Aleksander M.

Derdowski
Wind Turbine optimized for
VSC-DC transmission


Master Thesis, June 2008







1

Preface

This is the master thesis for Aleksander M. Derdowski and is the final step in obtaining the Masters
of Science (M.Sc.) degree at the Technical University of Denmark. The thesis has been done under
supervision of Professor Zhao Xu, Tonny Wederberg Rasmussen, Arne Hejde Nielsen and industrial
supervisor German Cláudio Tarnowski.
The project was a great opportunity to expand my knowledge within the field of wind energy, which
will be most valuable in my future work in Norway. It is also an honour to being part of a sustainable
future, by contributing to the fast and innovative development of renewable energy resources.
Finally I want to thank all people around me, for support and attention, both socially and
academically.











Technical University of Denmark
June 2008


_____________________
Aleksander M. Derdowski






2






3

Wind Turbine optimized for VSC-DC transmission
This report was prepared by:
Aleksander M. Derdowski

Supervisor(s):
Germán Claudio Tarnowski
Zhao Xu
Tonny Wedeberg Rasmussen
Arne Hejde Nielsen


Department of Electrical Engineering
Centre for Electric Technology (CET)
Technical University of Denmark
Elektrovej
Building 325
2800 Kgs. Lyngby
Denmark

www.elektro.dtu.dk/cet
Tel: (+45) 45 25 35 00
Fax: (+45) 45 88 61 11
E-mail: cet@oersted.dtu.dk




Release date:

13.06.2008
Category:

1(Public)

Edition:

1st edition
Comments:

This report is part of the requirements to achieve the master of
science MSc. Degree in Wind Energy - Electrical at the
Technical University of Denmark.
This report represents 35 ECTS points.

Rights:

© Aleksander M. Derdowski, 2008



4




5


Abstract

This thesis investigates the possibility of increasing power production connecting a Rotor Current
Control (RCC) generator wind turbine to a Voltage Source Converter (VSC) HVDC transmission
system. The generator is optimized in order to produce maximum power at every wind speed until
nominal power is reached. The project contains an optimization algorithm to provide the reader with
the optimum power production possible when being able to vary stator frequency, stator voltage
and rotor resistance. The power production is presented and compared with AC connected wind
turbines. The comparison of power production is performed in both steady state and in dynamic
simulations. In steady state the VSC HVDC connected generator is compared with both a variable
resistance and constant resistance AC connected wind turbine, in the dynamic simulation the
comparison of the VSC HVDC generator is only done with the constant rotor resistance AC connected
generator, as this is believed and demonstrated to be sufficient for showing the benefits of the new
topology.
The project proposes a control system for optimized power production using wind speed to generate
reference signals for stator voltage and frequency. The new control system is submitted to a tripping
of the receiving end converter (grid-side VSC) and the reaction of the new topology is shown for this
type of faults.
The project shows that there is a possibility of increasing the power production of wind turbines by
allowing the generator to work with variable stator voltage and frequency and the operational range
of the generator is presented. In Further research losses in the PWM converters have to be
investigated to show if there is increased power submitted to the Grid. Other ideas for
improvements on this field of study are also presented for future research.
Key Words: Wind power, wind turbines, induction generator, variable speed, control, power
electronics, HVDC, power systems.



6

Acknowledgements

This project has been carried out at the Centre for Electric Technology at the Technical University of
Denmark.
I would like to thank my supervisors German Cláudio Tarnowski, Tonny Wedeberg Rasmussen and
Zhao Xu, where especially the help and constructive discussions with my industrial supervisor
German Cláudio Tarnowski were of great inspiration and help for this project. Further I want to
thank two fellow master degree students János Hethey for interesting point of views especially on
simulation technical issues and Xavier Le Mestre for improving my time schedule by driving me to
school during this whole period.




7

PREFACE 1
ABSTRACT 5
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 6
1. INTRODUCTION 9
1.1 Review of related research 9
1.2 Purpose and contribution 10
2. THE MODEL REPRESENTATION 11
2.1 Mechanical Representation 11
2.2 Electrical Representation 13
2.3 Transformer representation 17
2.4 Tuning of the Steady state model 18
3. STEADY STATE OPERATION, MECHANICAL POWER AND LOSSES 21
3.1 Torque curve 21
3.2 Currents and slip 22
3.3 Mechanical Power 23
3.4 Losses 24
3.5 Generated Power 26
3.6 Chapter Evaluation 26
4. STEADY STATE OPTIMIZATION AND OPERATIONAL POINTS 27
4.1 The Optimization Algorithm 27
4.2 Operational Points AC connected Constant Rotor resistance Wind Turbine 32
4.3 Operational Points Variable Rotor Resistance AC Connected Turbine 33
4.4 Operational Points VSC HVDC Connected Wind Turbine 34
4.4.1 Necessary operational range 36
4.5 Summary of Power Production and operational points 36


8

5. STEADY STATE COMPARISON OF POWER PRODUCTION 38
5.1 Comparison Strategy 38
5.2 Power Production 39
5.2.1 Evaluation 42
6. DYNAMIC MODELING 43
6.1 Wind Turbine Model 43
6.1.1 Turbine model 43
6.1.2 Pitch Controller Model 43
6.1.3 Induction Machine Model 44
6.2 PWM Model 44
6.3 HVDC Model 45
6.4 Combined Controller Model 47
7. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE STEADY STATE AND THE DYNAMIC MODEL 51
8. DYNAMIC COMPARISON BETWEEN THE AC AND DC CONNECTED WIND
TURBINE 53
8.1 The Dynamic Comparison Strategy 54
8.1.1 Evaluation 57
9. DYNAMIC RESPONSE TO SYSTEM FAULT 58
10. DISCUSSION 63
11. CONCLUSION 64
11.2 Future Research 65
APPENDIX 68
A NOMENCLATURE 68
B CALCULATIONS 69
C MATLAB OPTIMIZATION SCRIPT 72



9

1. Introduction

“Wind energy installations are faced with demands from the grid operators regarding frequency and
voltage variations. Increased demands for controllability have pushed the technologies both within
the wind turbine and in the power transmission system. To meet the desired controllability, either
synchronous generators with full-scale frequency converters or doubly-fed induction generators
with slip-recovery frequency converters are favoured in the wind turbines. Meanwhile, the AC
transmission systems are reinforced with static VAr compensation and other FACTS devices. Such
topologies will remain suited for connection of wind parks to relatively strong grids, low power and
short transmission distances.

However, for particular wind parks and transmission systems, it may be advantageous to use DC
rather than AC for power transmission from a wind park to a transmission grid. In this case, HVDC
transmission using voltage-source converters (VSC) is suitable.

The HVDC-VSC is just as controllable as the wind turbine itself, and it decouples the AC transmission
system from the wind park AC grid. Hence, all the uncontrolled frequency & voltage variations
normally present at the turbine terminals disappear. As a consequence, a less complex wind turbine
may be used, for example the rotor current controlled (RCC) induction generator. One operation
mode that may be envisaged is that the High Voltage Direct Current –Voltage Source Converter
(HVDC-VSC) controls voltage and frequency to match the mean wind conditions, while each RCC
turbine thus only requires a limited speed range. The research presented will contain the RCC
induction generator turbine control and performance with variable stator frequency and voltage,
necessary RCC wind turbine speed range when connected to VSC-HVDC, Energy production
comparison between DC and AC transmission solutions and the Wind turbine response to faults in
back bone transmission grid. “(Vestas)

1.1 Review of related research

Literature considering power optimization of RCC generator connected to VSC HVCD transmission
was during this project not possible to find. Although a paper considering DFIG generators
connected to VSC HVDC transmission is found in (Erlich, 2007), where a proposed control system for
coordinated control is presented. Their main approach is to reduce the size of the grid-side
converter of the DFIG while maintaining the same operational range, this is done by using the
average wind farm slip to generate reference signal for the stator frequency and stator voltage,
where the voltage is direct assignment of the frequency (no saturation in generator). The frequency
controller is implemented without using a feed back control system. It is purposed for future
research to keep the grid-side converter constant and increase the operational range of the DFIG.
Considering loss minimization more literature was possible to find, in (Ahmed G. Abo-Khalil, 2004) a
control algorithm for minimizing losses is proposed taking into account stator and rotor iron and
copper losses. The paper shows power increase when using variable stator frequency. The project
was validated using experimental results, other research considering loss minimization of variable


10

speed connected induction machines can be found in (Robert Leidhold, 2002) and (G. O. Garcia,
1994). Considering fault ride trough of wind turbines research has been found in (Watson, 2005).
The paper is based on the modification of the Irish grid code in 2004 where new stricter
requirements for wind turbines where included. The paper presents the comparison of fault ride
through of Fixed Speed active stall regulated wind turbines based on induction generators
connected to VSC HVDC and HVAC. The study shows that the fault clearing time is significantly
expanded using the VSC HVDC connection. Paper regarding modelling of VSC HVDC systems can be
found in for instance (Florin Iov, 2006).

