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N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Overall Introduction to Steam Turbine and Affiliated Systems

Contents
CHAPTER I GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TURBINE AND ACCESSORY SYSTEMS ........ 5 1.1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................................. 5 1.1.1 Arrangement mode of steam turbine ............................................................................................................. 5 1.1.2 Main characteristics of steam turbine............................................................................................................ 5 1.1.3 Technical specification .................................................................................................................................. 6 1.1.4 Main systems of steam turbine ...................................................................................................................... 7 1.1.5 Steam turbine protection and control........................................................................................................... 10 1.2 DESIGN OPERATION CONDITIONS OF STEAM TURBINE .......................................................................................... 10 1.3 ALLOWABLE LOAD RANGE ................................................................................................................................... 10 1.3.2 Allowable operational parameter range ....................................................................................................... 11 1.3.3 Quality requirements on steam .................................................................................................................... 11 1.3.4 Allowable cyclic wave range....................................................................................................................... 11 1.4 STARTUP AND SHUTDOWN OF STEAM TURBINE ................................................................................................... 11 1.4.1 Startup ......................................................................................................................................................... 11 CHAPTER II STEAM TURBINE PROPER ...................................................................................................... 13 2.1 CYLINDER............................................................................................................................................................ 13 2.1.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................................................... 13 2.1.2 High and intermediate pressure cylinder ..................................................................................................... 13
2.1.2.1 Main features of high and intermediate pressure cylinder of the steam turbine.......................................................15

2.1.3 Low pressure cylinder ................................................................................................................................. 18


2.1.3.1 Operating characteristics of low pressure cylinder ..................................................................................................18 2.1.3.2 Support of low pressure cylinder.............................................................................................................................20 2.1.3.3 Low pressure cylinder flow passage part.................................................................................................................20 2.1.3.4 Diaphragm and stationary blade of low pressure cylinder.......................................................................................20

2.1.4 Notices......................................................................................................................................................... 21
2.1.4.1 Monitor on heat stress .............................................................................................................................................21 2.1.4.2 Monitor on heat expansion ......................................................................................................................................22 2.1.4.3 Monitor on heat distortion .......................................................................................................................................23 2.1.4.4 Arrangement of cylinder temperature measuring point ...........................................................................................23 2.1.4.5 Operating notices.....................................................................................................................................................24

2.2 ROTOR, BLADE AND COUPLING ........................................................................................................................... 24 2.2.1 Rotor and blade ........................................................................................................................................... 24
2.2.1.1 Main characteristics of rotor....................................................................................................................................25 2.2.1.2 Main characteristics of rotor blade ..........................................................................................................................26 2.2.1.3 HIP rotor and blade..................................................................................................................................................26 2.2.1.4 Low pressure rotor and blade ..................................................................................................................................27

2.2.2 Rotor coupling............................................................................................................................................. 27 2.3 STEAM SEAL GLAND ............................................................................................................................................ 27 2.3.1 Flow passage gland ..................................................................................................................................... 29 2.3.2 Shaft end gland............................................................................................................................................ 30 2.3.3 Self-sealing system...................................................................................................................................... 33 2.4 SLIDE KEY SYSTEM ............................................................................................................................................. 37 2.4.1 Cylinder expansion...................................................................................................................................... 37 2.4.2 Rotor expansion........................................................................................................................................... 38 2.4.3 Differential expansion of steam turbine ...................................................................................................... 38 2.5 STEAM TURBINE BEARINGS .................................................................................................................................. 38 2.5.1 Radial support bearing................................................................................................................................. 39 2.5.2 Thrust bearing.............................................................................................................................................. 39 2.6 TURNING GEAR ................................................................................................................................................... 40 2.6.1 Shafting stability.......................................................................................................................................... 40 CHAPTER III STEAM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OF STEAM TURBINE...................................................... 41 3.1 OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................................................... 41 3.2 HIGH-PRESSURE MAIN STEAM VALVES ................................................................................................................. 43 3.3 HIGH-PRESSURE CONTROL VALVES ...................................................................................................................... 44

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Overall Introduction to Steam Turbine and Affiliated Systems

3.4 INTERMEDIATE-COMBINED-VALVE ....................................................................................................................... 44 3.5 STEAM CONDUIT AND THE NOZZLE CHAMBER ...................................................................................................... 45 CHAPTER IV DRAINAGE AND WATER DISCHARGE SYSTEM OF STEAM TURBINE ........................... 47 4.1 OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................................................... 47 4.2 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION ..................................................................................................................................... 47 4.2.1 Drainage of main steam pipes and reheat steam pipes ................................................................................ 47 4.2.2 Drainage of the cylinder block .................................................................................................................... 49 4.2.3 Drainage of steam extraction pipeline ......................................................................................................... 50 4.2.4 Drainage of shaft gland system ................................................................................................................... 50 4.2.5 Main-body drain flash tank ......................................................................................................................... 51 4.3 OPERATION MODE OF DRAINAGE AND WATER DISCHARGE SYSTEM ...................................................................... 51 4.3.1 Operation of main-body drainage................................................................................................................ 51 4.3.2 Operation of auxiliary system drainage....................................................................................................... 51 4.3.3 Water induction preventing of steam turbine............................................................................................... 52 CHAPTER V STEAM EXTRACTION AND HEAT REGENERATING SYSTEM OF SEAM TURBINE ...... 53 5.1 OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................................................... 53 5.1.1 Function of steam extraction and heat regenerating system ........................................................................ 54 5.1.2 Main parameters that influence the steam extraction and heat regenerating systems economy ................. 55 5.1.3 Improving measures of system cycle thermal efficiency............................................................................. 55 5.1.4 Requirements of heaters performance........................................................................................................ 55 5.1.5 Composing of thermal system of principle.................................................................................................. 56 5.2 COMPOSING OF STEAM EXTRACTION SYSTEM ...................................................................................................... 56 5.2.1 HP heater ..................................................................................................................................................... 56 5.2.2 LP heater...................................................................................................................................................... 61 5.2.3 Gland heater ................................................................................................................................................ 64 5.3 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF SYSTEM ........................................................................................................ 64 5.3.1 Startup ......................................................................................................................................................... 64 5.3.2 Operation..................................................................................................................................................... 65 5.3.3 Shutdown..................................................................................................................................................... 66 CHAPTER VI UNIT BYPASS SYSTEM ................................................................................................................. 67 6.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................... 67 6.1.1 Functions of the bypass system ................................................................................................................... 67 6.1.2 Types of unit bypass system ........................................................................................................................ 67 6.1.3 Bypass capacity options .............................................................................................................................. 68 6.1.4 The bypass system herein ............................................................................................................................ 69 6.2 HIGH PRESSURE BYPASS (HPB) ........................................................................................................................... 69 6.2.1 Technical specification ................................................................................................................................ 70 6.2.2 HPBV Structure........................................................................................................................................... 71 6.2.3 HPB control................................................................................................................................................. 71 6.3 LOW PRESSURE BYPASS (LPB)............................................................................................................................. 71 6.3.1 Three-stage attemperating and depressurizing device ................................................................................. 71 6.3.2 Control of LPB valve................................................................................................................................... 72 6.4 UNIT BYPASS SYSTEM AT WORK ........................................................................................................................... 72 6.4.1 Bypass startup.............................................................................................................................................. 72 6.4.2 Bypass switching process ............................................................................................................................ 74 6.4.3 Normal operation......................................................................................................................................... 75 6.4.4 Bypass operating mode when shutdown...................................................................................................... 75 CHAPTER VII EMERGENCY GOVERNING SYSTEM.................................................................................. 77 7.1 OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................................................... 77 7.2 HYDRAULIC SERVO SYSTEM................................................................................................................................. 78 7.2.1 Introduction for system functions................................................................................................................ 78 7.3 TRIP EMERGENCY GOVERNING SYSTEM FOR THE UNIT ...................................................................................... 78 7.3.1 Low pressure emergency governing system................................................................................................ 78 7.3.2 High pressure trip system ............................................................................................................................ 79

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Overall Introduction to Steam Turbine and Affiliated Systems

7.3.3 System arrangement .................................................................................................................................... 79 7.4 INTERLOCKING AND PROTECTION ........................................................................................................................ 81 7.4.1 Mechanical over-speed protection............................................................................................................... 81 7.4.2 Local manual trip......................................................................................................................................... 81 7.4.3 Remote manual trip ..................................................................................................................................... 82 7.4.4 Electric trip protection................................................................................................................................. 82 7.5.2 Steam turbine trip test.................................................................................................................................. 83 7.5.3 Steam valve leakage test.............................................................................................................................. 83 7.5.4 Oil spray test................................................................................................................................................ 83 7.5.5 Speed raising test......................................................................................................................................... 84 7.5.6 Load dump test ............................................................................................................................................ 86 7.5.7 Test period under trouble-free running condition ........................................................................................ 89 7.6 HIGH PRESSURE FIRE-RESISTANT OIL SYSTEM .................................................................................... 89 7.6.1 System introduction..................................................................................................................................... 89 7.6.2 System composition and devices................................................................................................................. 90 7.6.3 System supervision and maintenance .......................................................................................................... 92 CHAPTER VIII LUBRICATION SYSTEM............................................................................................................ 93 8.1 LUBRICATION SYSTEM ......................................................................................................................................... 93 8.1.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................................................... 93 8.1.2 Characteristics of system layout .................................................................................................................. 94 8.1.3 Equipment specifications............................................................................................................................. 94 8.1.4 System flow............................................................................................................................................... 100 8.1.5 System devices introduction...................................................................................................................... 100 8.1.6 System operation monitoring and adjustment ........................................................................................... 110 8.2 STEAM TURBINE JACKING SYSTEM ..................................................................................................................... 111 8.2.1 Overview ................................................................................................................................................... 111 8.2.2 System flow............................................................................................................................................... 111 8.2.3 Introduction for system devices................................................................................................................. 113 8.3 LUBE PURIFICATION SYSTEM.............................................................................................................................. 113 8.3.1 Overview ................................................................................................................................................... 113 8.3.2 Equipment specifications........................................................................................................................... 113 8.3.3 System flow............................................................................................................................................... 116 8.3.4 Introduction for system devices................................................................................................................. 117 8.4 OIL QUALITY INDEX OF THE STEAM TURBINE LUBE ............................................................................................ 118 CHAPTER IX CONDENSATE SYSTEM.............................................................................................................. 119 9.1 OVERVIEW ......................................................................................................................................................... 119 9.2 SYSTEM COMPOSITION AND FLOW ..................................................................................................................... 119 9.3 INTRODUCTION FOR SYSTEM DEVICES ............................................................................................................... 121 9.3.1 Condenser.................................................................................................................................................. 121 9.3.2 Condensate pump ...................................................................................................................................... 124 CHAPTER X FEED WATER SYSTEM................................................................................................................. 127 10.1 OVERVIEW ....................................................................................................................................................... 127 10.2 SYSTEM COMPOSITION AND CHARACTERISTICS ............................................................................................... 128 10.2.1 Feed water system composition............................................................................................................... 128 10.2.2 Feed water system flow ........................................................................................................................... 128 10.3 TURBO-FEED PUMP .......................................................................................................................................... 128 10.3.1 Booster pump of turbo-feed pump........................................................................................................... 128 10.3.2 Turbo-feed pump ..................................................................................................................................... 130 10.3.3 Turbo-feed pumps auxiliary system ........................................................................................................ 130 10.4 MOTOR-DRIVEN FEED PUMP............................................................................................................................. 130 10.4.1 Booster pump of motor-driven feed pump .............................................................................................. 130 10.4.2 Motor-driven feed pump.......................................................................................................................... 130 10.4.3 Hydraulic coupling .................................................................................................................................. 133 10.4.4 Auxiliary system of motor-driven feed pump.......................................................................................... 133

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Overall Introduction to Steam Turbine and Affiliated Systems

10.5 STEAM TURBINE FOR FEED PUMP ..................................................................................................................... 134 10.5.1 Overview ................................................................................................................................................. 134 10.5.2 Startup and operation monitoring over small-sized steam turbine........................................................... 135

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Overall Introduction to Steam Turbine and Affiliated Systems

Chapter I General Introduction to Steam Turbine and Accessory Systems 1.1 Overview The steam turbines used are the sub-critical pressure steam turbine introduced by East Turbine Works from Hitachi with the model of N600-16.7/538/538-3, the characteristics of typically sub-critical pressure, single intermediate reheat, single shaft, three-cylinder four-exhaust, double back-pressure and straight condensing, and 600MW rated output. It makes use of a composite variable pressure operation mode; and has eight-stage non-adaptive regeneration and steam extraction with the design life no less than 30 years. 1.1.1 Arrangement mode of steam turbine The steam turbine is vertically arranged indoors with the scale height of operation platform of 13.7m, the total length of 27.82m, the maximum width of 10.68m and the height of 6.29m. The high pressure main steam valve and control valve are suspended under the operation platform and connected to the high pressure cylinder through the steam lead pipe; the medium union valve is arranged on left and right side of high and intermediate pressure cylinders, welded on the cylinder through the medium steam inlet pipe and fixed on the platform with floating spring holder. The main steam is put into the steam turbine from the middle of the high and intermediate pressure outer casing through the four steam inlets arranged symmetrically and put into the boiler reheater after the high pressure nine-stage work done. The reheat steam enters the intermediate pressure component of the steam turbine through the intermediate union steam valve, and the steam after work done is accessed into two low pressure cylinders respectively through a reducing interconnecting pipe, the steam exhaust after work done is released into two condensers with different back pressures. Structural characteristics of steam turbine: HIP (high and intermediate pressure) combined cylinder and two low pressure cylinders are all double shell structure, the high pressure cylinder is of nine stages, the intermediate pressure cylinder is of five stages, the low pressure cylinder is of 4*7 stages, and the whole turbine is of 42 stages. The three non-central hole rotors are placed on No.1 and No.2 bearing blocks, No.3 and No.4 bearing blocks, and No.5 and No.6 bearing blocks respectively; the No.1 bearing block is also installed with gear of tachometer and main oil pump and so on besides No.1 bearing; the No.2 bearing block is installed with shaft vibration sensor, axial displacement sensor, thrust bearing, balancing drum, wear sensor of thrust bearing, radial journal bearing and coupling and so on; the No.6 bearing block is mainly composed of radial journal bearing, rolling gear and measuring devices and so on. The other bearings in the shafting of the steam turbine generator sets all adopt the elliptical bearings except that the No.1 and No.2 bearings adopt the tilting pad bearings. The upper pads of the bearings are installed with shaft vibration measuring devices along X and Y directions and the lower pads are installed with temperature measuring devices. The thrust bearing is placed on No.2 bearing block between high and intermediate pressure cylinders and low pressure A cylinder. The expansion dead point of high and intermediate pressure cylinder is on No.2 bearing block, and the expansion dead points of low pressure A cylinder and low pressure B cylinder are near their centers respectively. The lie key on the dead point restricts the axial displacement of the cylinder; meanwhile the longitudinal key is set in front and rear of the longitudinal center line of the front bearing box and two low pressure cylinders to guide the cylinder to expand freely along the axial direction and restrict it from moving transversely. 1.1.2 Main characteristics of steam turbine The steam turbine is impulse steam turbine with relatively small stages, and the combined cylinder adopted in the HIP cylinder reduces the axial length and the number of bearings. The steam seal on the shaft end and the bearing box are all on the high and intermediate pressure exhaust regions with relatively low temperature. The HIP cylinder adopts head to head arrangement, and the symmetrical double split flow arrangement of the two low pressure cylinders can greatly reduce the axial thrust. The rotors of the steam turbine and the generators adopt the rigid connection method and the shafting is flexible 5

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Overall Introduction to Steam Turbine and Affiliated Systems

shafting. The bended/curved stator blade and curved rotor blade are adopted with the length of the exhaust stage blade achieving 851mm. The elliptical steam seal is adopted in the steam turbine. The normal startup mode of the steam turbine is intermediate pressure cylinder starting, and when the bypass system is in the event of the failure, the combined startup of HIP cylinders can be adopted. 1.1.3 Technical specification Tab.1-1 Main Parameters of Steam Turbine No. Item Unit specifications Unit Data

Set model

Sub-critical, once time reheat, three-cylinder four-exhaust, single axle and condensing N600-16.7/538/538-3 MW MW and MW MPa(a) Mpa(a) 600 640.647 600 16.7 538 3.849

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Steam turbine model TMCR output VWO output High pressure omni-segmentation output TMCR main steam pressure TMCR main steam temperature TMCR high pressure exhaust steam pressure cylinder

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

TMCR inlet pressure of reheat steam TMCR inlet temperature of reheat steam TMCR main steam throttle flow Maximum throttle flow of main steam

Mpa(a) t/h t/h

3.464 538 1876 2028 1596.377 0.01013 Composite (nozzle/throttle) Open 32.4/closed 38 277.2 3000 8130/1942

TMCR throttle flow of reheat steam t/h TMCR exhaust steam pressure Mpa(a) Steam distribution method Design the temperature of cooling water TMCR feed temperature Rated speed TMCR heat consumption R/Min kJ/kW.h kcal/kW.h

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Overall Introduction to Steam Turbine and Affiliated Systems

No. 20 21 22

Item Feed water heat grade

Unit

Data 3+1+4 (high pressure+deoxidation+low pressure) 851

Length of low pressure last stage mm blade Total internal efficiency of steam % turbine High pressure cylinder efficiency Intermediate efficiency pressure cylinder % % % Grade Grade Grade Hz m

Low pressure cylinder efficiency 23 Flow grade High pressure cylinder Intermediate pressure cylinder Low pressure cylinder 24 25 26 Critical speed Shafting torsion frequency Dimensions (Length, width and height)

9 5 2*2*7

27.82*10.68*6.29

The turbine generator sets can operate continuously and safely under the following conditions and in any time of the warranty live, the generator outputs specified horsepower of 600MW (deduct the power consumed by various items when the static excitation or the driven main oil pump with different shafts from the turbine are adopted), the operating mode is regarded as turbine rated load (TRL), the throttle flow under the operating mode is regarded as specified throttle flow, and the operating mode is the acceptable operating mode of output guarantee value. T-MCR operating mode: the throttle flow of the steam turbine equals to the throttle flow of TRL, operate continuously and safely under the following conditions, and the power outputted by the generator under the operating mode is regarded as turbine maximum continuous rating (T-MCR) with the concrete value of 600MW. VWO (Valve Wide Open) operating mode: when the turbine generator set is widely opened on the control valve and the other conditions are the same with those under T-MCR operating mode, the throttle flow of the steam turbine is no smaller than the throttle flow of 105% TRL, and the operating mode is regarded as VWO with the concrete value of 640.647MW. When the high pressure heater has been stopped, the turbine generator sets can operate safely and continuously wholly except that the throttle flow and part of the regenerative system can not operate normally, and the unit at the time can guarantee the rated power output of 600MW. THA operating mode: when the set power (the power has deducted the power consumed by various items when the static excitation and the driven main oil pump are adopted) is of 600MW, the mode is regarded as the turbine heat acceptance (THA) of the set when the other conditions are the same with those of T-MCR operating mode except the throttle flow, and the operating mode is the acceptance mode of the heat consumption guaranteed value. 1.1.4 Main systems of steam turbine Main steam system The main steam line adopts 2-1-2 connection method, and the main steam is divided into two roads before entering the main throttle valve and is connected to the main throttle valves on left and right side of the steam turbine respectively. 7

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Overall Introduction to Steam Turbine and Affiliated Systems

Reheat steam system The cold reheat and hot reheat pipes all adopt 2-1-2 connection method, and the boiler and turbine all have 2 interfaces. Bypass system The intermediate pressure cylinder startup is adopted in the steam turbine, and the installation of the bypass system can improve the startup functions of the unit, shorten the startup time, reduce the service life expenditure, recycle the working substances and protect the boiler reheater. The set adopts high and low pressure two-stage series bypass system, and the bypass is designed to satisfy the startup functions. Steam extraction and regeneration system The steam turbine possesses eight-stage non-adaptive steam extraction. The one, two and three-stage steam extractions supply steam to three high pressure heaters respectively, and the four-stage steam extraction also supplies steam to the two feed pump turbines and the auxiliary steam system besides the deaerator; the two-stage steam extraction is used as the spare steam source of feed pump turbine and the auxiliary steam system. The five to eight-stage steam extractions supplies steam to four low pressure heaters respectively; in order to prevent the speeding and water penetration of the steam turbine, other steam extraction pipes are fixed with pneumatic flapper valve and electric isolating valve except the seven and eight-stage steam extraction pipes, the former is used as the protection against the speeding of steam turbine and auxiliary protection measure against the water penetration of the steam turbine; the latter is used as the isolation measure against the water penetration of the steam turbine. The devices connected on four-stage steam extraction pipes are relatively big in number, and some devices are also connected with other auxiliary steam sources, and in order to prevent the water or steam from refluxing into the turbine during the accidents as load rejection of the steam turbine or the full water of the deaerator and so on, another pneumatic flapper valve is added, and an electric isolating valve and an flapper valve are also fixed on the pipes of steam points of the four-stage steam extraction. Feed system The unit feed system is adopted, every set is equipped with two steam feed pumps of 50% capacity, an electro-driven variable-speed feed pump of 50% capacity is used as startup and spare pump, and fore pumps are set in front of the feed pumps. The electric gate valve is set on the feed line of No.1 high pressure outlet and coal economizer inlet, the startup bypass is installed, the pneumatic control valve is installed on the bypass piping, and the overall bypass system is adopted in the three high pressure heaters of the feed system. The feed pump steam turbine is the G12-1.0-1 steam turbine introduced by East Turbine Works from Hitachi, the regular working sources are from the four-stage steam extraction of the main steam turbine, the spare steam sources are from the high pressure exhaust of main steam turbine or the auxiliary steam system, when the load of the main steam turbine is decreased below 40%, the regulator will automatically switch the working steam source into the spare steam source and operate under the operating mode; when the load of the main turbine is increased again, the regulator will automatically switch the steam source into the working steam source, and the exhaust of the turbine accesses into the condenser of the main turbine. When the unit operate regularly, the two steam feed pumps operate in parallel, and a single feed pump can supply the boiler with the water of 50%BMCR; when one is out of service for accidents, the other steam pump and the electric feed water pump operate in parallel so as to guarantee the feed water quantity of the unit under THA operating mode. Condensed water system The set is equipped with two 100% capacity vertical and constant speed condensate pumps, four low pressure heaters, one gland steam condenser, one horizontal atomizing padding deaerator, one water storage tank of condensed water and two transfer pumps of condensed water, and the intermediate pressure system is adopted in condensate polishing treatment. The condenser is a transversally arranged condenser with single path, double back-pressure, surface type and double hull; the condenser also accepts the exhausts of low pressure bypass, emergency drains of high pressure and low pressure heaters and overflows of the deaerator besides the acceptance of the exhaust steam of the main turbine, exhaust steam of the turbine and the drains of the steam turbine; the No.7 and No.8 low pressure heaters and the three-stage temperature-decreased pressure reducer of the low pressure bypass are set inside the throat. 8

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Overall Introduction to Steam Turbine and Affiliated Systems

Drain and deflation system of high pressure heater The high pressure heater adopts the step-by-step gravity drain, and the drains of the last stage high pressure heater flow to the deaerator automatically. Each high pressure heater is set with separate emergency drain piping, which is connected to the drain flash tank by the shell of the condenser separately; the deflation pipes are installed by the water and steam of the high pressure heater; the high pressure heater discharges steam to deaerator while operating continuously, and the inbuilt throttle orifice is installed inside the continuous exhaust of the high pressure heater so as to control the air displacement of the high pressure heater. The nitrogen-filled protection piping is installed by the water and steam of the high pressure heater during the outage period. Drain and deflation system of low pressure heater The low pressure heater adopts the step-by-step gravity drain, the last stage drains are connected to the drain flash tanks on both sides of condenser shell, and each low pressure heater is set with separate emergency drain piping, which is connected to the drain flash tanks on both sides of condenser shell respectively. Recycling water and open cooling water system Each unit is equipped with two vertical mixed flow circulating pumps. The four circulating pumps of the nearby units are used as spares mutually. The open cooling water system is taken from the inlet water main of the recycling water, and every set is equipped with two 100% open cooling water pumps, one for operation and one for spare. The recycling water system of every set in the main building is set with two inlet pipes of recycling water and two water pipes, the electric butterfly valves are installed on the inlet and outlet pipes of the condenser recycling water and the condenser can operate unilaterally instead of 75% TRL load. Lead out a pipeline from Road A inlet and outlet pipes of the condenser recycling water respectively so as to supply water and back water for open recycling cooling water system. The open recycling cooling water system mainly supplies cooling water for closed water heat exchanger and steam turbine vacuum pump, the cooling water is piped from the recycling water inlet pipe, boosted by the open recycling cooling water pump and exhausted to recycling water return pipe after cooling the devices. Closed cooling water system The system is consisted of two 100% capacity closed recycling cooling water pumps, two 100% capacity closed water heat exchanger, one closed recycling cooling water expansion tank and the devices supplying cooling devices with cooling water as water supply lines, isolating valve and control valve and so on. The cooling water of all the devices of the main and auxiliary engines in the main building is supplied by closed cooling water system except the oil cooler of the steam turbine. Condenser related systems and vacuum-pumping system The drain flash tanks are set on both sides of the condenser shell to collect the drains over the steam turbine, the feed pump steam turbine exhaust interface and low pressure bypass interface are set on the neck of the condenser, and the vacuum breaking valve is set by the steam of the condenser so as to achieve the demand of breaking the vacuum in case the emergencies appeared in the unit endangering the safety of the unit. The vacuum-pumping system of condenser is consisted of two 100% capacity mechanical vacuum pumps, the two vacuum pumps are put into operation simultaneously while the set is started so as to accelerate the vacuum-pumping progress; during the regular operation, one is for operation and one is for spare. Lubricant and jacking oil system The main function of the lubricant system is to provide the bearings of the main turbine with the lubricant, form oil film between journal and bearing pad to protect the bearings and guarantee the safe and smooth operation of the steam turbine. The main devices of the lubricant system include: main oil pump, AC Lube oil pump, AC startup oil pump, DC Lube oil pump, oil cooler, oil turbine and register and so on. During the regular operation, the main oil pump lubricating system is drove by the steam turbine directly. During the initial period, the lubricating system is operated by the lubricating oil pump, the startup of the oil feed pump is mainly for the oil on the inlet of the main oil pump so as to guarantee certain pressure on the inlet of the main oil pump. The jacking oil system adopts two jacking oil pumps, one for operation and one for spare. 9

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Overall Introduction to Steam Turbine and Affiliated Systems

Steam turbine gland sealing system The steam turbine gland sealing system is self-sealing system, the pressure and temperature are automatically controlled, and system still provides the water pump steam turbine with the gland sealing sources. The system is set with automatic regulating device of gland sealing pressure, overflow pressure relief device and gland sealing evacuating device and so on. Anti-fuel oil system The anti-fuel oil system provides the steam turbine speed control and protection system with high pressure oil, and the system is mainly consisted of two 100% capacity anti-fuel oil pumps (one for operation and one for spare during the regular operation), oil tank, regenerative oil pump, recycling pump and automatic temperature regulator and so on. For the adjusting oil system has rather high requirements on the oil quality, the adjusting parts are added by filter screens before insulated into the oil pipes, and the pressure difference warning signal is equipped; in order to stable the oil pressure and oil volume, four accumulators are added in the system (two high pressure and two low pressure). 1.1.5 Steam turbine protection and control The generator sets of the steam turbine adopt the turbine-boiler-generator control method, the running and operation of sets are mainly operated by the DCS operators, the steam turbine can operate harmoniously with the boiler from the minimum load to VWO operating mode, and the steam turbine is controlled by the reliable digital electric hydraulic (DEH). And the main functions are as follows: Stop latch automatically and remotely, finish the warm of the high pressure cylinder and the valve shell and judge the thermal conditions of the unit automatically (cold, warm, hot and extremely hot). Control the high and intermediate pressure control valves through the high pressure servo system directly and accomplish the automatic control of the whole progress from starting, raising speed, over critical speed, synchronization, initial load to target load according to the hot conditions of the unit currently. Select the HP cylinder and IP cylinder combined starting or IP cylinder starting methods according to the demands and realize the constant-slide-constant startup process. Obtain perfect over-speed control and over-speed protection functions (power and load unbalance control, OPC action and speed control while the rotate speed is bigger than 103% and outage when rotate speed exceeds 110% and so on). Carry out high and intermediate pressure main control valve activity tests online by group and realize the remote nozzle test and mechanical and electrical over-speed tests. Possess the TPC protection function against the low pressure of the main turbine. Send out automatic drainage control signals during the start-stop process. Possess load restriction function. Finish the boiler-turbine unit coordinated function with the cooperation of the CCS (coordinated control system). In order to guarantee the safe operation of the steam turbine, the following protections are set: emergency protection system, remote control trip, automatic emergency trip system of steam turbine, turbine supervisory instrumentation and turbine waterproof protection system. 1.2 Design operation conditions of steam turbine 1.3 Allowable load range The design operation conditions of the set are as follows: include the basic load and can be used in peak load dispatching, and the constant pressure-sliding pressure-constant pressure operating mode is adopted. The allowable load change rate of the set is: no less than 30MW/min among the load range of 50%~100%TMCR, no 10

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Overall Introduction to Steam Turbine and Affiliated Systems

less than 18MW/min among the load range of 30%~50%TMCR, no less than 12MW/min below 30% rated load (THA), and the phase step of the allowable load is bigger than 10%TMCR. 1.3.2 Allowable operational parameter range During the regular operation of the set, the internal mechanical stress of the corresponding pressure parts as pipes, valves and cylinders and so on will increase correspondently along with the increase of the main steam pressure or reheat steam pressure; meanwhile, if the opening of the adjusting steam valve remains the same, the throttle flow of steam turbine also goes up, and thus enlarges the pressure on the rotor blades and increases the axial thrust. In order to guarantee the safe operation of the set, the steam pressure in the operation is not allowed to exceed the maximum value supplied by the manufacturer. When the main reheated steam temperature exceeds the specified value, the metal temperature of the relevant parts, steam pipes and valves will be increased, the mechanical strength of the materials will be decreased, the creep speed will be accelerated and the service life and safety of the devices will be affected, thus the manufacturers all have strict specifications on the allowable main reheated steam temperature. The decrease of the main reheated steam temperature will cause the increase of the exhaust steam moisture and axial thrust of set and will also affect the safety and service life of the set. The reheated steam systems of the steam turbine all adopt 2-1-2 connection type, and if the allowable difference of the steam temperatures in the two pipes maintains at the annual average temperature difference of 11 during the startup and regular operation, the maximum allowable temperature difference shall not exceed 42. Generally speaking, the bearing block of the low pressure rotor and the low pressure cylinder are welded into an organic whole, when the exhaust temperature arises, the bearing block of low pressure rotor will be raised for the expansion of the low pressure cylinder, and thus break the rotor centering and result in the severe vibration of the set. Thus, the manufacturers all have strict specifications on the exhaust pressure and temperature of the low pressure cylinder. The maximum exhaust temperature of the low pressure cylinder of the steam turbine during regular operation is 52, alarm when the temperature exceeds 80 and outage when the exhaust temperature achieves 121. 1.3.3 Quality requirements on steam The scale formation in the turbine flow section will decrease the power capacity of the turbine and reduce the efficiency obviously. When the scale formation is serious, the pressure on the impellers and separators, the separator stress and the axial thrust of the steam turbine will all be increased, the scale formation in the high and intermediate pressure main steam valve and control valve will still result in the jam of the main steam valve and control valve and seriously threaten the safe operation of the steam turbine, thus the manufacturers all have strict specifications on the steam quality entering the steam turbine. 1.3.4 Allowable cyclic wave range The changes of the rotate speed in the operation will affect the frequency of exciting force of the rotor blades. In order to guarantee the safe operation of the set and prevent the resonance of the rotor blades, the manufacturer implements the frequency modulation on the rotor blades according to certain frequency range, and the frequency of the set is only allowed to change between certain ranges during the operation. 1.4 Startup and Shutdown of Steam Turbine 1.4.1 Startup According to the differences of the initial states, the startup of the steam turbine can be divided into different starting states. The purpose is to obtain the quickest startup speed and economical efficiency. The basis to divide the cold and hot startup is the 1st stage metal temperature of high pressure cylinder lower inner casing and the 1st stage metal temperature of intermediate pressure cylinder lower inner casing. With regard to the intermediate pressure cylinder startup, the cold start refers to the temperature less than 305, the warm start refers to the temperature more than 305 and less than 420, the hot start refers to the temperature more than 420 and less than 490, and the extreme hot start refers to the temperature more than 490. With regard to high pressure cylinder, the cold start refers to the temperature less than 320, the warm start refers to the temperature more 11

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Overall Introduction to Steam Turbine and Affiliated Systems

than 320 and less than 420, the hot start refers to the temperature more than 420 and less than 445, and the extreme hot start refers to the temperature more than 445. Generally speaking, the startup process of the set is divided into the following three stages: 1). Startup period of boiler, from the ignition of boiler to impulse starting of the steam turbine 2). Startup period of steam turbine, from impulse starting of the steam turbine to synchronization of generators 3). Load up period of set, from synchronization to full load The steam turbine adopts intermediate pressure cylinder starting in priority. Adopt the intermediate pressure cylinder to impulse and sliding-parameter to start, when the impulse starting speeds up and the load is less than 15%, the high pressure cylinder isolates the warm cylinder, the high pressure cylinder warms the cylinder through the bypass valve of the high pressure exhaust steam valve, and the superheated steam is introduced into the reheater through the high pressure bypass valve after the temperature and pressure reduction. The reheated steam is divided into two ways: one is to access the intermediate pressure cylinder through intermediate pressure cylinder combined steam valve, and the other is to access the condenser through low pressure bypass valve. When the set load achieves above 15%, the high pressure control valve is opened, part of the steam goes into the steam turbine to work and utilizes the high pressure bypass valve to control the throttle flow of the high pressure cylinder so as to maintain the main steam pressure, and the set increases the load gradually. When the set load is more than 30%, the high pressure control valves are fully open, the high and low pressure bypass valve are fully closed, the set enters the sliding pressure and load up period, and when the set load achieves 90%, the set enters constant pressure operation period and accomplishes the whole process. Outage The outage of the steam turbine can be generally divided into scheduled outage and nonscheduled outage, the scheduled outage generally refers to the scheduled overhauling and spare according to the requests of electricity grid, and the main characteristics of such outage are: the operations and methods in the outage process shall meet the demands of the overhaul period, reduce the metal temperature of the steam turbine as much as possible, make the steam turbine go to operation as soon as possible and shorten the overhauling duration. And nonscheduled outage mainly refers to the outage resulting from the faults of the set and under emergencies. The main characteristics of such outage are: the operators shall stop the steam turbine under safe conditions as soon as possible and avoid the damages to the main and auxiliary devices. Generally speaking, the outage can be divided into the following steps: 1). Preparation work of the outage 2). Unload of the set 3). Decrease the set load to 0MW and stepout of generators 4). Coasting operation and turning of steam turbine 5). Maintenance of the set after outage The outage process of the generator set is also an important dynamic process and the set is in the turning state from hot to cold and from 3000r/min to 1.5r/min. in this process, any improper operations would result in serious damages to the devices. During the outage process, the parameters as main steam pressure, main steam temperature, reheated steam temperature, differential expansion of the steam turbine, absolute expansion, axial displacement, rotation of rotors, and metal temperature of bearings and thermal stress of steam turbine rotors and so on shall be supervised strictly. During the regular outage process, the sliding shutdown of the set shall be implemented strictly according to the temperature drop ratio, pressure drop ratios and load drop ratio regulated by the outage curve. The turning device must be put into operation no matter in regular outage or accidental outage so as to prevent the bending of the macro-axis of the steam turbine.

