:
MG1, MG2, and Engine: ωm1, ωm2, and ωice.
Power Efficiencies:
Inverter, axle to tire, engine to MG1, reduction gear, and engine to axle
efficiencies ηinv, ηaxle, ηeng_m1, ηred, and ηaeng_axle
Motor M2
Grear
Reduction
GR
m2
2.636 :=
MG1 Sun
Planet
Ring
ICE
MG2 Gear
2010 Prius
Split Hybrid
Drive
www.springerlink.com/index/DL1Q76921M22P7ML.pdf
http://autos.yahoo.com/green_centerarticle_24/ Patent:US6005297
Description and Design of Synergy (Planetary Gear) Drive
http://www.mekatro.com/pdf/Eleco05_SPHEV.pdf
Modeling and Simulation of Serial Parallel Hybrid EV
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toyota_Prius
Basic Description of Prius
T.icem2Procedure:
First model the Prius Internal Combustion Engine's (ICE) and the motor's, torque and power. Define vehicle and
road parameters.
MG1 Starter and Controller Acceleration Protocol:
MG1 is the battery initiated starter for the ICE. "Simulate" MG1's spin startup, Ω1init
m2
and Ω1init
ice
, as
a ramp from 0 to its maximum speed, along with the motor M2 and ICE, respectively, which are also driven by
the Prius Controller to ramp up. Refer to Startup Curves on bottom of page 6. This is an arbitrary set of
conditions just to start the generator turning. Note that this startup is not a function of time, but of corresponding
rotations. This startup condition simulates a low gear mode for the ICE.
Evaluate two different Prius Control Strategies: Max Acceleration and Nominal. See curves on page 4.
During acceleration, the largest torque is from motor/generator MG2, which is geared to the axle. The
axle determines the vehicle speed. Use the MG2 rotation, ω
m2
, as our control variable. During acceleration,
supply peak electrical power to MG2 from both the battery (peak battery power for 10 seconds) and from MG1,
which is now run as a generator at it's max speed and is mechanically driven by the ICE.
As MG2 speeds up and demands increasing power, throttle back it's peak drive/torque by limiting the
MG2's electrical power input to the peak Inverter Output, i.e. the sum of the battery's and MG1 generator's peak
power. Refer to the curve of M2 Torque vs.ω
m2
on page 3.
Peak acceleration and 0  60 mph is programmed by setting the MG1 max speed: Ωmax
m1
Use equations for vehicle dynamics to calculate the time to 60 mph. Plot performance simulation
curves. Calculate All Electric Range, AER, miles from a single charge of the battery. Calculate AER using
various EPA driving modes.
Compare Prius Performance to GM Volt.
Macro Model of Hybrid Vehicle Performance: Prius
http://www.leapcad.com/Transportation/Prius_Gen_IV_1.8L_Simulation.mcd
PRIUS GEN IV 1.8L PERFORMANCE SIMULATION
ω
mg1
2.6 ω
mg2
⋅ + 3.6ω
ice
=
k
ice
η ρ ⋅ P
c
⋅
Ω
ice_max
=
T
ice
m
ice
k
ice
⋅ dgas ⋅ =
P
ice
m
ice
k
ice
⋅ Ω
shaft
⋅ =
J, f, and Ωshaft are the moment of inertia, friction coefficient, and
speed of the shaft. Tice and Tdcg are the ICE and generator
torques. The ICE pressure, Pice, results from the flow of gasoline.
η is the ICE efficiency, ρ the density of gasoline, Pc the calorific
value of gasoline and Ωice_max the maximum rotation speed of the
engine. The control of the machine is ensured by the mice ratio,
which defines the actual flow of gasoline, dgas, through a specific
actuator.
The relation for the shaft rotational velocities ωice, ωmg1, and
ωmg2 describes the action of the Hybrid Synergy Drive Planetary
Gear (shown in the above illustration).
J
t
Ω
shaft
d
d
⋅ f Ω
shaft
⋅ + T
ice
T
dcg
− =
Simulation of a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle based on Energetic Macroscopic Representation
W. Lhomme1, A. Bouscayrol1, Member, P. Barrade2
Model Equations for the Driveshaft, ICE, and Planetary Gears
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Prius 1.8L Atkinson ICE Model (kW)
Engine Speed (RPM)
P
o
w
e
r
(
k
W
)
P
ice
w ( )
w
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
100
110
120
130
140
150
Prius 1.8L Atkinson ICE Torque Model
Engine Speed (RPM)
T
o
r
q
u
e
(
N
m
)
T
iceE
w ( )
w
T
iceE
w ( ) TIII
ice
w ( ) X
T
⋅ := P
ice
w ( ) PIII
ice
w ( ) X
P
⋅ := X
T
142
115
:= X
P
73
57
73
76
⋅ := Scale Up to Gen IV Specs:
PIII
ice
w ( ) if w 5200 > PIII
ice
5200 ( ) , PIII
ice
w ( ) , ( ) := TIII
ice
w ( ) if w 5200 > TIII
ice
5200 ( ) , TIII
ice
w ( ) , ( ) :=
TIII
ice
w ( ) if w Ω
idle
< 0 , P
idle
T
slope
w Ω
idle
− ( ) ⋅ + ,
¸
(
¸
60 k ⋅
2 π ⋅ w ⋅
⋅ := PIII
ice
w ( ) if w Ω
idle
< 0 , P
idle
P
slope
w Ω
idle
− ( ) ⋅ + ,
¸
(
¸
:=
T
slope
60.23 P
idle
−
4000
:= P
slope
57 P
idle
−
4000
:= P
idle
T
idle
2 π ⋅ Ω
idle
⋅
60 k ⋅