1.2 Purpose and contribution

The main purpose of this project is to show the possible power production gain of connecting a RCC
generator to VSC HVDC transmission system for both steady state and in dynamical simulation.
Secondly propose a control system to reach this power production and check the control systems
liability when the transmission is submitted to a fault. In order to present the power production a
representative model had to be made and is therefore modelling has a significant part in this
project. The details of the contribution to research are:
• Chapter 4 presents an optimization algorithm for finding best possible operational
points for the RCC generator considering rotor and stator losses in the generator.
The optimization allows variable rotor resistance stator voltage and stator
frequency. The results are presented for steady state operation and the new
generator operational span is compared with already known AC transmission
solutions.
• Based on the operational points in Chapter 4, Chapter 5 shows a steady state
comparison of the power production from the new VSC HVDC generator topology
with AC connected variable and constant rotor resistance generators. The steady
state results show positive effect on the power production of the new topology.
• Chapter 6 presents a dynamic control system for power optimization based on the
operational points found in Chapter 4. The control system uses the wind to
generate reference signal for stator frequency and stator voltage, consisting also a
feedback loop in the control system in order to enable rate of change limiting of
frequency and voltage.
• Chapter 8 shows the gain of using the new control system in dynamic simulations
and comparing the power production to the same wind turbine connected to an
AC transmission. The dynamic simulation results supports the steady state results
and shows that there is possible gain in power production when using the
presented control system
• Finally in Chapter 9 the proposed control system is exposed to a tripping of the
receiving end converter and its response is monitored and discussed. The control
system shows relatively good coping with the problem and a proposal for
improvement is presented.


11

2. The Model Representation

This chapter will in detail describe how the mechanical and electrical model was represented and
implemented. The chosen models are presented and substantiated, also numeric modifications of
former models has been performed to provide better correlation with the RCC Vestas V80 wind
turbine which is used as a base reference throughout this project.

2.1 Mechanical Representation
This section will describe the mechanical equations and explain why this representation is chosen.
The mechanical power is the power in the wind that is possible to convert to the rotor. Therefore
the static characteristics of the wind can be described by the relation between the total power in the
wind and the mechanical power of the wind turbine (Ackermann, 2005). It can be shown that an
approximation of the total power in the wind can be expressed as:

˜
wìnd
=
ŵ
Ŷ
µ
uì¡

2
˰
w
3

(2.1)
Where ρ is the air density 1.225 kg/m
3
, A is the rotor radius and v
w
the wind speed. However it is not
possible to extract all the kinetic power in the wind since this would result in a stand-still of the wind
on the back side of wind turbine blades, therefore the maximum theoretical utilization of the power
in the wind is given by Betz law to be 59.3% ,(Betz, 1966). This utilization of the wind is denoted C
p

and will here be described as a function of tip-speed ratio, λ and blade pitch angle, θ. At modern
wind turbines this efficiency will lay somewhere in the area of 70 -80% of the maximum given by
Betz law (Ahmed, 2006) and can be expressed as (Bose, 1983):

˕
p
= o
ŵ
Ŷ
(bz -Ŵ.ŴŶŶ0
2
-Ź.ź)˥
-0.17bx

(2.2)
The choice of this representation of the Cp curve is based on its simplicity together with good base
for correlation with the power curve provided in the Vestas V80 product description (Vestas, 2008).
The constants a= 0.76 and b=2.64, are self defined and chosen iteratively to give a better correlation
to the actual data. This correlation will be presented later in the project.
θ is the blade pitch angle in deg. and the tip speed ratio is [2]:
z =
æ
¡
˞
˰
w
(2.3)
Where R is the rotor diameter, ω
r
is the rotor speed and v
w
is the wind speed. The mechanical power
of the wind turbine will therefore be expressed as (Ackermann, 2005):

˜
m
= ˕p · ˜
wìnd
(2.4)


12


Figure 1: Cp curves at different wind speeds as a function of Rotational Speed

When allowing variable rotational speed the optimum efficiency point can be regulated to fit a given
wind-speed as seen in Figure 1 and the mechanical power in Figure 2 can be obtained.

Figure 2: Mechanical Power at different Wind Speeds as a function of Rotational Speed, with the
maximum mechanical power for each wind-speed marked with a cross



13

2.2 Electrical Representation

This section will describe the electrical representation of the Rotor Current Control generator. A RCC
is a single fed, wound rotor generator with the possibility to vary the rotor resistance. A highly
simplified sketch of this generator might be seen in Figure 3. The requirements for the electrical
model in this project is that it is able to react to changes in rotor and stator frequency, change in
external rotor resistance and change in stator voltage. The chosen model can be found in (Paul C.
Krause, 2002) and is presented in Figure 4. Al values are from now on assumed to be in p.u. if not
otherwise specified.

Figure 3: Rotor Current Control Generator


Figure 4: Arbitrary reference-frame equivalent circuits for 3-phase symmetrical induction machine



14


Since in this project it is chosen to investigate the generator losses in the desired operational points,
the necessary equations have to be deduced. The voltages can be described as:
˰
qs
= ˞
s
˩
qs

s
ψ
ds
(2.5)

˰
ds
= ˞
s
˩
ds

s
ψ
qs

(2.6)

˰

= ˞
¡
˩

+(æ
s

¡



(2.7)
˰

= ˞
¡
˩

+(æ
s

¡


(2.8)
Where the flux linkage is described as:

ψ
qs
= æ
s
(I
s
˩
qs
+I
m

qs


))
(2.9)
ψ
ds
= æ
s
(I
s
˩
ds
+I
m

ds


)) (2.10)

ψ

= æ
s
(I
¡
˩

+I
m

qs


))
(2.11)
ψ

= æ
s
(I
¡
˩

+I
m

ds


)) (2.12)
By working in the arbitrary reference frame the number of unknowns can be reduced to improve
calculation time. Therefore the following values are set:
˰
qs
= ˰
s
(2.13)
˰
ds
= Ŵ (2.14)
This is verified since fulfilling:
˰
s
= ¹˰
qs
2

ds
2
(2.15)
Further the rotor voltages can be set to zero:
˰

= ˰

= Ŵ (2.16)
This is true when defining the rotor voltages over the short circuited rotor side as shown in Figure 4
and additional rotor resistance (R
add
) is included in R
r
. Further by combining equation(2.16), (2.5),
(2.8), (2.10) and (2.12) i
dr
can be written as:
˩

=
1
R
r
+R
cdd
|(æ
s
I
m
˩
qs
) -(æ
¡
I
m
˩
qs
) +(æ
s
I
m
˩

) +(æ
s
I
¡
˩

) -(æ
¡
I
m
˩

) -(æ
¡
I
¡
˩

)!
(2.17)


15

Since the losses are highly dependent on the currents, the currents are of great interest to single
out. This is chosen to be done with a Newton Raphson algorithm because of its history of solving this
type of initialization problems. In order to use the Newton-Raphson method to solve three implicit
unknowns, three equations has to be set to zero (William H. Press, 1992). This is done by combining
all equations from equation(2.5) until equation(2.17) obtaining:

Ŵ = ˞
s
˩
qs

s
(I
s
+I
m

ds
+
1
R
r
+R
cdd
Әæ
s
I
m
(I
m
˩
qs
æ
s
-I
m
˩
qs
æ
¡

s
I
m
˩



æ
s
I
¡
-
˩orærI˭ -˩orærIr-˰s(2.18)
Ŵ = -æ
s
(I
s
+I
m

qs

s
˩
ds

s
I
m
˩

(2.19)
Ŵ = -(æ
s

¡
)I
m
˩
ds
+(˞
¡

udd


+
1
R
r
Ә(æ
s

¡
)(I
m
+I
¡
)(I
m
˩
qs
æ
s
-I
m
˩
qs
æ
¡
+
æsI˭˩or+˩oræsIr-˩oræsIr-˩orærI˭-˩orærIr (2.20)
The deductions can be found in the Apendix.
The steady state electrical torque of the machine can be written as:
ˠ
c
=
æ
s
I
m
2
˞
¡
s · ˰
s
2

s
˞
¡
+sæ
s
2
((I
m
2
-I
ss
I
¡¡
))]
2

s
2

¡
I
ss
+s˞
s
I
¡¡
)
2
(2.21)
Where:


s =
æ
s

¡
æ
s

(2.22)
I
ss
= I
s
+I
m
(2.23)
I
¡¡
= I
¡
+I
m
(2.24)

Further the stator voltage, stator frequency and air gap flux is co-dependent as shown in (Matsch,
1977) and can be presented as:

ˢ
s
=
Ÿ.ŸŸ˦
s
· ˫ · ˚
s
· ¢
u
o
1
(2.25)
ˢ
s,nom
=
Ÿ.ŸŸ˦
s,nom
· ˫ · ˚
s
· ¢
u,nom
o
1
(2.26)


16

Where f
s
is the stator frequency, N
s
is the number of turns in the stator a
1
is the number of the
current paths, k is the pitch factor and ψ
a
is the air-gap flux, the subscript “nom” indicates nominal
operation. To be able to create an optimization algorithm within a reasonable time-span a
simplification had to be made, saying that the air-gap flux is constant for all stator frequencies:
¢
u
= ¢
u,nom
(2.27)
Assuming this is representative and that the factors k, N and a
1
remain constant the voltage
dependence on frequency will be written as:
ˢ
s
=
˦
s
˦
s,nom
ˢ
s,nom
(2.28)
This is valid until V
s
= V
s,nom
where the air-gap flux has to be reduced in order to keep the voltage
constant (Ion Boldea, 2001) a typical voltage frequency characteristic for a 220 V 50 Hz induction
machine is shown in Figure 5

Figure 5: Voltage-Frequency Characteristic for a 220 V 50Hz induction machine (Ion Boldea, 2001)

The rotor copper losses are expressed as:
˜
c,¡
= (˩

2


2
)(˞
¡

udd
) (2.29)
The stator copper losses are expressed as:
˜
c,s
= (˩
ds
2

qs
2

s
(2.30)
Therefore the generated power of the generator is:


17

˜
gcn
= ˜
m

c,¡

c,s
(2.31)

2.3 Transformer representation

This section will describe the two winding transformer connecting the wind turbine to the sending
end converter. The reason for including the transformer is to investigate the impact of the frequency
variations on the losses in the transformer. This will show if the transformer losses should be taken
into account when considering the combined control system.