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N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

Chapter II Steam Turbine Proper 2.1 Cylinder 2.1.1 Overview As the static part of the steam turbine, the effect of the cylinder is to insulate steam and the air and form the enclosed space the steam finishing the energy conversion. Besides, it also supports other static parts of the steam turbine, such as diaphragm, diaphragm sleeve and nozzle steam room and so on. According to the flowing characteristics of the steam in the steam turbine, the high and intermediate pressure part of the cylinder bears the inner pressure of the steam and the part of the cylinder of the low pressure part bears the outside atmospheric pressure, due to the heavy weight and complex structure of the cylinder and the relatively big changes of steam temperature and specific volume in the operating process, the stresses withstood by various parts of the cylinder differ by the distribution of the cylinder, thus, many problems need to be considered during the design and manufacturing process of the cylinder, mainly including: leakproofness between the cylinder and the joint surface, thermal expansion of the cylinder during the starting process of the steam turbine, thermal distortion, thermal stress, rigidity and strength of the cylinder and the flow characteristic of the steam and so on. The cylinder needs to bear the thermal stress resulted from the inner pressure and temperature difference between the inner and outside walls during the operation, in order to guarantee the right positions of the moving and static parts in the regular operation, the cylinder materials must possess enough strength characters, fine structural stability and fatigue resistance and certain inhibiting ability. With regard to the joint flange fasteners, for they work under the conditions of stress relaxation and bear the stretching stress, the materials of such parts shall possess relatively high anti-relaxation performance, sufficient intensity, relatively low notch sensitivity, rather small creep fragilization tendency and oxidation resistance. Normally, the strength of the screw nut is one stage lower than the bolt, thus the different hardness of the two reduces the wear to the bolt and avoids the seizure after long term service. In order to guarantee the free expansion of the cylinder during the heating and the conformity of the centre line of the set, a series of feather key are set between the cylinder and engine seat, such keys compose the slide key system of the steam turbine to support, guide and allocate the cylinder, guarantee the fine centration of the steam turbine and smooth the expansion of the cylinders, rotors and bearings. The high and intermediate pressure cylinder generally adopts the upper paw bracket support structure with the bearing surface and split overlapped. The thermal expansion of the cylinder and the rotors are also the problems to be considered in the design process of the steam turbine, select the dead point of the cylinder and the relative dead points of the rotor and cylinder rationally and reserve sufficient relative expansion space so as to guarantee that the clearances of the moving and static parts are in the rational range, and improve the overall working efficiency of the steam turbine. No ponded water is allowed in the cylinder during the operation of the steam turbine, thus, sufficient moisture-removal devices and flow areas shall be reserved during the design of the cylinder so as to avoid the groove structures as far as possible. 2.1.2 High and intermediate pressure cylinder High and intermediate pressure cylinder adopts typical single path, double shell cylinder and horizontal split structure, the outer cylinder is upper paw bracket support type, and the upper and lower cylinders are connected by the bolts.

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

Fig. 2-1 High and Intermediate Pressure Cylinder Lower Inner Casing of Steam Cylinder

Fig. 2-2 High and Intermediate Pressure Cylinder Upper Inner Casing of Steam Cylinder

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

Fig. 2-2 High and Intermediate Pressure Cylinder Lower outer Casing of Steam Cylinder 2.1.2.1 Main features of high and intermediate pressure cylinder of the steam turbine A. HIP combined cylinder technique The arrangement method arranges the high pressure inner cylinder and intermediate pressure inner cylinder in the same outer cylinder, which reduces the quantity of the bearings and gland seals and shortens the span of the steam turbine, and the flow direction of the steam is on the contrary and can balance the axial thrust better. The high temperature part is concentrated on the middle section of the cylinder, the influence of the high temperature on the bearings and adjusting sleeves is relatively small and the steam leakage from the outer gland seals on both ends is relatively small. The main defects of the steam turbine of HIP combined cylinder structure are: the diaphragm of HIP cylinder bears relatively big pressure difference and generates relatively big thermal stress while changing the operating modes, the expansion differences of the moving and static parts are not easy to control, and the overhauling is not that convenient for the HIP inlet pipes are concentrated on the middle section. Besides, in order to prevent the over-speed of the steam turbine caused by the overstock and mixing of steam in the middle gland steam pocket during the load rejection of the steam turbine, the dump valve is set in the gland steam pocket so as to guide the stock steam in the middle gland steam pocket to the condenser during the load rejection. B. The HIP cylinder is double shell cylinder structure: The double shell cylinder structure can disperse the thermal stress to the two cylinders, the temperature gradient and pressure gradient of the inner cylinder then get smaller, and the wall thickness of the shell can be reduced while bearing the same thermal stress so as to favor the operation of the operating mode. The cylinder flange of the steam turbine with double shell cylinder structure is rather thin, and the temperature of such parts changes quickly under variable operating modes, so it is unnecessary to set special flange bolt heating devices. C. The cylinder body adopts high-temperature resistance materials Due to the increase of the inlet pressure and temperature of the high pressure and intermediate pressure parts, certain countermeasures shall be adopted on the materials, structure and cooling. Assure that the maximum working pressure of the inner cylinder is the pressure fall between pressure after nozzle and high pressure exhaust and the maximum working pressure of the outer cylinder is the pressure difference between the high pressure

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

exhaust and atmospheric pressure on structure so as to reduce the working pressure of the cylinder, and the arrangement of the steam inlet and ring isolation gives cylinder a reasonable temperature gradient for the convenience controlling the thermal stress of the cylinder and guaranteeing that the service life expenditure is in the required range. D. The 1st stage nozzle of the high pressure cylinder is separate nozzle box: The high pressure inner cylinder is composed of four groups of nozzles arranged by the peripheral direction, four high pressure steam inlet pipes are arranged vertically, and the steam inlet pipes are inserted into the nozzle box of the high pressure inner cylinder directly. The boiler main steam accesses into four high pressure adjusting valves by four roads respectively through the main steam valve of the steam turbine and goes into the steam turbine to expand and work through pipes. Generally speaking, the set is of full arc admission, and the partial admission is only under the nozzle governing mode. Under the condition of partial admission, the 1st stage rotor blade is under great and partial acting force, and the most dangerous sections are always in this stage, and since the 1st stage nozzle group of the HIP cylinder bears rather great enthalpy drop and rather great pressure difference, the blade thickness is much bigger than other pressure stages. E. Intermediate pressure cylinder nozzle box: The boiler reheated steam gets into the intermediate pressure inner cylinder through steam turbine intermediate pressure union steam valve and enters the steam turbine nozzle through four pipes to expand and work. F. Support of HIP cylinder: Due to the different expansion volume of the inner and outer cylinders of the steam turbine adopting double shell cylinder structure and in order to guarantee the centering of the rotor and cylinder during the heating expansion process, the support of the cylinder is quite complex, and generally speaking, the support methods of the cylinder can be divided into two: one is the cylinder foot bearing block support method, and the other is the direct installation of the cylinder on the basic platform through the stretching pedal. The high power steam turbines all adopt the cylinder foot bearing block support method without exception. The support method of the steam turbine is: the high pressure outer upper cylinder is supported on the operational gasket of No.1 and No.2 bearing blocks through the cylinder foot, and the outer lower cylinder is hanged on the high pressure outer upper cylinder through the flange bolt of the cylinder. The outer lower cylinder is set with mounting claw and the mounting claw is connected on the bearing block through pivot bracket, the lower cylinder is fastened on the bearing block through space adjusting bolt. The upper inner cylinder is fastened on the high pressure lower inner cylinder through cylinder bolts, the high pressure lower inner cylinder is supported on the HIP outer lower cylinder through the cylinder foot, the high pressure upper steam inlet pipe is fastened on the high pressure lower inlet chamber through four bolts, the high pressure lower inlet chamber is supported on the high pressure inner lower cylinder through support foot, the intermediate pressure inner upper cylinder is fastened on the intermediate pressure inner lower cylinder through cylinder flange bolt and the intermediate pressure inner lower cylinder is supported on the HIP outer cylinder through the cylinder foot. The face support can release the friction of the contact surfaces, and it can move freely during the heating expansion and cooling. Flow part of HIP cylinder The flow part of the steam turbine mainly consists of the flow components of various stages and the steam inlet and outlet parts, and it is the core component of the steam turbine accomplishing the energy conversion, including the control valve, the nozzle, diaphragm stationary blade and rotor cascade of the nozzle box and so on. The main problems to be considered in the design of the flow part of the steam turbine include: optimum loop parameter, rational steam distribution device, maximum efficiency of the cylinders and the steam turbine, meeting the demands of the strength and rigidity, rational structure, safe and reliable. Besides, along with the increase of the set capacity and the improvement of the initial parameters of the steam, solid particle erosion (SPE) of the flow part has become a problem that can not be ignored, and the manufacturers all make every effort to reduce the SPE to the minimum extent while designing the flow part. The high pressure part of the steam turbine can be divided into nine stages and the intermediate pressure cylinder can be divided into five stages, the steam is extracted from the high pressure cylinders to be used as the heating steam source for No.1 high pressure heater after the 6th stage, and part of the steam is extracted from the exhaust steam of the high pressure cylinders to be used as the steam source of No.2 high pressure heater. The

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

intermediate pressure cylinder possesses the steam extraction of two stages to supply No.3 high pressure heater and deaerator respectively. In order to reduce the leakage losses of the steam turbine, the steam seal gland is set on the ends of the inner and outer cylinders and between rotor and diaphragm, blade shroud ring and inner cylinder of the flow part of HIP cylinders. A. Diaphragm of HIP cylinder As the basic unit in doing work of the steam turbine, the stage is composed of the nozzle stationary blades and the matched rotor blades, and when the steam with certain temperature and pressure passes the stage of the steam turbine, convert the heat energy of the steam passing the nozzle stationary blades into the kinetic energy at first and then convert the kinetic energy in the rotor blades into the mechanical energy so as to accomplish the work of the steam turbine. The diaphragm divides the flow part of the steam turbine into a certain number of stages to fix the stationary blades in the cylinders and block the leakages between stages. The pressure is reduced gradually when the steam carries out the energy conversion between stages, if the pressure fall exists on the sides of the diaphragm and the steam pressure before and after the rotor blades equals to each other, such stage is named as pure impulse stage, if the pressure fall mainly focuses in the stationary blades of the diaphragm and only rather small pressure fall exists in the rotor blades, such stage is named as impulse stage, and if the pressure fall of the steam in the rotor cascade and model cascade equals to each other approximately, it is named as reaction stage. The steam turbine is pure impulse turbine and affords relatively huge enthalpy drop in the diaphragm, the rotor generates relatively small axial thrust on the bearing and thus enhances the integral safety of the set. As shown in Fig.2-4, the main components include outer ring, surrounding belt, model cascade, inner belt and diaphragm body and so on. The diaphragm body and model cascade adopt the welding structure. The diaphragm is generally divided into two pieces horizontally for the convenience of installation and dismantling, and in order to possess fine economy and reliability, the diaphragm structure shall meet the following demands: enough strength and rigidity, fine steam tightness, rational support and orientation, concentricity with the rotor, the nozzles on the diaphragm shall possess fine aerodynamic property, enough surface finish quality and correct flow outlet angle. Fig.2-5 is the diaphragm structural diagram of 9th, 10th and 11th stages of the steam turbine. Welding groove Outer ring Stationary blade Inner ring Expansion groove

The diaphragm can be divided into assembled type and welding type by structure, for the consumption of metal is large, the cost is relatively high and the clearance between the top and the bottom of the stationary blades will generate steam leakages, the usage of assembled type structure becomes smaller and smaller. The welding diaphragm is made through welding the forged stationary blade between the punched outer and inner belts to form the nozzle arc section and then welding the arc outer edge and the diaphragm body mutually, and such diaphragm possesses fine strength and rigidity, reduces metal consumption and obtains fine steam tightness. The welding diaphragm is adopted in the steam turbine so as to guarantee the correct orientation of blades in the diaphragm, the radial twisted rope structure or mosaic type structure splits of diaphragm are adopted to guarantee that the stationary blade of the diaphragm split is complete. The twisted blades are widely adopted in the stationary blades of the nozzle section so as to reduce the wake losses effectively.

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Steam Turbine Steam System

Fig.2-4 Structural Diagram of Diaphragm

Fig.2-5 Structural Diagram of Diaphragm The fixation of the diaphragm on the cylinder or diaphragm housing ring must meet the demands of free expansion and centration during the heating of the diaphragm, certain clearance shall be reserved between the diaphragm and septalium. The split support type is generally adopted in the diaphragm installation of the large scale sets. B. HIP cylinder stationary blade The stationary blade of the steam turbine is the main component in doing work, and generally speaking, in order to guarantee relatively high efficiency of the blades, the blade roots and shroud rings of the HIP cylinder stationary blades are processed by profile steels integrally, and the mold line of the HIP stationary blades of the steam turbine is the post-loaded blade type, such twisted reduce section stationary blade possesses fine aerodynamic characteristics and relatively high efficiency. Separate nozzle box is generally set in high pressure cylinder of the steam turbine, and the main factors considered in adopting such structure are: the limitation of contact part between the cylinder and the steam with highest parameters to the minimum scope can make the steam turbine rotors and the stationary components as the cylinder bodies and so on except the 1st stage nozzle block in the inlet chamber only contact with the steam after work done, reduce the integral mechanical stress of the cylinders, be in favor of the safety of the steam turbine, make the cylinder structure be simple and the body be thin and improve the adaptability of the set. Besides, for the structure of the whole nozzle box reduces the shaft end leakages, it can simplify the structure of shaft end gland seal and improve the overall efficiency of the set. Many control valves are adopted to control the steam inlet of the steam turbine, the corresponding 1st stage nozzles are also divided into a certain number of nozzle blocks and every block of nozzles occupies a segment of the 1st stage inlet circle. Controlled by four control valves, the nozzle in steam turbine nozzle box can be divided into four segments. 2.1.3 Low pressure cylinder 2.1.3.1 Operating characteristics of low pressure cylinder A. The low pressure cylinder locates in the transition work region from positive pressure to negative pressure, the exhaust steam pressure is rather low and the specific volume increase of the steam is huge, the double split

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

flow structure with the two cylinders collocated reversely and symmetrically is adopted in most of the low pressure cylinders, and the main advantage in adopting such structure is to be able to balance the axial thrust well. Besides, due to the relatively big changes of the steam specific volume and in order to avoid the over-length of the blades, the low pressure cylinder can be divided into separate cylinder bodies. The pressure drop of every stage in the low pressure cylinder is not that big, but the energy surpasses any pressure stages in HIP cylinders. Thus, the structure of the low pressure cylinder shall be able to do more work under the precondition of guaranteeing the safety of the set, and for the steam exhaust pressure of the low pressure cylinder is very low, the cylinder body of the low pressure cylinder is rather huge and is directly connected to the condenser. As a part with the largest temperature variation in the steam turbine, the vertical temperature variation of the low pressure cylinder is quite large, and in order to reduce the heat stress and enhance the expansion conditions of the set, the triple-cylinder structure is adopted on the generator networks, and the first layer is the inner cylinder to install the flow passage components, most of which adopts the unit assembly structure, and the diaphragm is installed on the diaphragm sleeve; the second layer is thermal insulating layer, due to the relatively high temperature of the inlet part and the relatively low temperature of the outer steam exhaust, such layer is adopted to diverse the cylinder temperature difference and rationalize the temperature gradient; the third layer is the outer cylinder to guide the steam exhaust and support the components of the inner cylinder. B. Steam inlet pipe arrangement type of low pressure cylinder The inlet of the low pressure cylinder is inducted vertically from the top of the cylinder through steam lead pipe, enters the ring-shaped space of the inner cylinder through the outer cylinder and accesses the flow passage components of the two distribution cylinders evenly to do work. The exhaust steam of the low pressure cylinder enters the condenser through steam discharge pipe, and the flexible expansion piece is adopted between the steam discharge pipe and the condenser to compensate the expansion of the devices and pipe fittings. Generally speaking, the low pressure cylinder is designed to be radial pressure expansion type exhaust steam casing, and the main purpose of such design is: make the outlet static pressure of the cylinder be higher than the inlet static pressure, convert the kinetic energy of the steam to pressure energy and reduce the pressure fall from the outlet of the end stage blade to the inlet of the condenser so as to reduce the exhaust losses and improve the efficiency of the low pressure cylinder. C. Water injection system of low pressure cylinder: The exhaust steam pressure and temperature are quite low when the set operates regularly, but at the state of starting, idle load or low load, the exhaust steam temperature increases for the decrease of the steam through flow is insufficient to bring the heat from the low pressure cylinder generated by the blasting friction. The over-temperature of the exhaust steam temperature will result in the distortion of the low pressure cylinder, change the relative positions of the cylinder and rotor center line and induce the vibration of the set. In order to prevent the heat distortion of the low pressure cylinder, the low pressure cylinder water injection system is set on the low pressure cylinders of the large scale steam turbo-set. Besides, the ultimate value of the low pressure cylinder exhaust steam temperature is limited, and when such value is surpassed, the ETS system acting on the steam turbine will trip the steam turbine; when the exhaust steam pressure of the low pressure cylinder is too high, the atmospheric relief valve is set on the top of the low pressure cylinder so as to protect the low pressure cylinder, and the actuating pressure is slightly higher than the atmospheric pressure. D. Moisture-removal device of low pressure cylinder: most of the last several stage blades in the low pressure flow passage part of the straight condensing turbine work at the moist steam regions, the moisture in the steam brings bad effects on the work of the blades, which mainly include the conversion losses of the additive energy, the decrease of the work efficiency of the blades and the water erosion caused by the moisture on the rotor blades. Generally, the following methods are adopted to prevent and reduce the water erosion on the moist steam stage blades: restrict the exhaust steam moisture of the last stage blade, improve the anti-water erosion capacity, design moisture-removal device on flow passage part, relax the space between rotor and stationary blades properly and select the suitable rotor blade type and so on. The steam turbine has two low pressure cylinders with the same shapes, with the double split flow symmetrical structure, the two low pressure cylinders are admitted from the middle part and divide the cylinder into two parts on the split. The low pressure cylinder possesses rotor blades of 14 stages, which are arranged on two sides of the

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

low pressure inner cylinder symmetrically, four stages of steam extraction are equipped for the steam usage of the four low pressure heaters and are extracted from 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th stages respectively. The gland sealing steam is connected to both sides of the low pressure rotors for the low pressure gland sealing with two gears and two compartments, the oil deflector ring is installed between gland sealing and the bearing block. Two atmospheric relief valves are installed on the top of the low pressure outer cylinder. The measuring installations as bearing vibration supervisory instrument and bearing vibration inspection devices and so on are installed inside the bearing block. 2.1.3.2 Support of low pressure cylinder Generally speaking, the steam seal gland and bearings on both sides of the low pressure cylinder are installed in outer steam exhaust hood and the upper cylinder half and lower cylinder half are fixed on the horizontal split with fasteners, and thus form a cycle. The outer steam exhaust hood mainly adopts the suspension structure and is fastened on the sole pin through the bolts on the four supports on both sides. The inner upper cylinder is supported on the steam guidance chamber of the steam exhaust hood on each side, the contact surface is quenched and hardened in order to reduce the abrasions, and the axial motions are allowed during the expansion and cooling of the cylinder. The axial inner lower cylinders on both sides are located on the bottom framework of the outer steam exhaust hood, and the free expansion from the center to the two sides laterally is allowed through the positioning of the sliding pin. The front and rear bearing blocks of the two low pressure cylinders and the lower casing are welded into a whole, and each cylinder is supported on the sole pin through the cylinder block directly. The inner lower cylinder is supported on the inner adjusting shim of the outer lower cylinder through cylinder claw, and the inner lower cylinder is fastened on the outer lower cylinder through clearance adjustment bolt. The lower pressure inner cylinder is supported on the four gaskets of the outer cylinder to guarantee the correctness of top and bottom centers of the cylinder. The axial location is confirmed by the gib keys on the middle of the two sides of the lower pressure inner lower cylinders and the outer lower cylinders. The correct horizontal location is confirmed by the gib keys on the axial center line of the cylinder, and such arrangement can guarantee the accurate alignment of the inner cylinders under various operating modes. A sylphon bellows is installed on the steam inlet, such sylphon bellows is between the inner and outer cylinders, it makes the inner cylinder move along with the outer cylinder and prevents the air from the condenser. The connection of the low pressure cylinder is the stainless steel flexible expansion joint type, the rigid support is adopted on the condenser and the basis, namely the center point of the condenser is the absolute dead point of the low pressure cylinder, the polyfluortetraethylene support sole pin is adopted on the surrounding of the condenser bottom to make the condenser shell be able to expand around smoothly. 2.1.3.3 Low pressure cylinder flow passage part The flow passage part of the low pressure cylinder can be divided into 2*2* stages, and the two low pressure cylinders are completely the same and are composed of the assembling stationary blades on the diaphragm and the assembling moving blades on the rotors, the steam is admitted along the center line, enters the steam chamber through ring shape and enters the flow passage part on both sides evenly to do work. The segmentation structure is adopted by the components of the inner cylinder, which is favorable for the extraction of the regeneration and extraction pipes. In order to prevent the water erosion, the moisture-removal device is set on the top of the moving blades in the low pressure cylinder. In order to guarantee that the steam can expand freely in each stage and avoid the friction between stationary and moving parts, certain clearance is set between the stationary and moving parts, and to reduce the leakages, the steam seal gland is set between the rotor shroud ring, diaphragm, blade shroud ring and diaphragm. 2.1.3.4 Diaphragm and stationary blade of low pressure cylinder Composed of the diaphragm board, stationary blade and steam seal gland, the diaphragm of the low pressure cylinder is divided into the upper and lower parts along the horizontal split. The stationary blade is manufactured by alloy materials and is welded into diaphragm, the diaphragms of the former four stages are the crown guide

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Steam Turbine Steam System

blades and the latter three stages are strip welded structure guide blade. Weld the stationary blade and the inner and outer ring of the diaphragm into a whole and then accomplish the finish machining of the diaphragm. Generally speaking, the segmentation structure is adopted by the inner cylinder and diaphragm sleeve of the low pressure cylinder, the structures of the diaphragms are basically the same, due to the different height of the blades, the shape of steam guidance beading extended from external part differs somewhat, the low pressure cylinder diaphragm is fastened on the low pressure inner cylinder, and along with the expansion of the cylinder and the maintenance of concentricity with the rotors, the diaphragm can move freely on three directions, the positioning method is the same with the positioning structure of the diaphragm in HIP cylinders. 2.1.4 Notices The monitoring of the mechanical conditions under the operating status is a very complex problem, under the current test technical level, many problems have not been solved thoroughly and many test methods can not be put into operation subjecting to the conditions. The indirect monitoring is still adopted on some rather critical items, and some data and indexes are also with certain experiences, which increases the complexity of the operation and monitor of the cylinders. The general monitoring items during the operation include the heat stress, heat expansion, heat distortion and cylinder temperature and so on. 2.1.4.1 Monitor on heat stress While operating under the stale operating mode, the cylinder wall shall bear the heat stress of the inner and outer walls besides the static stress generated by the internal steam pressure. For the temperature difference between the cylinder and flange and the temperature difference between the outer and inner walls under the stable operating mode are not that big, the heat stress value is limited. But under the unstable operating mode as starting, outage and the great changes of the load and so on, the steam pressure and the temperature in the cylinder will be changed drastically. Only if the pressure range is in the design range, no unfavorable effect will be caused, and the thickness of cylinder wall is designed according to the maximum pressure afforded. The drastic changes of the temperature under the transition operating mode will generate great temperature difference between the inner and outer walls of the cylinder and thus result in rather huge heat stress. The residual deformation is resulted in when the combined stress value of the heat stress and static stress exceeds the yield limit of the metal materials and thus becomes the reason of the cylinder cracks and damages, and this is why we put forward the monitoring of the cylinder heat stress. The heat stress of the cylinder and flange surface is depended on the heat transfer methods and the temperature difference between the inner and outer walls. For the heat conductivity coefficient of the decided steel material is a fixed value and the heat transfer methods under normal unstable operating modes (except for severely cooling and heating modes as load rejection and sharp increase of load and so on) are considered according to quasi-steady heat transfer, the heat stress of the time is only decided by the temperature difference between the inner and outer walls. The temperature difference between the inner and outer walls can be used as the reliable base to monitor and control the cylinder wall or flange wall heat stress, during the actual starting and outage of the steam turbine, if only the temperature differences between the inner and outer walls of the cylinder or flange are monitored and controlled inside the regulated range, the inner wall heat stress can be guaranteed not to exceed permissible value. At present, the large power steam turbines are generally installed with temperature measuring points of the inner and outer walls of the cylinders and flanges on the key components, and the thermal-mechanical status of the cylinder is monitored through the monitoring on the temperature difference. According to the heat transfer theory and when the heat emission coefficient of the steam on flat walls is constant, the temperature difference between the inner and outer walls can achieve the maximum constant value while achieving the quasi-steady heat transfer state. The temperature differences between the inner and outer walls and the temperature rising rate are proportional to the square of the wall thickness, when the thickness is certain, the measurement of the temperature rising rate then determines the temperature difference between the inner and outer walls and in turn determines the size of the wall heat stress. The purpose of monitoring and controlling the metal heat stress can be achieved through monitoring and controlling the temperature rising rate. The temperature difference of the thick wall is bigger than that of the thin wall under the same temperature rising rate. During the startup, the temperature difference between the inner and outer walls of the flange is much bigger than that of the cylinder wall. From this, the control of the heat stress shall be supported by the temperature difference between

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

the inner and outer walls of the flange with relatively big thickness, and if the cylinder wall is regarded as the detection basis, the hazardous conditions as the temperature difference between the inner and outer walls of flange is oversize and the heat stress exceeds the admissible stress of the materials and so on then will be generated. The heating of the bolts is mainly transferred by the flange, thus, the temperature of the flange is a little higher than that of the bolt during the starting and heating processes, the temperature difference between them will make the bolts bear additional heat tension stress, and the bolts may be snapped when the total pulling stress exceeds the yield limit of the material. The maximum allowable temperature difference value between the flange and the bolt can be calculated when the yield limit of the bolt material and the pre-tightening force of the bolt are given. Thus, in order to control the heat stress value of the bolts, the temperature difference between the flange and the bolts must be monitored, and then according to the performances of the metal materials of such parts, it is not that difficult to find out the control indexes monitoring their heat stress values. When the steam turbine is started and heated, the temperature of the inner wall is always higher than that of the outer wall, thus the inner wall bears the heat compression stress and the outer wall bears the heat tension stress. On the other hand, when the steam turbine reduces the load and stops, the temperature of the inner wall is lower than that of the outer wall, thus the inner wall bears the heat tension stress and the outer wall bears the heat compression stress, and then the maximum heat stress is always generated in the inner wall. When the steam turbine operates under various operating modes, the steam chambers of various stages in the cylinder always contains the steam with certain pressure, the steam pressure generates static stress on the cylinder, and the stress on the inner and outer walls is tension stress. Considering the existence of the static stress, the heat compression stress afforded by the inner wall during the startup and heating can be neglected as relaxation, and when the turbine reduces the load and stops to cool, the heat tension stress afforded by the inner wall is then added by the static stress value, which is easy to make the comprehensive tension stress value exceed the permissible value of the metal material and result in the cylinder cracks. It is more dangerous when the load is reduced severely, the steam chambers maintain relatively high steam pressure and the static stress value is relatively huge. The temperature difference control indexes shall be much stricter to the operating modes (such as load reducing, outage and hot start and so on) that may result in the cooling of the cylinders and flanges. 2.1.4.2 Monitor on heat expansion During the startup, stop and load alternation processes, the cylinder rotors or other components will expand or shrink due to the temperature alternation. The guarantee of the free expansion and shrink to different directions evenly on the basis of the axis and the dead point is an important condition to prevent the heat stress, heat distortion and even the set vibration. The heat expansion value of the cylinder is also up to the thermal process of the flow passage part of the steam turbine besides the length and material of the cylinder, namely the temperature of various sections of the cylinder. For the flange of HIP cylinder is much thicker than the cylinder wall, the expansion of the cylinder is always up to the average temperature of various sections of flange. The temperature field distribution of the steam turbine during the operation always has certain regularities and some point can be found out as the monitoring point on cylinder expansion, and then the congruent relationship between the temperature variation and cylinder expansion value of the monitoring point can be discovered through calculation or actual measurement to monitor whether the cylinder expansion is normal. The monitoring point normally selects the flange temperature on the regulating stage (outer cylinder flange temperature is selected to double shell cylinder), and the temperature generally takes on linear relationship with the cylinder expansion value. In order to monitor the heat expansion, the absolute expansion indicator or heat expansion measuring instrument is installed on both sides of the steam turbine normally. What needs to explain: it is important to monitor the even expansion on both sides of the cylinder, for the huge difference of the expansion on both sides shall result in the central decline of sets, the block of axial expansion, the friction between stationary and moving parts when serious and the severe vibration of the unit, thus the flange temperatures and the expansion indicating values on both sides of the cylinder shall be compared regularly. To the unit with expansion indicator just on one side, pay attention that the temperature difference between the two sides shall not be too large, and the comprehensive judgment shall be implemented to prevent the oversize deviations of the heat expansion.