\


¹
⋅ := Ω
idle
1000 := T
idle
85 := k 1000 :=
Generation III Torque and Power Models:
http://www.leapcad.com/Transportation/Toyota_Prius_Model_Specifications.pdf
Specifications for Different Prius Models Match Model Parameters to:
Scale the Power and Torque Models for Toyota Atkinson Gen III 1.5L ICE to Gen IV 1.8L
Prius Gen III ICE Performance Curves
k
m
1.08 := Rotational Inertia Coeff:
M
curb
3042 lb ⋅ := Curb Weight: RR
road
0.002 := Road Rolling Resist:
V
cw
0 mph ⋅ := Average Cross Wind: ρ 1.293
gm
liter
⋅ := Air Density:
θ (radians): θ atan 0.0 ( ) :=
(Average 0% road grade) Cd
cw
0.000014 := Cross Wind Drag Coff:
RR
tire
0.007 := Rolling Resistance Per Tire:
Cd 0.25 := Drag Coeff:
Af 1.98 m
2
= Af Afg SCF ⋅ :=
v_r w ( )
2 π ⋅ r
tire
⋅ w ⋅ RPM ⋅
GR mph ⋅
:= velMG2_at_rpm w ( )
2 π ⋅ r
tire
⋅ w ⋅ RPM ⋅
GR
:= M2rpm_at_mph s ( )
GR s ⋅
2 π ⋅ r
tire
⋅ RPM ⋅ ( )
:=
Velocity vs Shaft (MG2 Rotaional Speed) and Hybrid Synergy Gearing
Fo 60 mph ⋅ ( ) 358.884 N = Fo 60 mph ⋅ ( ) 358.884 N = Fo v ( ) Fa v ( ) Fr v ( ) + := Opposing Force, Fo:
Fa 60 mph ⋅ ( ) 230.295 N = Fa v ( ) 0.5 ρ ⋅ Af ⋅ v Vw + ( )
2
Cd ⋅ Cd
cw
0.5 v ⋅ V
cw
+ ( )
2
⋅ +
¸
(
¸
⋅ := Aerodynamic Loss, Fa:
Fr 60 mph ⋅ ( ) 128.589 N = Fr v ( ) M
gross
g ⋅ RR
tire
RR
road
+ ( ) cos θ
( )
⋅ sin θ
( )
+
¸
(
¸
⋅ := Road Resistance, Fr:
Vehicle Dynamics Equations  Find Velocity and Time for Maximum Acceleration
M
batt
68 kg ⋅ := M
gross
3.212 10
3
× lb = M
gross
M
curb
Passengers2 + := Gross Weight:
Passengers2 170 lb ⋅ := Passenger Weight:
Tmax
m2
207ft lbf ⋅ GR
m2
⋅ η
axle
⋅ :=
Tmax
ice
142 N ⋅ m ⋅ η
eng_m1
⋅ := Tmax
m1
207 ft ⋅ lbf ⋅ η
eng_m1
⋅ := Max Motor Torque:
Pmax
ice
93 hp = Pmax
m1
47.137 hp =
Pmax
ice
73 kW ⋅ η
eng_m1
⋅ := Pmax
m1
37 kW ⋅ η
eng_m1
⋅ := Pmax
m2
60 kW ⋅ η
axle
⋅ := Max Motor Power:
η
red
0.95 := η
eng_m1
0.95 := η
axle
0.95 := η
eng_axle
0.95 := η
inv
0.90 := GR 3.267 := Gear Ratio and Efficiencies:
Specifications for Different Prius Models Toyoto Prius Gen IV 1.8LVehicle, Motor and Road Parameters:
Gen III NHW20 MG2 Motor Performance Curves
Frontal Area Corrected:
SCF 0.85 := Shape Correction Factor:
Afg 2.33 m
2
⋅ := Frontal Area*: Vw 0 mph ⋅ := Average Wind Velocity:
Chasis and Environmental Parameters
Pmax
bat
27 kW ⋅ := Energy
bat
6.5 kW ⋅ hr ⋅ := Tmax
m2
702.815 N m ⋅ = Redline Ωmax
ice
min ⋅ :=
Set Pmaxbat to 0 for Extremum
Note MG1's power is speed (6500 rpm) limited Tmax
m1
Ωmax
m1
⋅ 39.993 kW =
Ωmax
ice
5200 RPM ⋅ := Ωmax
m1
9000 RPM ⋅ := Max. Acceleration Mode==> Max Motor Speeds:
RPM min
1 −
:= r
tire
0.287 m ⋅ :=
MG1 Motor
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100110 120
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
Control Strategy: Nom ICE Idle Profile
Vehicle Velocity (mph)
R
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
S
p
e
e
d
s
(
r
p
m
)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100110 120
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
1
.
10
4
Control Strategy: Max Acceleration
Vehicle Velocity (mph)
R
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
S
p
e
e
d
s
(
r
p
m
)
Plot Colors: MG2 Shaft Rotational Speed (Red), ICE RPM (Blue), and MG1 Rotor (Green).
Note Max Accel Plot: ICE does not turn on until MG2 propels Vehicle Speed up to 15 mph
Control Stategy Plots: Max Acceleration and Nominal Cruise Profiles
Ω
ice
M2rpm_at_mph 120 mph ⋅ ( ) ( ) 6.712 10
3
× =
Ω
iceP1
ω
mg2
( )
Ω1Prfl
m1
ω
mg2
( ) 2.6 ω
mg2
⋅ + ( )
3.6
:=
Ω
iceP2
ω
mg2
( )
Ω1Prfl2
vm1
v_r ω
mg2
( ) ( ) 2.6 ω
mg2
⋅ + ( )
3.6
:=
Use these expressions Just for generating plots at bottom of page
Ω
ice
ω
mg2
( )
Ω1Prfl2
vm1
v_r ω
mg2
( ) ( ) 2.6 ω
mg2
⋅ + ( )
3.6
:=
Ω
mg2
ω
ice
( ) root xm2
ω
ice
3.6 ⋅ Ω1Prfl2
vm1
v_r xm2 ( ) ( ) −
2.6
− xm2 ,