Figure 6: Equivalent diagram for transformation

An equivalent diagram of a two winding transformer is seen in Figure 6 and can be found in (Matsch,
1977). Here the assumption is that the current generated by the generator is fed in to the primary
side of the transformer hence:
˩
s
= ¹˩
ds
2

qs
2
(2.32)
The losses in the transformer can then be calculated:
˜
Ioss
= ˩
s
2
˞
p¡ì

m,Rm
2
˞
m
+
˚
p¡ì
˚
scc
˩
s,scc
2
˞
scc
(2.33)
Where the magnetization current can be approximated:


˩
m
= ˩
s

scc
2
+(æ
s
I
scc
)
2

scc
2
+(æ
s
I
scc
)
2
+¹Ә
1
R
m
2
+
1
(o
s
L
m
)
2
ә
-1

(2.34)

And i
m,Rm
is the real part of i
m
further:


18


˩
scc
= t
s
-t
m
(2.35)
Where i
s
and i
m
are presented as vectors. Typical values for a transformer was provided by my
industrial supervisor and presented in Table 1
Table 1: Suitable Transformer values
Lpri Rpri Lsec Rsec Lm Rm
0.0216 p.u. 0.00225 p.u. 0.0216 p.u. 0.00225 p.u. 175 p.u. 300 p.u.


2.4 Tuning of the Steady state model

This section will present how the model was tuned in order to become representative for its
purpose.
In order to get reliable results from the further calculations it is necessary for the model to
represent a real life turbine power production as good as possible. And since some information
about the power production of the Vestas V80 is provided in (Vestas, 2008), together with electrical
parameters from a 2 MW double fed induction generator found in (Petterson, 2005) the steady state
power production could be closely represented. The model tuning was performed on the fixed stator
frequency model (AC transmission connected), and tuned to fulfill the criteria known to the author
during this project.

Figure 7: Power curve of the Vestas V80 1800 kW Wind Turbine



19

From the product description (Vestas, 2008) it is known that the nominal power of the wind turbine
is reached at wind speed equal to 15 m/s. It is also known to the author that turbine works with a
fixed optimum slip, and the slip range is from 1-10% slip (Vestas, 2008). The rotor speed of the
generator is based on a combined control between the pitch angle of the blades and the control of
the additional rotor resistance (Vestas, 2008). Although for this project the optimization considering
change in pitch angle will not be considered, consequently the optimum slip was not able to follow
for all wind speeds. Therefore the chosen constrain was to reach maximum power production for all
wind turbine topologies at a slip higher than -10%. This was done by adapting the self defined a) and
b) coefficients in equation(2.2) together with choosing a step size of the additional rotor resistance,
which would provide a satisfactorily power output ( P
Generated
=P
Mechanical
-P
loss
). This was performed
manually and is therefore no guaranty that this provides the optimum correlation between Figure 7
and Figure 8 , although for the scope of this project this is considered by the author to give a good
enough base for the power comparison. The original power curve is shown in Figure 7 and the power
curve obtained using equation(2.31) for all wind speeds is shown in Figure 8. The data needed to
obtain the power curve in Figure 8 is presented in Table 2 and Table 3.

Figure 8: The calculated Power Curve for the AC connected variable rotor resistance wind turbine

Table 2
Mechanical Parameters:
Rotor Diameter 80 m
Cut in wind Speed 4 m/s
Cut out wind Speed 25 m/s
Nominal wind Speed 15 m/s

Table 3
Electrical Parameters:
Rotor Resistance 0.014 p.u. *
Rotor Inductance 0.07 p.u.
Stator Resistance 0.01 p.u.
Stator Inductance 0.18 p.u.


20

Magnetizing Inductance 4.4 p.u.
Nominal Power 1800 kW
Additional Rotor Resistance 10 steps of 0.02 p.u. (self defined)

*In (Petterson, 2005) the value of the Rotor resistance was 0.009 p.u. This project however is using
0.014 p.u. as minimum value of the rotor resistance and happened because of a mathematical
overlook in the optimization algorithm. This change in rotor resistance has no effect on the main
idea of the project and it was therefore considered unnecessary to recalculate all the presented
results.


21

3. Steady State operation, Mechanical Power and Losses

The following chapter will provide the base for the further optimization of the VSC HVDC RCC
generator. In order to find the optimum operational points the models response to changes in the
stator voltage, stator frequency and additional rotor resistance has to be examined. This will give a
thorough examination of how torque curve, generator losses, rotational speed and internal currents
will behave when controlling the generator. The results are all based on the steady state model
derived in Chapter 2 and will now be presented. The purpose of this chapter is to show the high un-
linearity of power and losses based on operational points. This is therefore meant to substantiate
the choice of optimization algorithm.

3.1 Torque curve

The torque curve is defined by the electrical parameters and provides the base for the operational
point. The torque curve expression can be found in equation(2.21) and will now be presented for
different stator voltages/frequencies and rotor resistance.

Figure 9: Shows the Electrical torque as a function of rotational speed, for different stator frequencies



22


Figure 10: Shows the torque curve as a function of rotational speed for different rotor resistances

As can be seen in Figure 9 and Figure 10 the torque characteristic is highly dependent on both the
rotor resistance and stator frequency, and therefore might be used in the tracking of the optimal
operation point of the generator.

3.2 Currents and slip

This section will show how the currents and slip will behave in the generator when adjusting stator
frequency and rotor resistance. The wind is chosen to be the constant factor.

Figure 11: Slip as a function of stator frequency and rotor resistance at wind speed = 9 m/s


23


Figure 12: Rotor Current as a Function of rotor resistance and stator frequency at wind speed = 9 m/s

As can be seen from the Figure 11 and Figure 12 the slip and currents are highly un-linear when
changing the rotor resistance and stator frequency. One thing of interest is the impact of the stator
frequency on the currents in the generator. It can be seen that the Frequency variations have a
much greater impact on the currents than the change in rotor resistance when using the step sizes
and operational span of this project.

3.3 Mechanical Power


Figure 13: Mechanical Power as a function of stator frequency and rotor resistance


24

In Figure 13 one can see the mechanical power possible to track by adjusting the stator frequency
and rotor resistance. As can be seen the optimization based on the rotor resistance is modest for
this wind speed compared with the optimization based on the power tracking capability enabled by
varying the stator frequency. Although by looking on the raw data, the tracking done by the rotor
resistance can be shown to be in the order of 1-6 % of the mechanical power at the given stator
frequency.
Table 4: Showing 4 operational points, the impact of the stator frequency and rotor resistance on the
mechanical power
StatorFrequency/RotorResistance 0.014 p.u. 0.214 p.u.
0.72 p.u. Pm = 0.3629 p.u. Pm = 0.3695 p.u.
1.09 p.u. Pm = 0.3596 p.u. Pm = 0.3480 p.u.

What can be noticed in Table 4 is that the optimum mechanical power is not given explicitly by the
rotor resistance or the stator frequency. This means if the stator frequency [p.u.] is above the
rotational speed [p.u.] that provides the optimum mechanical power, a low resistance will provide a
better operational point for mechanical power. Again, if the stator frequency is lower than the
rotational speed that provides the optimum mechanical power a high resistance will provide a better
operational point for mechanical power. This might be easier to visualize by studying Figure 9
together with Figure 10 and imagine how this will provide operational points in Figure 2.

3.4 Losses


Figure 14: Generator power loss as a function of stator frequency and Rotor resistance at constant wind
speed = 9 m/s




25

The loss calculations are based on stator and rotor losses showed in equation(2.29) and
equation(2.30). And will vary dependant on stator frequency and rotor resistance. In Figure 14 it can
be seen how the losses are distributed for a constant wind speed when varying the additional rotor
resistance and stator frequency. As can be seen when imagining the stator frequency constant the
losses increase with increased rotor resistance. The reader can also keep in mind that the
operational point changes with the wind speed, consequently the losses will change with the wind
speed. In Figure 15 the losses in the transformer calculated according to equation(2.33) are
presented.

