on-time performance, low prices and delivering price requests, bookings and check-in, on demand across the internet. Customers also benefit from the fact the company is built on a technology platform that has been designed to provide information and feedback directly system to system, as well sending notifications and alerts onto any mobile device they have. Low cost carriers keep their overheads as low as possible and as volumes increase, yield management engines adjust fares instantly according to demand. They also fly direct point to point services avoiding the inherent delays resulting from routing through congested hub airports.

We operate just like the low cost airlines. We exploit technology to provide transparent pricing, we focus on a simple service offering, 20 and 40 boxes ONLY. No reefers, no hazardous cargo and no project cargo. We provide no inland haulage and we extend no credit. You cannot even get a Negotiable Bill of Lading, but will have to do with a Waybill. All of it is done in the name of simplicity and cost efficiency. We know this product will not fulfill the needs of all customers far from it actually but for those that it does there will be great advantages, most of all on the price. OnOn aims to be an On-Line and On-Time enterprise, giving customers the information they need, when they need it, where they need it.
*Adapted from http://www.ononshipping.com/blog/2010/10/21/container-shipping

I. Learning about a Concept Map to check reading comprehension. a) Definition: Concept maps are graphical tools for organizing and representing knowledge. They include concepts, usually enclosed in circles or boxes of some type, and relationships between concepts indicated by a connecting line linking two concepts. Examples:

Taken from http://cmap.ihmc.us

b) Construction Brainstorming phase: from your reading, identify facts, terms, and ideas that you think are in anyway associated with the topic. Make a list of these items. Organizing Phase: Try to group items to emphasize hierarchies. Identify terms that represent those higher categories and add them.

Layout Phase: on a sheet of paper, try to come up with an arrangement (layout) that best represents your understanding of the interrelationships and connections among groupings. Use a consistent hierarchy in which the most important

concepts are in the center or at the top. Within sub-grouping, place closely related items near to each other. II. Reading Activities Text N 1 -Pre-reading. Answer these questions 1. Do you usually send or receive packages to/from abroad? 2. How do you send /receive them? 3. Is it expensive to do it? - While reading -Read the text, extracting the meaning of new words. -Highlight the information about the present situation of the On On Shipping Company -In pairs, make up a concept map to represent the main facts of the text. (on a separate sheet) Post Reading

-Prepare a leaflet containing the positive traits of the Company. III. Grammar Focus: Simple Present Tense Affirmative Subject I / we / you / they He / She / It For the third person singular: if the verb ends in s, z, ch, or she add es. E.g. He wishes. She passes if the verb ends in y change the y and add ies. E.g. He cries. It flies

Verb form Work Works

Negative Subject I / we / you / they He / She / It

Auxiliary verb and verb form dont work doesnt work

Question Auxiliary Verb and Subject Do + I / we / you / they Does + He / She / It We use the present simple tense when: Talking about things in general

Verb Form work? work?

It is used to talk about things in general, and to say that something happens all the time or repeatedly: habits, hobbies, daily events, schedules, daily routines. I play football twice a week I dont get up early on Sundays The library opens at 7.30am The train leaves at 3pm on Wednesdays

Facts and Generalizations


The earth goes around the sun. Water freezes at zero degrees. It never rains in California.

Scheduled Events in the Future Anything that Is on a Timetable


What time does the plane depart? The film starts at 7.45pm The party finishes at 2am What time does the train arrive?

Frequency adverbs The most common frequency adverbs in English are: Always Frequently Usually Often Sometimes Occasionally Seldom Rarely Never 100% of the time about 90% of the time about 80% of the time about 70% of the time about 50% of the time about 40% of the time about 20% of the time about 10% of the time about 0% of the time

Usually the adverb is placed between the subject and the verb. I often have toast for breakfast. I sometimes watch football. He rarely does his homework.

When using the verb to be the adverb is usually placed after the verb.

Paul is usually late. David is never here. I am always hungry! Other frequency adverbs and expressions are as follows:

Every day/week/month Every other day/week Once a week/month/year Twice a year/day, etc. (Every) once in a while Every so often These expressions are used at the beginning and end of sentences, not before main verbs.

Every once in a while I visit my grandmother in Minnesota. I visit my grandmother in Minnesota every once in a while.

Davids Daily Routine Read Davids daily routine; look for the different adverbs of frequency used. I usually get up at 7am. Afterwards I eat breakfast and read the paper. I sometimes take a shower but I prefer having a bath. I get to university at 10am and I have two classes. After the classes I usually go to the beach and meet my friends. My friend Sarah doesnt like the beach. She generally goes to the park with her dog. In the evening we study together and then have a dinner in a local restaurant.