\


¹
:=
Ω
ice
ω
mg2
( )
Ω1Prfl
m1
ω
mg2
( ) 2.6 ω
mg2
⋅ + ( )
3.6
:=
Ω
mg2
ω
ice
( ) root xm2
ω
ice
3.6 ⋅ Ω1Prfl
m1
xm2 ( ) −
2.6
− xm2 ,

\


¹
:=
ICE and MG2 Rotation Profiles From MG1 Profiles Ω1 Ω1 Ω1 Ω1Prfl1m1 (Enabled) or Ω1 Ω1 Ω1 Ω1Pffl2m1 (Disabled ):
xm2 1500 :=
Ω1Prfl2
vm1
v ( ) if v 60 < 6500
7500
60
v ⋅ − , 1000 − v 60 − ( )
4000
60
⋅ + ,
¸
(
(
¸
:=
Examination of above then gives us the form of Ω1Prfl2
vm1
v ( )
Ω1Prfl2
m1
ω
mg2
( ) 3.6 Ω
iceVel
ω
mg2
( ) ⋅ 2.6ω
mg2
− :=
Ω
iceVel
5000 ( ) 4.159 10
3
× = Ω
iceVel
ω
mg2
( ) Ω
ice_vel
velMG2_at_rpm ω
mg2
( )
mph

\


¹
:=
Calculate Control Point:
Rev up ICE from Cruise at
Vehicle Velocity Vel
rev_up
See Plot Lower Right
Ω
ice_vel
vel ( ) if vel Vel
rev_up
< 1800 , 1800 vel Vel
rev_up
− ( )
4000 1800 −
100 Vel
rev_up
−
⋅ + ,
¸
(
(
¸
:= Vel
rev_up
60 :=
Use just Ω
ice_vel
vel ( ) to find resultant relation between MG1 and Velocity, i.e. MG2
Nominal Control Strategy P2: Constant ICE (rpm= 1800) to 60 mph, then ramp up. Profile 2 Ω1Prfl2
m1
Ω1Prfl
m1
ω
mg2
( ) Ω1init
m2
ω
mg2
( ) :=
Ω1init
ice
ω
ice
( ) if ω
ice
1700 < Pmax
bat
1 kW ⋅ > ∧ 1000
Ωmax
m1
1950
ω
ice
RPM
⋅ + , Ωmax
m1
min ⋅ ,

\


¹
:=
Ω1init
m2
ω
mg2
( ) if ω
mg2
700 < Pmax
bat
1 kW ⋅ > ∧ 1000
Ωmax
m1
820
ω
mg2
RPM
⋅ + , Ωmax
m1
min ⋅ ,