Figure 15: Transformer power loss as a function of stator frequency and Rotor resistance at constant
wind speed = 9 m/s

As can be seen when comparing the Figure 14 and Figure 15 it can be seen that the losses in the
transformer are modest compared to the losses in the generator.


26

3.5 Generated Power

Figure 16: Generated Power as a function of Rotor Resistance and Stator Frequency

Finally the generated power is presented in Figure 16. This figure is a result of subtracting Figure 13
from Figure 14. The optimum operational point at this wind speed is found at Stator frequency =
0.97 p.u. and with the minimum value of rotor resistance.

3.6 Chapter Evaluation

This thorough deduction was made during the progress of this project when the operational points
of the generator jet were not known. The aim was to see and understand how all possible
operational conditions to provide an optimization algorithm that was sufficient to show the possible
gain of combined controlling stator frequency, stator voltage and additional rotor resistance. But
what will be shown later is that when being able to change the stator frequency in such a wide
interval, the tracking of mechanical power can be done by the stator frequency alone, therefore the
rotor resistance can be kept at a minimum and reduce the losses in the generator, and the losses in
the transformer are not of a size which effects the operational points considering the step sizes used
in the optimization algorithm of this project. This would maybe not be the case if this project had to
consider stricter limits on the stator frequency variation, or used a higher resolution of step-size for
rotor resistance and frequencies. This was not obvious for the author until the later part of the
project. Since the losses in the transformer can be shown by the author to not impact the power
production and the operational points of the generator in a substantial way, this is from now on
neglected in the project.
On the other hand, the rotor resistance has a positive effect on the AC connected model, where
there is no possibility of power tracking by using variable stator frequency. Therefore the rotor
resistance is used in the power optimization of the AC connected model.


27


4. Steady state optimization and Operational Points

This chapter will describe the optimization algorithm and how it was implemented in MatLab. As
mentioned earlier the objective is to find the maximum power output for the generator, as shown in
Figure 17 within the operational boundaries shown in later presented in
Table 8. The variables in the algorithm are the rotational speed, the stator frequency, stator voltage
and rotor resistance.

Figure 17: Energy yield for the RCC generator model

When examining the steady state model presented in Chapter 2.2 and the mechanical equations in
Chapter 2.1 it is seen that we are operating with highly un-linear co-dependent equations. The main
thought for the algorithm was for it to be robust and thorough, and to be able to check a wide range
of operational conditions to show the picture of how the power output of the generators where
responding according to these changes. The algorithm then stores the necessary data for validation,
power production, losses, currents and optimum operational points for each wind speed. The
simplified diagram of the algorithm is presented in Figure 19. The further presentation might require
some knowledge about MatLab, but is tried to be presented in a more general way.
4.1 The Optimization Algorithm

The algorithm is based on “for loops “and is starting by setting wind speed equal to 4 m/s and
proceeds to the setting of the stator frequency equal to 0.5 p.u. (30 Hz) where the stator voltage is
calculated according to equation(2.28). The rotor resistance is then set to 0.014 p.u.. Based on this
information the rotor speed can be calculated by using equation(2.4) and equation(2.21) resulting in:
˜
m

¡
) = æ
¡
· ˠ
c
(4.1)


28

This is solved by plotting the two graphs on a common axis of rotational speed (step size of 1/33
p.u.) where the operational points in between the steps is approximated using a “spline”
interpolation. The intersection point is found using the Matlab function “fsolve”, which is a solver for
implicit unknowns similar to a Newton-Raphson algorithm. The benefit of using this function instead
of a self defined algorithm is its possibility of providing an “exitflag” which tells something about the
accuracy of the solution. This “exitflag” is therefore used as the first constrain to ensure that the
intersection of the two graphs is of desired mathematical accuracy (converging to a real root). Other
constrains at this point in the algorithm is that the stabile operational point marked with a circle in
Figure 18 and that the difference in between the two curves illustrated by the arrows in Figure 18 is
sufficient. And since the generator is not supposed to work at slips lower than -10% and the rotor
speed should be less than 1.5 p.u. these are included as constrains.

Figure 18: Mechanical Power and Electrical Power Torque

If all constrains are not fulfilled a bypass is initiated, setting rotational speed, currents, powers and
slip equal to zero before storing the data with label. Than the rotor resistance is increased and the
same calculations and verification is initialized. When all constrains are fulfilled the rotor speed is
used for current calculations and mechanical power calculations. The currents are calculated using a
Newton-Raphson method on equation(2.18) to equation(2.20) and finally finding the last current by
solving equation(2.17) with the currents already obtained. The choice of using the Newton-Raphson
method was based on its history of solving this type of mathematical problems. Since all operational
points here already where filtered earlier, the problem with the algorithm converging towards
unrealistic solutions is not an issue at this point in the algorithm. More information about Newton-
Raphson can be found in (William H. Press, 1992).The mechanical power is calculated according to
equation(2.4)
Based on the currents the losses in the stator and rotor are calculated according to equation(2.29)
and equation(2.30). The generated power is calculated according to equation(2.31). The data is


29

stored in a 3D matrix where the data is stored with its respective label of [ω
s
,R
r
, V
w
]. ω
s
is the stator
frequency, R
r
is the rotor resistance and V
w
is the wind speed.
When R
r
reaches R
r,max
, ω
s
is increased with one step, and the same procedure is initiated. When ω
s

reaches ω
s,max
, V
w
is increased by one step until V
w,max
is reached. This ensures that all operational
conditions are checked, verified and stored.


30


Figure 19: Simplified diagram of the optimization algorithm



31

When all data is stored a second algorithm is initiated finding the maximum power production and
at which operational conditions these are obtained, these operational conditions together with their
power production are saved and used as the base for the rest of the project.
This same algorithm is used for all three turbine topologies, only difference is the amount of
variables chosen to be constant. The VSC HVDC topology is the one described above, the AC
connected variable resistance is keeping the stator frequency constant, and the AC connected
constant rotor resistance topology additionally keeps the rotor resistance constant. A summary is
seen in Table 5.
Table 5: Operational range and step size for the different generator topologies
Limits/topology VSC HVDC AC Variable
Resistance
AC Constant
Resistance
Rotor resistance 0.014 0.014 0.075
Resistance step size 1/50 p.u. 1/200 p.u. -
Stator frequency 0.5 -1.5 p.u. 1 p.u. 1 p.u.
Frequency step size 1/33 p.u. - -

The values chosen in Table 5 where changed and modified continuously during this project, the final
solution however ended with the presented values.
This because:
• The VSC HVDC topology prefers to find operational points by changing stator frequency and
keeping the rotor resistance minimum, in order to minimize losses. Therefore the resistance
could in general be set to constant, but for illustrative reasons it is changing to verify this
statement.
• Since the AC variable resistance is more dependent on the rotor resistance a higher
resolution on the step size was needed in order to provide smooth operational points.
• The AC connected topology with constant resistance, has rotor resistance = 0.075 since this
is the value the “Variable Resistance” topology uses at wind speed = 15 m/s and reaches the
power production of 1 p.u. (can be seen in Figure 21)
If the reader should be interested in reading the MatLab script appended the constrains are
presented more orderly in Table 6.

Table 6: List of Constrains
MatLab
Denotation
Mathematical Denotation
1
st
Constrain Choosing the correct intersection
2
nd
Constrain Solution has to be a real root
3
rd
Constrain Sufficient difference between electrical power torque and mechanical power
4
th
Constrain Slip > -10%
5
th
Constrain Rotational speed ≤ 1.5


32

4.2 Operational Points AC connected Constant Rotor resistance
Wind Turbine

For comparison of the three types of wind turbine generator topologies it was chosen to show how
the slip changes of the AC connected constant speed generator. This generator will have no
possibility of performing any kind of power tracking, and the rotational speed will only be affected
by the change in wind speed. The slip characteristic is shown in Figure 20

Figure 20: Slip of generator with Constant Rotor Resistance



33

4.3 Operational Points Variable Rotor Resistance AC Connected
Turbine

Since the Vestas V80 OptiSlip has a very advanced optimization system the author had to simplify
this in order to be able to provide a model within the time scope of this project. In reality the
OptiSlip is combined with an OptiTip system, which provides coordinated control of the slip of the
generator and the slip will further be used as the active power reference. This system has many
advantages like increased power quality, less flicker, and less harmonic disturbance together with
higher power output(Vestas, 2008). Since this project mainly focus on the investigation of power
production, the author has simplified the control system and will use only the rotor resistance to
provide a maximum power production tracking. This simplification distance the model from the real
V80 since an optimum slip function is not possible to obtain with this control system. On the other
hand, the VSC HVDC model is also not considering the OptiTip function, so a slight justification of the
comparison of the models can be drawn. Although this has to be kept in mind when the final results
of this project is presented. If this report should be basis for a new control strategy of wind-turbines
it is highly recommended to include possible gain of using the OptiTip function.