Now rewrite the text, but this time writes about your best friends routine. Dont forget to include frequency adverbs. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

Text N2

In the Western world, recycling often feels like a chore. It is something we should do, like exercising and eating a healthy diet. This is in stark contrast to the situation in India where recycling is a livelihood for thousands of people who would otherwise have no way of making a living. The government does not run any recycling pro-grams, and garbage is dumped in big containers outside of the cities. Unemployed Indians often roam around the containers, looking for any material that can be recycled. The gathered waste is sold to small recycling plants that operate with basic technology and in poor conditions. Many of these plants are located in a slum town called Dharavi, in Mumbai, the economic capital of India. Employees work long hours for low salaries, but they are grateful to have jobs in a country where unemployment is high. Muktar Hamed works for Indias informal recycling sector. He is 15 years old and earns a living by recycling aluminum scrap. Every day, he wakes up just before 7 a.m., washes, eats breakfast, and then starts his work. He has an hour for lunch and then continues working until 8 p.m. his job is to melt the aluminum scrap. At the end of the day, Muktar sleeps in a bed that is right next to the furnace. Hamed is one of thousands of Indians who live in Dharavi, one of the largest slum towns in South Asia, and make money by recycling and reusing nearly every aluminum material they can find. Not only do these people support themselves, but they also created a multimillion-dollar industry that is changing the regional economy and is allowing people to earn money. Aluminum recycling in Dharavi. In Dharavi, aluminum recycling involves three important steps. First, aluminum products that have been used and thrown away, especially old soda and beer cans, are collected. Second, the cans are soaked in acid, so the designs and brand names are removed. Third, the cans are crushed and melted in a furnace.

Hamed works in a plant that receives crushed cans and then melts them in a coalpowered furnace. Once the cans have completely melted, the molten mixture is poured into molds, where it cools into solid aluminum bars called ingots. These bars are then transferred to another factory in Dharavi. There, they are melted again, and a special machine turns the liquid metal into blocks that are later used to make new aluminum items.
Adapted from http://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/content?_ August 8, 2012

IV. Reading Activities Text N2

Pre-reading

Before reading, in the first column, write A or D, indicating your agreement or disagreement with each statement. Me Text Statement 1. Thousands of people living in India make a living by recycling. 2. Indian government has strong recycling policies. 3. Recycling aluminum is not considered an important business activity. 4. Some recycling plants hire children to collect recycling materials.

- While reading. -Read the text carefully Now and then write the four main ideas on this graphic organizer

-Answer the following questions about the text. 1. List the three steps involved in recycling aluminum in Dharavi. 2. What makes aluminum recycling profitable? 3. Why is Mumbai an important city in India? 4. What are the working conditions of recycling workers? 5. Where does Hamed sleep every night? Post-reading. Talk to your partner about recycling experiences in your own city. Report to the class

Grammar practice: Simple Present. a) In pairs complete the following sentences using the correct form of the verb. 1. My friend ______ a living by collecting used plastic bottles. (earn) 2. Most families in Temuco _____ the garbage before taking it outside.(not separate) 3. My mom_____used plastic bottles into beautiful plant pots. (turn) 4. Akio, my dog, _____ in a bed right next to the kitchen. (sleep) 5. Many of the recycling plants __________ in slum towns. (to be/locate) 6. Peter _________breakfast because he prefers to sleep a few more minutes.( not have) 7. My mom _________ the tuna cans before putting them in the recycling bin. (wash) 8. Paper recycling __________ very simple steps. (involve) 9. My little brother _______ shoe boxes to keep his Legos pieces. (reuse) 10. My next door neighbor ______ about recycling at all. (not care)

b) Rewrite these sentences using the frequency adverb in the correct position.

1. dictionary / often / use / The / the / students 2. me / Paul / helps / sometimes / my / with / homework 3. visit / Jonathan / usually / dentist / the 4. I / fish / often / hours / for / catching / anything / without 5. try / police / keep / The / order / always / to 6. usually / Jennifer / out / goes / a / to / concert 7. often / money / Sally / her / borrows / friends / from 8. my / My / spoils / girlfriend / holidays / always

1._____________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________________ 4. ____________________________________________________________ 5. _____________________________________________________________ 6. _____________________________________________________________ 7. _____________________________________________________________ 8. _____________________________________________________________

c) Now write a paragraph about your daily routine including at least four frequency adverbs.