\


¹
:=
Hybrid Synergy Drive
MG1 Control Stategy:
Max MG1 Rotation
Ωmax
m1
Initial M2 Spinup ( Ωm1),
Ω1init
m2
ω
mg2
( )
and Driving Profiles,
Ω1Prfl
m1
, Ω1Prfl2
m1
Max Acceleration Control Strategy P1: Turn on ICE at 15 mph (See Control Plot)
Apply maxium MG1 power/speed Ωmax
m1
= 8500 RPM from Generator MG1 to MG2.
Control Strategies (Hybrid Synergy Drive Speed Relationships):
Develop an MG1 Profile and then Find Speed Relationships of MG2(ICE) and ICE(MG2)
Ftω ω
mg2
( )
T
tot
ω
mg2
( ) GR ⋅ η
red
⋅
r
tire
:=
Tractive Road Force, Total: F
tot
v ( )
T
tot
M2rpm_at_mph v ( ) ( ) GR ⋅ η
red
⋅
r
tire
:= P
M2
ω
( )
P
m2
Ω
mg2
ω
( )
( )
kW
:=
Plot Terms: P
tot
v ( ) F
tot
v ( ) v ⋅ := P
tot
60 mph ⋅ ( ) 108.955 hp =
Applying maximum motor torque, find the velocity and time starting from initial velocity = 0 mph.
End 40 :=
Third Law of Motion:
Given
t
v t ( )
d
d
F
tot
v t ( ) ( ) Fo v t ( ) ( ) −
k
m
M
gross
⋅
= v 0 ( ) 0 = velocity Odesolve t End , ( ) :=
(dv/dt is acceleration)
P
t
ω
m2
( ) T
tot
ω
m2
( ) 2 ⋅ π ⋅ ω
m2
⋅ RPM ⋅ kW
1 −
⋅ :=
accel t ( )
F
tot
velocity t ( ) ( ) Fo velocity t ( ) ( ) −
k
m
M
gross
⋅
:=
Prius Spec is 9.8 sec
Time 0 sec ⋅ := time v ( ) root v velocity Time ( ) − Time , ( ) := time 60 mph ⋅ ( ) 9.171s =
Passing 40 to 60 mph: Passing time 60 mph ⋅ ( ) time 40 mph ⋅ ( ) − := Passing 4.495s =
Given Control Acceleration Stategy Ω1 Ω1 Ω1 Ω1Prfl1m1: Calculate Power and Torque
Torque, ICE: T
icem2
ω
mg2
( ) T
iceE
Ω
ice
ω
mg2
( ) ( ) N ⋅ m ⋅ := Ω1Prfl
m1
7000 ( ) 9 10
3
× =
Torque,MG1: T
m1
ω
mg2
( ) T
icem2
ω
mg2
( ) − 3.6
1 −
⋅ η
eng_m1
⋅ :=
PinvA
m2
ω
mg2
( ) η
inv
Pmax
bat
T
m1
ω
mg2
( ) 2 ⋅ π ⋅ Ωmax
m1
⋅ − ( ) ⋅ :=
PinvB
m2
ω
mg2
( ) if PinvA
m2
ω
mg2
( ) Pmax
m2
η
inv
⋅ ≥ Pmax
m2
η
inv
⋅ , PinvA
m2
ω
mg2
( ) , ( ) :=
Max Power to Inverter: < P2max, P1max + Pbatmax and Pm1< P1max and Pice x 2.6/3.6
MG2 Inverter Power, Pinv:
Pinv
m2
ω
mg2
( ) if T
m1
Ω1init
m2
ω
mg2
( ) ( ) 2 ⋅ π ⋅ Ωmax
m1
⋅ ( ) − Pmax
m1
> Pmax
bat
Pmax
m1
+ ( ) η
inv
⋅ , PinvB
m2
ω
mg2
( ) ,
¸
(
¸
:=
Torque MG2
Power Limited
Break Point, ω
inv
Problem, Find ω
inv
such that:
(Tmax
m2
) ω
inv
= Pinv
m2
(ω
inv
)
Guess for winv, wx: wx if Pmax
bat
1 kW ⋅ < 8 , 800 , ( ) :=
Solution (rpm):
ω
inv
root Tmax
m2
Pinv
m2
wx ( )
2 π ⋅ wx 1 +
( )
RPM ⋅
− wx ,
¸
(
(
¸
:= ω
inv
759.842 =
Torque, MG2: T
m2
ω
mg2
( ) if ω
mg2
ω
inv
≤ Tmax
m2
,
Pinv
m2
ω
mg2
( )
2 π ⋅ ω
mg2
RPM ⋅
,