Figure 21: Optimum Rotor Resistance for AC connected Wind Turbine

As can be seen in Figure 21 the rotor resistance is kept low when the wind is low to minimize losses
and a good mechanical power tracking is performed. When the wind speed increase additional rotor
resistance is provided so the rotational speed increase to perform a better tracking of the
mechanical power, while maintaining low losses. When the wind reaches 13 m/s the mechanical
power is high so the most profitable solution is to reduce the losses by reducing the rotor resistance.
How these operational points effect the slip is shown in Figure 22.


34


Figure 22: Slip of the AC connected Wind Turbine

4.4 Operational Points VSC HVDC Connected Wind Turbine

In order to create the dynamic control system the optimum operational points of the new topology
has to be singled out. This section will provide the reader with the operational points and the
approximation used in between operational points for use in the dynamical simulation program
DIgSILENT.

Figure 23: Optimum Stator Frequency as a function of Wind Speed




35


Figure 24: Optimum Rotational Speed as a Function of Wind Speed

Figure 25: Optimum Slip as a Function of Wind Speed

In Figure 23, Figure 24 and Figure 25 the optimum operational points are published. Al figures are
presented until wind speed equal to 13 m/s since here the nominal power production is reached. In
Figure 23 and Figure 24 the spline approximation of the operational points is also presented. This
line shows how the operational points later implemented in the dynamic simulation in DIgSILENT
Power Factory. In the VSC HVDC connected generator the optimum operational points always
resulted in the minimum value of the rotor resistance, this since all the power tracking is performed
by the converter regulating the stator frequency.




36

4.4.1 Necessary operational range

From the operational points presented the necessary operational range can be derived. To be able
to follow the tracking method presented it will be necessary for the rotor to rotate in the interval
showed in Table 7.
Table 7: Operational range needed for Induction machine
Min rotational speed Max Rotational Speed
0.5 p.u. 1.3985 p.u.
30 Hz 83.9 Hz


4.5 Summary of Power Production and operational points

As is shown, the effect of controllability of the generators has a significant impact on the power
production performed by the generators. The more controllable the generator topology, the more
power can be withdrawn from the wind, while limiting the losses so the generated power will
maximize. To present a final steady state overview, the author has chosen to present the operational
points of the three wind turbine topologies on common mechanical power curves. This is meant to
illustrate and describe for the reader, the essence of the Power Optimization Theory.

Figure 26: Operational Points of the three generators on the power curve provided by a wind of 6 m/s


37


Figure 27: Operational Points of the three generators on the power curve generated by a wind of 13 m/s

As is seen in Figure 26 and Figure 27 the operational points of the three generators are different for
the different wind speeds. The controllability of the VSC HVDC generator provides it with the benefit
of keeping the rotor resistance low, and use the stator frequency to decide the rotational speed. This
is an optimal solution since this provides minimum losses and maximum mechanical power for all
wind speeds. The generator with variable rotor resistance has the ability to consider if the extra
rotational speed obtained with the increase of extra rotor resistance will provides a favourable
relation between losses and mechanical power. When comparing Figure 21 and Figure 27 one can
see that the impact of decreasing the rotor resistance is favourable for this wind speed. This because
the mechanical power curve here is relatively flat, so the gain in mechanical power of adding extra
rotor resistance will be lost with interest when considering the losses. The normal AC connected
generator has no chance of optimization and will therefore changing rotational speed based on the
wind only.



38

5. Steady State Comparison of power production

This chapter will use the models derived earlier to show the difference of the energy production
from the AC transmission connected RCC generator and the VSC HVDC connected RCC generator.
The chosen way of performing this analysis is described and how the results can be interpreted

5.1 Comparison Strategy

In order to provide reasonable results in the power production comparison between the generators
connected to the VSC HVDC and the generator connected to regular AC transmission, the general
details has to be defined. By checking the product description (Vestas, 2008), the operational
interval of the generator is spanning from 1-10 % slip. Therefore it is assumed that this same
constrain applies to the new wind turbine design with variable stator frequency. The three turbines
investigated in steady-state are the same turbines presented in Chapter 4, and the power curves
derived from the presented operational points.
As mentioned, for simplicity the pitch angle is not used in the optimization algorithm. The pitch
angle is firstly used when the generators reach nominal power, and is then used to reduce the
mechanical power. When the nominal power is reached, the optimization is terminated and both
generators keep producing nominal power until the cut out wind speed of 25 m/s is reached. Both
turbines are assumed to have the same cut in wind speed, 4 m/s.
The yearly energy production will be based on weibull distributed wind speeds multiplied with the
respective power curves, assuming that both generators run without stop for the whole year. A
more tidy presentation of the physical constrains is listed in Table 8 .
Table 8: Constrains for the two generators
Generator connected to AC
Transmission
Generator connected to VSC
HVDC Transmission
Nominal Power 1800 kW 1800 kW
Nominal Wind Speed 15 m/s Unknown (13 m/s)
Operational stator frequency 50 Hz 25 to 75 Hz
Operational rotor frequency 50 to 55 Hz 25 to 75 Hz
Maximum Slip 10% 10%
Cut in wind speed 4 m/s 4 m/s
Cut out wind speed 25 m/s 25 m/s




39

5.2 Power Production

This section will present the results of the two different wind turbine connections. Using the
optimization algorithm the power curves for the different wind turbines was obtained. To make the
power calculations valid the chosen wind speeds where taken from Sklinna Fyr in Norway
(Norwegian Metrological Institue, 2008). Based on 1 hour’s values from May 2007 until May 2008 a
weibull distribution was generated in MatLab. The yearly energy production can be described as:

˗ = 8ŻźŴJ ˜o˱˥r˕˯r˰˥(ˢ˱)
25
4
· ˣbˬpˤ˦(ˢ˱)ˤˢ˱ (5.1)

Where V
w
is the wind speed and Wblpdf represents the Weibull distribution, the reader can refer to
(Johnson, 1994) for the weibull calculation technique. 8760 is the number of hours in a year
considering no operational problems for the wind turbine. For Illustrative purposes also the energy
production at given wind speeds is presented and can be calculated like:

˗(ˢ˱) = ˜o˱˥r˕˯r˰˥(ˢ˱) · ˣbˬpˤ˦(ˢ˱) (5.2)

The power curves together with the weibull distribution for the wind is presented in Figure 28 and
the power production generated at different wind speeds is shown in Figure 29.

Figure 28: Power Curves for the two wind turbines together with the weibull distribution of the wind


40


Figure 29: Power Production distributed at different wind Speeds

Figure 30: The Power Curves of the three wind-turbine topologies

Based on the yearly energy production equation it is now possible to compare the production of the
generators and the results are presented in Table 9.
Table 9
Turbine Type Power Production
AC Connected Constant Resistance 6.359 MWh
AC Connected Variable Resistance 6.464 MWh
VSC HVDC Connected 6.819 MWh




41

Increase compared to: Power Production Increase of the VSC
HVDC Connected Wind Turbine
AC Connected Constant Resistance 7.25 %
AC Connected Variable Resistance 5.49 %

Further a dynamic computation of energy will be performed with high resolution wind data in
Chapter 8. The wind data used is described more in detail in chapter 8.1. Therefore firstly a steady
state computation of the energy gain will be presented, for later comparison with the dynamic
model. In order to save some time in the dynamic modelling, the choice was to compare the VSC-
HVDC topology with the AC connected constant rotor resistance topology. This was considered by
the author to be sufficient to illustrate the possible gain of the new topology. This assumption was
made by analysing Figure 30, seeing that the difference between the constant and variable
resistance AC connected wind turbine is very small compared with the difference up to the VSC
HVDC topology. This simplification saved the author potential time used for implementing and
tuning a rotor resistance control system.

Figure 31: Power Production distributed on different wind speeds

Figure 31 shows the weibull distribution of the high resolution wind together with the energy
production of the two wind turbine topologies calculated according to equation(5.2). The Power
Production calculated according to equation (5.1) is presented in Table 10.
Table 10
Turbine Type
AC Connected Constant Resistance 6.975 MWh
VSC HVDC Connected 7.224 MWh
Increased Power Production 3.56%




42


5.2.1 Evaluation

It can be seen from Figure 28 that if the shape of the wind will have a higher density in the area
above 10 m/s the difference will be more favorable for the DC connected wind turbine. On the other
hand if the density of the wind is compressed more in the below 10 m/s region the difference in
power production might decrease. The favorability of this new concept using VSC HVDC transmission
will therefore be strongly dependant on the wind speed. The author also find it reasonable to
assume that the shape of the wind will have a strong impact on the favorability since the power
production of the VSC HVDC connected and the variable rotor resistance wind turbine has a very
comparable power production around the average wind area of 7-10 m/s. Therefore the favorability
of the new VSC HVDC concept has to be determined sight specific in order to see the possible gain
when looking at power production. What has not been considered in these calculations and will
most likely determine if there will be any benefit, are the losses in the PWM converters compared to
normal HVAC transmission systems. A general loss description of the most common transmission
systems was found in (Watson, 2005) and is presented in Table 11.
Table 11: Losses in typical transmission systems, losses expressed in percent of nominal power
Alternative Convention Losses Line Losses Total Losses
AC 0 % 1.2 % 1.2 %
Conventional HVDC 1.4 % 0.5 % 1.9 %
VSC HVDC 5 % 1.5 % 6.5 %

As seen from Table 11 the total losses for VSC HVDC transmission is 5.3 % higher at nominal power
in the VSC HVDC transmission compared with the AC transmission. More detailed data considering
the two topologies is provided in (Watson, 2005). The details of how the state of the art PWM
converter losses are compared to the ones presented here, and how the losses are represented in all
operational conditions was beyond the scope of this project. Including these losses is highly
recommended by the author in future research. Conventional HVDC is tyristor/diode based HVDC
solutions and will not be discussed in detail in this project. If the reader wants more information on
this topology a detailed description can be found in (Kundur, 1993).