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

2.1.4.3 Monitor on heat distortion In order to prevent the oversize distortion and the affection on the clearances between the stationary and moving parts, the cylinders are required to possess enough stiffness. Generally speaking, the stiffness characteristics mainly include the static stiffness, dynamic stiffness and heat distortion and so on, and the static stiffness refers to the relationship between the load and distortion under half cylinder and combined cylinder, the weight of the rotors shall be applied to the unit with the bearing blocks and cylinders cast in block. The relationship between the vacuum extraction and distortion is also belonged to static stiffness. The dynamic stiffness refers to the vibration strength performances. The heat distortion mainly refers to the load distribution change conditions of the bearing blocks and base sole pins under different heating conditions, especially the interference on the temperature variations of the rear cylinders. The above stiffness characteristics shall be measured at the initial period of installation and operation through tests so as to grasp the variation rules of the clearances between the stationary and moving parts under different conditions and guide the operators to operate the unit better. The temperature difference between the upper and lower cylinders is easily generated during the startup and outage processes of steam turbine. For the weight of the lower cylinder is big, the heat yield of the steam extraction pipe and so on is relatively quick and the heat preservation is not as good as that of the upper cylinder, the temperature of the upper cylinder is always higher than that of the lower cylinder, thus, the cylinder generates the distortion upwardly and makes the diametric clearance between the stationary and moving parts at the cylinder bottom decrease, and the diametric friction between the stationary and moving parts is generated when the temperature difference between the upper and lower cylinders is over-high. During the startup and outage processes of the unit, the maximum temperature difference is always at the regulating stage for the relatively big temperature changes. Through the calculation and actual measurement, the blade axial clearance is reduced by about 0.1mm once the temperature difference between the upper and lower cylinders increases for 10. The diametric clearance of the diaphragm gland is generally between 0.4-0.7mm, thus the temperature difference between the upper and lower cylinders shall be controlled below 35~50 under general regulations. When the inner wall of the cylinder flange is heated, the temperature difference between inner and outer walls will result in the bending distortion of the flange, at the moment, the lateral flange will be bended internally and the two inside clearances will be reduced, make the lateral section on the front and rear ends of the cylinder into oblate ellipsoid axially and the middle parts into vertical ellipsoid so as to make the reduction of the bilateral diametric clearances of the regulating stage and the stages thereafter become the main factor to induce the frictions between the stationary and moving parts. To the units without the flange inner wall temperature measuring point, the monitor on the temperature difference between the cylinder wall and flange wall can be adopted to control the heat distortion of the cylinder indirectly, for such temperature difference has corresponding relationship with the temperature difference between the width of the flange edges and referring to the temperature difference range between the inner and outer walls under changing operating modes and the control range of the temperature difference between the inner and outer walls of the flanges, the controlling value of the temperature difference between the cylinder wall and flange wall is generally taken as 70~80 (heating) or 40~50 (cooling). 2.1.4.4 Arrangement of cylinder temperature measuring point The absolute expansion indicator monitoring the heat expansion values of the cylinder and the temperature measuring point monitoring the cylinder heat stress and the heat distortion through the monitor on the temperature of various points and the temperature difference of various parts shall be installed on various sections of the cylinder besides the pressure instruments monitoring the steam pressure values to monitor the heat mechanical state of the cylinder. For the regulating stage steam chamber can reflect the working conditions of the steam turbine correctly and agilely and the pressure and temperature of the steam are rather high, it is a rather perfect section to monitor the thermal-mechanical state, and the temperature measuring points are arranged in such region intensively. For the temperature of the intermediate pressure cylinder in the reheater set is also very high, the 1st stage steam chamber (front and rear) of the intermediate pressure cylinder is always selected to arrange the temperature measuring

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

points, and in order to grasp the cylinder state better, the cylinder temperature measuring points are also arranged at the extraction opening section. 2.1.4.5 Operating notices The possible problems caused by misoperations mainly include cylinder distortion (permanent distortion) and cracks. The cylinder distortion may result in the imprecision of the horizontal or vertical flange interfaces, and on the high pressure side, the steam escapes outwardly, when the steam leakage part gets close to the front bearing, the steam will leak into the bearing and deteriorate the oil quality; on the low pressure side, the outside air will leak into the cylinder and affect the vacuum of the condenser, and during the gross distortion, it will reallocate the cylinder weight on the engine seat, result in the changes of the dynamic and static center line of the steam turbine, cause the collision of the moving and stationary parts and the vibration of the unit and damage the steam turbine. A. the reasons resulting in the cylinder distortion include: 1. The cylinder operates under the condition exceeding the allowable temperature of the cylinder material for a long time, and the creep deformation and the stress relaxation of the fasteners are thus caused. 2. The jam of the slide key system can not guarantee the normal expansion, and the oversize distortion heat stress is thus formed. 3. The diametric clearance between the diaphragm and cylinder is too small and the diaphragm bears against the cylinder during the expansion. 4. The long term uneven heating or cooling caused by the bad heat preservation of the external part of the cylinder or partial separation and abscission. B. The main reasons resulting in the cylinder cracks include: 1. The cylinder bears the operating method with thermal cycling for many times and makes the stress exceed the strength of the weak sites, and the fatigue fracture thus generated. 2. The long term strong vibration makes the stress of the cylinder material exceed the fatigue limit. 3. The defects or bad thermal treatments of the cylinder material make the parts of the cylinder bear relatively big internal stress. 4. The stress of such parts may exceed allowable value during the improper operating modes, uneven heating or cooling of the cylinder. 5. The damage and abscission of rotatable parts as broken blade and so on, the strong strike may result in the cylinder cracks. To sum up, the following must be done to guarantee the safe and reliable operation of the cylinder: control the steam admission parameters strictly and prevent the steam turbine from operating under excess temperature condition for long time. The load alternation shall be smooth and slow so as to prevent the cylinder from bearing the heat and cold alternation due to the drastic alternation of the operating modes. Maintain the cleanliness of the slide key system junction surface to prevent the jam and check and monitor the expansion conditions on various parts of the cylinder regularly. Maintain the sound heat preservation so as to prevent the uneven expansion of the cylinder. Inspect the vibration conditions of the unit, analyze and transact on time on any irregular vibrations or abnormal sounds. Adopt rational operating modes, make the cylinder be heated or cooled evenly along a circle as far as possible and adopt constant pressure-sliding pressure-constant pressure operating mode and so on. 2.2 Rotor, Blade and Coupling 2.2.1 Rotor and blade Steam turbine is a machine rotating at high speed, and working under high temperature and high pressure, any defects of the rotor will affect the safe and economic operation of sets. The rotor blade is one of the most important parts of the steam turbine: 1. As the main working part converting the steam heat energy into mechanical energy, the structural line and operating mode of the rotor blade will directly affect the energy conversion efficiency; 2. It is with the most quantity and relatively huge processing workload; 3. As the part with the highest bearing stress in the turbine, it must work under rather ugly operating mode, and the accident rate is high. Thus, the structure and performance of the blade are not only involved with the design and manufacture but also get close relationship with the economical efficiency of the turbine and the safety and reliability of the operation. Shroud ring

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

Molded line Intermediate Blade root Rivet Impeller

Fig.2-6 Location and Structure Diagram of Rotor Blade in Steam Turbine The rotor blade of the steam turbine is composed of three parts: the first is the blade root fastened on the rotor through traverse pin, the second is the blade height converting the steam kinetic energy into mechanical energy, and the third is the hood set on the impeller outer diameter and guiding the steam flow, namely the shroud ring part. Fig.2-6 is the installation position of the rotor blade on the turbine and the structure diagram of the rotor blade. The steam turbine blades can be divided into different types due to the different operating modes and effects. The blade can be divided into constant chord blade, variable chord blade and twisted blade according to that if the chord changes along with the blade height. Generally speaking, the constant chord blades are adopted in the HIP rotors and the variable chord twisted blades are adopted in the latter stages of the low pressure rotors without exception. 2.2.1.1 Main characteristics of rotor The rotors are divided into HIP rotors, low pressure A rotors and low pressure B rotors and are connected through rigid coupling. The rotors are supported on two bearings respectively, and the whole shafting is positioned

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

through the thrust bearing in No.2 bearing block. Fig.2-11 is the HIP rotor of our company. The HIP rotors and low pressure rotors are the solid non-central hole rotors, which increase cycle life and reduce the manufacturing costs of the rotors. In order to guarantee the flawlessness, accurate balance calibration and high performance of the rotors, the blank of the rotor forge piece shall be made through vacuum pouring. After the processing, the rotor body shall be with the impeller, bearing journal, coupling flange and thrust disc. The seal gland wall type square perforation installed on the front and rear shaft gland of HIP rotors and low pressure A rotors and the axis between impellers combines the labyrinth gland with the stage teeth of the shaft gland and diaphragm gland (or named as stage teeth serrate-type steam seal); the low pressure B rotor combines the level teeth gland with the level teeth of the shaft gland and diaphragm gland. The mark is set on the position with the rotor corresponding to the thrust bearing and is able to monitor the size of the axial displacement online, and the thrust bearing abrasion monitoring device is also installed. The rotor grounding device is installed on the generator and the stationary part grounding device is installed on the bearing box so as to prevent the damages on the steam turbine rotors and bearings caused by the shaft current and shaft voltage generated by the generators. 2.2.1.2 Main characteristics of rotor blade The shafting flow passage part of the steam turbine is composed of 42 structural stages, among which the high pressure part 9 stages (including 1 regulating stage), intermediate pressure part single-flow 5 stages and two double flow low pressure cylinders 2*2*7 stages. With the lacing lug stub on the middle of the blade and the wing profile shroud ring on the top, the lug stub and shroud ring are not welded. The shroud rings of adjacent blades and the side of lacing lug stub are registered mutually and certain clearances are left for each other, and the junction pieces are adopted to link the adjacent blades through riveting at the shroud ring location. During the operation, the acing lug stubs of the blades are kept close together and connected into a whole due to the torsional deformation generated by the centrifugal force of the blades. Such connection method between the shroud ring and lacing lug stub can increase the damping coefficient greatly, which can prevent the resonance vibration of the blades effectively and improve the safety of the long blades. 2.2.1.3 HIP rotor and blade Due to the wheel structure adopted, the rotor has no central hole and the heat stress during the startup process is relatively small, meanwhile, the HIP combined cylinder makes the temperature of the cylinder and rotor increase synchronously basically and guarantees the smooth expansion of the unit. At the same time, the advanced composite steam distribution method is adopted during the startup process so as to reduce the generation of the heat stress during the startup process and guarantee the rapid, safe, flexible and economic starting performances of the unit. The rotor can utilize the special hand hole set on the end of the cylinder to install or adjust the location or weight of blocks on the shafting beading of the HIP rotor exhaust steam without opening the cylinder. The balance weight is also added in the final stage impeller on the intermediate pressure side of the HIP rotor, the rotor dovetail groove on the high pressure side before the regulating stage and the steam exhaust rotor dovetail groove on the high pressure side of the HIP rotor. In order to guarantee the strength and reduce the vibration, the wide-width, inverted-T type blade root and two-ply shroud structure is adopted by the regulating stage blade. The straddle bacterial type blade root is adopted by other blades of the high pressure cylinder and the axial integral type fir-tree blade root is adopted by various stages of the intermediate pressure cylinder.

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

Fig.2-7 HIP Rotor of Steam Turbine 2.2.1.4 Low pressure rotor and blade The 1st to 5th stages of the low pressure cylinder is straddle bacterial type blade root, the penultimate stage is five finger fork type blade root and the final stage is seven finger fork type blade root, all of which adopt the grouped shrouds. The two-ply shroud is adopted by the low pressure final stage with the outer layer equipped by itself and the inner layer connected to the outer layer through rivet. The fork type blade root is adopted by the final stage long blade, and its relatively high strength can resist the centrifugal force of the blades and the flexural stress of the steam impringement, for the speed of the final stage blades is high and work in the wet steam region, the Stellite is welded on the upper side of the steam inlet so as to prevent the water hammer. 2.2.2 Rotor coupling The coupling is an important part to join the turbine rotors and the generator rotors into a whole and transfer the torque and axial thrust. The coupling can be divided into three types as rigid, semi-flexible and flexible. The large scale generator sets generally adopt the rigid coupling for the simple structure, huge coupling stiffness and drive torque. Besides, only a thrust bearing is needed for the connection shafting of the rigid coupling to balance the thrust, which then simplifies the support positioning of the shafting and shortens the shafting length. But the connection shafting of such coupling needs the shafting alignment with high precision, or otherwise the shafting vibration is easily caused for the big effects between the rotors. The rigid connection is adopted by the HIP rotors, two roads of low pressure rotors and the generator rotors in the shafting of the generator sets, and every road of rotors is supported by two bearing supports respectively. The couplings of the four roads of rotors in the shafting are basically the same, the two flange surfaces of the coupling are forged into whole with the corresponding rotors respectively, and the two flange surfaces of the coupling are fastened by fitted bolts and then guarantee the concentricity of the two rotors. According to the demands of the rotor centration, the adjusting shim is set between the flange surfaces of the coupling to adjust the axial flow clearance of the steam turbine. The rotor torque of the steam turbine is transferred through the bolts bearing the shearing force. The adjusting shims are installed between the low pressure A rotor and low pressure B rotor and between the HIP rotor and low pressure A rotor, and the adjusting shims are not installed between other rotors. 2.3 Steam seal gland As a steam turbine rotating at high speed, certain clearance must be left between the stationary and moving parts, in order to reduce the leakages, the leakproof device must be installed to improve the working efficiency of the steam turbine, which is normally named as seal gland. From the structural principles, the seal can be divided into three types: labyrinth seal, carbon ring seal and water ring seal, the carbon ring seal and water ring seal are

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

belonged to contact seal and are only used on the unit with small power, and the non-contact seal as labyrinth seal are widely used on the large power turbine generator sets.

Lamina labyrinth seal

Hunch labyrinth seal Plate spring Elastic labyrinth seal

(a) Square teeth labyrinth seal (b) Stepped labyrinth seal (c) Dual-stepped labyrinth seal Fig.2-8 Schematic Diagrams of Several Labyrinth Seals Fig.2-8 is the schematic diagram of several kinds of labyrinth seal, and its working principle is: make a series of rather thin pieces on the alloy steel ring with an expansion chamber after a choke coil, the speed of the steam is accelerated while passing the expansion chamber and the steam kinetic energy in the expansion chamber is converted into the heat energy with the pressure decreased and the specific volume increased, and the like, when the steam passes through more than one choke coils, the pressure difference before and after every choke coil is rather small and the leakage amount is reduced greatly. The seal gland can be divided into the following types according to different installation positions: 1). Blade cascade gland The main sealing positions include the radial and axial glands between the shroud rings of the blades and the stationary blades or diaphragms and the radial and axial glands between the root of the rotor blades and the stationary blades or diaphragms/ 2). Diaphragm gland

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

The diaphragm gland is the gland between the disks in the diaphragm used to restrict the leakages between stage and stage. 3). Shaft end gland The proper grouped glands with different pressure drops are set on the part of the cylinder crossed by both ends of the rotors. The gland types adopted are not quite that same due to the different installation parts and sealing methods, and the blade gland and the diaphragm gland are normally named as flow passage gland. 2.3.1 Flow passage gland The main effect of the flow passage gland is to reduce the steam leaking from the high pressure sections to the low pressure sections through non-working sections and guarantee that as much steam as possible is doing work in passages. With respect to the diaphragm gland and shaft end gland, the pressure difference before and after the blade cascade gland is rather small and the installation part is narrow, thus the structure is simple, generally, the blade tip radial gland comb tooth is embedded in the stationary pieces, which maintains rather small clearance with the shroud and constitutes the simple blade tip axial gland. The low pressure long blade is not often installed with the shroud, and the top thickness of the blade is reduced and the top clearance is narrowed to reduce the leakages. The blade root gland is generally consisted of the directly turned tooth top of the blade root and the stationary pieces. To the large scale turbine generator sets, the set of the axial gland of the rotor blade root has been meaningless due to the rather long axial length, the moving and stationary blade root glands are changed into radial gland so as to guarantee that the axial expansion is not affected and play the role of gland. Corresponding to the blade cascade gland, the diaphragm gland is of big pressure difference, rather more gland comb teeth and relatively complex structure. The commonest gland structure is formed by the convex plates installed on the sealing gland rings and rotors in the diaphragm inner bore. The sealing teeth can be turned with the diaphragm ring directly and the comb tooth can also be fixed on the sealing gland ring through embedding. The sealing gland ring is divided into several sections along the circle, and the ring is installed in the diaphragm T-type groove at the level joint surface of the diaphragm and pressed by the spring board with a small hole at the side of the T-type groove, during the operation, the steam generates additional forces on the sealing gland ring while entering the groove. Generally, the large scale generator sets adopt the elastic diaphragm gland with the comb teeth taking on high-low distribution and the steam flowing by indentation in the gland. The radial clearances of the diaphragm gland are generally adopted between 0.4~0.7mm, and the axial clearance can be selected according to the axial clearance considerations of the flow passage part. 2-15

Diaphragm outer ring Stationary blade

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

Fig.2-9 Schematic Diagram of Sub-gland

Diaphragm body High pressure side Low pressure side Cylinder Rotor blade Diaphragm gland Rotor Radial gland at the top of rotor blade Axial gland at bottom of rotor and stationary blade roots

The multi-tooth gland and elliptical gland are adopted by the blade cascade of the steam turbine, two deep teeth and two stub teeth are installed on the blade tip to form the labyrinth effect so as to reduce the leakages, and the heat distortions of the cylinder are mainly on the vertical direction. In the elliptical gland, the clearance up and down is relatively big and the bilateral clearance is relatively small, thus the possibility of the rotor vibration caused by the friction is greatly reduced. The diaphragm gland is installed in the gland groove of the diaphragm inner bore and is divided into six blocks, and each block is propped by a spring piece centripetally. The stage teeth structure is adopted by the glands of the HIP cylinders and low pressure A cylinder, the flat tooth gland is adopted by the low pressure B cylinder, the seal blocks on both sides of the upper diaphragm are riveted in the diaphragm by pin bolts and riveted by punching. Proper yield clearance is reserved in the diaphragm gland so as to not damage the rotors or bend the macro-axis during the collisions between the rotors and cylinders. 2.3.2 Shaft end gland The shaft end gland of the steam turbine has two functions, the first is to prevent the escaping of the steam in the pressure sections so as to guarantee that all steam entering the turbine are doing work along the cascade passage of the turbine and improve the efficiency of the steam turbine; the second is to prevent the inner-leakage of the outside air into the turbine in the vacuum sections so as to guarantee the fine vacuum of the turbine, reduce the back pressure of the turbine and improve the energy of the turbine. Generally speaking, every cylinder is equipped with a group of shaft seals, and each group is consisted of multiple sections of shaft seals and is equipped with relevant steam supply system. Fig.2-10 is the systematic diagram of HIP cylinder shaft end seal. Fig.2-11 is the structural diagram of No.2 gland group of the set. Fig.2-12 is the structural diagram of end gland group of high pressure cylinder of the set.

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

a b c

Auxiliary air supply valve From auxiliary steam Gland main Unloading valve To low pressure heater or condenser Cooling water To atmosphere Steam Chamber a Steam Chamber b Steam Chamber c Steam and air Steam

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

Fig.2-10 Schematic Diagram of Steam Turbine Shaft Gland

Exhaust Gland steam condenser Gland steam condenser extraction fan Air Low pressure cylinder Negative pressure

The comb tooth sealing is adopted by the steam turbine, the stage teeth structure is adopted by the glands of the HIP cylinders and low pressure A cylinder and the flat tooth gland are adopted by the low pressure cylinder and the shaft gland is installed on the shaft seal box with the same fixing method as the diaphragm gland. The gland seal box also follows the principle of being consistent with the center line of the steam turbine, the lower gland seal box is hanged under relevant groove of the lower cylinder through the suspension loop, and certain expansion clearance shall be reserved between the top of the suspension loop and the joint surface of the cylinder. The longitudinal key positioning is set at the bottom of the shaft seal box. The upper gland seal box and the lower gland seal box are fixed together through the pins and bolts. The gland segments used in the high temperature regions are made of chrome-molybdenum steel, the gland segments used in the low temperature regions are made of nickel-copper alloy and the spring pieces of gland seal blocks are made of nickel-iron-chromium alloy, the pressure plates for gland seal blocks of the upper gland seal box are fixed in the shaft seal box.

Fig.2-11 Structural Diagram of No.2 Gland Seal Group of Steam Turbine

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

Fig.2-14 Structural Diagram of Gland Seal Group on End of High Pressure Cylinder In this steam turbine, the HIP outer cylinder contains three chambers, the low pressure cylinder contains two chambers and the HIP inner cylinder contains five chambers totally, and the gas is supplied by a suit of self-sealing system with the pressure and temperature being able to be adjusted. 2.3.3 Self-sealing system The self-sealing system is adopted in the shaft end sealing of the steam turbine. The self-sealing gland system refers to the steam turbine gland system regarding the steam leakages of the HIP cylinder shaft end gland as the steam supply of the low pressure shaft end gland the spray de-superheating during the regular operation of the unit. The steam of the gland is supplied by the external steam during the startup or low load operation stages of the unit. The gland system is able to switch automatically according to steam supply requirements of the set glands during the whole process from startup to full load operation. The seal-sealing gland system possesses the following characteristics as simple, safe, reliable and good adaptive to the operating modes. 1). System composition and main devices The self-sealing system with the automatically controlled pressure and temperature is adopted by the shaft end gland system of the steam turbine, the system supplies gland steam to the main engine and the feed pump turbine, the automatic regulating device of gland pressure, overflow and pressure relief device and gland evacuating device are installed, and the permanent steam filter is set at the entrance of gland steam. The gland steam using system includes the electric isolating valve, pressure reducing valve, bypass valve, pressure release valve and other valves for gland steam switching, the instruments, temperature releasing devices and related auxiliary devices and so on, a safety valve is also set on the steam supply bus of the system so as to prevent the overtop steam supply pressure endangering the set safety. In addition, a 100% capacity gland steam cooler and two 100% capacity gland steam condenser exhausters are set to exhaust the uncondensed gases in the gland steam cooler, and the two air exhausters are acting as standby mutually. Fig.2-15 is the schematic diagram of the shaft end self-sealing system of the steam turbine. 2). Normal operating method of self-sealing system The three-valve system is adopted in the gland steam supply, namely under all operating modes of the steam

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

turbine, the gland steam supply pressure is controlled by the three control valves as high pressure steam supply control valve, steam supply control valve of auxiliary steam sources and overflow control valve. A. Auxiliary steam supply valve: considering that the there may be no suitable steam pressure and steam volume for the main steam valve before the startup of the set, the gland steam supply is supplied by the auxiliary steam system for the factory. B. High pressure steam supply control valve: when the set rejects load and the auxiliary steam sources can not meet the requirements, the gland steam supply is supplied by the main steam. C. Overflow control valve: when the load of the set is more than around 60%, for the steam leakages of the HIP gland have been bigger than the steam consumption of the low pressure gland, the overflow control valve will be opened to exhaust the spare steam to the low pressure heater or condenser so as to guarantee the pressure on the low pressure gland. Besides, in order to meet the requirements of the gland steam supply temperature in the low pressure cylinder, a spraying type attemperator is set on the low pressure gland steam supply bus, and the water spray volume is controlled by the temperature control station so as to realize that the steam with reduced temperature meets the requirements of the low pressure gland steam supply. 3). Startup of gland system A. During the cool down, impulse starting and low load stages The gland steam is supplied by the auxiliary steam source and the pressure of the steam supply bus is maintained at 0.124MPa. B. The set load is between 25%-60%TRL The cold reheat section can meet all the gland steam supply at the time, the steam is supplied by the cold reheat section, and the pressure of the steam supply bus is maintained at 0.127MPa automatically. C. The load is above 60%TRL The steam volume leaking into the steam supply bus from the gland of the HIP cylinder has exceeded the steam volume needed by the shaft end gland of the low pressure cylinder. At the time, the steam bus pressure is increased to 130MPa, all the control valves of the steam supply station are closed automatically and the control valves of the overflow station are opened automatically to exhaust the spare steam to No.8 low pressure heater at the side of the turbine through overflow control station. If the No.8 low pressure heater is under accident or out of operation, the spare steam can be exhausted to the condenser. Thus, the gland system accesses the self-sealing state and the gland bus pressure is maintained at 0.13MPa. D. Load rejection If there are spare auxiliary steam sources conforming to the temperature requirements, the pressure of gland steam supply bus is decreased to 0.124MPa, the overflow control valve is closed, and the gland steam is supply by the auxiliary steam source station. If there is no spare auxiliary steam source or the parameters of the auxiliary steam source can not meet the requirements, the auxiliary steam sources and cold reheat section steam supply can not be utilized, the electric check valve before the control valves of the auxiliary steam source station must be closed, and when the pressure of the gland steam supply bus is decreased to 0.118MPa, the high pressure steam supply control valve is opened automatically and the steam is supplied by main steam supply station (namely the high pressure steam source control station). E. Under all the operating modes, the temperature at the low pressure steam gland chamber shall be maintained between 121~177 by the temperature control station automatically.

CRV1 1

1 1A

2 1B

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

MSV1

GV1 GV2 GV3 GV4

MSV2

GV

(BDV)


M M

Steam Turbine Steam System

1A 1B

2CRV2
M

8A

PT

M
M M

M M

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

1 1 2 2 1A 1A 8A

To cold reheat section To 4th section steam extraction No.1 intermediate pressure combined valve No.1 main throttle valve No.2 main throttle valve Main throttle governing valve No.2 intermediate pressure combined valve To cold reheat section Gland steam exhaust of minor turbine High pressure cylinder Intermediate pressure cylinder To cold reheat section Dump valve To 4th section steam extraction To exhaust steam in intermediate pressure cylinder Ventilation valve Overflow station Steam packing unloading valve Gland main steam supply valve Gland auxiliary steam supply valve To axial draft fan Low pressure cylinder 1A Condenser 1A To shaft gland system of minor turbine To 8A low pressure heater Attemperating station

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

1B 1B

From auxiliary steam header From cold reheat section Low pressure cylinder 1B Condenser 1B From self-condensed water

Fig.2-15 Schematic Diagram of Self-sealing System 2.4 Slide Key System 2.4.1 Cylinder expansion The cylinder and rotor all expand from the startup process to the normal operating status, and to the steam turbine with double shell cylinder structure, the relative expansion will also be generated between the inner and outer cylinders, due to the different materials used of the cylinder and rotor and the different physical dimensions, the expansion volumes between the inner and outer cylinders are not totally the same and the expansion difference will be inevitably generated, and the steam turbine is set with a suit of perfect slide key system in order to guarantee that the cylinder and rotor can be positioned and centered according to the design requirements and guarantee that the expansions are not blocked during the startup and outage processes of the steam turbine. Consisted of the traverse pins, longitudinal pins, vertical pins and angular pins and so on, the slide key system is to control the expanding directions of the steam turbine through the installation of different components. Generally speaking, the multi-dead point slide key system is adopted by the large scale steam turbines due to the long shafting and the big absolute expansion value of the cylinder body so as to guarantee that the steam turbine can expand freely along different directions. The effect of the traverse pin is to guarantee the free expansion of the cylinder laterally, restrict the axial displacement and make the cylinder operate in the allowable clearances, the effect of the longitudinal pin is to guarantee the free expansion of the cylinder laterally and restrict the transverse expansion, the dead point of the cylinder is formed by the cross point of the traverse pin center line and longitudinal pin center line, and the point always remains the same during the expansion of the cylinder, and the effect of the vertical pin is to restrict the longitudinal and traverse displacement of the cylinder and allow the up and down expansion of the cylinder. The expansion displacement of the steam turbine set is set with three dead points, locating under the No.2 bearing box and near the center line of the low pressure cylinder A and B respectively, the lie key at the dead point restricts the axial displacement of the cylinder, and at the same time, the longitudinal pins at the front bearing box and on the longitudinal center line of the two low pressure cylinders guide the cylinder to expand freely along the axial direction and restrict the deviation laterally. Six vertical pins are installed between the three cylinders and the four bearing blocks to maintain the consistency of the center line, two longitudinal pins are set on the No.1 and 2 bearing boxes to remain the same of all the centers of the bearing blocks during the expansion process, namely to make the rotor center line and the cylinder center line stay the same and avoid the influences of the heat expansion through vertical and longitudinal pins. Four cylinder foot traverse pins are installed between the HIP cylinder, No.1 bearing box and No.2 bearing box, the slide block with lubrication groove is set between No.1 bearing box and the bracket so as to make the front box be able to slide relatively to the bracket, which solves the expansion problems of the set during the operation rather better and solves the vibration problems caused by the poor expansion of the set. Two traverse pins are set between No.2 bearing box and the bracket to constitute the expansion dead point of the HIP outer cylinder, the No.2 bearing box remains motionless and the expansion of the HIP cylinder pushes the front box to slide forward during the expansion process. The angular pin is set on the plate of the front box bearing block in order to prevent

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Steam Turbine Steam System

the nose of No.1 and 2 bearing blocks during the expansion process. Two traverse pins are set between low pressure A and B cylinders and the bracket respectively to constitute the expansion dead points of low pressure A and B outer cylinders and make them expand forwardly and backwardly from the middle part of the cylinder during the heating. 2.4.2 Rotor expansion The confirmation of the dead points of the steam turbine rotors: the rigid connection is adopted by the rotors, the axial displacement can be transferred, for the axial thrust is afforded by the thrust bearing and the allowable displacement of the bearing is rather small, the working face of the thrust bearing is the relative dead point of the rotor and the cylinder, when the relative position adjustment of the stationary and moving parts is finished, the axial thrust of the rotor is afforded by the thrust bearing, during the expansion, the rotor expands forwardly and backwardly based on the dead point, the farther from the point, the bigger the displacement is. The HIP rotor expands to the direction of the turbine head and the low pressure rotor then expands to the generator direction. The rotor dead point of the steam turbine is in No.2 bearing box, and the rotor expands forwardly and backwardly based on such dead point. 2.4.3 Differential expansion of steam turbine During the startup or outage of the steam turbine, the cylinder and rotor will expand for the heating and shrink for the cooling. Due to the differences on the quality and the different heating conditions, the expansion and shrink of the rotor are faster than those of the cylinder, and the difference of the expansion between the rotor and the cylinder along the axial direction is named as differential expansion. When the differential expansion is positive value, the axial expansion rate of the rotor is bigger than that of the cylinder; and when the differential expansion is negative value, the axial expansion rate of the rotor is smaller than that of the cylinder. During the startup of the steam turbine, the rotor is heated rather rapidly, and the value is generally positive; during the outage or the load rejection of the steam turbine, the differential expansion is easily appeared as negative value. The differential expansion must be controlled with the regulated range during the startup and outage. 2.5 Steam turbine bearings In order to guarantee the regular operation of the steam turbine rotors in the cylinder, the steam turbine adopts the radial support bearing and thrust bearing without exception, the radial support bearing affords the weight and other forces caused by partial admission or vibration of the rotors, confirm the location of the rotors and guarantee the coherence of the center line between the rotor and the cylinder; the thrust bearing affords the axial thrust caused by the steam flow, confirm the axial location of the rotor and guarantee the clearance between the moving and stationary parts of the steam turbine. For the turbine generator set belongs to the heavy capacity and high speed device, the sliding bearing based on the film lubrication theory is adopted. The following problems shall be considered while selecting the bearings: the model of the main bearing shall guarantee the absence of the oil whipping, fully consider the influences of the steam flow exciting force, fine capacity of resisting disturbance, the bearings can be taken out and replaced conveniently without uncovering the cylinders and rotors, and the horizontal split bearing is adopted, which can be adjusted from the horizontal and vertical directions without hoisting the rotors. The thrust bearing can bear the maximum double-direction thrust continuously generated under any operating modes. The bearing metal temperature measuring points are set on the support bearings, and the location and quantity of the measuring points shall meet the operation and monitoring requirements of the steam turbine. The main characteristics of the shafting bearings are: The tilting self-aligning bearing and elliptic bearing are adopted by the main bearings, which can solve the oil whipping greatly, the design instability speed of the bearings is above 125% of the rated speed, and the bearings are of fine capacity of resisting disturbance. With horizontal split, the support bearings can be adjusted from the horizontal and vertical directions without hoisting the rotors, and the bearings can be taken out and replaced conveniently without uncovering the cylinders and rotors during the overhauling. The observation hole and socket of thermometer are installed on the oil return pipe of each bearing, there shall no mixed oil flows from other