________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

V. Reading Activity Text N 3 THE HISTORY OF BIOFUELS In reality, biotechnologyalthough obviously not referred to as such in the early days has been around for thousands of years. Don Johnson, a retired process technology consultant, pointed out that, Sumerians and Babylonians were drinking beer over 8,000 years ago, wine making and mushroom cultivation has been practiced for thousands of years, and early settlers in America converted corn to whiskey. Tom Jeffries of the Institute for Microbial and Biochemical Technology, USDA, Forest Service, at the University of Wisconsin, noted that the production of ethanol, which can be used either as an alternative fuel or an octane-boosting, pollution-reducing additive to gasoline, was enhanced significantly by researcher H. Braconnot's discovery in 1819 that wood treated with 91.5% sulfuric acid could be turned into a sugar, a scientific precursor for more modern ways of producing ethanol. In the early 1900s, Henry Ford designed the first Model T car to run on ethanol. In addition, the prototype diesel engine was engineered to run on peanut oil. However, as David Morris, vice president at the Institute for Local Self-Reliance (ILSR) think tank, explained, from 1921-1933 there was effectively no technology development related to ethanol after the U.S. adopted a constitutional amendment to prohibit the production of intoxicating liquors. Moving to the last half of the 20th century, Mr. Johnson noted that the petroleum shocks of the 1970s interest in fermentation products and environmental and sustainability issues have provided more stimulus to bio-renewable products. What will tomorrow bring? Lee Lynd, Associate Professor of Engineering and Adjunct Professor of Biology at Dartmouth College, suggested that in the decades to come the real issue will be more related to energy technology and less on international trade in energy. As part of this, Mr. Lynd observed that a key to meeting world energy needs will be improving core technology. If this can be achieved, there are scenarios where a large fraction of world energy needs can be met with biomass from modest land requirements. In this regard, Mr. Lynd has written, Plant biomass is the only foreseeable sustainable source of organic fuels, chemicals, and materials and is thus an essential component of the coming transition toward reliance on sustainable resources. The cost of developing and implementing new technologies were on the mind of Charles E. Wyman, Distinguished Professor in Environmental Engineering Design at Dartmouth College, who said that while significant progress had been made reducing the cost of processing cellulosic biomass there was still the issue of how to introduce new, often more expensive technology when the resulting fuel would also be more expensive than

competitive fuels. The key is how to get investors to support such efforts, he said. In the first instance, technology developers must prove to investors that the new technology will work. Taken from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1471084604000460

Pre-reading: Complete this chart, asking and answering at least three questions about the topic of the text

Text Title: ______________________________

What I Want to Know About

What I Now Know About

(Questions)

(Answers)

Matching Pairs: Match the words on the left with the corresponding synonym on the right. 1.settler 2.boosting 3.enhance 4.amendment 5. issues 6.core 7.forseeable 8.reliance 9.support 10.instance While reading. Write True (T) or False (F) in front of the statements below, correct the false ones. 1. ____ Don Johnson thinks that the concept of biotechnology is very modern. __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ confidence modification Increasing predictable pioneer occasion enlarge Problem/affair basic sponsor

2. ____ Whiskey was made up from corn by the early settlers in North America.

3. ____ A sugar obtained from wood treated with 91.5% chloric acid was a precursory way of producing ethanol. 4. ____ From 1921 to 1933 the production of ethanol was greatly enhanced due to the constitutional amendment that prohibited the production of liquors. 5. ____ The interest in bio -renewable products is more evident from the 1970s up today. 6. ____ According to professor Lee Lynd, in the future the issue of international trade of energy will be more important than energy technology.

7. ____ According to Lyn, plant biomass is not the only essential source of organic fuels, chemicals, and materials.

8. ____ To attract investors to the production of new energy technology, scientists have to prove that this will work.

Post reading

Create a timeline about the development of ethanol from ancient time to the 1900s.

Grammar Focus: Simple Past Tense We use the past tense to talk about:

something that happened once in the past:

I met my wife in 1983. We went to Spain for our holidays. They got home very late last night.

something that happened again and again in the past:

When I was a boy I walked a mile to school every day. We swam a lot while we were on holiday.

something that was true for some time in the past:

I lived abroad for ten years. She played a lot of tennis when she was younger.

Many verbs add ed to make the Past Tense (these are called the Regular Verbs): I played tennis yesterday. I finished my homework last night.

Other verbs change its base form to make the Past tense (these are called Irregular verbs: I went to an International congress about Energy Conservation last semester. One of my classmates met Bill Nye the Science Guy in New York last year.

Negative Statements did + not + simple form Examples: Professor Sanchez did not attend to the meeting last night. I didnt see at the library. My best friend didnt pass the calculus exam last semester.