43


6. Dynamic Modeling

For further investigation of the stability of the new topology, a dynamic model has to be developed.
The chosen program is DIgSILENT Power Factory because of its history of being used for representing
wind turbine models. The model has to contain all components important for dynamic investigations
and to show dynamic power optimization. Further the VSC HVDC transmission receiving end station
control system need to be represented realistic, and a control system for the sending end converter
has to be implemented. The generator and PWM converters are chosen from the Power Factory
component library and modified to fit better with the wind turbine investigated.

6.1 Wind Turbine Model

The wind turbine model implemented in Power Factory was based on the model from the steady
state analysis. This was done to obtain correlation and therefore a dynamic validation of the steady
state results. Since the steady state analysis was performed without the considering the effect of the
shaft, this was also neglected in the dynamic model. Therefore the whole inertia was moved to the
generator. The wind turbine generator is therefore represented by a pitch controller, turbine model
and the wound rotor single cage induction generator.
6.1.1 Turbine model

The turbine model is implemented using the equations derived in Chapter 2.1. The C
p
curve is
provided by a spline approximation between values of z and θ from equation(2.2). The lambda and
mechanical power is computed as in equation(2.3) and equation(2.4).
6.1.2 Pitch Controller Model

The pitch angle controller used is a slightly modified version of the pitch controller used in the Power
Factory DFIG example. This is implemented by comparing the rotational speed of the generator to a
given reference. This signal is fed to a PI controller with limits of the maximum and minimum pitch
angle. This generates the reference signal for the pitch angle, which is compared with the actual
pitch angle and providing the desired pitch angle. In order to smoothen the pitching a rate limiter on
the rate of change of the pitch angle is implemented. If the reader wants to use a similar approach
to reconstruct this model, remember that the reference speed has to be changed in order to cope
with the variations desired in the rotational speed of this project. For more detailed information
about the pitch controller the reader can referee to (Anca D. Hansen, 2003).



44

6.1.3 Induction Machine Model

The induction machine used in the dynamic model is the Type ASM Asynchronous Machine. The
electrical equations of the machine are derived in the same way as the ones presented in chapter
2.2. The voltage equations are described as:
˰
s
= r
s
˩
s
+
ˤ¢
s
æ
nom
ˤˮ

æ
s
æ
nom
¢
s
(6.1)
Ŵ = ˰
¡
=
ˤ¢
¡
æ
nom
ˤˮ

æ
s

¡
æ
nom
¢
¡
(6.2)
Removing the derivatives from equation (6.1) and (6.2) then comparing with equation(2.5) to
equation(2.8) the equation are identical. DIgSILENT state in the technical reference that stator
transients are neglected in this model, so ω
ref
is fixed to global or local reference .The author has not
found which reference is used in the presented model, but based on the results presented in
Chapter 7 it is clearly shown that the change in stator frequency affects the generator model. One
theory is that the local reference frame chosen in Power Factory is linked to the output frequency of
the PWM converter of the sending end of the HVDC, and therefore identical with the stator-
frequency. The very good correlation between the steady state model and the dynamic model
presented in Chapter 7 was only obtainable when considering change in generator reactance based
on stator frequency in the steady state model! All other approaches ended in larger deviation for the
two models (for instance setting the ω
s
= ω
n
in the steady state model and running the dynamic
model in an EMT simulation (DIgSILENT2, 2007)). A more detailed description of the induction
machine can be found in the DIgSILENT technical reference for induction machines (DIgSILENT2,
2007).
6.2 PWM Model

The PWM Model chosen for this project is also one of the standard models from the DIgSILENT
Power Factory component library. The model represents a self commutated voltage source AC/DC
converter. The model is based on the fundamental frequency approach and supports sinusoidal and
rectangular modulation. Further the model supports a number of different control conditions
(DIgSILENT, 2007):

• V
ac
-phi: Specifies magnitude and phase of AC-terminal. Typical control modes for motor-side
converters in variable speed drive applications.
• V
dc
-Phi: Specifies the DC-voltage and the AC-voltage phase. No typical application.
• PWM-phi: Load-flow setup without control. The pulse-width modulation factor is directly
set in magnitude and phace.
• V
dc
-Q: Specifies DC-voltage and reactive power. Typical applications: STATCOM, shunt-
converter of UPFC, grid side converte of doubly fed induction machine and VSC-HVDC
applications


45

• V
dc
-P: Specifies AC-voltage magnitude and active power. This is equivalent to a “PV”
characteristic of conventional synchronous machines. Typical applications: Grid side
converter of converter driven synchronous machines, VSC HVDC.
• P-Q: Specifies P and Q at the AC-side. This control mode is equivalent to a “PQ”-
characteristic of synchronous machine. Typical applications: Same as “Vac-P”
For more detailed information the reader can refer to the DIgSILENT technical reference (DIgSILENT,
2007).

6.3 HVDC Model

This section will determine the choice of VSC HVDC model and present a stepwise modeling solution
for use in Power Factory. During the history of VSC based HVDC models, many control strategies for
the converter has been proposed. This project will not consider them all but concentrate at some
solutions fitted for this project.
Firstly, even though the two converters topologies are equal, the main functions of the two
converters are different, for the receiving end converter the important property is to feed the active
power transmitted by the sending end converter and maintaining the DC voltage at a desirable level
and controlling the reactive power (Erlich, 2007) ,(Florin Iov, 2006). The sending end converter will
transmit the power from the wind farm and control/maintain the frequency and voltage on the wind
turbine AC side (Erlich, 2007).
Based on this information the implemented control system for the receiving end converter was
made to control the reactive power and DC – link voltage, the system is chosen to operate in the d-q
reference frame and is highly inspired by the control system presented in (Florin Iov, 2006). The
sketch of the control system is shown in Figure 32 and the supported control condition chosen from
Chapter 6.2 is the V
dc
– Q control.
The DC link voltage is controlled using a PI controller where the measured voltage from the DC-Link
is compared with a fixed reference. The fixed reference is set to be the nominal voltage of the DC-
link, 150 kV (1 p.u. of connected bus-bar). The output from the DC-Voltage controller is used as the
reference for the current in the d-axis.
Referring to (Florin Iov, 2006) the set point of the reactive power can be set to zero, it should be
noticed that the system operator can demand a different set point. Although for simplicity this is
used in this project and therefore the output of the reference output (current reference in q axis) of
the Q-controller is set to zero.


46


Figure 32: Control system for the receiving end Converter

Now when the reference parameters are determined the measured currents have to be transformed
into the d-q axis. This is done by implying a Phase-Locked-Loop to calculate the currents from real
and imaginary to the d-q axis as shown in equation (6.3) and (6.4)
˩
d
= ˩
¡
cos(e) +˩
ì
sin (e) (6.3)
˩
q
= ˩
¡
sin(e) +˩
ì
cos (e) (6.4)
Where i
d
is the d-axis current, i
q
is the q-axis current, i
r
is the real part of grid current and i
i
is the
imaginary part of the grid current. The Phase-Locked-Loop measures sin(ϕ) and cos(ϕ). These
currents are now fed into a first order filter before compared to the reference signals. The offset is
than fed to the current controller and generate the control signals P
md
and P
mq
of the PWM
converter.