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Steam Turbine Steam System

bearing before the installation of the oil temperature measuring point and the oil flow monitoring device, the design metal temperature of the bearing shall not exceed 90 and the black aurum is allowed to operate under 112 for long term. The thrust bearing can bear the maximum double-direction thrust continuously generated under any operating modes, and the measuring instruments monitoring the bearing metals, abrasion loss and bearing metal temperature are installed. 2.5.1 Radial support bearing Such tilting pad bearing is supported by supporting points and can adjust the arc pad of the bearing automatically, and under the pressure of the oil film, each pad can adjust the position automatically and separately on the supporting point so as to adapt to the changes of the speed, bearing load and oil temperature. The oil film applied force of each pad on the tilting pad can maintain the invariability of the journal center without causing the tangential component of the journal center by forward precession, eliminate the force sources resulting in the journal whirling motion and effectively avoid the generation of the steam whipping and oil whipping, and the tilting pad possesses rather high stability and anti-instability capacity. Besides, it also possesses the characteristics as small power consumption and postponing of the lubricating oil conversion from the laminar flow to turbulent flow, which is favorable to the safe operation of the set but of rather high construction cost. Arranged symmetrically, No.1 and 2 bearings of the steam turbine are the tilting-pad bearings composed of six steel tilting pads. A layer of Babbitt metal is on the surface of the tilting-pad bearing, every three tilting pads make up a group, and every pad can swing freely along the rotating direction of the axle during the operation of the set so as to form optimum oil film between the bearing pad and the axle. The elliptic bearing model with one side oil admission and upper pad grooved is adopted by the bearings on the two low pressure rotors supporting the steam turbine. The characteristics of such elliptic type pads are: the interior is elliptical with the upside clearance reduced the lateral clearances enlarged, and the oil films are formed on the upper and lower pads, which are propitious to form the liquid friction, enlarge the bearing capacity and stability, increase the oil flow and strengthen the cooling on the bearings. During the heavy loading, the bearings of such model possess rather strong anti-instability capacity and relatively thick oil film thickness, and under the same operating mode, the bearing possesses relatively lower black aurum temperature and lubricating oil temperature rise compared to other bearings. 2.5.2 Thrust bearing Generally, the axial thrust of the large scale steam turbines is very big, in order to reduce the axial thrust, many measures have been adopted during the design and production of the steam turbines as the reverse arrangement of the HIP cylinders and the double split flow symmetrical structure adopted by low pressure cylinder and so on. After the adoption of such measures, most of the axial thrust is balanced, but the thrust bearing still needs to bear a part of the axial thrust that can not be balanced or the thrust generated during the alternation of the operating modes. Thrust bearing The thrust bearing is composed of thrust disc, elastic gimbal ring, thrust bearing pad, bearing block and the accessories as oil inlet, oil outlet and measuring devices and so on, and the bearings are divided into the upper and lower parts along the horizontal split basically. The oil film is formed between the thrust disc and the pad through the lubricating oil of the thrust bearing so as to transform the un-lubricated friction between the thrust disc and the pad into the liquid friction, bring away the heat generated by the thrust disc and cool the bearings. The thrust disc is generally welded with the rotor into a whole and shaped with the rotor through the machine work of the integral forge pieces. During the operation of the steam turbine, the thrust bearing affords the spare thrust of the rotors, and at the same time, the position of the rotor is confirmed, the thrust disc center of the HIP rotor is the expansion dead point of the whole steam turbine rotor corresponding to the cylinder, and when the relative positions of the moving and stationary parts are confirmed, the spare thrust of the rotor then is finished by the thrust bearing. The thrust bearing of the turbine generator set is located between the HIP cylinder and low pressure cylinder, the tilting flat type dual-thrust disc structure is adopted, and the thrust bearing of the structure is formed by dividing the thrust pad face into ten sector pads through ten oil grooves, every pad is tilted along the peripheral direction to guarantee the oil flow balance in the inner diameter of the pad, the axial thrust works on the working

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Steam Turbine Steam System

surface or non-working surface of the axial bearing directly through the thrust disc, the axial thrust is transferred to the pads installed on the thrust disc bearings and then transferred to engine seat through the thrust block, balance block, ground ring and the enclosure of the thrust bearing of the pads. 2.6 Turning Gear In order to avoid the bending distortion of the rotors, the continuous turning gear must be set before the startup and after the outage of the steam turbine. Before the impulse starting of the steam turbine, the steam is leaked into the steam turbine from both ends of the gland and concentrated on the upper part of the cylinder for the gland steam supply at both ends of the rotor, thus the temperature difference between the rotor and cylinder is generated, the heat bending will be generated if the rotor remains motionless; at the same time, after the outage of the steam turbine, the rotor is still of high temperature and the steam is concentrated on the upper part of the cylinder, due to the different structures of the cylinders, the temperature drops of the upper and lower cylinders are not the same and the heat bending will also be generated; besides, before the startup of the turbine, the turning gear can make the temperature of the upper and lower cylinders and rotors of the turbine be even, expand freely and be without frictions between moving and stationary parts so as to eliminate the damages caused by the rather high journals to bearing pads and eliminate the natural bending of the rotors caused by gravity. 2.6.1 Shafting stability Introduction The shafting vibration stability is belonged to the category of self-excited vibration, and most of the self-excited vibrations are caused by the oil film instability of the support bearings. If sufficient damping exists in the shafting, the rotating shaft returns to its normal position and becomes stable. Or the rotor will go on whirling and rather big instable vibration will appear. The instable whirling of the oil film is generally caused by the factors as bearing abrasion or clearance, improper bearing design and alternation of lubricating oil parameters. The oil film whipping or oil film whirling can be eliminated or reduced through the measures as changing the bearing models, enlarging bearing specific pressure, decreasing the clearance tip clearance and reducing the viscosity of the lubricating oil and so on. Shafting characteristics of the steam turbine The factors affecting the shafting stability are considered comprehensively during the design of the steam turbine, and the following countermeasures are mainly adopted to prevent the shafting instability through calculation and tests. The tilting pad bearing model is adopted by the bearings supporting the HIP rotors, the tilting pad bearing possesses strong anti-instability capacity, if uncalculating the inertia of the pad, the frictional resistance of the supporting point and the shear resistance of the oil film to the pad and so on, the oil film force acting on the journal is always passing through the pad supporting point and the journal center so as to eliminate the force sources resulting in the journal whirling and prevent the generation of the steam oscillation and the oil film vibration. Besides, it also possesses the characteristics as small power consumption and postponing of the lubricating oil conversion from the laminar flow to turbulent flow, which is favorable to the safe operation of the set. The elliptic bearing model with one side oil admission and upper pad grooved is adopted by the bearings supporting the HIP rotors. During the heavy loading, the bearings of such model possess rather strong anti-instability capacity and relatively thick oil film thickness, and such bearing possesses relatively lower black aurum temperature and lubricating oil temperature rise under turbulent flow operating mode.

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Steam Turbine Steam System

Chapter III Steam Distribution system of Steam Turbine 3.1 Overview The turbines steam distribution mode has a great impact on its operation performance, structure, in particular, the arrangement and structure of the high- and intermediate-pressure part of the cylinder. The most commonly modes of turbines steam distribution are nozzle governing and throttle governing. Under normal circumstances, throttle governing steam turbines efficiency is slightly higher than the nozzle governing steam turbines at design condition, but at partial load condition, the formers efficiency is lower than the latters. The curve in Figure 3-1 indicates how the heat consumption (h) of these two kinds of turbine changes with the flow (G: namely, power of the unit). The reason why the throttle governing steam turbine has high efficiency at design condition is because it doesnt have a governing stage, so that there isnt any inlet steam loss in the governing stage, in addition, the residual velocity of the first stage can be used at the next. But at partial load condition, the efficiency reduces because the throttle loss augments.

For the intermediate reheating units, the throttle loss only exists in the high-pressure stages which are before intermediate reheating. Because the back-pressure of high-pressure units is much larger than the condensing steam units, so the throttle loss of the high-pressure cylinder is considerable. The enthalpy drop of intermediate- and low-pressure cylinder are generally accounted for 2/3 to 3/4 of the units total enthalpy drop, and this is not affected by the throttle loss, so for the entire steam turbine, the throttle loss will be greatly reduced. For the intermediate reheating units, with the initial-pressure increases, the throttle loss reduces. This is because the increase of the initial-pressure has little effect on the high-pressure units initial-pressure/back-pressure (the back-pressure of the high-pressure units will grow in proportion with the initial-pressure), but the proportion of low-pressure units enthalpy drop will expand in the total steam turbines enthalpy drop, so that the throttle loss of entire units decreases somewhat. At partial load conditions, the economy of nozzle governing steam turbine is superior to the throttle governing turbine, but at variable conditions, the change of its high-pressure units steam temperature is relatively large, which will cause larger thermal stress, thus the thermal stress may produced at regulating stage cylinder wall becomes one of the important factors that limit the rapid load change of such steam turbine. But the situation of throttle governing steam turbine is different, each stages temperature alters with load change are roughly equal, and also very small. Therefore, although the throttle governing steam turbine is less efficient at partial load, but is more capable of adapting to condition change than nozzle governing steam turbine. For the security of high-power steam turbine, it is significant to control the thermal stress generated by the operation units, so currently the high-power steam turbine with basic load tend to adopt throttle governing mode. The disadvantage of throttle governing steam turbine that it is less efficiency at partial load, can be overcame at a

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

certain extent by using slide pressure operation mode. The most advantageous approach is the use of the so-called dual-mode steam distribution. Taking the advantages of both nozzle governing and throttle governing steam distribution into account, the steam turbine is designed as throttle-nozzle mixed steam distribution mode, which distribute steam by nozzle governing at high load and throttle governing at low load. High-parameter high-power steam turbines often adopt nozzle governing. The customary practice is to cast steam chamber and nozzle chamber separately, and then weld them to the high-pressure cylinder separately; regulation steam valves are arranged on the cylinder. This structure has a compact layout, the drive control of the regulation steam valves is concentrated, and the intermediate volume between the control valves and the steam turbine is small, which is helpful to enhance the stability of the regulating system, especially prevent the dynamic over-speed after load rejection. However, it will complicate the structure of high-pressure cylinder, especially while the cylinder is operating, it will generate excessive thermal stress because of the non-uniform temperature rising, hence it is not able to accomplish the high-temperature operation requests well when the steam parameters increase and single unit power augments. At present, separate the nozzle governing steam turbines steam chamber and its control valves from the high-pressure cylinder block making it as an individual valve-body is used commonly. In fact, throttle governing steam turbine has always been adopting this kind of inlet steam arrangement. What need to explain is, no matter which kind of steam distribution modes the high-pressure parts of reheat units adopt, the intermediate-pressure inlet steam always adopt the throttle governing mode, which allowed full-arc steam inlet (only take part in regulation at low load). High-power steam turbines main steam inlet pipes and reheat steam inlet pipes always use double-channel arrangement; this is more conducive to symmetrical layout. So the individual valve-body always be cast together with main steam valve (or reheat steam valve), and there always two or four valves which have the same structure and size. The valves are arranged symmetric and fixed at both sides of the cylinder, in order to avoid the combined part undertaking excessive tress, they are connected with cylinder by relatively long pipes which have large curvature radius. The arrangement that separate the valves from the cylinder and then fixed it at the base, increases the new steam volume stored in the steam conduits; this kind of arrangements easily leads the units to over speed during load rejection, and has negative effects on the stability of the regulating system. In order to overcome this disadvantage, usually arrange the valves close enough to the cylinder but do not fix it alone, and assemble the main steam valves and the control valves in one shell to simplify the structure of the valve-body. This arrangement also has some shortcomings, which is mainly caused by the steam valves are not fixed separately; the asymmetric thrust of main steam pipes could transmit to the cylinder, which requires the cylinder could withstand this part of extra power. Lets introduce the arrangement used in this units steam distribution system, when choose this steam turbines inlet steam part arrangement; following aspects have been mainly considered. Thrust applied to cylinder by steam piping should within allowed range; under any conditions, the total thrust applied to cylinder by piping shall not be greater than 5% of the cylinders gross weight. 1). At any conditions, the thermal stress and thermal deformation of pipelines and valves should within allowed range; and also wont cause the cylinder which is connected with them produce any thermal stress and thermal deformation out of allowance. 2). The volume from control valves to steam chamber should be as small as possible to avoid excessive residual steam flowing into the steam turbine after the control valves closing rapidly, cause over-speed of the steam turbine units. 3). Convenient for installation, operation, and maintenance; the structure is compact, neat and aesthetic. Figure 3-2 shows the arrangement of this steam turbines steam distribution system. Main steam pipes are under the firing floor of the steam turbine, by passing through two high-pressure main steam valves and four high-pressure control valves enter into high-pressure cylinder through four ways. The two high-pressure main valves outlets and four control valves inlets are welded together; the four high-pressure control valves share a single shell. One end of the four high-pressure steam conduits is welded to the outlet of high-pressure control valves; the other end is connected with four short steam inlet pipes vertical flanges on the high-pressure cylinder by using flanges and bolts. The four short steam inlet pipes on the high-pressure cylinder are welded to the high-pressure

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

outer casing in a bell-shaped form; and they connect to the short pipes of nozzle chamber by using plug-in connection. There are a total of four nozzle chambers (nozzle group) on the high-pressure cylinder, symmetrically arranged on the upper and lower cylinders of the high-pressure cylinder. Reheat steam flow into the intermediate-pressure cylinder by passing the intermediate-pressure main steam combined control valves (which are arranged at operation floor) that locate on the both sides of the central part of high- and intermediate-pressure cylinder. The inlets of the intermediate-pressure combined valves connect to the hot legs reheat steam pipes, and the outlets lead to the steam inlets at the lower part of intermediate-pressure cylinder. This arrangement can efficiently cut the length of pipes between the intermediate-combined-valve and the intermediate pressure cylinder, reduce the steam volume in the pipes, and avoid the steam turbine over speeding caused by rapid closure of valves. The main steam and reheat steam of sub-critical units have a higher pressure and temperature, generate a greater impact force and stress; therefore it requires the valves made of better material, can be closed rapidly when the units normal or emergency halt; all valves should switch flexibly without jam fault; meanwhile ensure all valves can be closed tightly to guarantee the safety of the equipment. Valves adopted in this unit use a high efficiency, low loss, low noise and high stability valve seat which is studied and proved by experiment, the valve butterfly line and reasonable leakproof uninstall structure can reduce the losses.

Figure 3-2 Arrangement of high-pressure main steam valves and control valves (MSV is the main steam valve; CV is the control valve) 3.2 High-pressure main steam valves Main steam valves locate at main steam pipes which are in front of the control valves. The main steam comes from boiler, must pass the main steam valves first, and then flows into steam turbine. To the steam turbine, main steam valves are the master gate of the main steam. While the main steam valves are opening, the turbine gets its steam source, so that it gets its drive force; while the main steam valves are closing, the turbines steam source is

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

cut off, so that it loses its power. The main steam valves are on when steam turbine works normally, and off when turbine shuts down. There are two key functions of the main steam valves: first of all, when the steam turbine needs to be shut down peremptorily, the main steam valves can close quickly and cut off the steam source. Secondly, it can control the steam flow rate that enters into the cylinder during the starting up. The closing speed of main steam valves is mostly decided by the property of its control system. For 600MW Class steam turbine units, the main steam valves should close in less than 0.2 second. As to this unit, the main steam valves shutdown time is less than 0.15 second; and delay time is less than 0.1 second. During operation, the main steam valves bear high-temperature and high-pressure. In order to ensure its stability under high-temperature and high-pressure condition, the components should be made of heat-resisting steel, and the valve housing should be thick enough. In order to avoid generating too much thermal stress, the thickness should be even throughout the valve housing; the valve housings outer wall should preserve heat well; and well drainage measures should be adopted in the cavity of the valves, and make sure the drainage channels unblocked during operation. Pay attention to the main steam valves components, avoid thermal impact on its metal surface during starting up, load changing, or shutting down; so that there wont generate any thermal stress fatigue crack on the surface of the metal. 3.3 High-pressure control valves The working conditions of the control valves are basically same as the main steam valves, therefore the considerations are almost same as the main steam valves when design or choose control valves and its components. However, the control valves function is quite different from the main steam valves. The control valves function is to control the amount of inlet steam by changing the opening of the valves. Before the steam turbo-generator set loading, the different opening (at the invariable steam parameters condition) of control valves correspond to different rotation speed, the larger the opening is the larger the steam amount flow in and the higher the rotate speed is; after the steam turbo-generator set is taking load in synchronization with power network, by changing the opening of control valves (at the invariable steam parameters condition) to correspond with different load, which means that the larger the opening the bigger the power produced. In the circumstance of the control valves partial opening, the steam would be throttled; this will cause the steams entropy increase without doing work, which means loss of energy and the decrease of work capability. Therefore, while designing the steam distribution of turbine, make sure the steam valves in its full open position during the normal operation. For changing the power of the turbine, the amount of steam inlet should be adjusted by changing the number of the high-pressure control valves and their opening; the control valves driven by actuator are the terminal elements of the regulating system. There are four high-pressure control valves in this units; according to the different operation requirements, the steam turbine can carry out composite distribution mode, that is, controlled by nozzle when low load and by throttle when high load. 3.4 Medium-combined-valve The medium-combined-valve is called MCV for short; it consists of intermediate pressure main steam valve and intermediate pressure control valve. The MCV is of vertical structure with the intermediate pressure control valve upper and the intermediate pressure main steam valve down; the two valves share a single shell, cavity and valve seat, the butterfly valves of both are arranged in series up and down, such arrangement is for the compact structure, the convenient arrangement and the less loss of steam flow. Each of the two valves has its own actuator, the opening and closing of control valves is dominated by a lever which is driven by an oil-driven machine and a spring manipulation seat which are located at the lateral of the MCV; and the opening and closing of main steam valves is dominated by another oil-driven machine and spring manipulation seat which are located at the lower of the MCV. The two MCVs arrange on the lateral of intermediate pressure cylinder at a height of 13.70 meters; the steam from reheat hot leg flow into every valves inlet, orderly passing through the intermediate pressure control valves and the intermediate pressure main steam

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

valves, then the intermediate pressure steam conduits and eventually enters the intermediate pressure cylinder, see figure 3-6. 3.5 Steam conduit and the nozzle chamber The steam conduit and the nozzle chamber are the components that transfer the steam from control valves to turbine. Their working pressure and temperature are basically same as the control valves. The requirements to them are as follows: 1). can endure work pressure safely, well sealed at the non-steam-channel. 2). the joint of the steam conduit and the nozzle chamber can comparatively expand free. 3). the steam conduit and the nozzle chamber should be in alignment, and yet free to the relative expansion. 4). When doing the structural design, attentions should be paid to avoid the concentration of stress, in particular the concentration of thermal stress. Nozzle chamber is the most direct assembly that delivers the steam into the flow passage of the turbine; the channel of it should have a good through-flow performance. Figure 3-3 is the sketch map of the short steam inlet pipes of the turbine and the structure of the nozzle chambers. The four short steam inlet pipes and four nozzle chambers of this unit are arranged in axial symmetry and from top to bottom, left to right; and are separately fixed at the inner casing of the high-pressure cylinder in circular by fixed ring and risers. There are guidance keys at the outer diameter of the No.3 and No.4 nozzle chambers, for orientating the nozzle chambers expansion.

Fig. 3-3, the Sketch Map of the High-pressure Cylinders Steam Inlet Part The admission end of the steam conduit is welded to the vent hole of the control valve; the other end is connected to the vertical flange of the high-pressure cylinders four short steam inlet pipes by flanges and bolts. The outer tube at the steam conduits outlet end which is shaped like a bell is connected to high-pressure cylinder by flange welding. The inner tube of outlet end inserts into nozzle chamber directly, and is sealed by

N Factory Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Steam System

piston ring seal. Such direct insert way that is using elastic seal ring, not only achieve the purpose of seal, but also ensure the short pipe and nozzle chamber are in alignment and free to expand. The steam channel of nozzle chamber is arranged along the tangential direction of circumference, in this way the steam from short pipe can flow into nozzle sets without impact and vortex in the nozzle chamber, possess a good steam-driven proper.

Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Proper

Chapter IV Drainage and Water discharge System of Steam Turbine 4.1 Overview When the steam turbine starts up, halts and works under variable load conditions, the steam is cooled down as it contact the turbines body and steam pipes, when the temperature of steam is lower than its pressures corresponding saturation temperature, the steam condenses into water; in case the condensed water is not discharged in time, it will deposit in somewhere of the pipes and the cylinder. During operating, because the density and flow velocity of steam are different from water, they have different resistance applied by the pipes; the condensed water probably caused water impact to the pipes, ranging from making pipeline vibration, producing noise, polluting the environment to making pipeline crack and even rupturing. What is worse is that once some of the accumulated water enters into the steam turbine, rotor blades would be damaged and even ruptured by the impact of water, the metal components would generate permanent deformation by rapid cooling, and indeed the main shaft would be bent. Besides, a certain capacity should be considered while designing the drainage of the body, when the unit tripping, the system can discharge steam immediately, to prevent the turbine speeding and overheating. In order to effectively prevent the steam turbine speeding, overheating, and water entering accidents, as well as the water impact caused by water logging in the pipe, the condensed water accumulated in the steam cylinder and steam pipeline must be discharged in time, so as to ensure the unit operates safely; meanwhile the clean condensed water can be recycled; this is beneficial to improve the units economic efficiency. Therefore, there is drainage system in every steam turbine, which includes the back and front of the turbines high- and intermediate pressure main steam valves, the back and front of each steam control valve, the steam extraction pipelines, the main shaft gland steam supply pipelines, the drainage pipelines, valves and containers of the valve stems steam leaking pipe. Besides, there are other systems that have their own drainage system, like auxiliary steam system of the turbine, the system which heat the water-feeding pumps small steam turbine body, steam inlet pipes, deaerator. Some of the drainage water is discharged directly into the drain flash tank of body; some is discharged directly to the ditch. 4.2 System configuration The drainage of the turbine is mainly composed of the following parts: the drainage at the low point of the main steam pipeline and reheat steam pipeline; the drainage of the cylinder block, main steam control valves and high-pressure steam conduits; the drainage of steam extraction pipeline; the drainage of the feed pump turbines steam supply pipeline; the drainage of the auxiliary steam and deaerators heat pipes; the drainage of shaft gland system; steam leakage of valve stem; and drainage and water discharge of other auxiliary systems. 4.2.1 Drainage of main steam pipes and reheat steam pipes The turbines main steam pipes are arranged in the form of 2-1-2, the main steam pipes pass through the B wall, enter into the steam turbine workshop and form tee-junction at the elevation of 11m, a drainage point is set at the main steam pipelines lowest point before the tee-junction. After the tee-junction a drainage point is set at the left and right steam pipeline separately, each drainage pipe has a pneumatic drainage valve and a manual valve, which are used to discharge the condensed water in the main steam pipeline before the main steam valves. The reheat steam pipeline arranged as same as the main steam pipeline in the form of 2-1-2, there are drainage points set at the left and right reheat steam pipeline after the tee-junction, with drainage pockets, each drainage pipeline has a pneumatic drainage valve and a manual valve. In addition, a drainage point set at the pipeline before the high-pressure bypass compression release valve, and a drainage point set before each low-pressure bypass compression release valve, each drainage pipe has a pneumatic drainage valve and a manual valve. A warming-pipe pipeline connect to reheat hot leg before the high-pressure bypass compression release valve, and a warming-pipe pipeline connect to four stage steam extraction pipeline before the low-pressure bypass compression release valve; so that hot reserve at bypass system pipelines and

Operation and Training Material Steam Turbine Manual

Steam Turbine Proper

valves, and ensure bypass system may launch at any time. There is a high-pressure cylinder steam discharging and ventilation valve at the high-output pipe, it opens when the intermediate pressure cylinder start up, it can reduce the heat generated by the friction of blast and prevent the exhaust temperature of high-pressure cylinder getting too high. A drainage point is set at the lowest point of high-pressure cylinders main exhaust pipeline before the high-output check valve, and two other drainage points are set at the lowest point of pipeline after the high-output check valve, each of these three drainage points has a drainage pocket, is equipped with liquid level switches, the drainage valves are turned on when the liquid level is high. Quantities of the valves are shown in Table 4-1. Table 4-1 Quantities of the Main and Reheat Steam Pipelines Drainage Valves

Name valves

of

the

drainage

Quantity 2

Name drainage

of

Qu antity 2

Remark

Drainage of main steam before the tee-junction

Drainage before left low-pressure bypass compression release valve Drainage before the right low-pressure bypass compression release valve Drainage the low-pressure bypass compression release valve after left

Drainage of main steam at the left after the tee-junction

Drainage of main steam at the right after the tee-junction

Drainage of reheat steam at the right after the tee-junction

Drainage after the right low-pressure bypass compression release valve Drainage before high-output check valve Drainage high-output valve 1 Drainage high-output valve 2 after check after check

Drainage of reheat steam at the left after the tee-junction Drainage before high-pressure bypass compression release valve Drainage after high-pressure bypass compression release valve

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4.2.2 Drainage of the cylinder block There are drainage valves set at the upper and lower valve seats of high-pressure steam turbines main steam valves, and there are drainage valves set at the upper and lower valve seats of medium-combined-valve; all of them are pneumatic control valves. At the lower part of the four high-pressure steam conduits there are drainages and the four drainage pipes are gathered together using a same main drainage pipe. A dump valve is set at the No.2 steam seal stage which is in the middle of the high-intermediate pressure rotor, after the unit tripping it open and drain steam automatically to prevent the turbine speeding. All of these drainage valves are program controlled and are able to operate manually from remote; all of them open automatically when losing the compressed air source. Figure 4-1 is the sketch of the drainage and discharge system of the main unit.
1 CRV 1

TE

1 MSV 1

2 GV MSV 2 GV1GV2GV3GV4 1A 1B

(BDV) 1A 1B

2 CRV 2
TE TE TE TE TE

(VV)

TE

Fig. 4-1 the Drainage and Discharge System of the Main Unit Table 4-2 Quantities of the Main Units Drainage and Discharge Valves Name of the drainage valve Upper drainage of No.1 main steam valve seat Drainage of high-pressure steam conduit Drainage of No.2 medium-combined-valve Quantity 2 1 1 Name of the drainage valve Lower drainage of No.2 main steam valve seat Drainage of No.1 medium-combined-valve dump valve Quantity 2 1 1 Remark

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4.2.3 Drainage of steam extraction pipeline There are 8 steam extraction stages in this turbine, the No.7 and No.8 LP heaters are arranged at the throat of the condenser, with out steam extraction check valve and isolating valve; the No.1, No.2, and No.3 stage extract steam and supply to three HP heaters; the No.4 stage extract steam and supply to the deaerator, small turbine, auxiliary steam. In addition, the extracted steam by No.2 stage is as the standby gas source of the auxiliary steam and the small turbine. In order to prevent the turbine speeding and water influent, there are pneumatic check valves and electrical insolating valves at the extraction pipeline from stage No.1 to No.6, and several drainage valves are set at each stage of steam extraction pipe. The pneumatic drainage valves on the steam extraction pipe can be controlled by program or can be controlled manual. The name and quantity of the drainage valves are shown in Table 4-3. Table 4-3 the Name and Quantity of the Drainage Valves the name of the drainage valve Drainage before the steam extraction check valve of stage No.1 Drainage after the steam extraction check valve of stage No.1 Drainage after the steam extraction electrical valve of stage No.1 Drainage before the steam extraction check valve of stage No.2 Drainage after the steam extraction electrical valve of stage No.2 Drainage before the steam extraction check valve of stage No.3 Drainage after the steam extraction check valve of stage No.3 Drainage after the steam extraction electrical valve of stage No.3 Drainage after the steam extraction electrical valve of stage No.6 Quantity 2 the name of the drainage valve Drainage before the steam extraction check valve 1 of stage No.4 Drainage after the steam extraction check valve 2 of stage No.4 Drainage before and after the steam extraction electrical valve of stage No.4 Drainage before the steam extraction check valve of stage No.5 Drainage after the steam extraction check valve of stage No.5 Drainage after the steam extraction electrical valve of stage No.5 Drainage before the steam extraction check valve of stage No.6 Drainage after the steam extraction check valve of stage No.6 Quantity 1 Remark

4.2.4 Drainage of shaft gland system

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There is a manual drainage valve at the shaft gland steam inlets main pipe, and there is a manual drainage valve at the high-pressure shaft glands steam supply main pipe, the pipeline from them to pressure main drainage pipe is used as shaft gland systems warming pipe. At each of the high-pressure cylinders gland sealing steam supply pipe there is a filter, each filter has two manual drain valves which are normally closed. There are two manual drainage valves at the low-pressure gland sealing main steam supply pipe, and there are filters on both sides too, each filter has two drain valves which are normally closed, these drainage valves needs the warming pipes turn on when putting in shaft gland. The No.1 stages steam leakage of two high-pressure main steam valve stem connect to the gland sealing main steam supply pipe, steam leakage of No.2 connect to gland sealing main back steam pipe. The steam leakage of four main steam control valves No.1 stage stem connect to the main pipe of reheat cold leg, which has a check valve; the steam leakage of No.2 stage stem connect to main shaft back steam pipe. The steam leakage of medium-combined-valve stem connect to main gland sealing steam supply pipe, each has a check valve. The dump valve stem and high-pressure cylinder ventilation valve stem No.1 stages steam leakage connect to pipes of reheat cold leg, the No.2 stages steam leakage connect to main gland sealing steam supply pipe. 4.2.5 Main-body drain flash tank The function of main-body drain flash tank is to receive the drainage from steam turbine units main-body, the main steam, the reheat steam, the steam extraction system, the HP heater accident drainage, the LP heater normal and accident drainage, the small turbine, the auxiliary steam, deaerator overflow, and etc. After flashing, decompression and cooling these drainages will be recycled. During operation, pay attention to main-body drain flash tank, it can not be over-temperature or vibration, so as not to generate flaw, which will affect the vacuum of main unit and the operation of unit. Since the pressure and the temperature of drainages are very different, they should be classified according to the pressure; drainages have the similar pressure are connected to the same collecting pipe, this is for avoiding interference between different pressure drainages, which will cause accident and increase of stress. Each unit of our company has two main-body drain flash tanks, which are at the side of high-back-pressure and low-back-pressure condenser, and each tank equipped with water injection sets, water injection control valves, exhaust pipes, drainage pipes and etc., the exhaust steam connect to the throat of condenser, and the drainage connect to hot well and should be above its highest water level, the water injection come from condensed water. 4.3 Operation mode of drainage and water discharge system 4.3.1 Operation of main-body drainage Steam turbines main-body drainage is composed of high-pressure drainage, intermediate pressure drainage, and low-pressure drainage, they are automatically controlled by DEH. Before the unit starting up, all the drainage valves should be opened; when the load of unit reaches 10% of its rated load, the high-pressure stage drainage valves close automatically; when reaches 20% of its rated load, the intermediate pressure stage drainage valve close automatically; when reaches 30% of its rated load, the low-pressure stage drainage valve close automatically. During the unit shutting down, when the load of unit drop to rated loads 30%, 20%, 10%, the drainage valves of high-pressure stage, intermediate pressure stage and low-pressure stage close automatically one by one. When the automatic control of units drainage valves fail to function, manual control should be taken in time. When the unit is on thermal state shutdown, after making sure the drainage of cylinder is exhausted, the main-body drainage valves should be closed and then hold on cylinder, this is for avoiding the big temperature difference between upper and lower cylinder cause friction at the Dynamic-Static parts. If grave accident happens and the vacuum is broken, emergency shutdown carries out, the high-pressure drainage valves are banned to be open, in order to avoid damage to equipment. Both the reheat steam pipe drainage and the main-body drainage should be turn on before starting up and drain fully, avoiding water flow into the steam turbine, and before starting up make sure the drainage valves work normal. 4.3.2 Operation of auxiliary system drainage

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The drainage of auxiliary system such as the small turbine drainage system, auxiliary steam drainage system, deaerator heat system, shaft gland drainage and water discharge system should be all turn on, discharge water and warm up the pipe fully before the correspond system starting up, this is for avoiding steam impact, which will pose pipes vibration and other accident. After warming the pipes up, the drainage valves should be closed in time. Obey the operation regulations and safety regulations strictly while operating. Pay attention that before the unit is vacuumed, inject steam and hot-water into condenser is forbidden, for avoiding the overheating do damage to condenser. 4.3.3 Water induction preventing of steam turbine The water induction prevent protection system is set to avoid accidents such as water impact, large temperature difference between upper and lower cylinder and shaft bending, which is caused by water inflow while the unit is operating or shut down. The drainage system designed by our company conform to standard ASME TDP-1, there are drainage pockets set at most steam pipes drain ports, each drainage pocket has two water level switches, which are used to interlock drainage valves automatically and give an alarm in the master control room. Thermocouples are set at the reheat cold leg and the upper and lower side of the pipes before each stages steam extraction check valves, this is used to survey the temperature difference of the upper and lower pipelines and send alarm if there is water accumulated in the pipes, so that the operator can find out as soon as possible and take timely measures. Turbines steam extraction pipeline system and heaters have independent automatic water prevent protection measure, including the automatic drainage system of heaters shell, the automatic shut-off valves and steam extraction check valves at the steam extraction pipeline between steam turbine and heater, the shut-off valves at the water side of each heater, and so on. When the unit tripped or the water level of any heater reached the dangerous value, the correspondent shut-off valves will automatically shut down to insure the unit wont flow into any water or over speed.