\


¹
:= T
m2
ω
inv
( ) 2 ⋅ π ⋅ ω
inv
RPM ⋅ 55.923 kW =
Tractive Torq, Total: T
tot
ω
mg2
( ) T
m2
ω
mg2
( ) T
icem2
ω
mg2
( )
2.6
3.6
⋅ η
eng_axle
⋅ + := P
m2
ω
( )
T
m2
ω
( )
2 ⋅ π ⋅ ω ⋅ RPM ⋅ :=
Tractive Road Force, Total:
P R I U S G E N I V P E F O R M A N C E S I M U L A T I O N C U R V E S
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Torque (Total,MG2,ICE,MG2) vs. Speed
MG2 Motor Speed (RPM)
D
y
n
o
M
o
t
o
r
T
o
r
q
u
e
(
N
m
)
,
P
o
w
e
r
(
h
p
)
T
tot
ω
m2
( )
T
m2
ω
m2
( )
T
icem2
ω
m2
( )
T
m1
ω
m2
( ) −
ω
m2
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Velocity & g Acceleration (x 100) Curve
time (sec)
v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
(
m
p
h
)
velocity t ( )
mph
accel t ( )
g
100 ⋅
t
MG2 Torque/Power
is Limited by
ICE & Battery
Peak Power
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
1500
2500
3500
4500
5500
6500
7500
8500
9500
Dyno Road Force (N) vs. Velocity (mph)
velocity (mph)
M
o
t
o
r
F
o
r
c
e
(
N
)
F
tot
v mph ⋅ ( )
N
v
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
ICE and MG2 Power (kW) vs. ICE RPM
ICE Speed (RPM)
D
Y
N
O
P
o
w
e
r
(
k
W
)
P
M2
ω
ice
( )
P
ice
ω
ice
( )
Redline
ω
ice
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Dyno Power vs. ICE RPM
ICE Speed (RPM)
D
y
n
o
P
o
w
e
r
(
k
W
)
Pmax
.ice
P
t
Ω
mg2
ω ( ) ( )
P
m2
Ω
mg2
ω ( ) ( ) ξ ⋅
P
ice
ω ( )
Redline
ω
0 1000 2000 30004000 5000 6000
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Dyno Axle Torque vs. RPM
Axle (MG2) Speed (RPM)
D
Y
N
O
M
o
t
o
r
T
o
r
q
u
e
(
N
m
)
T
tot
ω ( )
T
m2
ω ( )
T
icem2
ω ( )
ω
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
1
.
10
4
MG1 and MG2 Startup vs. ICE Spin
Engine Revs (RPM)
M
o
t
o
r
R
e
v
s
(
R
P
M
)
Ω1init
m2
ω
mg2
( )
Ω1init
ice
ω
ice
( )
Ω
mg2
ω
ice
( )
ω
mg2
ω
ice
, ω
ice
,
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Dyno Torque vs. ICE RPM
ICE Speed (RPM)
D
y
n
o
M
o
t
o
r
T
o
r
q
u
e
(
N
m
)
T
tot
ω ( )
T
m2
Ω
mg2
ω ( ) ( )
T
iceE
ω ( )
ω
<===These are an
arbirary set of ICE
and MG1 initial
conditions just to
start the MG1
generator turning.
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Single Charge Cruise Mileage Range
velocity (mph)
C
r
u
i
s
e
R
a
n
g
e
(
m
i
l
e
s
)
Cruise_Range v mph ⋅ 50 , SOC
gen
, ( )
mi
Cruise_Range v mph ⋅ 100 , SOC
gen
, ( )
mi
v
v 0 2 , 80 .. :=
Cruise_Range 70 mph ⋅ 50 , 0.5 , ( ) 14.31mi =
Cruise_Range 62.5 mph ⋅ 50 , SOC
gen
, ( ) 16.697 mi = Velocity Range
Cruise_Range 60 mph ⋅ 50 , SOC
gen
, ( ) 17.601 mi =
Cruise_Range 55 mph ⋅ 50 , SOC
gen
, ( ) 19.591 mi =
Cruise_Range 50 mph ⋅ 50 , SOC
gen
, ( ) 21.842 mi =
Cruise_Range 40 mph ⋅ 50 , SOC
gen
, ( ) 26.844 mi =
Cruise_Range 30 mph ⋅ 50 , SOC
gen
, ( ) 32.869 mi =
Single Charge Highway Cruise Range Estimate
Cruise_Range v P
o
, S , ( )
Energy
bat
1 S − ( ) ⋅ NumStarts v P
o
, S , ( )
Energy
accel
v ( )
TInvE GPE ⋅
Regen M
gross
⋅ v
2
⋅
2
−

\


¹
⋅ −
¸
(
(
¸
v ⋅
Power
dissLoss
v P
o
, ( )
:=
NumStarts v P
o
, S , ( ) floor
Energy
bat
1 S − ( ) ⋅ NS v P
o
, S , ( )
Energy
accel
v ( )
TInvE GPE ⋅
Regen M
gross
⋅ v
2
⋅
2
−

\


¹
⋅ −
Power
dissLoss
v P
o
, ( ) Time
ssr
⋅
¸
(
(
(
(
¸
:=
NS v P
o
, S , ( )
Energy
bat
1 S − ( ) ⋅ NS
o
v ( )
Energy
accel
v ( )
TInvE GPE ⋅
Regen M
gross
⋅ v
2
⋅
2
−