47


The relation between the AC and DC voltage is then described as(DIgSILENT, 2007):
ˢ
ÐC
=
ˢ
AC,d
K
0
˜
md
(6.5)
ˡ
AC,q
= K
0
˜
mq
ˡ
ÐC
(6.6)
Where U
AC,d
is the d-axis grid voltage, U
AC,q
is the q axis grid voltage, U
DC
is the DC voltage and K
0
is
based on the type of modulation, in this project a sinusoidal modulation is chosen and therefore K
0
is
defined as(DIgSILENT, 2007) :

K
0
=

ŶVŶ

(6.7)

6.4 Combined Controller Model

The combined controller model is designed to increase the maximum power production of the wind
turbine generator. By using the sending end converter the voltage and frequency of the wind turbine
stator side can easily be controlled. Of the supported control conditions in Power Factory described
in Chapter 6.2 the sending end controller will utilize the V
AC
–phi system. This system easily provides
the possibility of quick and accurate settings of voltage and frequency. The sketch of the complete
control system can be seen in Figure 33


48


Figure 33: Control system for the sending end controller

The input signals of the converter in this model will be P
m_in
and f
0
. And since the receiving end
converter now controls the DC – Link voltage, and this can be assumed to be constant at 150 kV in
normal operation, the voltage of the AC side in kV is:


˓
AC
=
Vŷ · ŵŹŴ˫ˢ
ŶVŶ
˜
mŎìn

(6.8)

The input signal f
0
is directly proportional to the AC frequency in p.u. The generator stator frequency
will therefore be described as:

˦
s
= źŴE˴ · ˦
0
(6.9)

For simplicity the grid voltage was considered proportional to P
m_in
. This is true for normal operation,
but as shown in Chapter 9 is not representative when the system is submitted to a fault, although it
is considered by the author to be a sufficient approximation in this project.


49


In (Anca D. Hansen, 2003) it is stated that the use of a moving average is a realistic way of filtering
wind data in power optimization. The method is based on a fixed window, moving in time, averaging
the values within, and can be expressed mathematically as:


X
u¡g
=
˲(ˮ) +˲(ˮ -ŵ) .˲(ˮ -n)
n +ŵ

(6.10)

Where t is the instant time, and t – 1 is the time with one step delay (e.g. one second ago). x is the
value at the given time.
The averaging time is determined experimentally by trying with different numbers until an averaging
time providing favorable power production was obtained. The averaging time is chosen to be 1 sec
averages.
To impose a control system that changes the stator voltage and frequency it is very important to
take the inertia of the generator into account. If the stator frequency is increased to fast the
rotational speed of the generator might not be able to follow, and the generator can be forced into
under magnetization and in worst case resulting in a change in operational mode. If the stator
frequency exceeds the rotational frequency, the generator turns to motor and starts consuming
power from the grid. And if the stator frequency is lowered to fast, the slip might increase, providing
unfavorable high currents (Kundur, 1993). This problem has been solved by implementing a rate
limiter on the output of the frequency and voltage controller. One way of implementing a rate
limiter in Power Factory is shown in Figure 34


50



Figure 34: PI controller with rate limiter in Power Factory

As can be seen the error is multiplied with a constant to represent the actual frequency. Than the
rate limits can be set by setting a maximum and a minimum on the raw error signal. When
integrating between these boundaries the actual frequency is obtained, with the desired rate of
change limits. The rate of change limits where set manually at the rate that provided smooth
variations of the stator frequency and power production. The same rate of change was imposed on
the voltage controller to ensure correspondence between the voltage and frequency.
The reference signals of the frequency and voltage is generated as a function of wind speed, based
on the operational points presented in Figure 23 where the voltage is limited on 1 p.u. This is
implemented in Power Factory using a lookup table where a spline interpolation provides the values
in-between the operational points.



51

7. Comparison between the Steady State and the Dynamic model

This chapter will provide a systematic comparison between the steady state model and the dynamic
model presented earlier. The purpose of this comparison is to increase the reliability of the results
presented, and provide an estimate of how the results should be interpreted. The method used in
this project was to force the dynamic model to work in steady state
To force the dynamic model into steady state is done by fixing a number of parameters that result in
a steady output. In this project the author chose to fix the rotor resistance, stator frequency, stator
voltage and wind speed. The outputs chosen for comparison was P-mechanical, P-generated and
rotational speed, ω
r
. The reason for the choices is as followed:
P-mechanical:
The mechanical Power is used to see how accurate the mechanical representation of the model in
Power Factory was achieved. This contains the accuracy of the C
p
and λ representation although it
has to be noticed that this is affected by the operational point ω
r
. One of the important issues of this
comparison was to find a suitable resolution of the C
p
-curve. The C
p
curve in Power Factory was
implemented as a spline approximation matrix, where the inputs where the tip speed ratio (λ) and
pitch angle (θ). This was made on a try and fail basis until a sufficient correspondence was obtained.
Rotational Speed:
The rotational speed was a good measure to see the influence of the rotor resistance on the
operational point. This shows the intersection between the electrical and mechanical torque curves.
This also increased the demands on the number of operational points in the optimization algorithm.
It was shown that to provide a sufficient accuracy there was needed a step size of 1/33 p.u. of the
stator frequency and rotor frequency. Also it showed that the suitable approximation in the
optimization algorithm was to use a linear approximation between the operational points, when this
gave the lowest error between the steady-state and dynamic model.
P-generated:
The generated power is used to see the accuracy of the operational point. Since the optimization
algorithm is considering losses as an optimization factor it is important to see if the dynamic model
has comparable losses at the same operational points.
The chosen operational points for comparison are the optimum operational points from the
optimization algorithm. This is because these values are already calculated and presented and is of
interest for the project. The correspondence between the steady-state and dynamic model is shown
in Table 12



52

Table 12: Comparison of the Steady-state and Dynamic model at optimum operational points

As can be seen from the table the two models correspond with a relative good accuracy. The error in
rotational speed can be shown by the author to be removed if the step-size of the rotor and stator
frequency in the optimization algorithm is decreased, tough this is too time consuming to perform
for all wind speeds. The less obvious error is the P
generated
which seems to be consequently deviating
from the steady-state model. Although this error is small in p.u. it can be seen in Table 13 that this
have an effect in percent, especially at the lower wind speeds. The author was not able to find the
reason for this difference during this project, but consider the results to be corresponding
adequately to perform further analysis.
Table 13: Comparing the steady-state and dynamic model losses
Wind Speed Steady-State model Dynamic Model Error [p.u.]
Losses in p.u. Losses in % of Pm Losses in p.u. Losses in % of Pm DM-SSM
4 0.0007 2.24 0.0012 3.83 0.0005
5 0.0012 1.89 0.0016 2.52 0.0004
6 0.0016 1.46 0.0022 2.01 0.0006
7 0.0027 1.55 0.0034 1.95 0.0007
8 0.0043 1.66 0.0049 1.89 0.0006
9 0.0068 1.84 0.0073 1.97 0.0005
10 0.0117 2.31 0.0119 2.35 0.0002
11 0.02 2.96 0.02 2.96 0
12 0.035 4.00 0.0338 3.86 -0.0012
13 0.0607 5.45 0.0572 5.13 -0.0035


Wind
Speed

Operational Conditions Steady – State Model Dynamic Model
fs
[p.u.]
Vs
[p.u.]
Rr
[p.u.]




ωr
Pmechanical PGenerated ωr Pmechanical PGenerated
4 0.5 0.5 0.029 0.5019 0.0313 0.0306 0.52 0.0313 0.0301
5 0.5313 0.5313 0.029 0.5349 0.0634 0.0622 0.535 0.0634 0.0618
6 0.6563 0.6563 0.029 0.6614 0.1095 0.1079 0.6615 0.1095 0.1073
7 0.75 0.75 0.029 0.7573 0.1739 0.1712 0.7572 0.174 0.1706
8 0.875 0.875 0.029 0.8844 0.2595 0.2552 0.8842 0.2595 0.2546
9 0.9688 0.9688 0.029 0.9809 0.3697 0.3629 0.9807 0.3697 0.3624
10 1.0625 1 0.029 1.0798 0.5071 0.4954 1.0794 0.5072 0.4953
11 1.1563 1 0.029 1.1813 0.6748 0.6548 1.1811 0.6749 0.6549
12 1.25 1 0.029 1.2868 0.876 0.841 1.2862 0.8762 0.8424
13 1.3438 1 0.029 1.3985 1.114 1.0533 1.3774 1.1141 1.0569


53

8. Dynamic Comparison between the AC and DC Connected Wind
Turbine

This chapter is meant to show a more realistic power production where the wind is fluctuating and
the inertia of the generator is taken into account. Since rotational speed cannot be changed
instantaneous because of the inertia of the generator the optimum tracking of the generator is
provided with a delay. This is why the proposed control system is of great interest to analyse in
dynamic simulation. The full system implemented in Power Factory is shown in Figure 35

Figure 35: Full system for Dynamic Simulation, implemented in Power Factory

The system shown is by the author divided in to three areas, shown in Figure 35 to be area A, B and
C. The idea of this is to keep are A in both simulations, The HVDC connected simulation and the AC
connected simulation. The External grids in B and C are identical. The HVDC model contains 2 x 150
kV 75.2 µF (Du, 2007) capacitors to decrease fluctuations of the DC-Link. The cable is modeled as a
150 kV DC cable with resistance of 0.0608 Ω/km and reactance of 0.4187 Ω/km the DC voltage is
150 kV and the external grid is connected at 30 kV. In area A the generator with nominal voltage of
690 V is connected to a transformer with the ratio of 0.69/30 kV (Bonus Energy a/s, 2001). The
inertia of the generator is determined by acceleration time constant and is set to 2 s. When
simulating the AC connected system area B is disconnected and put out of operation, so only system
C is connected to system A. When the HVDC connected system is simulated, system C is
disconnected and put out of operation. Here only system A and system B is in operation.