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Chapter V Steam Extraction and Heat Regenerating System of Seam Turbine 5.1 Overview In thermodynamic steam cycle, usually extract part of the steam from a few medium-stages of the turbine and deliver it to the feed water heater; the steam is used for heating feed water of the boiler (i.e. steam extraction and heat regenerating system) as well as use for a variety of auxiliary steam such as water feed pump turbine steam. Our companys thermal system of principle is shown in Figure 5-1.

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Fig. 5-1 Thermal System of Principle 5.1.1 Function of steam extraction and heat regenerating system The steam extraction and heat regenerating system is the fundamental part of thermal system of principle, the purpose for using extraction steam to heat the boiler feed water is to reduce the loss of cold resource. A certain amount of extraction steam do not release heat to the cooling water in condenser after doing work, not only avoid the quantity of heat took away by circulating cooling water, make the best of steam heat, and decrease the heat consumption rate; but also, at the same time, use the steam which has done work in the turbine to heat the feed

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water, increase the temperature of feed water, decrease the heat transfer temperature difference of the boilers heating surface, consequently reduce the irreversible loss during the process of heating feed water and reduce the absorbed heat in the boiler accordingly. Sum up the reasons described above; steam extraction and heat regenerating system improves the circulating thermal efficiency of unit, so that the normal operation of the steam extraction and heat regenerating system has a decisive impact on the improvement of the unit's thermal economy. 5.1.2 Main parameters that influence the steam extraction and heat regenerating systems economy The main parameters that influence the feed water regenerative heating thermal economy are the regenerative heating distribution, relevant best feed water temperature and regeneration stages, these three are tight connected, and mutual influenced. While solving the calculation of the optimum regeneration distribution, using the maximum cycle efficiency value of stage Z ideal heat regeneration circulation to get its optimum heat regeneration distribution, (the ideal regenerative cycle is assumed to be hybrid heater, its terminal temperature difference is zero, the new steam, pressure loss of extraction steam and pump power are excluded, the heat losses are neglected) after getting the general equation of the ideal heat regenerative circulations optimum distribution, ignore some of the secondary factors based on the need and simplify the equation further, the other approximative optimum general equation of heat regenerative distribution can be obtained. We can see that, abide by the principle of making the maximum of cycle thermal efficiency under the condition of certain feed water temperature and certain stages, the steam extraction heat regenerative parameters corresponding to their stages are the optimum ones that distribute the total heat of feed water heat regenerative to each stage. 5.1.3 Improving measures of system cycle thermal efficiency What temperature should the feed water be heated to, can the cycle thermal efficiency achieve the highest value? Take the single-stage steam extraction heat regeneration for example, during regeneration, the feed waters temperature gradually increase from saturation temperature of turbine exhaust-steam pressure, the thermal efficiency increase gradually also, when the thermal efficiency reaches the maximum the feed water heat temperature is called the optimum feed water temperature. Further increase in feed water temperature will decrease the thermal efficiency on the contrary, thus the thermal economy will descend, this is because after the feed water heat temperature raising, the corresponding extraction steam pressure increase too, for this part of extraction steam, the amount of heat that each kilogram steam convert into work in the turbine decrease, if the generated energy is fixed, more new steam will need to send into turbine to compensate the reduction of generated energy caused by steam extraction. The higher the extraction steam pressure is, the more new steam is needed; thus the greater the steam consumption rate is, accordingly the greater the quantity of heat transfers to low-temperature heat source. Although the value of boilers heating quantity decrease ceaselessly, but the steam consumption rate increases faster, thus the heat consumption rate increases correspondingly, and makes the cycle thermal efficiency fall. In theory, the more heating stages are, the higher the optimum feed water temperature is. In practice, feed water temperature is not heated to the optimum feed water temperature, because the technical economic should be taken into full consideration. On the one hand, the increase of feed water temperature makes the exhaust gas temperature raise and the boiler efficiency fall; otherwise the heating surface of the boilers rear need to be broaden, that will magnify the investment of the boiler. On the other hand, the evaporation of boiler and the flow of turbines high-pressure side increase correspondingly because of the heat regeneration, as the flow of turbines low-pressure side and flow of condensed steam decrease correspondingly, therefore the investment, depreciation cost and house supply of boiler, steam turbine and other ancillary system are affected to a different extent. The optimum feed water temperature determined through the comparison of technical economic is called the economic optimum feed water temperature. In theory, the more the feed water heat regeneration stages are, the more the process of steam turbines thermal cycle is close to Carnot cycle, hence the higher the efficiency of steam heat cycle is; but increase the heat stages, will slow down the thermal efficiencys growth gradually; relative benefit obtained is little, the operation also become more complex; at the same time, the amount of heat regenerative extraction steams stage is constrained by investment and field, thereby it is not possible to set up too much stages. In practical, normally there are 7 to 8 heating stages in 600MW unit. 5.1.4 Requirements of heaters performance The requirements of heaters performance, can be concluded as lessening the temperature difference between

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saturation-steam which enters into the heater and feed water which comes out of heater; the temperature difference is called the heater terminal temperature difference. In order to achieve this goal, two approaches are mainly taken. One is using mixed type heater, the steam extracted from turbine directly mix with feed water which flow into the heater inside the heater; the steam condenses into water, releases its latent heat of vaporization into water, their pressure and temperature are the same and the terminal temperature difference is zero; but this method needs to set water pump to provide pressure to the feed water, make it has the same pressure as the extraction steam in corresponding stages, this will consume a certain amount of energy. The deaerator is a kind of mixed type heater. Another way is using surface type heater, necessary structural measures should be taken to improve the effect of the heater. 5.1.5 Composing of thermal system of principle Our companys thermal system of principle mainly constitutes by the following local thermodynamic system: the main and reheat steam pipelines which connect the boiler to the steam turbine, the steam extraction heat regeneration system, the main water condensate system, the connection system of deaerator and feed water pump, supplying water system, and etc. For the steam extraction heat regeneration system, customarily take the deaerator as dividing line, the input and output system within the scope of deaerator is called deaerator system; the feed water heat system which is from the deaerator to the boiler economizer is called high-pressure heat regenerative heating system; the water condensate system from output of condenser to the deaerator is called the low-pressure heat regenerative heating system. 5.2 Composing of steam extraction system This steam turbine unit set a total of eight non-regulated extraction stages, separately provide steam to three HP heaters, one deaerator and four LP heaters. Except the No.7 and No.8 steam extraction stages, the other steam extraction pipelines install pneumatic check valves and electric stop valves, the former is as the first-grade protection which prevent turbine over speeding, simultaneously it is as the auxiliary protection measures that prevent water flow into the steam turbine; the latter is the isolation measures preventing water flow into the steam turbine. Because the No.4 extraction stage is connected to auxiliary steam header, deaerator and feed water pump turbine and so on, there are too many users of it and the volume of pipeline is large, so two check valves are set at the pipeline. To each of No.4 steam extraction stages user, a pneumatic check valve and an electric stop valve are set at its pipeline. After releasing heat in the surface type heater, the extraction steam forms drainage, which flow automatically from one stage to the next. In order to prevent the spreading of accidents caused by heater malfunction, each heater has its protection system. The basic function of it is to prevent accidents caused by heater, such as water flow into steam turbine, the heater blast, and the boiler is out of water; it has functions of anomalous water-level protection, overpressure protection and feed water bypass linkage operation. The heater protection generally has the following devices: water-level gauge, dump valve, feed water automatic bypass, steam extraction electric check valve, steam extraction check valve closing linkage device, steam side and water side security door, etc. For the No.7 and N.8 LP heater, flash vaporization preventing baffle is set at inlet of the steam. 5.2.1 HP heater In order to reduce the terminal temperature difference and improve the surface type heaters thermal economy, the modern large-scale units HP heater and a few of LP heater adopt integration type surface heater. This kind of heater is composed of the following three parts: Overheat steam cooling stage When the temperature of extraction steam is a little bit high, it will cause the regenerative heaters heat exchange temperature difference increases, the irreversible heat exchange loss will accordingly increases, so overheat steam cooling stages are set in HP heaters and a few of LP heaters; only take use of the extraction steams superheat, after the superheat of it is down, lead it to the condensing stage, so as to reduce the total irreversible heat exchange loss. In that cooling stage, the heat steam is not allowed to cool into saturation temperature, because when it is cooled into that temperature, water film will form outside the pipes, cause that

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heat stages steam superheat vanish because of the water films adsorption; and the superheat is not used by the feed water, therefore steam in this stage maintains surplus superheat. In that stage, the outlet temperature of the heated water is close to, or a little bit lower than the saturation temperature of extraction steam pressure. Condensing stage Heated steam condenses and releases heat in this stage, the condensed waters temperature at the outlet is the saturation temperature of heated steam pressure, therefore the outlet temperature of the heated water is lower than this saturation temperature. Drainage cooling stage This cooling stage is set to cool the drainage from condensing stage further, rise the heated waters temperature before it flows into condensing stage; as a result, in on hand the amount of extraction steam in this stage decrease, on the other hand because the temperature of drainage water that flows into next stage fall, consequently it reduce the crowding out effect to the next stages extraction steam from this stage, hence the systems thermal economy is improved. The basic condition to achieve the purpose of cooling the drainage is the water that is to be cooled should be steeped in the heater surface, this is a water-water heat exchanger, that heat stages outlet drainage temperature is lower than the saturation temperature of heat steam pressure. Two or all of the three stages talked above should be contained in one heater. Generally believed that when the superheat of steam is over 50 to 70, it would be more favorable to use the superheat steam cooling stage, thus very few LP heater use superheat steam cooling stage. The heater that only uses condensing stage and drainage cooling stage has a large terminal temperature difference. Our company chooses the type JG-2100-1, JG-2050-2 and JG-1600-3 HP heater provided by Dong Fang Boiler Co., Ltd. The heater is horizontal, surface condensation, U-shaped heat exchanger; and the three HP heaters adopt large-bypass configuration. The basic structure of HP heater is shown in Figure 5-2. U-shaped tube bundle which is composed of steel pipes is placed inside the cylindrical heaters shell, and is fixed by specialized skeleton. The tube connects to the tube sheet by expanding. The heated water passes through connecting pipe flows into a side of the water chamber, passes U-shaped tube bundle, and then flows out from the pipe orifice of the water chambers other side. Heated steam enters into the steam side of heater from the pipe orifice at the upper part of the shell. Take advantage of the air deflector, the steam flows, twists and turns, contacts with the outer wall of the pipe, condenses and releases heat to the feed water in the pipes. In order to prevent steam scour and damage the tube bundle when it enters the heater, buffer plate is set up at its inlet. The condensed water (drainage) of heated-steam which is pooled at the bottom of the heater should be drained in time by steam trap.

1 2 3 4

7 8

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9 10 11 12 13 16 17 18

14

15

1. Feed water inlet 2. manhole 3.feed water outlet 4.water chambers split flow plate 5.water chamber 6.tube sheet 7.steam inlet 8.buffer plate 9.overheat steam cooling stage 10.condense stage 11.tube bundle 12.drainage cooling stage 13.normal drainage 14.support 15.high-stage drainage inlet 16.drainage cooling stages seals 17.support plate of tube 18.emergency drain Fig. 5-2 Structure of HP Heater Three HP heaters all equipped with drainage cooling stage, condense stage, steam cooling stage. In the high-pressure feed water heater the water cubage is appropriate, which is used to control the water-level of drainage, and make sure the drainage cooling stages tube bundle all immerge in the drainage under all kind of operation conditions. At the same time, while control the amount of drainage properly, make the exposure of the surface area of the accumulated water in the heater is minimum, in case during load rejection of the turbine, the drainage back flow into turbine after expanding. During the units startup or continuous operation, vent connection and inner baffle are set in the heater to wipe off the non-condense steam gathered in the steam dead-zone, the air displacement is designed as 0.5% of the amount of steam that flows into the heater, and the caliber should be big enough to satisfy the exhaust requirement. Vent connections used in startup and continuous operation are disposed separately. There are pressure relief valves at both the steam side and the water side of HP heater; the minimum exhaust volume of the steam sides pressure relief valves is 10% of the feed water flow rate under TMCR condition. Table 5-2 Main Technical Specifications of HP Heater Heater Number 1 Heater type 2 Heater amount HP-heater systems form of bypass (large/small bypass) turbines valve widely open(VWO) condition Feed water 1 Flow 2 Inlet pressure 3 Inlet temperature 4 Inlet enthalpy t/h MPa(a) kJ/kg 2028 / 250.5 1088.5 2028 / 219.3 946.1 2028 / 185.2 795.6 Unit of measurement HP-heater No.1 HP-heater HP-heater No.2 No.3

Horizontal, U-shaped tube 1 Small bypass 1 1

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5 Outlet temperature 6 Outlet enthalpy 7 Maximum permitted pressure drop 8 Maximum permitted flow velocity 9 Design pressure (interim) 10 Design temperature 11 Test pressure Extraction steam 12 Flow rate 13 Inlet pressure 14 Inlet temperature 15 Inlet enthalpy 16 Maximum permitted pressure drop 17 Designed pressure 18 Design temperature 19 Test pressure Drainage enters into the heater 20 Drainage source

kJ/kg MPa m/s MPa(g) MPa(g)

282.3 1242.6 0.1 3 28 310

250.5 1088.6 0.1 3 28 280

219.3 946.1 0.1 3 28 250

According to ASME chapter -

t/h MPa(a) kJkg MPa MPa(g) MPa(g)

152.166 6.672 400.6 3169.2 0.07 7.3 415/290

127.47 4.133 335.1 3053.8 0.07 4.65 355/260

101.295 2.36 469.6 3396.2 0.07 2.5 485/230

According to ASME chapter -

HP-heater No.1

HP-heater No.2 279.634 224.9 966.3

21 Flow rate 22 Temperature 23 Enthalpy

t/h kJ/kg

/ / /

152.164 256.1 1115.4

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Drainage discharged from the heater 24 Flow rate 25 Temperature 26 Enthalpy 27 Terminal difference of drainage t/h KJ/kg temperature 152.164 256.1 1115.4 5.6 279.634 224.9 966.3 5.6 380.93 190.8 811 5.6

turbine maximum continuous rating Feed water 1 Flow rate 2 Inlet pressure 3 Inlet temperature 4 Inlet enthalpy 5 Outlet temperature 6 Outlet enthalpy Extraction steam t/h

(T-MCR) condition

1876 / 246.3 1068.9 277.2 1217.5

1876 / 215.7 929.9 246.3 1068.9

1876 / 182.1 782.3 215.7 929.9

MPa kJ/kg kJ/kg

7 Flow rate 8 Inlet pressure 9 Inlet temperature 10 Inlet enthalpy Drainage enters into the heater 11 Source of the drainage

t/h MPa kJ/kg

135.3 6.183 391.7 3155.2

115.215 3.849 327.7 3042.1

91.82 2.2 469.9 3398.9

HP-heater HP-heater No.1 No.2

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12 Flow rate 13 Temperature 14 Enthalpy Drainage discharged from the heater 15 Flow rate 16 Temperature 17 Enthalpy

t/h kJ/kg

/ / /

135.3 251.9 1094.8

250.516 221.3 949.4

t/h KJ/kg

135.3 251.9 1094.8

250.516 221.3 949.4

342.345 187.7 797.4

5.2.2 LP heater The No.5 to No.8 LP heaters adopt the horizontal tube shell, surface-type U-shaped heater which is produced by DONGFANG Steam Turbine Works; and the tube is made of stainless steel. The basic structure of LP heater is same as the HP heater, the main difference is that it doesnt have superheat steam cooling stage, only has condense stage and drainage cooling stage. Because the pressure of it is lower, so the structure of it is simpler than the HP heater, the thickness of tube sheet and the shell is thin. All of the tubes are made of stainless steal, and stainless steal buffer plates are set at all of the heaters drainage and steam inlets. The structure of LP heater is shown in Figure 5-3. The No.7A and No.8A LP heaters merger to a shell-share heater installed at the neck of the high-pressure condenser, the No.7B and No.8B LP heaters merger to a shell-share heater installed at the neck of the low-pressure condenser. This LP heater is made up of shell, piping, and water chamber etc., in the shell of it a vertical large barricade is set to divide the LP heater into two chambers which are separate from each other; the No.7A/B and No.8A/B LP heaters piping are installed in this two chambers separately. Each piping is separately supported by the support plate. The steam is lead to flow along the piping, the drainage cooling stage in each piping is sealed by cladding, so as to ensure the drainage flow smoothly. Condensed water flows into piping through water chamber inlet of the No.8 LP heater, after being heated in the piping, it flows into the outlet water chamber; after turning around in the water chamber, it flows into the piping of the No.7 LP heater, after being heated in there, again it flows into the water chamber, and finally flows out from water side outlet into the next higher LP heater stage. Figure 5-4 is the side view of the No.7 and No.8 shell-share heater.

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1. 2. 3. 4..5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 11..12. 13. 14. 15.

10.

1.condensed water inlet 2.manhole 3.feed water outlet 4.emergency drain 5.water chamber 6.tube sheet 7.steam inlet 8.buffer plate 9.condense stage 10.tube bundle 11.high-stage drainage inlet 12.support plate of tube 13.drainage stage 14.drainage cooling stages seals 15.drainage outlet Fig. 5-3 the Structure of the LP Heater

1.8 2.8 3. 4.8 5.8 6.8 7.8 8.7 9.7 10.7 11. 12.7 13.7 14.7 15. 1.No.8 LP heater 2.No.8 LP heaters drainage outlet 3.condensed water inlet 4.No.8 LP heaters extraction steam outlet 5.No.8 LP heaters steam inlet 6.No.8 LP heaters steam side air relief 7.No.8 LP heaters steam side water relief 8.No.7 LP heater 9.No.7 LP heaters drainage outlet 10.No.7 LP heaters extraction steam outlet 11.condensed water outlet 12.No.7 LP heaters steam inlet 13.No.7 LP heaters steam side air relief 14.No.7 LP

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heaters steam side water relief 15.intermediate diaphragm Fig. 5-4 the Side View of the No.7 and No.8 Shell-share Heater

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Fig. 5-5 LP Heaters system Diagram To set the shell-share heater at the neck of the condenser is because the extraction steam of these two stages has a large flow rate and the pressure of it is low, and the specific volume of the steam is high. If arrange the heater outside the condenser, huge steam extraction pipes are needed, this is difficult for the pipeline arrangement, the thermal insulation layers layout, and the installation; on contrary, set it at the neck of the condenser is good for space-saving and pipeline arrangement. And consider the reasons above and the steams low-pressure, there arent any check valves or stop valves at the steam extraction outlet of these two stages, in order to prevent the steam flowing back into the turbine, flash vaporization preventing baffle is set at the heaters steam inlet, it can avoid too much steam flowing back into the steam turbine when the turbine trips. The condensed-water-bypass uses a combination of large and small bypass: the No.5 and the No.6 LP heaters which can be split to run separately use small bypass, LP heater coalition (No.7A and No.8A) and LP heater coalition (No.7B and No.8B) share a large bypass, the No.7A and No.8A LP heater coalition or the No.7B and No.8B LP heater coalition can be split to run separately. The normal drainage of LP heater flows automatically from one stage to the next, That is, drainage from the No.5 LP heater flows into the No.6 LP heater, and then into the No.7 LP heater, finally flows through the No.8 LP heater enters the condenser. Each LP heater has emergency drain pipeline, so that the drainage could enters the condenser directly at the accident conditions or low-load conditions. Figure 5-5 shows the LP heater system. 5.2.3 Gland heater Gland heater is used in shaft gland system of steam turbine, its main role is to cool the steam-gas mixture by condensed water, so that a vacuum form and maintain inside the shaft gland heaters steam side chamber, preventing the steam leakage from the shaft seal end. The mixture is extracted from each stages shaft gland, highand intermediate pressure main steam control valves stem. The refrigerant that is the condensed water from steam in the mixture can be recycled. The turbines thermal system economy is improved by transferring the heat of steam-gas mixture to condensed water. At the same time, the temperature of the mixture reduces to the allowable temperature for the long-term operation of the gland steam condenser extraction fan. During the normal operation of shaft gland heater, after 100% of the condensed water flowing into the water chamber of shaft gland heater, a part of it flows back to the water chambers water outlet through U-shaped tube as cooling water, the rest of the condensed water directly flows into the outlet chamber from inlet chamber through internal bypass valve, the two streams of condensed water flow out the heater after joining into one. After flowing into the shell of shaft gland heaters steam side, the steam-gas mixture flows circuitously outside the heat exchanger tube (U-tube), and exchanges heat with cooling water through heat exchanger tube, make the temperature of condensed water rise; and the majority of steam in the steam-gas mixture condenses into water and drain into condenser through drainage outlet pipe and water seal pipe, the non-condensing gas and a small amount of steam are extracted and ejected into the atmosphere by gland steam condenser extraction fan. During the operation of shaft gland heater, the water-level of water-level indicator must be monitored, the heat transfer will deteriorate as the water-level of condensed water in the steam seal heater raise and begin to submerge the heat exchanger tube; at this time, the emergency drain valve should be opened. Besides, the amount of cooling water can not be under 400t/h; otherwise it will be hard to maintain the vacuum level that is needed. 5.3 Operation and maintenance of system The extraction and heat regenerating system is normally operating or not, has a great influence on the power plants safety, rate of loading, and economy. Must manage strictly in practical operation, the correct operation and maintenance methods play an important role in ensuring the system operate normally. Chapter 10 will give a particular introduction of the operation and maintenance of deaerator, we only mentioned the operation and maintenance of high- and low-pressure heater in this section. 5.3.1 Startup Before starting up HP heater and LP heater, heaters water-level protection should be turned on, drain out the

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water accumulated in the heater, the drainage valves at the extraction steam pipes are turned on. When start up, start on the water side first, and then on the steam side. LP heaters steam side typically starts up with the unit, when the load of unit reaches 30% of rated load; start up HP heater steam side in order of 3, 2, and 1. At the initial time of startup, should warm the heater in advance and control the temperature rising rate of outlet water. If the LP heaters couldnt start up with the unit and have to start up one after another when the unit achieves a certain load for some reasons, they should be start up one by one from the lower to higher, and the extraction steam pipe should be drained and warmed in advance. When the heater run into operation, infuse water into the water side first, when the feed water slowly filled the heater, turn off all the air relieves and start/exhaust valves, and then inject steam slowly; meanwhile, open the continuous exhaust valves, check the quality of the drainage, when it is qualified it can be flow back to condenser (deaerator). It should be noted that, when the heaters just start up, the parameters are low, the system resistance to drainage (including the resistance of drainage cooling stage, the pressure difference between the heaters upper and lower stages, the resistance of pipeline, etc.) can not be overcome, if open the normal drainage valves at this time the drainage from one stage to the next is hard, therefore when the unit is running at low load the emergency valves should be open to drain, in order to ensure the drainage flow smoothly. The basic operation process of heater commissioning: 1).The checkup and operations needed to be done before startup are performed. 2). Turn off the heaters water side water relief, turn on all the steam extraction valves of water side. 3). Run the heaters water-level protection (drainage valves turn on into automatic running), open the water side inlet valve slowly and infuse water into the heater. The purpose of water injection is for one thing to exhaust all of the air in the water chamber, for another to heat the heater slowly to the water temperature. The speed of water injection depends on the temperature of water and the heating rate limited (3/min). Because the water that flows into LP heater comes from the low-temperature water in condenser pump, so that it can be infused into the LP heater water side directly when start up, but still need to be slowly, in order to avoid large impact which damage the heat exchange pipe. 4). When water drained from water side exhaust valve continuously, it can be considered that the air in the heaters water side has been exhausted, close the exhaust valve of the water side, fully open the feed water inlet valve. After the pressure increased and stabilized, observe the water-level of steam side has rose or not, to determine if there is a leakage between the water side and the steam side. 5). Examine the extraction check valve is in its free state, ensure the heater is ready to run. Open the electrical extraction valve slightly, steam flow into the pipes and heaters gradually, extraction check valve automatically opens, then warm the pipe and drain it fully; gradually open the electrical extraction valve, paying attention that the temperature rising rate of feed water outlet should within the limits. After startup, in order to prevent the corrosion of the U-tube and to ensure the heat transfer effect of heaters, the continuous exhaust valve of steam side should be opened, and eject the non-condensing gas continually. 6). When the water-level of heater raise, the normal drainage valves and emergency drainage valves of heater should be in working order. 5.3.2 Operation During normal operation, the operator should examine the seal condition of the manhole flange and pipe flange, the appearance of equipment, and the valves at any time; if there is any phenomenon of leakage, deformation, abnormal sound, and etc., immediate steps should be taken, or the unit should be examined and repaired immediately. At the same time, the parameters of heaters and deaerator system should be monitored, such as the water-level of deaerator, the temperature and pressure of working water are normal or not; and the heaters water level, temperature and flow rate of water that is flowing in and out, the steam pressure, terminal temperature difference, the automatic control of drainage valves are normal or not. By comparing these parameters with the operation conditions at the same load, to determine whether there is a leakage or other defects at the internal pipe bundle of the heaters. Detect the problems early and deal with them immediately. The heaters water-level should be maintained at the normal water-level, when the units operating conditions change, the pressure and flow rate of extraction steam will change with it, the heaters water-level will rises or descends, both too high or too low are not good to normal operation. If the heaters water-level is too low, the

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suction of drainage cooling stage will be exposed, steam will flow into that stage, and this will destroy the siphonage of that stage, result in the drainage terminal temperature difference changing and steam heat losing. Furthermore the steam would impact the U-shaped tube bundle in that cooling stage, cause vibration. If the heaters water-level is too high, some of the tubes will be immersed in the water, thus reduce the heat transfer area, lead the heater to performance degradation; Secondly, when the heater is running at high water-level, once there is any misoperation or havent deal with it timely, water impact to the steam pipeline would occur, or even water flows into the turbine. The regulation of water-level is carried out by normal drainage valves and emergency drainage valves. Figure 5-8 is the working condition balance plan of unit THA produced by our company. Table 5-5 shows the water-level interlock, alarm settings of heaters produced by our company. When one of the heaters the water-level rises to high level, alarm in the control room. When the water-level rises to high-high level, alarm and open the heaters emergency drainage valves. When it rises to high- water-level, the high- water-level switch is on, automatically close the electrical isolating valves and pneumatic check valves at the steam extraction pipeline, and the water side bypass (as for HP heaters, when any one of them appears high- water-level, automatically turn off the electrical isolating valves and pneumatic check valves at the stage 1 to 3 steam extraction pipeline, large bypass take into action, all HP heaters are split.) At the same time, open the pneumatic drainage valves at the pipelines, and then open the manual check valve between the isolating valve and the check valve, to drain the water pooled in the steam extraction pipeline. During operation, the extraction check valves activity test and the related interlock protection test of the heater and deaerator should be regularly carried out, to examine whether the interlock is working well or not. 5.3.3 Shutdown Under normal circumstances, when the load of unit drop to 30% of the rated load, the HP heaters can be shut down in the order of No.1, 2, and3; all the LP heaters may shut down with the unit at sliding parameters. If for some reasons, the LP heaters can not be shut down with the unit, they should shut down from higher to lower orderly. During shutdown the steam side should be stopped first, and then the water side. During normal process of shutdown, when the load of steam turbine is under 30%, the pneumatic drainage valves before the No.5 and No.6 stages extraction check valves open automatically; when the load is under 20%, the pneumatic drainage valves before the No.3 and No.4 stages extraction check valves open automatically; when the load is under 10%, the pneumatic drainage valves before the No.1 and No.2 stages extraction check valves open automatically; When the turbine tripped, interlock all of the extraction check valves and electric extraction valves at the extraction pipelines (including the electric extraction valves at the branch pipes of the No.4 stages extraction pipeline), and open the pneumatic drainage valves at the pipelines automatically.

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Chapter VI Unit Bypass System 6.1 Introduction Large-scale middle reheating units are all arranged in terms of modular system. For the ease of starting up and shutting down of a unit, its emergency disposal as well as other requirements unique to the operation; and to resolve the problem of property mismatching of the turbine with the boiler that arises in lower load operations, a bypass system is usually fixed to the unit. The bypass system is a system in which the steam generated by the boiler bypasses the turbine or the reheater, partly or completely, and discharges into the condenser through attemperating and depressurizing devices (bypass valves). 6.1.1 Functions of the bypass system 1). Shortening the starting time, improving the startup conditions, and extending the life of the steam turbine 2). Overflowing: it is to balance the steam content in the turbine and in the boiler, and to overflow the surplus steam produced in the process of instant changing of load. Due to the fact that the actual load drop rate of the boiler is lower than that of the turbine, the surplus steam can be discharged into the condenser through the bypass system, making the unit adaptable to the condition of frequent startups and shutdowns and fast load fluctuations, and limiting the thermal stress of its pressure parts within a proper scope. 3). Protecting the reheater: the newly generated steam, under the condition of turbine startup or load rejection, when it is depressurized and reduced temperature, will flow into the reheater through the bypass system to prevent the reheater from dry burning, so that it is protected. 4). Reclaiming working substance and heat and eliminating noise pollution: when the unit suddenly sheds its load (partly or completely), the bypass system will be promptly opened so as to retrieve the working substance to the condenser, change the boilers steadiness in operation, and reduce or even avoid the movements of the safety valves. 6.1.2 Types of unit bypass system 1).Two-stage bypass system in series connection It is composed of a high pressure bypass and a low pressure bypass, which is used in a wide range of areas. The advantage of this system is the capacity of the high pressure bypass takes up 30~40% of the boilers rated evaporation, which is good for the units quick startup, and in particular is better for its thermal startup. 2). Two-stage bypass system in parallel connection It is composed of a high pressure bypass and a bypass machine. The designed capacity of the high pressure bypass takes up 10~17% of the boilers rated evaporation, aimed at protecting the 67

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reheater when the unit is started; and that of the bypass machine, 20~30%, the purpose of which is to discharge into the condenser the surplus heat produced under all operation conditions (startup, electric grid load rejection, emergency, etc.), and to reduce the moving or not moving of the safety valves when the boiler is over pressurized. 3). Three-stage bypass system It is composed of a high pressure bypass, low pressure bypass and a bypass machine. The advantages of this system are that it is adaptable to the adjustments required by conditions of all kinds; highly flexible in operation; and capable of discharging large amounts of steam into the condenser when load is shedding or dropping sharply, lest the boiler is over pressurized and the safety valve is moved. But the disadvantages are that it requires a lot of devices, a complex system, a large consumption of metal, and it is difficult to set. 4). Large bypass system The new steam from the boiler, when temperature reduced and depressurized, will be discharged into the condenser after it has bypassed the high, intermediate and low pressure cylinders. The advantages of this system are that it is simple, small in investment, easy to set and operate; but the disadvantage is when the unit is starting or shedding load, there is no new steam passing through the reheater, thus it does not cool down and remains burning dry. 6.1.3 Bypass capacity options The capacity of bypass system shall meet the requirements of different modes of operation demanded by the turbine and the boiler. The modes of operation demanded by different turbines and boilers require different capacity.