\


¹
⋅ −
Power
dissLoss
v P
o
, ( ) Time
ssr
⋅
:= NS
o
v ( ) 2
50 mph ⋅
v

\


¹
2
⋅ :=
NSo and NS are iterative converging estimates of NumStarts
Energy
accel
v ( ) Pmax
m2
time v ( ) ⋅ :=
RTEff 0.92 := Power
dissLoss
v P
o
, ( )
Fo v ( ) v ⋅
TInvE GPE ⋅
P
o
watt ⋅
IPEE
+ :=
USABC Round Trip Battery Energy Efficiency
SOC
gen
0.5 := Regen 0.69 := GPE 0.97 := IPEE 0.95 := TInvE 0.90 := Time
ssr
30min :=
State of Charge for generator is SOC
gen
. SOC
gen
is 50% for recharge. 201V HV battery idle power is Po. 12V battery
gives Accessory Power. The Traction Inverter x motor Efficiency  TInvE, HV Power Electronics at Idle Efficiency  IPEE,
and Gear Power Efficiency  GPE are 90%, 95%, and 97%, respectively. Brake Regen efficiency of kinetic energy is 69%
@ deacceleration = 0.315g. Then the number of starts per hour as a function of velocity, NS, NumStarts(v, Po), is
Drive Train Power Efficiency  Battery Loss to Force Commanded Vehicle Velocity:
Driving Pattern/Profile:
Given we cruise at constant speed and Time for start, stop, and regen breaking, Time
ssr
= every 15 minutes.
Find the Single Charge (@SOC = 50%) Cruise Range for a given Velocity
Cruise Range as a Function of Traction Battery Idle Power, Po
Cruise_Range 15 mph ⋅ 50 , 0.3 , ( ) 57.727 mi =
Cruise_Range 55 mph ⋅ 50 , 0.5 , ( ) 19.591 mi =
180
km
hr
⋅ 111.847
mi
hr
=
0.5 0.25 −
0.5
0.5 =
Cruise_Range 55 mph ⋅ 100 , 0.25 , ( ) Cruise_Range 55 mph ⋅ 100 , 0.5 , ( ) −
Cruise_Range 55 mph ⋅ 100 , 0.5 , ( )
0.482 =
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
0
10
20
30
40
Single Charge Cruise Mileage Range
velocity (mph)
C
r
u
i
s
e
R
a
n
g
e
(
m
i
l
e
s
)
Cruise_Range v mph ⋅ 50 , 0.3 , ( )
mi
Cruise_Range v mph ⋅ 50 , 0.4 , ( )
mi
Cruise_Range v mph ⋅ 50 , 0.5 , ( )
mi
Cruise_Range v mph ⋅ 100 , 0.3 , ( )
mi
Cruise_Range v mph ⋅ 100 , 0.4 , ( )
mi
Cruise_Range v mph ⋅ 100 , 0.5 , ( )
mi
v
n
6
0 598 .. := US06 US06F
1
〈 〉
:= time US06F
0
〈 〉
:=
HWY10V submatrix HY10 0 , rows HY10 ( ) 1 − , 1 , cols HY10 ( ) 1 − , ( ) :=
FTP10V submatrix FP10 0 , rows FP10 ( ) 1 − , 1 , cols FP10 ( ) 1 − , ( ) :=
R
hwy
rows HWY ( ) := HWY HWYF
1
〈 〉
:=
rows UDDS ( ) 1.37 10
3
× = UDDS UDDSF
1
〈 〉
:=
rows FTP ( ) 1.875 10
3
× = FTP FTPF
1
〈 〉
:= tx FTPF
0
〈 〉
:=
The Federal Test Procedure(FTP) is composed of the UDDS followed by the first 505 seconds of the
UDDS. It is often called the EPA75. FP10 is a 10 Hz Sampling. HY10 is the 10 Hz Highway schedule.
The US06 cycle represents an 8.01 mile (12.8 km) route with an average speed of 48.4 miles/h (77.9 km/h),
maximum speed 80.3 miles/h (129.2 km/h), and a duration of 596 seconds.
http://www.epa.gov/nvfel/testing/dynamometer.htm
Read US06 and FTP Driving Profile Files
Find the Power to Maintain Constant Velocity
Power
cruise
v P
o
, ( ) Power
dissLoss
v P
o
, ( ) :=
Note: The generator's output is 54
kW. This allows it produce a net
charge up to 80 mph cruise.
Power
cruise
60 mph ⋅ 100 , ( ) 11.132 kW =
n 0 200 .. := τ
n
n
10
:= w
n
n
20
:= vv
n
n
2
:=
P
cruise
n
Power
cruise
vv
n
mph ⋅ 100 ,
( )
k watt ⋅
:=
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Cruise Power Curve
velocity (mph)
C
r
u
i
s
i
n
g
P
o
w
e
r
(
k
W
a
t
t
s
)
Power
cruise
vv
n
mph ⋅ 10 , ( )
k watt ⋅
Power
cruise
vv
n
mph ⋅ 50 , ( )
k watt ⋅
Power
cruise
vv
n
mph ⋅ 100 , ( )
k watt ⋅
vv
n
FTPF READPRN "http://www.leapcad.com/Transportation/FedTestProc.TXT" ( ) :=
UDDSF READPRN "http://www.leapcad.com/Transportation/uddscol.txt" ( ) :=
HWYF READPRN "http://www.leapcad.com/Transportation/hwycol.txt" ( ) :=
FP10 READPRN "http://www.leapcad.com/Transportation/FTP10Hz.TXT" ( ) :=
HY10 READPRN "http://www.leapcad.com/Transportation/HWY10Hz.txt" ( ) :=
US06F READPRN "http://www.leapcad.com/Transportation/US06PROFILE.TXT" ( ) :=
AER Given Three Different Driving Schedules
max Distance
.
( ) 80.08 = max Distance ( ) 110.414 =
Distance
.
rr
0
rr
rr
US06
rr ∑
=
10
60 60 ⋅
⋅ := rr 0 rows US06 ( ) 1 − .. := Distance
r
0
r
r
FTP
r ∑
=
10
60 60 ⋅
⋅ := r 0 rows FTP ( ) 1 − .. :=
MPG
epa
24.98 = MPG
epa
0.55 MPG
city
⋅ 0.45 MPG
hwy
⋅ + :=
X
1
40
:= MPG
hwy
1
0.001376
1.3466
AER HWY 1 , ( )
+
:= MPG
city
25.992 = MPG
city
1
0.003259
1.18053
AER FTP 1 , ( )
+