Questions (question word) + did + subject + simple form Examples: Did you wash the dishes? Why did you leave English class earlier last week ? Did I tell you about my new laptop? When did Newton discover gravity?

Grammar practice a) Complete this paragraph with the right form of the verb in brackets

a) Paul s Horrible Day Paul (1. have) had a horrible day on Monday. First, he (2. be) was__supposed to get up at 6 a.m., but his alarm clock (3. work, negative) didnt work. He (4. wake up) woke up at 8 a.m. There (5. be) was no hot water for a shower, so he had to use cold water. After that, his car (6. start, negative) didnt start, and he had to take the bus. When Paul (7. get) got to work, his boss (8. yell) yelled at him for being late. Next, his computer (9. crash) crashed, and he (10. lose) lost all of his documents. He (11. stay) stayed at work until midnight to redo the documents. Paul (12. decide) decided to stay home the next day because he (13. be) was too tired from all his bad luck.

b) Put the verbs into the correct form (simple past). 1. Last year I (spend) spent my holiday in Ireland. 2. It ( be) was great. 3. I (travel) travelled around by car with two friends and we (visit) visited lots of interesting places. 4. In the evenings we usually (go) went to a pub. 5. One night we even (learn) learned/learnt_Irish dances. 6. We (be) were very lucky with the weather. 7. It (not / rain) didnt rain a lot. 8. But we (see) saw beautiful rainbows. 9. Where (spend / you)did you spend last holiday?

c) Making questions Put the words in the correct order to make questions. Then write true answers. 1.School/did/when/you/start When did you start school? When I was six. In 1997 2. morning/you/time/get/up/what/did/this? What time did you get up this morning? ________________________________________ 3. do /what/ last/ Sunday/you /did? What did you do last Sunday? ________________________________________ 4. come/today/you/how/school/did/to? How did you come to school today? ________________________________________ 5. holiday/did/summer/on/where/go/last/you? Where did you go on your last summer holiday? ________________________________________ 6. night/have/what/did/for/last/you/dinner? What did you have for dinner last night? ________________________________________ 7. visit /you/art/gallery/an/last/did/when? When did you last visit an art gallery? ________________________________________ 8. where/you/meet/ your/ did/girlfriend/boyfriend?

Where did you meet your girlfriend? Grammar Focus Linking words to connect ideas and sentences Adding information: also / too Also can go in the middle of a sentence, whereas too is typically used at the end.

We did a lot of sightseeing on our vacation. We also bought a number of souvenirs. We did a lot of sightseeing on our vacation. We bought a number of souvenirs, too.

As well / as well as As well goes at the end of the sentence (similarly to too). As well as must be followed by another word.

Shes not only extremely successful, shes beautiful as well. Shes beautiful as well as being extremely successful.

In addition / moreover / furthermore These linking words are usually used at the beginning of a sentence to add another idea or further develop the previous point.

People who exercise regularly have more energy during the day and sleep better at night. In addition, they tend to live longer.

Construction on the new subway has been delayed for months due to budget shortfalls. Moreover, the workers are threatening to go on strike.

Our sales are expected to rise 30% in the next year. Furthermore, purchase of new equipment will help cut manufacturing costs and increase profits.

Note: These expressions are more formal English. In informal spoken English, we usually use these expressions instead:

plus whats more

besides

Grammar Practice a ) Choose the linking word that best completes the meaning of the sentence
http://www.flo-joe.co.uk/cae/students/writing/linking/addition.htm

1. I overslept this morning. ........ , my car ran out of petrol on the way to work. -Not only that -Furthermore 2. The report is expected to be critical of the industry. ........, it is likely to recommend extensive changes to production. -What's more -Furthermore 3......... the wonderful main meal we also had a delicious dessert. -In addition to -Besides 4. If you're going into town could you get me some shampoo? ........, we need some more bread. -Also -Furthermore 5. Payments to your account have fallen behind considerably. ........, on several occasions your credit limit has been exceeded. -Besides this -Moreover

b) Complete the gaps with the appropriate connector of addition.

ADVANTAGES of NUCLEAR POWER The advantages of nuclear power are numerous. First of all, it is cheaper, richer than fossil fuels, and easier to transport. Secondly, nuclear reactors need little fuel, and they only

need refueling approximately once every three years. Also, nuclear power is environmentally a lot friendlier than other alternative types of energy. It produces hardly any air pollution, and it releases less radiation into the atmosphere than coal-burning power plants. Furthermore, the risks of a meltdown or a radiation leak are extremely small. Besides this, it is a lot safer than most people think. There are many safety features which make nuclear power one of the safest electricity sources. (Bilal Chukuyev 2003
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