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Fig. 6-1 Bypass System Diagrammatic Sketch Terms in the diagram high pressure bypass; boiler; low pressure bypass dynamo; denitrator; low pressure

steam turbine;

condenser

condensate pump;

high pressure heater; heater. 6.1.4 The bypass system herein

feed pump;

The unit of our company uses a two-stage (high and low pressure) bypass system in series connection, in which the capacity of high pressure bypass is 60%BMCR, and there equips 1 high pressure bypass valve; the capacity of low pressure bypass is 60%BMCR+attemperating water, and there equips 2 low pressure valves. Please refer to figure 6-1 to see the diagram of the system. 6.2 High pressure bypass (HPB) The high pressure bypass (HPB) system is composed of a high bypass valve, a spray adjustment, 69

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a spray isolating valve, etc. 6.2.1 Technical specification

Turbin Technical parameter Inlet pressure steam Un M Pa(a) t/h M Pa(a) t/h M Pa(a) Temperature Flow Inlet pressure steam t/h M Pa(a) Cold 6 390 240 1.3 ~200 27542 ~10 110 35 42 1.1 340 Warm 8.62 420 240 1.3 ~235 26849 ~12 110 28 49 1.1 400 Thermal 8.62 440 320 1.3 ~255 35811 ~12 110 38 11 1.1 420 extreme 12.9 510 320 1.3 ~330 35086 ~16.5 110 30 86 1.1 480 e shutdown 8.77 541 608.4 1.2 291.4 7179 ~12 110 109 5 1.19 540 358 t/h steam M Pa(a) t/h M Pa(a) t/h 138 0.6 160 15829 3.3 46 3 20 29 134 0.6 160 16037 3.3 46 3 26 37 179 0.6 160 2172 3.3 46 3 38 2 175 0.6 160 22111 3.3 46 3 46 11 95 0.6 160 471 3.3 46 3 112 7 700 0.6 160 91307 3.3 46 3 213 07 Design 17.5 541 1216.8 4.1 335 13992 22 185 182 3.7 540 48

High Inlet pressure steam flow switching Outlet valve pressure

Inlet steam temperature steam steam

Outlet steam temperature Outlet steam High pressure spray adjustment valve

Inlet steam temperature Low Inlet pressure steam flow switching Outlet valve pressure steam

Outlet steam temperature Outlet steam Low pressure spray adjustment valve 70 pressure Temperature Flow

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6.2.2 HPBV Structure The HPB valve covers the functions of attemperation and depressurization, adjustment, stoppage, etc. The newly-generated steam is directed to the inlet filter of the valve through the upper piping, and then passes through the valve from its head to its outlet filter. The steam, being contracted and expanded, is then depressurized. The attemperating water enters the valve from the nozzle at its lower part. The high pressure steam, when attempered, flows into the back valve connecting pipeline. 6.2.3 HPB control HPBV is operated by pneumatic power. When air is lost, the valve will stay closed and automatically locked. The high pressure attemperating valve (HP ATV) adjusts the temperature according to the pressure of HPB and steam temperature, and at the same time is readjusted by the low pressure bypass (LPB) opening and the main steam pressure. When HPB is not open, HP ATV is forced to close. 1). Control functions of HPB 2). When the main steam pressure reaches the maximum, open HPBV promptly to protect the boiler against over pressure. 3).Adjust the valve according to the growth rate of the main steam pressure: adjusting the HPBV when growth rate surpasses the 1st value; and adjusting the valve quickly when it surpasses the 2nd. 4). Receiving the signal of turbine tripping or generator desynchronizing, the HPBV will be quickly opened. 5). When the pressure of HP ATV reaches the maximum, close the HPBV promptly. 6). When the steam temperature behind the HPBV reaches the maximum, close the valve promptly. 6.3 Low pressure bypass (LPB) The low pressure bypass (LPB) system is composed of a low pressure bypass valve (LPBV), a spray adjustment valve, a spray isolating valve, a condenser inlet attemperating and depressurizing device, etc. Like HPBV, LPBV also covers the functions of attemperation and depressurization, adjustment, and stoppage. 6.3.1 Three-stage attemperating and depressurizing device This device is organized in the form of three-stage depressurization and primary spray attemperation. When the bypass is at work, the attemperation and spray must also be put to work, otherwise, it will cause the temperature of steam in the condenser to exceed the permissible value, 71

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and damage the attemperating and depressurizing device and the condenser. The spray source is taken from the miscellaneous condensate system. 6.3.2 Control of LPB valve LPB is operated by air force. When air is lost, the valve will stay closed and automatically locked. The final aim of LPB is to discharge the steam into the condenser, but when the condenser breaks down, the discharge has to be cut off immediately. The low pressure attemperating valve (LP ATV) adjusts the temperature according to the pressure of LPB and steam temperature. When LPB is not open, LP ATV is forced to close. The functions of LPB control are as follows: 1). to match the pressure of reheated steam with the load of unit according to the turbine pressure level; 2). to open LPBV promptly to keep the reheated steam pressure grow steadily when the pressure increase rate exceeds the prescribed limit; 3). to close LPBV promptly to protect the condenser when the pressure inside it reaches the maximum, namely low vacuum; 4). to close LPBV promptly to protect the condenser when its temperature reaches the maximum; 5). to close LPBV promptly to protect the condenser when water level reaches the maximum; 6). to close LPBV promptly when the pressure of LPB attemperating water decreases. 6.4 Unit bypass system at work Whether or not the bypass system works normally will directly affect the reliability of the unit. The operating mode of the bypass system is closely correlated with that of the steam turbine. There are 3 types of operating mechanismpneumatic, hydraulic and electrical. The unit herein uses the hydraulic operating mechanism which is characterized by its quick action, and fast startup (usually 1~2 seconds). But this system is more complex, demands more cost and maintenance, and particularly when arranging the operating devices in high temperature areas it demands effective fire precautions. The high pressure bypass operates in 4 modes, namely, the Startup mode, the Fixed Pressure, the Follow mode, and Shutdown. 6.4.1 Bypass startup

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Fig. 6-2 the HPB startup curve The operator, who opts for the Startup mode, needs to use Boiler Fire On signals to activate HPB so as to enter the mode. Under the Startup mode, the high pressure bypass pressure (HPBP) can be set into 3 states--Min Pressure, Pressure Ramp and Restart. When the state is Min Pressure or Pressure Ramp, HPB will send Startup mode signals. When the boiler pressure rises, and if the combustion turns unsteady and the fuel pressure falls, HPBV will close, whereupon the boiler pressure discontinues to rise, which requires Restart to be activated. In Restart state, HPBP will always follow the main steam pressure. When adjusted, the boiler combustion will return steady, thereupon the main steam pressure begins to grow, which requires HPBV to be reopened. If HPBP is lower than Psyne, it will continue to be set in Pressure Ramp state; if higher, the Startup mode will automatically disappear, and the unit bypass will enter the Fixed Pressure mode automatically. When the boiler is Fire On, the main steam pressure will be lower than the minimum setting, and HPBP will stay in Min Pressure,, under which the HPB system requires a small amount of steam lest the reheater be burned dry, and HPBV demands a certain degree of opening (Ymin=10%) and it keeps this minimum opening till the main steam pressure reaches the 73

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minimum setting (Pmin). While this minimum setting (Pmin) is maintained, the HPBV opening will increase as the quantity of combustion grows, till it reaches the pre-set value (Yramp=30%) which shall be maintained. As the quantity grows further, the main steam pressure will surpass the minimum setting (Pmin), whereupon the unit bypass enters the Pressure Ramp state. Afterwards, HPBV maintains the pre-set value (Yramp=30%) until it reaches Psyne of the turbine, when the Startup mode automatically disappears and the unit bypass enters the Fixed Pressure mode automatically. The reheated steam pressure before impulse and rolling is determined by the state of unit startup. HPBV, when the reheated steam pressure is lower than the minimum setting (Pmin) of the low pressure bypass pressure (LPBP), will stay closed all the time. Set LPBP as AUTO. In the model of AUTO, LPBP is set by the first capacity of intermediate cylinder in the turbine. The LPBV opening is acquired by proportional-integral according to the comparison between LPBP setting and actual pressure, and also restricted by the LPBP maximum. When the unit is loaded, LPBV will gradually turn down in order to make the reheated steam pressure sustainable with the load. When the load reaches a certain level, HPBV will close, and in turn LPBV will also close completely. See the HPB startup curve; please refer to figure 6-2. 6.4.2 Bypass switching process This kind of steam admission mode, beginning from the intermediate pressure cylinder to the high pressure cylinder after warmed up with 5% initial load, is called as bypass switching process. Operations in the bypass switching process are as follows: 1). Enlarging the opening of a intermediate pressure control valve and a high bypass valve to be wide-open continuously; closing a dump valve when the intermediate pressure control valve approaches to be wide-open while decreasing the opening of a low bypass valve to keep reheating steam pressure within a certain range. 2). Closing a high pressure cylinder vent valve and opening a high discharge check valve while feeding main steam into the high pressure cylinder by opening a high pressure control valve. Due to the fact that the main steam pressure stays at a pre-set value, and at this time the opening of the high pressure bypass valve is decreasing, so the opening of the high pressure control valve should be enlarged to load up continuously. 3). The intermediate pressure cylinder startup is completed with the intermediate pressure valve in wide-open, the low bypass valve in full closed and the steam admission under the control of a high pressure control valve. In order to protect the last stage blade of the high pressure cylinder from overheating, the opening of the high pressure control valve should be enlarged as soon as possible to equalize steam flow entered into the high pressure cylinder with that of into the intermediate and low pressure cylinders. The graph for a bypass switch region is shown in figure 6-3. The load value of a bypass switching end point has direct influence on the stability of the boiler 74

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and the steam turbine during startup. In order to protect the last stage blade of the high pressure cylinder from overheating, steam flow and opening of the high pressure cylinder and the high pressure control valve must be guaranteed as much as possible; meanwhile, the load must be increased from the 5% initial load to the load at the end point in a very short time. If the switching point load is too high to keep up with the changes of the boiler combustion rate, resulting in a rather low main steam pressure, manual interference for the combustion rate should be used; however it is inclined to enable the high pressure valve in open state at all the time resulting from an overpressure in excess of the pressure setting of the high pressure bypass. But the switching point load must be appropriate in that the steam admission of the high pressure cylinder is restricted. For the restriction, a partial difference between the steam admission temperature of the high pressure cylinder and the metal temperature of the low pressure cylinder must be within certain range; the exhaust pressure of the cylinder must be higher than the pre-set value of the reheating steam pressure to protect the last stage blade from overheating resulting in the small flow and high back pressure of the high pressure cylinder, and the high discharge check valve must be opened smoothly to prevent from an opening failure of the intermediate pressure cylinder. 6.4.3 Normal operation The high pressure bypass valve will enter into a Follow mode in closed state under the conditions that the steam turbine is in normal operation with load and whole steam is contained into the high pressure cylinder. In order to make sure it is absolutely closed, the bypass pressure setting must be at an Automatic Mode and pressure setting value must be equal to the summation of actual main steam pressure and differential pressure-dP (0.5MPa). 6.4.4 Bypass operating mode when shutdown When the unit is about to stop, operators should ensure that the high pressure bypass valve is in an automatic setting and HP turbine loaded signal of the DEH, after the startup of the high pressure cylinder, exists. During the normal operation of the unit, a Halt mode should be selected. The high pressure bypass pressure is set by following the main steam pressure; otherwise the high pressure bypass valve will be opened with the increase of the boiler pressure. Upon tripping the steam turbine or manually opening the high pressure bypass valve, the Halt mode of the unit will be automatically released to a Constant Pressure Mode; however, with the decrease of fuel in the boiler, the bypass valve will be gradually turned down; and its pressure setting will be automatically switched to the Follow mode as a fire-extinguishing bypass valve is closed.

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Fig. 6-3 Bypass Switch Region Graph

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Chapter VII

Emergency Governing System

This emergency governing system is an essential component for the safe, reliable and stable operation of the steam turbine. With the use of a high pressure fire-resistant oil digital electro-hydraulic control system (DEH or D-EHC for short), the unit gives a large simplification on hydraulic control circuits and a wide control scope, convenient adjustment, fast response and small percentage of delay on the rotating speed, and realizes a variety of complex controls for the automatic startup and shutdown of the unit in comparison with the traditional mechanical hydraulic adjustment as well as the improvement on operational reliability and the simplification in systematic maintenance and repairs. 7.1 Overview The emergency governing system is the actuating mechanism of the DEH, which works on instruction reception from the DEH, latching, valve driving and unit interruption, etc. The system from the East Turbine Works employed in our plant has been applied to many large-capacity units, so that it has a lot of long-term service experiences. The system can be subdivided into a low pressure emergency governing system and a high pressure fire-resistant oil system based on its constituents. It is shown in figure 7-1. The basic requirements of the emergency governing system are as follows: 1. Turbine latch 2. Meeting the combined startup requirement from the high and low pressure cylinders 3. Meeting the combined startup requirement from the intermediate pressure cylinder 4. With an over-speed limit function 5. Quickly and reliably interrupting the steam admission from the steam turbine in need 6. Meeting the valve mobile test requirement 7. with an over-speed protection function. A. Mechanical over-speed protection Upon the action rotating speed accounts for 110%-111% (3300-3330r/min) of the rated speed, the protection ring of an emergency governor will hit a stay hook to trip; the link lever of a mechanical emergency governor system will drive the emergency governor of the high pressure governor component into action to cut off the high pressure safety oil supply and to drain it by opening an oil drainage port. As a result, each main stop valves and control valves should be fast closed; the unit steam admission should be cut off quickly as well. B. DEH and TSI electric over-speed protection When the rotating speed of the unit accounts for 111% (3330r/min)of the rated speed, an electric 77

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stop signal is sent to drive an electromagnetic governor device in a main trip electromagnetic valve (5YV, 6YV) and a mechanical stop electromagnetic valve (3YV) into action to drain the high pressure safety oil and to cut off the unit steam admission. Meanwhile, it is sent to each valve as well to fast close every electromagnetic valve and steam valves, thereby guaranteeing the safety of the unit. 7.2 Hydraulic servo system The hydraulic servo system is mainly composed of a servomotor, a valve control stage, an electro-hydraulic servo valve and LVDT, etc., which are principally used in the opening control and fast shutdown of each valves and so on. This unit is constituted of four main steam control valve servomotors, two main stop valve servomotors, two intermediate pressure main stop valve servomotors and two intermediate pressure control valve servomotors; wherein the high and low pressure control valves, and the high pressure main stop valve servomotor on the right are controlled by the electro-hydraulic servo valve in succession; the left one and the intermediate pressure valve servomotors at two sides are under the two-position control of the electro-magnetic valve. 7.2.1 Introduction for system functions 1. Opening control of valves After the unit is latched and the high pressure safety oil is in place, the DEH automatically determines the heat condition of the unit and finalizes valve reheating in necessary on the premise of unit startup. With the changes of valve position instruction signal, steam valve opening is continuously adjusted by each control valve servomotors. 2. Implementation for fast shutdown of valves All system steam valves are provided with the valve control stages, so that on-off operations of them could be achieved by the help of the tightening force from the control stages. During the normal operation of the unit, unloading valve cores fixed on each servomotor integrated blocks make loading pressure oil and return oil separate from the safety oil; during the down-time, the emergency governing takes action to drain the high pressure safety oil and to open the unloading valve under the action of the oil pressure from a lower chamber of the servomotors piston. The oil cylinder lower chamber is intercommunicated with the upper one so that part of oil in the lower chamber of the piston can return to the upper chamber of the oil tank and the other part can flow to the oil tank by a non-return valve. Therefore, the valves can be fast closed by means of the tightening force. 7.3 Trip emergency governing system for the unit

7.3.1 Low pressure emergency governing system

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The low pressure emergency governing system is comprised of an emergency governor, an emergency governor device and its link lever, a manual stop mechanism, a reset testing valve block, a mechanical shutdown electromagnet and an oil guide ring, etc. The emergency trip valves in the manual stop mechanism, the mechanical shutdown electromagnet and the high pressure governor component are connected with the emergency governor by the link lever. The high pressure safety oil is in connection with pressure oil outlet pipe and non-pressure drain pipe of the high pressure fire-resistant oil of which is from the oil sources by the high pressure governor component. Main functions of the system comprise latch and interruption. In view of reliability, three extra interrupting means for this system is set, including electric, mechanical and manual interruptions. 7.3.2 High pressure trip system The high pressure trip system is constituted of such three valves in the realization of online test as a main trip electromagnetic valve, an isolation valve and an emergency trip valve. The high pressure safety oil has the functions of completing the interruption and oil spray tests of the unit and the emergency governor under the control of the emergency trip valve (ETV), the mechanical isolation valve (MIV) and the main trip electromagnetic valve (MTV); besides it controls an extraction trip valve. When oil pressure of the safety oil is in place, the extraction trip valve opens instrument service air accesses through the extraction check valves so that air pressure overpasses spring force generated by closing of the check valves to normally open these valves. On the contrary, the extraction trip valve will close the instrument service air accesses so as to shut off the extraction check valve soon. 7.3.3 System arrangement 1. Emergency governor It is a device for protecting the steam turbine from excessive speed, namely an emergency governor, an interrupter or an emergency over-speed governor, and one of the important over-speed protection devices as well. The normal rotating speed of the steam turbine is 3000r/min; however, during the load rejection, its idle running can not be maintained for bad dynamic characteristic of the control system or steam source into the steam turbine can not be fully closed due to other defects so as to make its rotor component withstand extra centrifugal force generated by the excessive speed of the unit, and so lead to damages. Therefore, the large-scale steam turbine is completely provided with this kind of emergency governor at present. The eccentric ring emergency governor employed in our plant is assembled on a minor control axle at the head of the units major axle and rotates with the rotor. See the structure; please refer to figure 7-1. Its operating principal is the same as a flyball emergency governor. When the rotating speed of the steam turbine reaches 110-111 %( 3300-3330r/min) of the rated speed, owing to the direction proportion of the centrifugal force generated by an eccentric ring to the rotating speed, the 79

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centrifugal force excesses the applied force from the spring at this time so as to enable the eccentric ring hit the stay hook of the emergency governor system soon to trip it. And then the stay hook brings the link lever into action on the emergency trip valve of the high pressure governor component to discharge the high pressure safety oil, thereby quickly closing each main stop and control valves. In view of the improvement on reliability and jam fault prevention from the eccentric ring, oil spray and rotating speed elevation tests could be completed in running by the help of the mechanical trip isolation valve (MIV) and the reset testing valve block. Meanwhile, the rotating speed changes also can be achieved by adjusting the spring tightening force of the eccentric ring.

Fig. 7-1 Flyball Emergency Governor Due to the fact that the emergency governor is important to the steam turbine, routine tests are necessary in order to ensure its speed and reliability in a crucial condition. In general, the tests include a speed raising test and an oil ejection test. The speed raising test is made after an assembly and an overhauling of the steam turbine or an examination of the control system or a restarting in a long-term service or outage. The rotating speed should be raised to actually check the action rotating speed during the test, and the test should be performed for 2-3 times in succession as action rotating speed difference at every time is within a allowable scope. As the action rotating speed does not meet the requirements, compressing the screws by adjusting the spring of the emergency governor can change the tightening force. 80

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Based on normal operation of the steam turbine, the oil injection test is performed by charging the oil to the lower part of the flyweight or into an oil inlet chamber used for the over-speed test of the emergency protection ring, which is to make the flyweight (the emergency protection ring) free from the tightening force of the spring to act on the emergency governing system. During the test, the oil circuit of the emergency governor to be test and the high pressure safety oil system of the unit must be separated for avoiding unit trip. Generally, the test is asked for once in 2000-hour operation of the unit, which is to check the flexibility of the flyweight or the emergency protection ring; however the test can not be applied to checking the action rotating speed and the flexibility of other link in the trip system, so that it can not substitute for the speed raising test. 2. Manual stop mechanism The manual stop mechanism is a means for providing man-made interruption for the unit in an emergency state. The operators manually shut down the mechanism at an emergency state to trip the stay hook of the emergency governor system by the link lever of the mechanical interrupting mechanism, resulting in draining the high pressure safety oil, quickly closing the steam admission valves and cutting off the steam admission of the unit by the action of the emergency stop valve of the emergency isolation valve block. 3. Mechanical stop electromagnet The mechanical stop electromagnet is used for providing man-made interruption for the unit in an emergency state. Various signals are sent to the electromagnet and drive it into action to trip the stay hook of the emergency governor system by driving the link lever, resulting in draining the high pressure safety oil, quickly closing the steam admission valves and cutting off the steam admission of the unit by the action of emergency stop valve of the high pressure governor component. 4. Besides, it also includes a safety oil pressure interrupting state component, a low lube pressure governor, a vacuum governor for low condenser and accumulators for the safety oil, etc. 7.4 Interlocking and protection 7.4.1 Mechanical over-speed protection When the rotating speed of the steam turbine reaches 110%-111% of the rated speed, the eccentric ring mechanical emergency governor drives the mechanical trip valve into action to drain the oil in the emergency trip system (ETS), to close the high pressure main stop valve and the high pressure control valve and to open the vent valve. And then the steam turbine is stopped after closing the intermediate pressure main stop and control valves, opening the dump valve and closing the extraction check valves and high discharge check valves at all levels. 7.4.2 Local manual trip A local trip handle is located in front of the head box of the steam turbine. During operating, pulling out the handle with 90 degrees anticlockwise rotation could drive the mechanical trip 81

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valve into action to drain the oil in the ETS, to close the high pressure main stop valve and the high pressure control valve and to open the vent valve. And then the steam turbine is stopped after closing the intermediate pressure main stop and control valves, opening the dump valve and closing the extraction check valves and high discharge check valves at all levels. 7.4.3 Remote manual trip The digital electro-hydraulic control system (DEH) panel in a central control room is provided with two Remote Trip buttons. When remote trip operation is necessary, synchronously pressing the two buttons could drive the mechanical and the main trip electromagnetic valves A and B into action to drain the oil in the ETS, to close the high pressure main stop and control valves and to open the vent valve. And then the steam turbine is stopped after closing the intermediate pressure main stop and control valves, opening the dump valve and closing the extraction check valves and high discharge check valves at all levels. 7.4.4 Electric trip protection The electric trip protection refers to tripping the unit by acting on the main stop electromagnetic valve and the mechanical shutdown electromagnet with a variety of trip signals of the unit so as to rapidly close the valves including an extraction relay valve. The unit will be tripped by the synchronous actions of 3YV, 5YV and 6YV of the said electromagnetic valve and electromagnet under the following conditions: 1. Pressing the Trip buttons at the platform 2. Dynamos tripping 3. Main fuel tripping of boilers 4. Serious fault of the DEH device 5. High pressure fire-resistant oil pressure below 2/3 6. High pressure safety oil pressure below 2/3 7. Large axial displacement 8. Large differential expansion 9. Quite low main steam temperature at inlet of the steam turbine 10. Pretty high exhaust temperature of the A/B low pressure cylinders 11. Much high exhaust temperature of the high pressure cylinder 12. Lube pressure of bearings of the steam turbine below 2/3 13. Pretty low vacuum of the A/B condensers 14. Quite high metal temperature of each bearing 15. Rather high vibration of bearings, bearing blocks and bearing covers 82

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16. Water break of dynamos. 7.5 Emergency governing system test 7.5.1 Valve adjustment test In order to ensure the corresponding relations between the control signal and the valve stroke of the DEH, the DEH and the valves should be adjusted after the completion of inspection and adjustment of loops of the DEH and the oil cleaning circulation of the EH system. A voltage generator is used for controlling the valve stroke by means of analog output of a valve position instruction. Feedback quantity of a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) is adjusted to keep the said corresponding relations in accordance with design requirements when an equilibrated valve, the main stop valve and the steam valve are in open, inadequate open and wide-open states, respectively. Besides, it also includes a quick closing test. The test must meet the requirements that the quick closing time constant of all servomotors from Full On to Full Off is less than 15s, and the time from tripping to Full Off is less than 0.5s. 7.5.2 Steam turbine trip test Quick closing of each servomotor should be achieved under the following conditions: 1. At the Full On state of each valve, manually pulling the manual stop mechanism at the machine head should be able to quickly stop all servomotors; 2. At the Full On state of each valve, manually pressing the Stop buttons in the central control room should be able to quickly stop all servomotors. 3. At the Full on state of each valve, sending a stop signal to the DEH by the ETS system should be able to quickly stop all servomotors. Said three different tests must be performed once again without requirements for valve state when the constant speed of the steam turbine reaches 3000r/min. 7.5.3 Steam valve leakage test 1. When the constant speed of the unit reaches 3000r/min, closing the high, intermediate pressure main stop valves, and then the rotating speed should be less than (P/P0*1000)r/min in a time; wherein the P is actual steam admission pressure, and the P0 is rated pressure. 2. When the constant speed of the unit reaches 3000r/min, closing the high, intermediate pressure control valves, and then the rotating speed should be less than (P/P0*1000)r/min in a time; wherein the P is actual steam admission pressure, and the P0 is rated pressure. 7.5.4 Oil spray test The oil spray test, aiming to activate the emergency protection ring to protect it from possible jam, is performed through injecting turbine oil into the chamber of the ring to extrude it with gravity of oil. Under the running condition, the isolation valve of the high pressure stop 83

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component is electrified to supply oil by the emergency valve instead of the isolation valve so as to avoid an outage caused by the extrusion of the protection ring. At this time, the main stop electromagnetic valve of the high pressure stop component is in alert condition. The oil spray test procedures are as follows: As the unit meets the oil spray test requirements and the constant speed of which reaches 3000r/min, the test can be performed by clicking an Oil Spray Test button on an operation screen and then selecting a Test button at an operation end to execute. At this time the isolation valve is electrified to supply the safety oil instead of the emergency stop valve. The normally open contact of stroke switch ZS4 and the normally closed contact ZS5 on the isolation valve are closed and cut off, respectively. Meanwhile, singles are sent to the DEH. While the DEH senses of the signals, it enables the oil spray electromagnetic valve 2YV in reset test valve block to be electrified, so that the turbine oil is charged into the chamber of the emergency protection ring to loosen the ring. Then the unstuck ring makes the stay hook of the emergency stop device trip so as to close the normally open contact of the stroke switch ZS2. When the DEH detects said signals, it makes the oil spray electromagnetic valve 2YV in the reset test valve block stop electrifying. However, the reset of the emergency protection ring can make the reset electromagnetic valve 1YV and the stay hook electrify and reset. When the signals of the normally close contact and the normally open contact of the stroke switches ZS1 and the ZS2 are detected by the DEH, the reset electromagnetic valve 1YV is stopped electrifying. The electrification of isolation valve 4YV also can be stopped when the normally open contact of the ZS1 is cut off. At last, the oil spray test of the emergency protection ring is completed by clicking the Oil Spray Test button on the operation screen and then selecting a Cutting button at the operation end to execute. 7.5.5 Speed raising test The speed raising test is mainly to check the accuracy of the action rotating speed of the emergency governor so as to ensure its accurate action under the pre-set conditions. The appropriate speed should be ranged from 3300r/min to 3330r/min. 1. Procedures for the speed raising test A. After all the conditions for the test is prepared, removing the over-speed guard wire of the emergency trip system (ETS). B. After clicking the Mechanical Over-speed Test button on the operation screen and selecting the Test button at the operation end to execute, the DEH automatically converts electric protection value from 3300r/min into 3330r/min. C. After pressing the Test button, the target value and the speed rising rate of the rotating speed are set to be 3330r/min and 10-15r/min/s by the DEH, respectively. The speed rising of the unit is stopped till the emergency governor takes action to quickly close the main stop and control valves. It is qualified after recording the action rotating speed of the emergency governor in three consecutive tests. 2) Cautions for the speed raising test 84

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A. In order to raise the metal temperature of the rotor over the fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT) to meet the factory requirements to the rotor temperature before the speed raising test, the unit should be put into continuous service with 20% rated load for 3-4 hours based on a set initial steam parameter and a steam admission parameter of the intermediate pressure cylinder. And the emergency protection ring oil spray test to the emergency governor must be performed before the running with the 20% rated load. B. As performing the speed raising test, provisions for the steam parameters are as follows: the initial steam pressure should be ranged from 5MPa to 6MPa; the temperature should be above 350/400 degrees centigrade; the vacuum of the condenser should be 0.0147MPa and exhaust temperature should be below 80 degrees centigrade; or a cooling spray device of a exhaust casing is put into service to keep said temperatures. C. Primary and secondary bypasses should be synchronously started up to keep the steam admission parameters, including pressure between 0.1 and 0.2MPa and temperature no less than 300-350 degrees centigrade, of the intermediate pressure cylinder. D. The trip shutdown test must be performed prior to the speed raising test to confirm action reliability of the trip shutdown system. E. The target value for the electric over-speed protection must be altered to 3300r/min before the speed raising test and reset after the test. F. During the tests, the oil inlet temperature should be kept between 40 and 45 degrees centigrade. G. The speed raising test must be performed by these trained operators, conducted and supervised by these engineers familiar with the operations, and functions of the speed governing system. One operator must be in preparation for a prompt trip shutdown beside the trip shutdown handle and person specifically in charge of the Shutdown button in the central control room also must be in preparation for the prompt trip shutdown. H. During the test, person must be specifically appointed to closely monitor the vibration conditions of the unit, and keep close contact with the engineers in charge of commanding. In case of vibration increase without identifying causes, the test must be stopped as well as the unit in abnormal vibration. I. There is no oil spray test prior to the speed raising test. J. The dwell time at a high speed area with the rotating speed over 3200r/min in every raising operation can not exceed 1min. K. While as high as 3330r/min rotating speed can not drive the emergency governor into action, stopping the unit by hand trip as well as the test till identifying the causes and taking proper measures. L. The process for monitoring the rotating speed during the test is shown by a digital tachometer with the accuracy equivalent to the one for the TSI electric over-speed protection, and the others are for reference only. 85

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M. Overall processes of the test must be finished in 30min. 7.5.6 Load dump test 1. Purposes of the load dump test are as follows: A. The determination for the dynamic characteristics of the control system in sudden load rejection of the unit covers following conditions: the maximum dynamic momentary value should be less than the operating value of the over-speed protection device after load rejecting. The transient process of the rotating speed after load rejecting is damped, and then the rotating speed tends to be stable after vibrating for several times till idle running at almost 3000r/min. B. The determination for the dynamic processes of key link in the control system as loading rejecting C. The detection for adaptability to the load rejection, and time relationship in mutual actions of the main steam turbine and the associated devices, which is to provide datum for improving on the dynamic characteristics of the unit and analyzing equipment performance. 1). Required conditions before the test A. It must be covers effective leading and commanding organization, testing program examined and approved by the department in charge and jointly formulated by other parties, reliable communication facilities established by the associated professional, complete.reliable and sound test equipment, trained operators with skillful operations and clear responsibility. B. The oil quality of the emergency governing system, including fire-resistant oil and turbine oil must be adjusted to fully meet the requirements. C. Normal operation of the extraction regenerative system and the steam bypass system of the steam turbine, especially operation of the extraction check valve, and reliable protection interlock. D. Normal operation of the control system E. Qualified test for overall electric and thermal protection of the steam turbine F. Flexible and reliable local manual and remote-controlled stop devices G. The whole units, including turbine, boilers, electricity and auxiliary equipment meet the requirements of the load dump test. H. Normal operation of the devices in the bypass system I. When temporarily installed startup devices, such as a Load Rejection button, which are convenient for the control of an oscillograph, a main oil switch of the dynamo and a busbar switch and so on, are ready, the test is qualified. 2). Essential tests before the test A. Valve mobile test B. The completion of essential check for the DEH, the TSI and the ETS prior to the load rejection test 86

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C. Confirming that two EH oil pumps of an oil supply device in the high pressure fire-resistant oil system is normal in mutual switching, oil pressure, oil level, nitrogen-filling pressure of the high pressure accumulator, and has 35-54 degrees centigrade of oil temperature. D. The speed raising test is qualified in case that the setting value for the action of the emergency governor is in accordance with the requirements, having 110-111% rated rotating speed, as well as the over-speed protection setting value with 110% rated rotating speed. E. The measurement for the total closure time of every main stop valve and control valve in break-off is completed and meet requirements. F. The leakage test for every main stop valve and control valve is qualified. G. Qualified no-load test and load test, normal and flexible operation of the system, main steam turbine and auxiliaries of the steam turbine, correct indication of every supervisory instrument and perfect main steam turbine and auxiliaries. 4).Test methods The load rejection test is made on the premise of 50% and 100% rated load of the unit. With the use of the Load Rejection button, an oil switch and a dynamo are tripped so as to wave record the transient process of the rotating speed. The test procedures consist of following three-stage works. A. Before the test Operating movement test facilities used for preventing from jamming in the system to avoid failure operation during the test; Checking test instruments to confirm their perfection and reliability; Releasing the interlocks on the tests way; Regulating the operating conditions to make sure the operation on the basis of rated steam parameter, vacuum and load; fully recording some important parameters, such as the rotating speeds, the pressures and the displacement (stroke) values under stable condition; guaranteeing smooth communication in the command system. B. Test in progress Giving a load rejection order by the commander in chief based on the reports from each sub-divisional principal; Starting up the oscillograph in a second before loading rejecting that is an absolute necessity; Closely monitoring the speed raising conditions of the unit, if the speed reaches 3330r/min, tripping the unit immediately; Closely monitoring the operating conditions of the main stop valves, control valves and extraction check valves, and taking appropriate measures if there is abnormal condition; Closely monitoring the vibration conditions of the bearing of the unit to guarantee the safety; besides, recording recorded values, minimum and maximum values related to some important 87

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parameters, such as the rotating speeds, the pressures and the displacement values are a necessity during the test. C. After the test Fully recording once the rotating speeds, the pressures and the displacement (stroke) values under stable condition; Determining the synchronization time of the unit under rated rotating speed during the first and the second tests by the commander in chief; Recovering to normal operation of the unit and all released interlocks after the test; Sorting out the records and wave recording graphs to provide test reports in time; Safety measures: A. The required preparation works and test datum prior to the test must be fulfilled one by one, and qualified. B. Overall safety measures taken in the speed raising test must be applied to the load rejection test. C. The operators must keep close watch on the unit and do some operations based on its conditions after load rejecting D. The operations after loading rejecting must be quick and accurate, and runtime of the steam turbine without load had better in 30 minutes after rated load rejecting E. There is an appointed man in charge of monitoring digital tachometer provided by the manufacturer. While the rotating speed reaches the reticle, namely 3330r/min after load rejecting, the man must quickly and decidedly trip to stop the unit. If the rotating speed after tripping continues to rise or stays at the speed, measures, such as closures of the electric check valve, the extraction check valves and vacuum break must be taken. F. Due to very high speed raising rate (acceleration) of the unit after load rejecting, the appearance of vibration enlargement of the bearings is possible. Therefore, measures for avoiding bearing vibration must be strictly implemented. During the test, a man must be specifically appointed to monitor vibration values of all bearings, once the appearance of abnormal condition, the man must quickly trip to prevent the occurrence and spreading of an accident. G. In case the servomotors of the high pressure or intermediate pressure control valve are open after load rejecting, and closed as recovery, leading to single-cylinder steam admission of the turbine, tripping to stop is necessary. H. In case of idle running of the steam turbine and the changes of the load, high, intermediate and low pressure differential expansion values should be monitored so as to take measures in time under an abnormal condition. I. If there are abnormal conditions occurred in the steam bypass system, a deaerator, the extraction regenerative system, the steam turbine, water level of the condenser, the extraction 88

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pipes drainage, temperature rise for the high pressure cylinder exhaust and metal temperatures of a thrust bearing and the cylinder after load rejecting, necessary measures must be taken in time. 7.5.7 Test period under trouble-free running condition 1). A mobile test for the valves is made once a day. 2). A mobile test for the high pressure governor component is weekly performed. 3). A switching test for main and auxiliary pumps of the high pressure fire-resistant oil is weekly performed. 4). An oil spray test for the emergency governor is semiannually carried out. 5). Set values for pressure switches of the low lube pressure governor and the low vacuum governor of the condenser are annually set. 6). The used metering instruments in the system, such as the sensor, the pressure gauge and the pressure switch, are annually checked.