\


¹
:=
EPA 20085 Cycle MPG Fuel Economy Least Squares Fit Regression for AER to SOC = 0
AER HWY10 10 , ( ) = AER HWY 1 , ( ) 33.053 = AER FTP 1 , ( ) 33.524 = AER US06 1 , ( ) 22.039 =
HWY10
r1
HWY10V
ceil
r1 1 +
10

\


¹
1 − mod r1 10 , ( ) ,
:= r1 0 rows HY10 ( ) 10 ⋅ 1 − .. :=
AER P Hz , ( ) Ebat E
diss
v
old
0 ← ← ←
n 1 − ←
N rows P ( ) 1 − ←
n n 1 + ←
t mod n N , ( ) ←
v P
t
←
v
avg
v v
old
+ ( ) 0.5 ⋅ ←
P
accel
k
m
M
gross
v v
old
− ( ) ⋅
mph Hz ⋅
sec
⋅ v
avg
⋅ ⋅ mph
TInvE GPE ⋅
← v v
old
> if
P
accel
k
m
M
gross
v v
old
− ( ) ⋅
mph Hz ⋅
sec
⋅ v
avg
⋅ mph ⋅ REff v
old
v − ( ) Hz ⋅ Gg ⋅
¸
(
¸
⋅ ← otherwise
E
diss
E
diss
Power
dissLoss
v mph ⋅ 100 , ( ) P
accel
+ ( ) sec ⋅
kW hr ⋅ Hz ⋅
+ ←
v
old
v ←
Ebat
n
E
diss
←
E
diss
Energy
bat
kW hr ⋅
< while
R
0
n
m
P
mod m N , ( )
P
mod m 1 + N , ( )
+
( )
mph ⋅ sec ⋅
2 mi ⋅ Hz ⋅
∑
=
←
R
:=
REff g ( )
85
77
0.01 ⋅ 1 e
27.129 − g ⋅
−
( )
91.235 ⋅ 28.408 −
¸
(
¸
⋅ := Regen Efficiency Curve vs Decel (g):
Gg
mph
sec g ⋅
:=
All Electric Range, AER, for Driving Profile Velocity/Time File, P Sampling Rate, Hz, and SOC = 0
SAVE PROFILES
WRITEPRN "EFTP.PRN" ( ) AER FTP 1 , ( ) 40 ⋅ := E
FTP
READPRN "EFTP.PRN" ( ) := max E
FTP
( ) X ⋅ 27.275 =
WRITEPRN "EUS06.PRN" ( ) AER US06 1 , ( ) 40 ⋅ := E
US06
READPRN "EUS06.PRN" ( ) := max E
US06
( ) X ⋅ 19.263 =
WRITEPRN "EHWY.PRN" ( ) AER HWY 1 , ( ) 40 ⋅ := E
HWY
READPRN "EHWY.PRN" ( ) := max E
HWY
( ) X ⋅ 26.8 =
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
US06 Drive Cycle: Distance, E(Bat Drain)
Time (seconds)
S
p
e
e
d
(
m
p
h
)
,
D
i
s
t
(
M
i
l
e
/
1
0
)
,
E
(
k
W
*
4
0
)
US06
Distance
.
E
US06
time
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
FTP Drive Cycle: Distance, E(Bat Drain)
Time (seconds)
S
p
e
e
d
(
m
p
h
)
,
D
i
s
t
(
M
i
l
e
/
1
0
)
,
E
(
k
W
*
4
0
)
FTP
UDDS
Distance
E
FTP
tx
Pv
v
Volt
8
〈 〉
:= P
cruiseV
Volt
9
〈 〉
:=
ω
x
n
6000 n ⋅
200
:= Ttot
n
T
tot
ω
x
n
( )
q ⋅ := Tm2
n
T
m2
ω
x
n
( )
q ⋅ := Tice
n
T
icem2
ω
x
n
( )
q ⋅ := Vx
n
velocity tz
n
( )
:=
Ax Vx ( )
F
tot
Vx mph ⋅ ( ) Fo Vx mph ⋅ ( ) − ( ) 100 ⋅
k
m
M
gross
⋅ g ⋅
:= ax
n
Ax Vx
n
( )
:= Ft
n
F
tot
Vx
n
mph ⋅
( )
N
:= Pt
n
P
tot
Vx
n
mph ⋅
( )
hp
:=
PreWtTotM2ICVA augment ω
x
tz , Ttot , Tm2 , Tice , Vx , ax , Ft , Pt , ( ) := WRITEPRN "Pre3PB0.txt" ( ) PreWtTotM2ICVA :=
2010 Prius (Black) vs. Sustaining Mode Volt (Red) Acceleration Performance
Volt Power reduced from 111 kW to Generator Power x 90% = 47.7 kW in Sustaining Mode.
Volt 0 to 60 mph time increases from 8.5 to 15 seconds.
Volt 40 mph to 60 mph Sustaining passing time increased from 3.3 seconds to 8.5 seconds.
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Torque (Total,MG2,ICE,Volt) vs RPMs
Motor Rotor Speed, (RPM)
D
y
n
o
M
o
t
o
r
T
o
r
q
u
e
(
N
m
)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Vehicle Velocity & g Acceleration (x100)
time (sec)
V
e
h
i
c
l
e
v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
(
m
p
h
)
a
n
d
g
'
s
x
1
0