7.6 High pressure fire-resistant oil system 7.6.1 System introduction With the capacity boost and parameter increase of the unit, the main stop valves and the control valves of the steam turbine uniformly trend to large-scale development, which urgently demands for the increase of driving force for the startup of said valves and the improvement on dynamic flexibility of the high pressure control component. If there is internal or external leakage or disqualified oil in the hydraulic oil system, instable operation will happen to the adjustment system or influences on the load and rotating speed of the unit will be brought as well as fire hazard in serve case, leading to unsafe and uneconomical operation of the unit. Therefore, the hydraulic oil with high quality and excellent fire resistance and the measures, such as increasing dynamic and static gaps among hydraulic parts, are adopted to ensure safe operations of the unit. The EH oil supply system is used for driving the servo actuating mechanism by the supply of the high pressure fire-resistant oil to adjust openings of each steam valve in response to electric command signal from a DHE controller. The high pressure fire-resistant oil of the unit is chemical synthesis of tricresyl phosphate (TCP) with density more than water, viscosity little more than the turbine oil under normal temperature, antiglare temperature in excess of 538 degrees centigrade during an open-flame test and excellent fire resistance and fluid stability, but little toxicity. The electro-hydraulic controlled oil supply system of the unit consists of a stainless steel oil tank, associated pipelines, an accumulator, a control part, two EH oil pumps and oil circulating pumps, an oil filter and heat exchanger and so on equipped on a holder. While an EH oil pump is putting into service, the other one is standby. One EH oil pump is enough under normal operation of the steam turbine. In case that the adjustment time of the control system is much longer, like 89

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load rejection, and the EH system oil pressure is decreased by partial damage of the accumulator. The standby oil pump should be put into service immediately to ensure normal oil pressure in EH system of the unit in the case of oil pressure decrease caused by much longer adjustment time of the control system, such as load rejection and partial damage of the accumulator and so on. As the system is operating, fire-resistant oil in the oil tank is pumped by a high pressure plunger pump and an oil pump by means of motor driving. Then the pumped oil is directly supplied to every actuating mechanism, such as the execution mechanisms of the high pressure governor system and small-sized steam turbine after it is converted into pressure oil with 14.20.2MPa in a high pressure header and accumulator through an EH control block, the oil filter, the check valve and a safe overflow valve. Return oil from each execution mechanism returns to the oil tank firstly through an oil return filter and then a pressure oil return pipe. The safe relief valve is used for preventing excessive oil pressure of the EH system resulting from the reasons, such as failure of the control valve on the oil pump and so on, and keeping oil pressures of it. A pressure switch PSC4 on a high pressure main pipe has the functions of providing alarm signal as the oil pressure deviates from normal value, and switching signal for automatic startup of the standby pump; pressure switches PSC1, PSC2 and PSC3 are used for sending a trip signal (2-of-3 values logic); pressure switches PSC5, PSC6 at the outlet of the oil pump and 20YV and 21YV are used for an interlock test of the main oil pump. There is a temperature switch and a pressure switch in the oil tank for giving excessive oil temperature and level alarm and providing interlocking control for a heater and the pump, and an oil level indicator at the side. In order to keep the fire-resistant oil temperature and oil quality within a normal range under the condition of normal operation, the system is also provided with an independent self-circulation cooling and self-purification system in addition to a conventional return oil cooling system. 7.6.2 System composition and devices The electro-hydraulic controlled oil supply system of the unit is shown as diagram 7-10. It mainly consists of the oil tank, the main EH oil pump, the high pressure devices including the regenerative device and the accumulator, the EH oil circulating pump, the oil filtering component and the associated oil pipeline.

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Fig. 7-10 High Pressure Fire-resistant Oil Supply System 7.6.3 System supervision and maintenance 1). Check activities carried out once a day are comprised of: A. confirming that oil level of the oil tank is somewhat higher than a low alarm oil level 30mm-50mm and adequate for preventing from overflowing in interruption; B. confirming that the oil temperature ranges from 35 to 54 degrees centigrade; C. confirming that the oil supply pressure ranges from 10.7MPa to 11.7MPa; D. confirming that the pressure difference of the oil filter at the outlet of overall pumps is less than 0.5MPa; E. checking whether a visual mechanical indicator of the aerofilter is automatically triggered, if it is, the change for the aerofilter is in necessary; F. checking whether there is leakage, abnormal noise and vibration in the system; G. ensuring that the pressure differences of each oil filter of the regenerative device is less than 0.138MPa; H. ensuring that the pressure in the circulatory system is less than 1MPa. 2). Procedures for weekly exchanging the standby pump with the process pump are as follows: A. putting a control switch of the standby pump into operation and pressing a Startup button; B. confirming that discharge pressure of the standby pump ranges from 10.7MPa to 11.7MPa; C. confirming that motor current of the standby pump is normal; D. turning off the process pump till in full stop, and then operating it again. 3). The procedures for monthly cleaning three ferromagnetic component are as follows: first, disassembling them from top of the oil tank without collision and vibration on the premise of no external particle fallen into the oil tank after the disassembly; materials, such as nylon, is not acceptable for sealing screw threads; then wiping up them with clean and lint-free linen; finally, reassembling them. 4). Requirements for a monthly sampling and check of the fire-resistant oil A particle content analysis with a clean sampling bottle in a sample analysis laboratory is a necessity for the oil sample. And the cleanliness asks for less than 1.5 particle with 10 micron or above in one milliliter. 5). Procedures for a semiyearly check of accumulator nitrogen-filling pressure is comprised of: A. closing the isolation valve of the accumulator to be checked; B. opening the discharge valve of the accumulator to be checked; C. dismounting a top safety valve and a secondary valve head of the accumulator; 92

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D. tightly twisting a hand wheel of charging component along counterclockwise; being sure to no connection for a charging hose at this time; E. connecting the charging component to the top valve seat of the accumulator; F. confirming that the discharge valve of the charging component is closed; G. twisting the hand wheel of the charging component along clockwise till nitrogen pressure is readable; H. confirming that pressure gauge indications on the charging component is correct; I. connecting the charging hose to charge till reaching required pressure if it is necessary for charging; J. tightly twisting the hand wheel of the charging component along anticlockwise; K. disassembling the charging component; L. reinstalling the secondary valve head and the safety valve; M. closing the discharge valve of the accumulator and slowly opening the isolation valve of it.

Chapter VIII Lubrication system 8.1 Lubrication system 8.1.1 Overview Since the turbo-generator set is high-speed and large-scale machinery with a journal bearing and a thrust bearing demanding for a lot of oil to lubricate and cool, an oil supply system for maintaining the normal operations of the said bearings is an absolute necessity. In case of any oil supply interruption, even in short time, serve damages will be caused. The lubrication system and the adjustment oil system are independent, respectively. The actuating intermediate of the lubrication system is ISO VG32 turbine oil equivalent to the turbine oil with international number GB11120-89. Due to the fact that the large-capacity turbo-generator set demands for high steam parameter and large single-machine capacity, big elevating power of the servomotor for the startup of the steam valve is required. With the use of independent adjustment oil and the lubrication systems and the fire-resistant oil, oil pressure of the adjustment system is raised, the structural dimension of the servomotor is minimized and the oil consumption and frication generated in the process of piston inertia and movement are reduced so as to improve the working performance of the adjustment system. However, for the reason of expansive fire-resistant oil with a little toxicity, large oil consumption of the lubrication system and independent operations of the two systems, so 93

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the requirements for the lube can be adequately met by merely using the common turbine oil. The lubrication system is mainly used for providing qualified lube and cooling oil for overall bearings, including the journal bearing and the thrust bearing, and rolling gear of the turbo-generator set. When the steam turbine unit is in stationary state, jacking oil is charged to form oil film at the bottoms of each journal and to support the journal so as to smoothly roll a rotor by a jigger. When the unit is in normal operation, stable oil film of lube formed in bearings is necessary for maintaining good rotation of the rotor; meanwhile a part of lube is demanded for heat transfer in view of considerable heat generated by heat conduction, surface frication and oil spiral flow of the rotor. Besides, the lube is also used for providing stable and reliable oil source for the low pressure adjustment and governing oil system, the jacking oil system and the dynamo sealing oil system. 8.1.2 Characteristics of system layout The oil supply system of the unit is a containerized oil supply system. The containerized oil system is provided with alternating current auxiliary and startup oil pumps and a direct current emergency oil pump by means of a centralized arrangement on the top of the oil tank. Besides, oil pipeline of it is pipe-in-pipe, namely the system oil return pipelines are used as outer pipes and the other oil supply pipes are installed in the oil return pipelines. The main advantages and defect of the system are as follows: For the centralized arrangement of the oil pumps, it is convenient for the inspection, maintenance and management of the field devices; meanwhile the pipe-in-pipe oil pipelines can prevent the pressure oil pipes from leaking so as to reduce the damages in the result of fire accident. However there is a difficulty in maintenance of the pipe-in-pipe oil pipelines. 8.1.3 Equipment specifications Table 8-1 Equipment Specifications for Lubrication System Number 1 Name Used oil trademark and oil quality standard System oil capacity Bearing oil circulation multiplying factor Bearing oil pressure Combined oil tank MPa(g) kg Unit Numerical value ISO VG32, NAS7-class

2 3

306.60 10.8

4 5 94

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Number

Name Type Capacity Outline dimension (length*wide*height) Design pressure Material Return oil flow

Unit

Numerical value Packaged oil container

m3 Mm*mm*mm

38 7250*3400*2300

MPa(g)

0.1 Q235-B

m3/h

250.000

Main oil pump Type Manufactory Capacity Outlet pressure Inlet pressure m3/h MPa(g) MPa(g) Shaft-driven centrifugal pump Import 378(331128Kg/h) 1.55 0.128

Electric heater Power Voltage kw V 7x15 AC380

Oil cooler Type Manufactory Quantity Cooling surface Cooling water inlet design temperature Unit m2 Plate The East Turbine Works 1+1 595 38

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Number

Name Outlet oil temperature Cooling water flow Oil capacity Pipe resistance Design pressure Water side pressure Oil side pressure Design temperature Pipe side temperature Shell side temperature Material Cooling plate Shell Water chamber Gross weight per unit

Unit m3/h m3/h MPa(g) MPa(g) MPa(g) MPa(g)

Numerical value 46.1 525 295.8 <0.05

1.0 0.49

70 80

Stainless steel 20g 20g kg

Alternating current startup oil pump Type Mode No. Manufactory Number Capacity Unit L/min Centrifugal 150LY-23 Chengdu Pumps Research Institute 1 6300

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Number

Name Pumping head Rotating speed

Unit m rpm

Numerical value 23 1450(clockwise rotation in view of overseeing)

Material Casing Axis Impeller 10 Electric motor for alternating current startup oil pump Model No. Type YB225M-4 Asynchronous anti-explosion frame (sequence No. 2) center height 25mm intermediate frame length (m) four-pole motor kw V rpm kg 45 AC380 1450 1380 Cast steel Carbon steel Cast steel

Power Voltage Rotating speed Gross weight 11 Alternating current auxiliary oil pump Type Model No. Manufactory Number

Centrifugal 125LY-36 Chengdu Pumps Research Institute Unit 1

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Number

Name Capacity Outlet pressure Rotating speed Material Casing Axis Impeller

Unit m3/h Mpa rpm

Numerical value 378 0.2 1500)

Cast steel Carbon steel Cast steel

12

Alternating current auxiliary oil pump Type Power Voltage Rotating speed Gross weight Kw V rpm kg YB250M-4 55 AC380 1450 1100

13

Direct current emergency oil pump Type Model No. Manufactory Number Capacity Pumping head Rotating speed Unit L/min m rpm Centrifugal 125LY-32 Chengdu Pumps Research Institute 1 3820 32 1750

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Number

Name Material Pump body Axis Impeller

Unit

Numerical value

Cast steel Carbon steel Cast steel

14

Electric motor for direct current emergency oil pump Type Power Voltage Rotating speed Gross weight Rang hood of main oil tank Type Manufactory B9-19-4.5/anti-explosion Chengdu Air Blower Factory/Beijing LAD Enterprise Unit m3/h 11 1174~2817 kw V rpm kg Z2-82 40 DC220 1500 1115

Number Capacity 16 Electric motor for vapor extractor of main oil tank Type Capacity

YB132S1-2 kw 5.5

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Number

Name Voltage Rotating speed

Unit V rpm

Numerical value AC380 3000

17

Switch valve Type Nominal diameter Operating pressure Maximum temperature operating mm MPa Trunk plate 250 0.6 80

8.1.4 System flow The table 8-1 is the steam turbine lubrication system flow in our plant with the use of the centrifugal main oil pump system driven by main rotor. During the normal operation, high pressure drain oil in the main oil pump flows into a main oil tank to drive a booster oil pump in it. After the booster oil pump absorbs lube from the oil tank and boosts its pressure, it offers the oil to the main oil pump. And then high pressure drain oil of the main oil pump, after being depressurized by the action of an oil turbine and being heat transferred as lube in an oil cooler, is supplied to overall bearing, rolling gear, jacking oil system and sealing oil system and so on. When the steam turbine is start up prior to reach approximately 90% rated rotating speed, oil drain pressure and inlet oil capacity of the main oil pump is rather low and insufficient so that it can not drive the booster oil pump. Considering the safety, the alternating current startup pump should be put into service to provide oil for the main oil pump as well as the auxiliary pump for the devices with the use of lube. In addition, a direct current emergency oil pump is installed as an emergency pump. 8.1.5 System devices introduction 1). Main oil pump The main oil pump is a single-stage double-suction centrifugal pump (referring to figures 8-2 and 8-3). It is installed in a front bearing housing, directly connected with a main shaft (high pressure rotor extension small axel) and driven by a rotor of the steam turbine. The main oil pump outlet oil serving as power oil drives the booster oil pump of the oil turbine to supply oil to the main oil pump, and then it is used as lube to be supplied to said devices, such as bearings, after being depressurized by the action of the oil turbine. Adjusting a throttle valve, a bypass valve and an overflow valve of the oil turbine can make pumping pressure of the main oil pump range from 100

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0.098 to 0.147MPa on the premise of ensuring the pressure at the oil inlet pipe of the bearings ranging from 0.137 to 0.176MPa. 2). Containerized oil tank With the rise of unit capacity, oil system consumption is increased and volume of the oil tank is bulked. For the purpose of compact arrangement of the system devices and convenient assembly, operation and maintenance, the oil tank employs containerized assembly method. Large numbers of devices, such as the alternating current auxiliary oil pump, the direct current emergency oil pump, the alternating current startup oil pump, the booster oil pump, an soot separating unit, the switch valve, the oil level indicator and the electric heater, are assembled in the oil tank. As a result, it brings convenience for operation, monitoring and fire prevention, simplification for oil station arrangement and safety, reliability for operations of the oil supply system. 38m3 oil tank capacities are enough for safe idle shutdown of the unit while house service alternating current is loss of electricity and cooling water supply for the oil cooler is cut off. At this time, oil temperature in the lube tank must be less than 75and a safe circulation multiplying factor is a necessity.

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Fig. 8-1 Steam Turbine Lubrication System Flow

Fig. 8-3 Main Oil Pump

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Fig. 8-4 Containerized Oil Tank Sketch Drawing 104

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Adequate oil depth of the oil tank, referring to immersion depth of suction inlets below oil level and suction height of the three pumps, including the alternating current startup oil pump, the alternating current auxiliary oil pump and the direct current emergency oil pump, of the oil tank should be ensured to prevent cavitations. There is a cover plate for a manhole close to right of the direct current emergency oil pump, and ladders under the cover plate and on inner wall of the oil tank for maintainers. There is a pipe-in-pipe oil pipe joint on top of the oil tank that is located on the right of the cover plate. The pipe-in-pipe oil pipeline consists of two, one for the front bearing housing and the other one for a rear bearing housing and a motor bearing, thereby avoiding mutual twist of each pipe in the pipe-in-pipe oil pipeline and resulting in smooth oil flow and small loss of oil resistance. There is a cover plate for a filter gauge in front of the pipe-in-pipe oil pipe joint and a mobile filter gauge (referring to figure 8-5) in the oil tank located under the cover plate. The filter gauge can be taken out to clean and replaced at regular intervals. Oil flowed to the oil tank by the oil return pipe returns to the oil tank by an oil return opening of the pipe-in-pipe oil pipe, and then flows to the filter gauge by energy dissipating with the help of walls of the tank, a baffle plate and an internal pipe so as to decrease turbulence generated during the oil return and adequately separate air and Impurities from oil through a rather long oil return route. As a result, oil supply with fine quality can be guaranteed.

Fig. 8-5 Return Oil Filter Gauge of Main Oil Tank There is a soot separating device on top of the oil tank. It consists of a ventilator and soot separators which are integrated and driven by a mutually standby alternating current motor and have full capacity. Soot in the oil tank is exhausted and separated by extracting with an upward exhaust port and oil flow returns back the oil tank along internal pipe wall of the soot separator. 105

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3). Smoke evacuator There is oil vapor accumulated in the bearing housing, the front box, the oil return pipelines and room above oil level of the main oil tank in result of operations of the steam turbine lubrication system. If the oil vapor is too much, it will boost the pressure inside the said objects to overflow soot through an oil scraper ring. Therefore, the system is provided with two smoke evacuators on a containerized oil tank cap to integrate the vapor extractor and the soot separator. Due to the formation of minute negative pressure in steam turbine oil return system and oil return chamber of entire bearing chambers by this smoke evacuator, smooth oil return can be ensured, separation of soot mixtures produced in the system can be realized, flue gas can be discharged so as to reduce pollution and oil drop can be brought back the oil return tank. Besides, in order to prevent excessive negative pressure in the chambers of the bearing chambers, and mixture of oil and water in the bearing chambers caused by leakage of gland seal of the steam turbine, a choker for controlling exhaust smoke level and keeping negative pressure in the bearing chambers at -1kPa is provided. 4). Switch valve The switch valve is equipped in the containerized oil tank with trunk plate structure. Owing to the selection of 100% reserve capacity of the oil coolers, a switch valve must be applied to switching between the two oil coolers. The switch valve is convenient for operation and has no oil break in the lubrication system resulting from malfunction. In case outlet temperature of one oil cooler is a little high resulting from serve fouling in operation, the switch valve can replace it with the other one by switching their operating positions. If outlet and inlet cooling water temperatures of one oil cooler exceeds a design value and outlet oil temperature exceeds maximum acceptable temperature, two of them can be put into service to meet the requirements of oil supply by an operating position of a high speed switch valve. The switch valve consists of a valve body, a valve core, a compression wrench, a handle, a sealing frame, a chock block and so on. Profiles of the switch valve are shown in 8-6. Lube enters into the switch valve from its lower part and exits from two sides of its lower part, and then reaches two sides of its upper part and flows into lube supply main pipe of the bearings from upper outlet of the switch valve after being cooled by the oil cooler. The position of the valve core decides on operation condition of the corresponding oil cooler. Before commutation of the switch valve, an oil injection valve for connecting pipelines located on the oil return pipe of the oil cooler must be opened to fully inject oil into a back-up oil cooler, which is for preventing oil break resulting from lube with gas in the process of switching. And then rotating a big hand wheel makes the switch valve loosen and rotating a small one with 90 degrees along direction of arrow enables the switching operation in process. The chock block for restricting the rotation of the valve core is equipped in the switch valve located on the sealing frame. While the small hand wheel is immovable which shows that the switch valve is at the switched operating position, the big one should be used for locking the switch valve to prevent optional rotation of the valve core and the small hand wheel. As two oil coolers is necessary at the same time, the small hand wheel should be placed to middle position of the valve body to enable lube to enter into them 106

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respectively through the valve core. There is a plug screw as an oil drain hole at the lower end of the shell. Therefore, the plug screw should be taken down prior to a disassembly so as to completely drain oil in the switch valve. The maintenance of the switch valve mainly covers fouling products clearance and leak check. The maintenance could be carried out by disassembling the hand wheels, the compression wrench and the sealing frame.

Fig. 8-6 Switch Valve Profiles 5). Booster oil pump (BOP) The booster oil pump with the function of an oil ejector is a combined device (referring to diagram (8-7)) consisting of an oil turbine and a centrifugal booster pump. Outlet high pressure oil serving as power oil from the main oil pump is supplied to an injection nozzle of the oil turbine with the throttle valve. High speed oil flow through the injection nozzle with kinetic energy is converted into mechanical energy of the impeller to drive a coaxial booster pump to rotate after reversing and reducing speed in a moving vane channel. Oil in the main oil tank through the filter gauge is supplied to inlet of a main oil pump by pressurizing with the booster pump. After depressurized power oil resulting from work mixes with make-up oil from the bypass valve, it is served as lube to be supplied to the devices, such as bearings. Main functions of the throttle valve covers driving power control of the oil turbine, opening increase, driving power rise, rotating speed rise of the impeller and outlet oil pressure rise of the booster pump. The bypass and overflows valves are used for adjusting oil capacity and pressure of entire lubrication system. In 107

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case amount of oil drain from the oil turbine can not meet the requirement of the lubrication system for oil flow, the bypass valve can be used for directly providing oil for the system. The throttle valve is used for controlling final lube pressure.

After the first rolling of the unit reaches 3000rpm, three the valves should be adjusted to make the pumping oil pressure of the main oil pump range from 0.098MPa to 0.147MPa so as to keep the pressure at inlet pipes of the bearings between 0.137MPa to 0.176MPa, namely to make sure enough pressure oil into the oil turbine, so that both the demands of needed oil pressure for the main oil pump inlet and enough oil quantity for the lube system can be met. 6). Alternating current startup oil pump, alternating current auxiliary oil pump and direct current emergency oil pump All the pumps are vertical centrifugal pumps. Driving motors are equipped on top of the main oil tank, and connected with pump spindles by a flexible coupling. Thrust bearings on supports of the driving motors bear overall hydraulic thrust and rotor weight. All the pumps are immersed below the lowest oil level to make them available at any time.

Fig. 8-10 Booster Oil Pump Sketch Drawing The whole alternating current oil pumps employed in our plant are a vertical centrifugal pump designed by Chengdu Pumps Research Institute, which consists of a frame, a bearing chamber, a connecting pipe, a spiral casing, an axis, an Impeller and so on. The thrust and guide bearings of those pumps can not start up without lube from the pump outlets. It is necessary for checking 108

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whether oil in the copper tubing returns to the bearing chamber to lubricate the bearings while loosening a hydraulic pipe joint at an outer end of an oil return copper tubing on the basis of a distance from operating oil level to bottom of a pump base within 0.88m after the startup of the bearings. Certain pressure at the pump outlet must be kept by partial outlet blockage so as to avoid oil break. The alternating current auxiliary oil pump is used for supplying lube under startup, shutdown and emergency conditions of the steam turbine; therefore it must be put into service to make normal oil pressure prior to turning and rolling operations of the unit. It can be out of the service when the main oil pump is adequate for overall oil demands of the lubrication system and the rotating speed of the unit accelerates to 90% rated rotating speed. As the alternating current auxiliary oil pump is normally in automatic state, main oil pump outlet oil pressure is below 1.205MPa or the lube pressure is less than 0.115MPa, it is automatically put into service to provide overall oil demands for the lubrication system. The alternating current startup oil pump is used for providing oil source for the main oil pump inlet in the process of the unit startup when the unit rotating speed is less than the 90% rated speed, the oil turbine is neither in normal operation nor normal oil supply for the main oil pump. The structure of the startup oil pump is the same as the structure of the auxiliary oil pump. The direct current emergency oil pump (EOP) is used for providing required lube for the smooth shutdown of the unit under the conditions that the unit is in emergency condition, the system oil supply device can not meet the demand for oil or is in loss of alternating current. When the pressure of lube is lower than 0.105MPa, it is triggered. 7). Pipe-in-pipe oil pipeline The pipe-in-pipe oil pipeline is a combined pipeline with a high pressure oil pipeline in a low pressure oil return pipe for returning oil. It is used for transporting a variety of pressure oil to the bearing housing and other devices and systems in usage of oil from the containerized oil tank, and returning bearing return oil and drain oil from the devices and systems in usage of oil to the channel of the containerized oil tank. The pipe-in-pipe oil pipeline possesses the structure with several small pipelines in a big pipe. The small pipelines are used for conveying high pressure oil, lube and suction oil of the main oil pump. Space between the small pipelines and the big pipe can be served as oil return pipe. Therefore, this kind of arrangement can not only avoid high pressure oil leakage to increase safety, but also reduce space to make it simple and tidy. However, it possesses inconvenience in maintenance. The pipe-in-pipe oil pipeline includes two; one is for the front bearing housing and the other one is for the rear bearing housing and the motor bearing. In addition, a jacking oil pipe also employs the pipe-in-pipe structure. It is put into the bearing housings from lube main pipe. The pipe-in-pipe oil pipeline is composed of a pipe joint, a bushing, an elbow group, a forked bushing and an adapter ring and so on. It is assembled on spot after being produced into sections in a manufactory. An uncrossed arrangement of the small pipelines increases safety and reliability and ensures the 109

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quality of the pipe-in-pipe oil pipeline; meanwhile it is convenient for assembling. A temporary filter gauge flushing device only for filtering impurities in pipes is equipped on all main pipes entered into the bearings. The filter gauge of the flushing device must be removed to make oil flow smoothly under normal operation of the unit. In order to conveniently monitor return oil temperature and quality from all bearings, a little return oil will be conveyed into a sighting pipe with the pipe-in-pipe oil pipeline. The inner surface of the oil return pipe and the outer surface of the oil supply pipe are coated with anti-corrosive paint for preventing from rusting. The said arrangement not only improves cleanliness of oil pipeline, but also avoid oil blockage of oil return chamber. 8.1.6 System operation monitoring and adjustment The following items should be set prior to reaching the rated rotating speed after the first startup of the steam turbine and the maintenance of the lubrication system; otherwise occurrence of steam turbine trip resulting from low oil pressure is possible. 1). Adjusting a flow throttle valve of the oil turbine can change pumping capability of the booster pump, thereby stabilizing oil feed of the main oil pump within a certain scope; however main pipe pressure of bearing lube can be affected as well. If oil supply pressure of the booster pump increases, main pipe pressure of bearing lube will decrease. 2). Adjusting the bypass valve of the oil turbine can change lube pressure. If the bypass valve is opened wider than before, the lube pressure will increase. But oil drain pressure of the booster pump will decrease with reduction of driving force. 3). A relief valve is equipped on the bearing lube supply main pipe. It is used for leaking out superfluous oil to stabilize oil pressure when excessive pressure occurs. A general discharge amount accounts for 25-50% of full-load oil flow. In order to guarantee safe operation, the lube temperature must be kept within a certain scope. If the viscosity is too high resulting from rather low oil temperature, the lubrication effects will be bad. If there is oxidation rate rise resulting from too high oil return temperature, oil quality will be worsened. The bearing oil return temperature must be ranged from 60 degrees centigrade to 70 degrees centigrade so as to make the oil temperature in the bearing stay at 75 degrees centigrade. In order to obtain an adequate oil return temperature by adjusting oil flow, each bearing oil inlet pipe possesses different calibers and a movable orifice plate is installed on the pipeline. The entrance oil temperature must be ranged from 38 degrees centigrade to 49 degrees centigrade. Continuous oil film can be formed when oil pressure at the upper part of the bearing is higher than atmospheric pressure. If oil pressure is too high, oil will be thrown away from two ends of the bearing in high speed and become fine oil mist. Each bearing oil inlet branch is provided with a coarse strainer and a flow orifice plate. A bearing oil return branch is provided with a return oil peep window for observing operating index, such as oil quality, oil flow and water content in oil, and a return oil thermometer. Coarse strainer cleaning should be considered in a unit maintenance or low oil inlet pressure of several bearings.

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8.2 Steam turbine jacking system 8.2.1 Overview The jacking device is an important component in the steam turbine unit, which is used for jacking a rotor during turning, startup and shutdown of the steam turbo-generator set. Elliptical bearings (3#, 4#, 5#, 6#, 7# and 8#) of the unit are entirely provided with high pressure jacking oil pockets. High pressure oil supplied by the jacking device is important for the protection of the rotor and the jacking oil pocket, because it can form static pressure oil film between the rotor and the bearings and force to jack the rotor so as to avoid dry friction between the journal and the bearing shell during low rotation speed of the steam turbine and reduce tuning torque. During rotating speed droop prior to the shutdown of the steam turbo-generator set, the jacking device can be used for preventing the bearing shell from being rolled. During the operation, pressure of the oil pocket is a representation for oil film pressure of this bearing and an important parameter for monitoring the changes of shafting elevation and the load distribution of the bearings. 8.2.2 System flow A jacking oil system flow is shown in figure 8-11. Oil source of a jacking oil pump with pressure about 0.176MPa from lube behind the oil cooler can effectively prevent the oil pump from air suction and cavitation corrosion. Suction oil is coarsely filtered by an automatic reverse flushing filtering device with 32 microns screen mesh, and then enters into an inlet port of the jacking oil pump through a dual-drum filter with 25 microns screen mesh. Suction oil is boosted to pressure oil with 16.0MPa at the oil pump outlet after boosted by it, and then pressure oil flows into a flow divider through a single-drum high pressure filter. Finally, pressure oil enters into each bearing through a no-return valve and a throttle valve. With the adjustment of the throttle valve, oil capacity and pressure of each bearing can be controlled, thereby enabling a jacking height of the journal within a reasonable range (according to a theoretic calculation, journal jacking oil pressure should be ranged from 12MPa to 16MPa and the jacking height should be more than 0.02mm). Pump outlet oil pressure is set by the overflow valve.

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Fig. 8-11 Jacking Oil System Flow With the use of a two-stage oil suction filter, cleanliness of the system is effectively assured. The oil pump of the system is an imported constant pressure variable plunger pump, which possesses the advantages of high efficiency, low heat value and noise, continuous operation under high pressure, reliable performance, no leakage, high volume efficiency and so on. There is a high accuracy coupling and transition frame and a compensated coupling between the electric motor and the pump, so vibration and noise of the entire generator system of the pump is reduced and well and reliable overall performance is ensured. In order to control operation and switching of the two pumps, and prevent the pumps from 112

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damaging for air suction, a pressure switch is provided on inlet and outlet pipes of the oil pump. When pump inlet pipe oil pressure is equal to or greater than 0.03MPa, the pressure switch at the oil pump inlet is switched on, which means the blockage of the oil suction filter gauge; when outlet pipe oil pressure is equal to or greater than 7MPa, the pressure switch on the outlet pipe is switched on, and the standby jacking oil pump should be start up. There is an instrument board in front of the jacking device. It is provided with pressure gauges for the usage of the devices shown in figure of the jacking device system flow and the switches located in front and back of the pump. For this arrangement, during the site operation, it is convenient and simple for datum observation and record. There are pressure gauges located in front and back of the automatic reverse flushing filter, which are used for monitoring pressure difference and cleanliness of the filter. 8.2.3 Introduction for system devices The jacking device is mainly composed of the electrical motor, the high pressure oil pump, the automatic reverse flushing filter, the dual-drum filter, the pressure switches, the overflow valve, the no-return valve, the throttle valve and stainless steel pipes and accessories. With the use of a containerized structure, it is convenient for assembling and maintaining. The jacking oil system employs two variable plunger pumps; one is used for operating and the other one is standby. Oil suction, drainage and pressure boost of the plunger pump can be completed by reciprocating motion of a plunger in the pump. Delivery capacity of the plunger pump is changed with the axial displacement distance of the plunger by adjusting an included angle between a swash plate and a drive shaft on the premise of an invariable rotating speed; meanwhile, electrical motor load is also changed with obliquity of the swash plate so as to save electricity. 8.3 Lube purification system 8.3.1 Overview Because gland steam leakage, bearing shell friction, lube temperature rise and so on will lead to changes of lube performance and oil film force resulting from bad oil quality and to tungsten melting and bearing shell damages resulting from bad lubrication effects of every parts, normal operation of the lubrication system is important for safe operation of the steam turbine. The lubrication system needs both the purifying device for keeping oil quality and reasonable flow linkage between the devices and the system. 8.3.2 Equipment specifications Table 8-3 Equipment Specifications for Lubrication system SN Item Unit Data

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SN 1

Item Manufacturer

Unit -

Data Manufactured by Alfa Laval Inc., and assembled by Beijing Turbine New Technology Development Co., Ltd. Manufactured by Alfa Laval Inc., and assembled in Beijing MAB206 Centrifugal 10600 32, 46 or 68 3 33PPm

Made in

3 4 5 6 7 8

Model Type Rated output of the purifying device Applicable oil type Aperture of filtration Processed oil quality

L/h m Water content Granule level

Level 7 of NAS or Level 6 of Morgan KFUG42 Horizontal gear pump 13 0.15 11 1500 Produced by ABB, supported by Alfa Laval Inc. 12 415 and

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Oil pump model Oil pump type Oil pump capacity Oil pump lift Oil pump shaft power Oil pump rotating speed Oil pump motor model

m3/h Mpa KW rpm -

16 17

Rated power of oil pump motor Rated voltage of oil pump motor

KW V

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SN 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Item Oil pump motor rotating speed Centrifuge model Centrifuge type Centrifuge capacity Centrifuge shaft power Centrifuge rotating speed Centrifuge motor model Rated power of centrifuge motor Rated voltage of centrifuge motor Centrifuge motor rotating speed Max noise Dimension (LWH) Size of ports

Unit rpm m3/h KW rpm KW V rpm dB(A) Mm Oil inlet Oil outlet Dirt outlet Sealing water inlet

Data 1500 MAB206 Vertical 10.6 11 8425 Sharing the motor of oil pump 12 415 1500 85 180014001300 DN40 DN40 DN20 1/2 inch internal screw

31 32 33 34 35

Pressure level of ports (PN) Net weight Operation weight Max maintenance weight Centrifuge and oil pump shell material

Mpa Kg Kg Kg -

16 1000 1020 1020 Cast steel

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SN 36

Item Centrifuge and oil pump cover material Centrifuge and oil pump impeller material Centrifuge and oil pump shaft sleeve material Electrical heater power

Unit -

Data Cast steel

37

Stainless steel

38

Stainless steel

39

KW

96

8.3.3 System flow The lube purification system is used for filtering and purifying lube from the main oil tank of the steam turbine, the small-sized steam turbine oil tank, a lube storage tank and a tank car to meet the requirements for utilization. During normal operation of the system, the lube storage tank can supplement oil for the main oil tank and the small-sized steam turbine oil tank; in an accident or maintenance, lube in the two tanks can be poured out into the storage tank. (Referring to figure 8-12)

Fig. 8-12 Lube Purification System Flow

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Emergency oil drain pipes for draining oil to an emergency oil bath at outside of the main power building are respectively equipped to the main oil tank of the steam turbine, the small-sized steam turbine oil tank and the lube storage tank. 8.3.4 Introduction for system devices The lube purification system is mainly composed of a lube storage tank and a delivery pump. The main steam turbine and the steam turbine for two feed pumps are provided with oil purifying devices. 1). Oil filter It is mainly used for filtering water and impurities. The main oil tank of the steam turbine, the small-sized steam turbine oil tank and the lube storage tank are respectively provided with a pipe used for connecting with the mobile oil filter; therefore each oil tank can separately form an oil circulation and purification system with the oil filter. 2). Lube storage tank Normally, the storage tank is used for storing clean and qualified lube and supplementing oil for the main oil tank and the small-sized steam turbine oil tank; meanwhile it is also served as storage tank during the maintenance of the main oil tank and the small-sized steam turbine oil tank. Two lube filling ports serving as joints with an oil supplementary pipe are fixed at the top and the bottom of the storage tank, respectively. The storage tank is provided with an overflow pipe for the tank, a bottom oil drain pipe, an emergency oil drain pipe, two pressure vent valves with a flame arrester and two sample connections. 3). Lube delivery pump The lube delivery pump used in our plant is a horizontal gear pump and applied to delivering a variety of fluid with lubricity, and temperature below 80 degrees centigrade, viscosity ranging from 5*10 to the power of minus 6 to 1.5*10 to the power of minus 3 m/S, but not to corrosive liquid having hard grain or fiber, high volatility or low flash point, such as gasoline, benzene, acid, base and salt. It possesses the characteristics of stability, safety, reliability, and good sealing and self-suction performances and startup without oil injection. Since the lube is conveying intermediate, additional one is unnecessary in daily time. The delivery pump is mainly composed of a pump body, a gear, a safety valve with action pressure 0.45MPa, a single-row radial ball bearing, a bearing block, a flexible coupling, a gland packing device and so on.

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Fig. 8-13 Gear Pump Structural Drawing Fig.1-5 External Gear Rotary Pump Diagrammatic Sketch 1-drive gear; 2-driven gear The gear pump belongs to a fixed displacement pump with structure shown in figure 8-13. A drive gear 1 of it is fixed on a drive shaft in connection with a prime mover and a driven gear is fixed on the other shaft. Its work space includes the pump body, a side cover and gullets of the gear. Liquid delivery is achieved with volume changes of the work space in the process of intermesh of the gear. The work space is divided into a suction chamber and a discharge chamber by the meshed teeth A, B and C. As the drive gear drives the driven gear to rotate along a direction shown in figure 8-13, the fluid flows into the chamber through an induction pipe till filling with overall gullets while volume of the suction chamber is gradually increased and the pressure is decreased with the engagement loosing of the gear C located in the suction chamber. With rotation of the gear, the volume of the discharge chamber is increased and the liquid flowed into the gullets is brought into the discharge chamber and forced to be discharged with a discharge pipe. In such a way, a part of liquid is absorbed and discharged with each rotation of a tooth so as to achieve continuous liquid delivery. Four lube delivery pumps for the system comprises one pump for the main oil storage tank of the steam turbine which has the function of delivering the lube of the main oil tank to the oil storage tank, one oil storage tank delivery pump used for transporting the lube to the main oil tank or the small oil tank according to need and two pumps for the small oil tank which are used for transporting the lube in the small oil tank to the oil storage tank. On-off states of the valves at outlet pipes must be checked prior to the startup of the gear pump. 8.4 Oil quality index of the steam turbine lube There are various oil quality indexes, mainly including the five, such as viscosity, acid value, 118

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acid-base reaction, resistance to emulsion and flash point, as well as transparency, temperatures of freezing point and mechanical impurities.

Chapter IX Condensate System 9.1 Overview A condensate system is mainly used for providing the deaerator and the feed-water system with condensate, the low pressure cylinder steam discharge, a three-stage temperature-decreased pressure reducer, the auxiliary steam turbine and the low bypass with attemperating water and the feed pump with sealing water, and for completing low pressure heating of the condensate. In order to ensure safe and reliable operation of the system and water quality, and improve thermal efficiency of cycle during the transportation, a series of measures are taken, such as condensate flow control, desalting, heating and dosing. 9.2 System composition and flow The condensate system employed in our plant is a unit intermediate pressure system, including two condensate delivery pumps, two 100% capacity condensate pumps, a gland heater and four low pressure heaters. (Referring to figure 9-1) This condenser combines the functions of double-shell, two-pressure, dual-channel single pass and surface condensers. Water level of a condenser hot well is adjusted by a water supplement and control valve. During a normal operation, water supplement of the hot well is achieved by the help of vacuum draw. When the water level rises to a value, the water supplement and control valve must be closed. If the water level continues to rise, a condensate discharge valve must be employed to discharge the condensate into a storage tank. The two 100% capacity condensate pumps are set at ground floor of the turbine room, with one for running and the other one for standby during normal operation. The condensate pump employs a self-sealing water system. During a normal operation, the sealing water flows from the condensate pump outlet; on a startup, the water flows from the condensate supplement system. The sealing water from the former one is supplied to stubs of the two condensate pumps after depressurized. In order to prevent from cavitation of the condensate pump, a condensate recirculating pipe is set behind the gland heater and extended to the condenser, which is put into service on startup and low load. In order to realize gland seal steam overflow and valve lever steam leakage on startup and low load of a unit cooler while avoiding the cavitation of the condensate pump, the maximum flow of the condensate should be more than required safe flow 400t/h of the condensate pump and the gland heater. In order to ensure qualified condensate, every machine is provided with a condensate polishing 119

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unit at the ground floor of the turbine room. The condensate polishing unit is provided with inlet, outlet and bypass gate valves. In case of startup failure of the unit or polishing failure, the bypass gate valve is used for supplying water for the system. The condensate system also has dosing points for oxygen, ammonia and hydrazine. The gland heater is 6.9m far away from the turbine room. Negative pressure state of its steam side maintained by a gland steam condenser extraction fan is helpful to recycle gland seal waste steam and prevent steam leakage. The gland heater is designed without bypass pipes according to 100% rated flow. Enough cooling water for the unit at low load is supplied by the condensate recirculating pipe. Drainage of the gland heater flows by gravity to the condenser after water sealed. In order to ensure continuous service of a water sealing pipe, steam can not pass through it and height of it should be twice higher than that of a pressure difference at two sides. The condensate system is provided with four low pressure heaters, namely 5#, 6#, 7# and 8#. The 7# and 8# heaters are equipped at throats of two condensers and having a combined arrangement and the 5# and 6# heaters are equipped at 6.9m floor of the turbine room. The former two makes use of a big bypass system and the other two are small bypass system. In case that the heaters need to be cut off, the condensate can flow through the bypasses. The low pressure heater drainage is recycled to the condenser by means of cascade gravity flow. The low pressure heater is also provided with an emergency drainage direct discharge condenser. The deaerator is set at 29m floor of a deaerator bay. With the use of sliding pressure operation, the steam of the deaerator, during a normal operation, is from four stage extraction steam of the steam turbine, and startup and standby steam sources are from an auxiliary system. The water level of the deaerator is controlled by a main condensate control valve. A check valve is fixed on a condensate inlet pipe to prevent steam in the deaerator from flowing backwards the condensate system. There are polished condensate braches for providing water source for system users. The water sources include low pressure cylinder spray, condenser water screen protection spray, gland attemperator spray, feed pump sealing water, attemperating water of the auxiliary steam turbine, flash tank attemperating water of the steam turbine, make-up water of a closed water system, low bypass attemperating water, sealing water of a vacuum break valve and so on. In order to improve flexibility during the operation of the deaerator and feed water to it on startup, supplementary condensate is drawn in the condensate pipe located at deaerator inlet. Besides discharge water from the 5# low pressure heater outlet is diverted to an open return pipe for flushing and emergency water drain. In order to meet water consumption of the system, each unit is provided with a condensate supplement system used for water injection of the deaerator and the condenser on startup of the unit, water supplement of the system during normal operation and high overflow water recovery of the condenser. The condensate supplement system comprises a condensate storage tank, two condensate delivery pumps and associated pipe valves. During the normal operation of the unit, the water level of the condensate storage tank is controlled by a deminerized water inlet control valve. A connecting pipe is set among storage tanks of the three units to increase operational flexibility. 120

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Fig. 9-1 Condensate System Flow Diagram 9.3 Introduction for system devices 9.3.1 Condenser

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1). Overview The condenser is mainly used for generating rather low exhaust back pressure at exhaust part of the steam turbine to make steam power work to the utmost extent to be cooled into condensate, and then recycled into the hot well. This function can be realized by the cooperation of a vacuum pumping system and a circulating water system. While incondensable gas is pumped out by the vacuum pumping system, the circulating water system immediately takes steam condensation heat away, which not only ensures continuous steam condensation and high vacuum at the exhaust part, but also recycles working medium. The condenser is used for exhaust steam of the main steam turbine, the small-sized steam turbine and the low pressure bypass, drainage of the steam turbine, emergency drainage of high and low pressure heaters and deaerator overflow water. The condenser of our plant combines the functions of double-shell, single flow, two-pressure and surface condensers and having a parallel horizontal arrangement. It is an all-welded steel condenser consisting of two inclined throat parts, two shells (including the hot well, water chamber and heat return pipes), circulating water communicating pipe, and sliding support, dead abutment at bottom. 2). Condenser design parameters are given in following table: Table 9-2 Condenser Technical Parameters

Sequence No. 1

Project Total active area of the condenser Active area of exhaust area Numbers of pass and shell VWO net heat carried away under the condition of circulating water Heat-transfer coefficient Circulating water flow

Unit m2

Data 30500

m2

1830

1/2

kJ/s

795300.3

W/m2.

3234.4/3303.3

t/h

71500

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Peak flow rate of circulating water in tube bunch Design flow velocity in cooling pipe Cleanness factor VWO temperature rise under the condition of circulating water Condensate super-cooling degree Design temperature excess of the condenser Design pressure in the water chamber Design pressure at shell side Guaranteed oxygen content of condensate at the condenser outlet Total water resistance of pipe Condenser resistance steam

m/s

2.3

m/s

2.3

9 10

0.85 10.2

11

0.5

12

6.02/5.85

13

MPa.g

0.4

14

MPa.g

Vac.0.15

15

g/l

30

16

kPa

61

17

kPa

0.1

18

Circulation ratio(design condition) Weight chamber per water kg

55

19

15000

20

Condenser net weight

kg

750000

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21

Condenser weight in running Condenser filled with water weight

kg

1350000

22

kg

2550000

23

Test pressure in the water chamber

1.5 times as high as the design pressure

9.3.2 Condensate pump 1). Condensate pump structure The condensate pump is a vertical barrel-type multiple centrifugal pump with a four-stage impeller, and consists of an outer shell, effluent connecting pipe, a pump spindle, four-stage impeller, coupling, sealing part, pump base and so on. Structural representation of the condensate pump is shown in figure 9-6 and outline drawing is shown in figure 9-7. The condensate is first absorbed into a trumpet suction inlet by a suction pipe through the outer shell, then into a first-stage impeller by directors located at two sides of the first-stage impeller, and into the later three-stage impellers by a circular foil nozzle, and finally drained by an outlet pip after pressure boosting. The condensate pump is used for conveying the condensate in the hot well to the deaerator. Because the pump is in serve working conditions and the condensate to be pumped is inclined to cause cavitation for its vacuum and saturated states, the impeller of the pump is asked for excellent shaft-end sealing and anti-cavitation performances. Structural features of the condensate pump are as follows: anti-cavitation structures which make sure an excellent anti-cavitation performance of the pump: A. Vertical installation of the pump body has the functions of lowering the suction inlet height, improving the effective net positive suction head and suction performance of the pump. B. The adoption of a double-suction impeller for the first-stage impeller enables the required net positive suction head to be reduced and ensures the net positive suction head in excess of the required net positive suction head by the help of its material CA-6NM with anti-cavitation performance. C. The directors at two sides of the first-stage double-suction impeller make water flow at the inlet of the firs-stage impeller evenly distributed, and so reduce gas-carrying possibility at the inlet. D. The trumpet design of the shells at the first-stage impeller inlet enlarges the suction inlet diameter and width of the impeller so as to reduce the flow speed of the fluid at the inlet and the required net positive suction head. E. An inlet pipe air evacuation valve, which is used for preventing the pump from absorbing air 124

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by pumping out air in pump inlet water, is fixed on the outer shell and connected to the condenser. Air in the inlet pipe must be completely empted by injecting water before the pump operation, and the valve at the pump inlet must be kept with certain opening during the normal operation. Mechanical seal: The shaft-end sealing of the condensate pump is mechanical seal, and so sealing performance is excellent. Sealing water of it is from the condensate or condensate supplement system with pressure ranging from 0.4MPa to 0.6MPa and flow from 0.3 to 0.6 M3.

Fig.9-6 Condensate Pump Structural Diagram 125

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Fig. 9-7 Condensate Pump Outline Drawing 2). Technical performance of condensate pump A. Condensate pump type is NLT500-5704S.

B. Performance parameters of condensate pump Table 9-4 Performance Parameters of Condensate Pump

Pump type Pump service operating point

NLT500-570X4S Nameplate condition Rated condition(turbine

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Item

Unit

Entering water temperature Leaving water pressure Flow Outlet water total pressure Pumping head Efficiency Net positive suction head Rotating speed Shaft power Outlet water total pressure Inlet/Outlet nominal diameter Inlet/outlet nominal pressure Pump design pressure Sense of rotation

MPa-a t/h Mpa-a M % mH2O r/min Kw MPa mm/mm MPa-g MPa(g)

46.3 0.01 1693 3.25 333 83.6 5.2 1480 1835.8 3.25 800/500 1.6/5.0 5

46.3 0.01 1434.493 3.41 350 83 5 1480 1646.7 3.41 800/500 1.6/5.0 5

Anticlockwise rotation in view from electrical motor to condensate pump

Chapter X Feed Water System 10.1 Overview A feed water system refers to the overall devices and their piping system from the deaerator outlet to the boiler economizer inlet. Its main functions are comprised of boosting pressure of the condensate in a deaerator water tank, further heating it by a high pressure heater till meeting the requirement of boiler feed water, and conveying it to the boiler economizer inlet as feed water for the boiler. Furthermore, the feed water system is also applied to providing high pressure attemperating water for the primary, secondary attemperators of the boiler superheater, the attemperators of the reheater and turbine high pressure bypass in order to adjust the outlet vapor temperature of said devices.

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10.2 System composition and characteristics 10.2.1 Feed water system composition The feed water system for the unit in our plant mainly includes two 50% BMCR turbo-feed pumps and its booster pump, a drive motor for driving the small-sized steam turbine and its booster pump, a 50% BMCR motor-driven feed pump, a hydraulic coupling, a booster pump and its drive motor, 1#, 2# and 3# high pressure heaters, valves, filter gauge, the associated pipes and so on. The feed pump is an important accessory for the turbine, because it has the function of supplying feed water under required pressure to the boiler with pressure and kinetic energy converted from rotating mechanical energy. The large-scale unit is always provided with a small-sized steam turbine with a variable rotating speed for driving and two turbo-feed pumps and a motor-driven feed pump, wherein the former two pumps are served as power unit for boiler feed water under normal operation and the later one is served as a startup pump for the startup and a standby pump for the normal operation of the unit. In order to ensure safe operation of the feed pump while improving economical efficiency of the deaerator in the sliding pressure operation, a low-speed booster pump in series operation with the feed pump is usually added in front of the feed pump so as to effectively avoid pump cavitation. 10.2.2 Feed water system flow The feed water system flow is shown in figure 10-1. First, feed water in the deaerator tank drops down to the booster pump inlet through a coarse filter gauge, and then flows to the feed pump inlet through a fine filter gauge after pressurized by the booster pump; finally, water from the feed pump converges to an outlet main pipe through an outlet check valve and an electric gate valve, and flows into the 1#, 2# and 3# high pressure heaters in order. Furthermore, there is other feed water, serving as attemperating water for the high pressure bypass, from the outlet main pipe of the feed pump, and feed water from an intermediate tap of the feed pump for a spray type attemperator of the boiler reheater. 10.3 Turbo-feed pump 10.3.1 Booster pump of turbo-feed pump The booster pump in our plant is a horizontal, single axial separation centrifugal pump with the model of SQ300-670 produced by the KSB Shanghai Pump Co., Ltd. and a shell approaching to a center line for radial and axial free expansion so as to keep consistent with the axial center. The pump is entirely equipped on a rigid pump base with an appropriate drainage device. The booster pump is mainly composed of a pump barrel, an impeller, shafts, and an impeller sealing ring, bearings, couplings, pump base and so on.

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Fig. 11-1 Feed Water System Flow Diagram 10.3.2 Turbo-feed pump The turbo-feed pump employed in our plant is a horizontal, parallel, cylindrical centrifugal pump with the mode of CHTC6/5 from the KSB Shanghai Pump Co., Ltd. It mainly consists of a cartridge, internal and external pump barrels, a hydraulic part, an intermediate tap, an equilibrator, bearings, a gland seal part, a pump base and so on. 10.3.3 Turbo-feed pumps auxiliary system There is a chemical cleaning connector, an electrical gate valve, a pressurized return pipe joint for the small-sized steam turbine sealing water, a chemical dosing pipe and a filter gauge on a booster pump inlet pipe of the turbo-feed pump as well as a flow measuring device. While the pressure difference of the filter gauge reaches 0.03MPa, the flow measuring device will send a high pressure difference alarm signal. There is a check valve and an electrical gate valve on a booster pump outlet pipe, and a minimum flow recirculating pipe on a pipe located between the check valve and the outlet pipe; therefore, feed water from the turbo-feed pump outlet can flow into the deaerator tank after adjusted by the electrical gate valve so as to guarantee minimum flow through the pump without cavitation. 10.4 Motor-driven feed pump 10.4.1 Booster pump of motor-driven feed pump The booster pump of motor-driven feed pump employed in our plant is a SQ300-670 model centrifugal pump from the KSB Shanghai Pump Co., Ltd., and most consistent with the turbo-feed pump in main body structural performance, for example they are both the horizontal and single axial separation type low-speed centrifugal pump. It has a radial bearing internally lined with the white metal and makes use of the pressure lube. Its free end is provided with an adjustable pad double direction thrust bearing. And the bearing is connected with the electrical motor by a metal laminated coupling with both flexibility and rigidity. 10.4.2 Motor-driven feed pump The motor-driven feed pump is used for transporting high pressure feed water for the boiler to meet the requirement for feed water at initial startup stage of the unit. It is put into service as a standby pump to keep normal operation of the unit while the turbo-feed pump is outage for failure during the normal operation. The motor-driven feed pump is horizontal, six-stage cylindrical centrifugal pump with mode of CHTC6/5 from the KSB Shanghai Pump Co., Ltd. Its cartridge is imported with original packaging from the Germany KSB company. It also consists of the cartridge, internal and external pump shells, a hydraulic part, an intermediate tap, an equilibrator, bearings, a gland seal part, and a pump base, etc., thus it is most consistent with the turbo-feed pump in the main body structural performance. Performance Parameter Summary Table (format) 130

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Technical Datum for Booster Pump of Motor-driven Feed Pump Operating condition Rated Single Design (guaranteed pump flow efficiency point ) maximum flow SQ300-670 178.5 181.5 1.12 1347.4 131 84 4.6 178.5 1.079 1500 130 82 6 178.5 1.079 305 144.9 39 1.6 Single pump minimum flow

Item Pump type Entering water temperature Entering water pressure Flow Pumping head Efficiency Required net suction head Type of seal Rotating speed Leaving water pressure Shaft power Weight Joint flange nominal pressure Joint pipe specification(S) Sense of rotation Type of bearing Drive mode Inlet

Unit

MPa(g) 1.079 m3/h m % 1104.8 135 84 2.9 Mechanical seal r/min 1485

positive m

1485 2.26 506.5

1485 2.21 575.4

1485 2.34 274.2

MPa(g) 2.26 kW kg 429.6 1598

MPa(g) 4.0

Outlet MPa(g) 4.0 Inlet mm DN400 DN350 Clockwise rotation in view from drive end to pump Imported rolling bearing Electrical motor in coaxial driving with feed pump Technical Datum for Motor-driven Feed Pump Operating condition Rated Single pump Single Design pump (guaranteed maximum flow minimum efficiency point ) flow

Outlet mm

Item 131

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Type of pump Entering temperature water kg/m3

CHTC6/5 178.5 887.9 181.5 884.6 2.15 1347.4 1298.8 2248 83 43 178.5 887.9 2.08 1350 1350 1820 81 40 178.5 887.9 2.21 270 270 2550 36 22

Entering water density Entering water pressure Entering water flow Leaving water flow Pumping head Efficiency Required net suction head Type of seal Rotating speed Leaving water pressure Shaft power Tap pressure Tap flow Booster pressure Booster flow Shaft vibration Joint flange nominal pressure Inlet Tap Outlet

MPa(g) 2.15 m3/h m3/h m % 1104.8 1056.4 2111 82.6 34

positive m

Imported BURGMANN mechanical seal r/min 4673 5008 21.64 8609.7 9.96 48.6 4678 17.93 7339 4678 24.42 4627.4

MPa(g) 20.519 kW 6626.5

MPa(g) 9.34 m3/h 48.5

MPa(g) No boost m3/h mm No boost 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03

MPa(g) 4.0 MPa(g) 40.0 MPa 40.0 No boost DN300 DN80 DN250 Zero

Booster MPa Inlet Joint pipe specification (S) Tap Outlet mm mm mm

Booster mm

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Weight Sense of rotation Type of bearing Drive mode 10.4.3 Hydraulic coupling

kg

7220

Clockwise rotation in view from drive end to feed pump Sliding bearingpad thrust bearing Electrical motor

The hydraulic coupling is a power transmission device with the functions of transmitting medium power by virtue of liquid and stably converting torsion torque and angular velocity. The hydraulic coupling in the motor-driven feed pump has the characteristics of large governing scope, large power, sensitive governing and so on, so that it can make a stable and shockless startup for the pump under nearly idling condition. It is also helpful for automatic adjustment for the feed pump by means of an infinite variable speed so as to enable the pump to meet the requirements of sliding pressure variable load operations between the main steam turbine and the boiler. Therefore, effective energy saving can be achieved in case that the output factor of the unit is less than 70-80%. Hydraulic Coupling Performance Data Sheet Item Model No./Maker Input rotating speed Output rotating speed Governing scope Normal slip Unit R18K500M/Germany VOITH r/min r/min % % 1485 5008 12535008 3 Data

10.4.4 Auxiliary system of motor-driven feed pump There is a chemical cleaning connector, an electrical gate valve, a chemical dosing pipe and a filter gauge on the booster pump inlet pipe of the motor-driven feed pump. The motor-driven feed pump is connected with the electrical motor by the hydraulic coupling; its inlet pipe is provided with a flow measuring device and a filter gauge; the outlet pipe is provided with a check valve and an electrical gate valve. A minimum flow recirculating pipe is fixed on the pipe located between the motor-driven feed pump and the check valve, so that the motor-driven feed pump can be operated with a minimum flow without causing the cavitation after the feed water from the motor-driven feed pump outlet enters into the deaerator tank through the motor-driven valve. The lube of the feed pump and the booster pump is supplied by the hydraulic coupling lubrication system. 133

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10.5 Steam turbine for feed pump 10.5.1 Overview The small-sized steam turbine for the feed pump used in our plant is produced by the East Turbine Works with the mode of G12-1.0-1. Design conditions of the small-sized steam turbine are as follows: the turbine maximum continuous rating (TMCR) is obtained by parallel operations of two small-sized steam turbines; working steam source of the main steam turbine employs the four-stage extraction steam; live steam or auxiliary steam is used as a standby steam source. Steam source needed in commission and startup is supplied by an auxiliary steam system. The feed water pump steam turbine enables each boiler feed pump to supply 50%BMCR feed water for the boiler; meanwhile it can meet the power requirement of the feed pump under a maximal operating condition. Small-sized steam turbine body (1). Main body parameters Model No.: G12-1.0-1; Types: single cylinder, single pass, single shaft, impulse, straight condensing, cold reheated steam and external switching; Operating mode: variable parameter, variable power and variable rotating speed; Rated power under TMCR condition of the main steam turbine: 6.6272MW (feed pump efficiency 81%; rotating speed: 4673r/min); Internal efficiency: 83.9% in case of rated power under TMCR condition of the main steam turbine; Maximum continuous power: 8.052MW; Rated steam inlet pressure: 1.020MPa; temperature: 358.3 degrees centigrade; Rated steam exhaust pressure: 11.80Pal; temperature: 49.0 degrees centigrade; rated steam consumption: 5.304kg/kW.h; Rated rotating speed: 4673r/min; Governor deflection: 2900-6000r/min; Over-speed protection and action rotating speed: 6327r/min (electricity 1) (reference to the rotating speed of the feed pump to set); 6427r/min (electricity 2) (reference to the rotating speed of the feed pump to set); Sense of rotation: clockwise rotation in view from a nose to the feed pump; Connection mode: curved-tooth flexible coupling; Maximum nuisance value: less than or equal to 85 dB (A) at a distance of 1 meter away from the outer housing of the small-sized steam turbine shell; 134

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Erection way: integrated packaged generating set unnecessary for decomposition of erection on spot. (2). Steam condition High pressure steam before the usage of the switch valve of the feed pump steam turbine: pressure: 4.133MPa; temperature: 335.1 degrees centigrade; flow: 36.5t/h in normal condition, maximum 38.8t/h; Low pressure steam before the usage of the low pressure main stop valve of the feed pump under a rated condition of the main steam turbine: pressure: 1.02MPa; temperature: 358.3 degrees centigrade; flow: 32.950t/h; As a switching for the low pressure steam and the high pressure steam is performed, load scope of the main steam turbine is 50% in the premise of constant pressure operation, the low pressure steam condition pressure is 0.545MPa and the temperature is 338.8 degrees centigrade; Commissioning and auxiliary steam sources: pressure: 1.21MPa; temperature: 250 degrees centigrade; flow: 10t/h. (3). Small-sized steam turbine proper Constituent elements for the structure of the small-sized steam turbine body used for driving the feed pump are basically same as the structure of the main steam turbine. They are both includes a main stop valve (fast shutdown valve), an control valve, a cylinder, a nozzle box, a baffler, a rotor, a journal bearing, a thrust bearing, a gland sealing device and so on. 10.5.2 Startup and operation monitoring over small-sized steam turbine 1). System startup requirements A. Oil temperature is no less than 35 degrees centigrade. B. Steam superheat degree is no less than 50 degrees centigrade. C. The fast shutdown valve of the small-sized steam turbine is opened. D. Overall protection and interlocks are put into service. 2). Startup steps of the small-sized steam turbine are comprised of: A. putting the lubrication system into service and checking its operation conditions; B. putting the barring device into service; C. putting the gland sealing system into service; D. confirming that main steam turbine vacuum is in normal state; slowly opening an exhaust bypass butterfly valve; creating the small-sized steam turbine vacuum; E. confirming that the small-sized steam turbine isolation valves are totally opened and well drained; F. starting up the booster pump of the turbo-feed pump; 135

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G. checking and ensuring that the regulating and governing oil system is in normal operation; or H. small-sized steam turbine recovery; I. small-sized steam turbine cylinder heat; or J. rolling, speed rising and on-load. 3). Key items needed to be monitored during the operation of the small-sized steam turbine comprises temperatures of the thrust bearing and the journal bearing, rotor vibration, axial displacement, lube main pipe pressure, lube pump outlet pressure, oil level of the lube tank, lube temperature, lube filter gauge differential pressure, regulating oil pressure and exhaust temperature and pressure of the small-sized steam turbine. And all above items should be in the acceptable range.

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