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
1500
2500
3500
4500
5500
6500
7500
8500
9500
Dyno Road Force (N) vs. Velocity (mph)
Dyno velocity (mph)
D
y
n
o
M
o
t
o
r
F
o
r
c
e
(
N
)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
Dyno Power (hp) vs. Velocity (mph)
Dyno velocity (mph)
D
y
n
o
P
o
w
e
r
(
h
p
)
Read Charge Depletion Mode Data Read Charge Sustaining Mode Data (Disabled)
Volt READPRN "Volt_tVelwMAgTPmFP.prn" ( ) := Volt READPRN "VoltSus_tVelwMAgTPmFP.prn" ( ) :=
Volt READPRN "VoltGenOnly_tVelwMAgTPmFP.prn" ( ) := PT v ( )
P
tot
v mph ⋅ ( )
hp
:=
cols Volt ( ) 10 =
n 0 300 .. := P
tot
v ( ) F
tot
v mph ⋅ ( ) v ⋅ mph ⋅ hp
1 −
⋅ :=
time
v
Volt
0
〈 〉
:= v
v
Volt
1
〈 〉
:= ω
v
Volt
2
〈 〉
k ⋅ := mph
v
Volt
3
〈 〉
:= g
v
Volt
4
〈 〉
:= tz
n
n
10
:=
q N m ⋅ ( )
1 −
:= T
v
Volt
5
〈 〉
:= P
v
Volt
6
〈 〉
:= F
v
Volt
7
〈 〉
:=
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
Cruise Power Demand Curve
velocity (mph)
C
r
u
i
s
i
n
g
P
o
w
e
r
(
k
W
a
t
t
s
)
Fuel_Use READPRN "http://www.leapcad.com/Transportation/Prius%201_5L%20Atkinson%20Fuel%20Use.TXT" ( )
T
:=
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
DYNO Power (hp) vs. Velocity (mph)
DYNO velocity (mph)
D
Y
N
O
P
o
w
e
r
(
h
p
)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
1500
2500
3500
4500
5500
6500
7500
8500
9500
Road Force (N) vs. Velocity (mph)
velocity (mph)
M
o
t
o
r
F
o
r
c
e
(
N
)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Velocity & g Acceleration (x 100) Curve
time (sec)
v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
(
m
p
h
)
a
n
d
g
'
s
x
1
0
0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Torque (Total,MG2,ICE) vs. Speed
Motor Speed (RPM)
M
o
t
o
r
T
o
r
q
u
e
(
N
m
)
Comparison Prius No Battery (Solid) vs. Battery (Dotted)
Comparison Prius Gen III (Sold) vs. Prius Gen IV (Dotted)
Agx t ( )
accel t ( )
g
:= Pz Pre
8
〈 〉
:= Fz Pre
7
〈 〉
:=
az Pre
6
〈 〉
:= Vz Pre
5
〈 〉
:= Ticez Pre
4
〈 〉
:= Tm2z Pre
3
〈 〉
:= Ttotz Pre
2
〈 〉
:= time
z
Pre
1
〈 〉
:= ω
z
Pre
0
〈 〉
:=
PreWtTotM2ICVA Pre READPRN "PreGenIII.txt" ( ) := Pre READPRN "Pre3PB0.txt" ( ) :=
Read Comparison Files Either for GenIV No Battery Power or Full Power Gen III Prius
Switch Solid and Dotted Curves
Comparison Prius No Battery (Dotted) vs. Battery (Solid)
Comparison Prius Gen III (Dotted) vs. Prius Gen IV (Solid)
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Torque (Total,MG2,ICE) vs. Speed
Motor Speed (RPM)
M
o
t
o
r
T
o
r
q
u
e
(
N
m
)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Velocity & g Acceleration (x 100) Curve
time (sec)
v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
(
m
p
h
)
a
n
d
g
'
s
x
1
0
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
1500
2500
3500
4500
5500
6500
7500
8500
9500
Road Force (N) vs. Velocity (mph)
velocity (mph)
M
o
t
o
r
F
o
r
c
e
(
N
)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
DYNO Power (hp) vs. Velocity (mph)
DYNO velocity (mph)
D
Y
N
O
P
o
w
e
r
(
h
p
)