54

8.1 The Dynamic Comparison Strategy

Since the aim of this project was to create a control system for optimum operation of the generator
designed to increase the yearly production, a reasonable comparison strategy was needed. The high
resolution wind data available for the author during this project was based on a wind generator
algorithm provided by the industrial supervisor. This data is divided in a step-size of 0.05 s and have
duration of 10 min. Further details of the wind data are presented in Table 14 and its weibull
distribution was earlier presented in Figure 31.

Table 14: Characteristic of the Wind data used in the dynamic model
Mean Wind Speed 9.65 m/s
Min Wind Speed 7.11 m/s
Max Wind Speed 13.07 m/s

The two system combinations presented in Figure 35 are now exposed to the same wind data, and
the power production data is stored and exported to MatLab.


Figure 36: The wind used for dynamic comparison





55


Figure 37: AC connected generator Power Production presented in p.u.


Figure 38: DC Connected generator Power Production presented in p.u.



56

Figure 37 and Figure 38 shows the energy production of the two generator topologies based on the
wind in Figure 36. The reason for the negative scale of the y-axis of the power production graphs is
because the machine is in generator mode. The data stored in these graphs could easily be exported
to MatLab using the Power Factory “export to windows clipboard” feature, and the results where
integrated and divided by time.

˜
pu,u¡g
=
ŵ
źŴŴs
J ˜
pu
ˤˮ
600
0
(6.11)

Where P
pu
is the power in p.u. stored in the graphs of Figure 37 and Figure 38, and 600s is the
simulation time. The answer obtained is then the average Power Production in p.u. Assuming the
wind data is representative for a year, the yearly energy production can be written as:

˗
ycu¡
= ˜
pu,u¡g
· ŵ.8Hˣ · 8ŻźŴ˨ (6.12)

Therefore the increase of power production based on the dynamic model can be written as:

A˗ =
˖˕Ŏconn˥cˮ˥ˤŎ˜
pu,u¡g
˓˕Ŏconn˥cˮ˥ˤŎ˜
pu,u¡g
(6.13)

The results of the dynamic simulation are shown in Table 15
Table 15: Average Power Production [p.u.] for the two wind turbine topologies
AC connected wind turbine 0.4473 p.u.
VSC HVDC connected wind turbine 0.4590 p.u.

Increased Power Production = 2.62%




57

8.1.1 Evaluation

The results so far show the possibility of increasing the power production of a wind turbine both in
steady state and in dynamic models by varying the stator frequency and stator voltage. Although it
has to be remembered that in order to compare this strategy with a state of the art wind turbine like
the Vestas V80, a more accurate model has to be developed. Also the possibility of regulating the
slip by actively using the pitch angle should be included in the optimization algorithm and this
control might be needed to implement in the dynamic simulation. Lastly the power submitted to the
grid will include losses in the DC transmission and cables. This should be considered in future
research.



58

9. Dynamic Response to system fault

As the last part of this project it was desired to check how the model with control system reacts to
tripping of the one of the converters. The base of the dynamic study is to see how the active and
reactive power, stator voltage rotational speed and the receiving end controller react to the tripping
of the converter. The system study investigated will be tripping of the receiving end controller. This
can represent a malfunction of the converter, or a fault on the external grid which forces the
converter to disconnect. The system is modelled as shown in Figure 35 and contains system A and B.
The analysis of the tripping of the grid side converter is performed by opening the switch connected
to T DC shown in Figure 35. The opening of the switch occurs at time = 10 s and the closing of the
switch at time = 10.3 s. The parameters for investigation are DC Voltage, stator voltage, stator
frequency, rotor speed, receiving end current controller, active power and reactive power.


Figure 39: Active power during Converter tripping




59


Figure 40: Reactive Power during Converter Tripping

150
Figure 41: Rotational speed during Converter tripping



60


Figure 42: Stator side Frequency during Converter Tripping


Figure 43: Receiving End Current controller during Converter Tripping



61


Figure 44: DC -Link Voltage during Converter tripping


Figure 45: Generator Side AC Voltage during Converter Tripping



62


Figure 46: Rotor speed during converter tripping, with constant wind = 12 m/s


As can be seen from the presented results the VSC HVDC system reacts properly to a situation where
the receiving end converter needs to trip. The generator will continue energy production during the
fault and charge the DC capacitors. This result in an increase of the DC – Link voltage as seen in
Figure 44 and the receiving end control system will try to retain the DC voltage, Figure 43. The DC
voltage will then oscillate until the PI controller has managed to stabilize the voltage. Since the
Sending end converter is implemented on the assumption of a constant DC Voltage, the oscillation of
the DC voltage is directly proportional to the generator AC side voltage as seen in Figure 45, the
reason the AC voltage stabilizes around 33 kV is because the stator frequency here is over 1 p.u.,
earlier showed in Figure 5. The increase of the rotor speed is not a sign of instability thus only a
result of continues controlling of the stator frequency based on the wind- speed as seen when
comparing Figure 41 with Figure 42, for illustrative purposes it was also decided to show the
rotational speed for the same fault with wind speed constant equal to 12 m/s as shown in Figure 46.
The measurement of the voltage of the sending end converter was for simplicity in this project
assumed to be proportional with the P
m_in
signal to the converter. This is true when the system
operates in normal operation. Although as was seen in the simulations presented this assumption
provides direct proportionality between the voltage variations in the DC-Link to the generator side
AC terminal. In order to reduce this influence of DC voltage variations it might be interesting to use
an external voltage measurement on the station1/PCC in Figure 35 instead. This might give lower
dependency between the AC and DC voltage, although this hypotheses was not tested by the author
during this project.



63

10. Discussion

This project has investigated the possible gain of using a VSC HVDC transmission system for
increasing the power production. The results presented show a positive effect of the new control
possibilities when connecting such a generator to HVDC transmission system. Although the reader
should have in mind the assumptions and simplifications this project has taken to account. Firstly
wind farms connected to a VSC HVDC system will most likely not be represented by a single wind
turbine, but rather by a significant number, as an example Horns Rev is represented by 80 wind
turbines. When working with these types of wind farms there is no guaranty that the wind speed is
equal for all the turbines, therefore common optimal operational point might be hard to find and
the efficiency and power production presented in this project hard to obtain. The shaft system is
neglected during the whole project and will influence the dynamic analysis and also possible change
the operational points, although for the power production comparison it is assumed by the author
the comparison is representative since none of the turbines in the project has this model included.
This project has also not considered the effect of saturation in the generator which might be found
in (Maria Imecs, 2001). The assumption of neglecting the saturation was based on the simplicity
obtained. If saturation should be included the whole optimization algorithm would have to be
reconstructed and the difficulty level increased since the co-dependency of currents and flux no
longer would allow the setting of rotational speed in the way presented earlier. The model
presented is also based on picking parts (data) from different wind turbines where references have
been found. In order to provide a product for use in real life these parameters have to be more
exact, so the models can be customized in a way that produces the best possible correlation with
real life. The losses in the transformer was initially included in the model, but removed during the
project because of its modest impact considering losses and operational points. What should be
included in future research is the losses in the PWM converter, as these are believed by the author
to be determinant for the new topology feasibility considering increased power production
compared to standard AC transmission.



64

11. Conclusion

The project shows, based on its assumptions and simplifications, that there is a possible gain in
power production by implementing coordinated control between VSC and the RCC generator,
although it prevail uncertainty if this gain will compensate for the losses in the PWM converters. The
power production increase is shown in both steady state and in dynamic simulations. Basing the
conclusion on the wind data used in the dynamic simulation the steady state model shows an
increase in power production of 3.56 % compared to the same generator working as a constant rotor
resistance AC-transmission connected wind turbine. The dynamic control system is based on using
wind speed to provide a reference signal for stator frequency and stator voltage, and a rate limiter
implemented so the variations should fit better with the inertia of the generator. The gain of using
the control system based on the same wind speed as the one used in the comparison in steady state
is shown to be 2.62%. The difference from steady state to dynamic simulation is because of the
inertia of the generator that withstands sudden changes in frequency. But if losses in the PWM are
of the size shown in Table 11 the VSC-HVDC generator will provide a lower power output to the grid
than a conventional AC transmission at this wind distribution. Therefore it is believed by the author
that the new control system presented will have a future in the situations where PWM converter
transmission is the only topology that fulfils the requirements set by the transmission system
operators. In these cases the optimization performed in this project will be pure gain.
The models presented in this project are believed by the author to be representative to show the
idea of the new topology. Although to initiate product development of such a system more exact
data is needed, and considerations of state of the art OptiPitch control and HV PWM converters
should be investigated and possibly included.



65

11.2 Future Research

The following topics are recommended as future research in this field and recommended to do in
the following order:
• Including losses of state of the art PWM converters in order to determine power
output to the grid compared with the alternative AC transmission
• Use wind data from existing wind parks to see possibilities for coordinated control of a
whole wind park, alternatively see how many sections a wind park should be divided
into in order to get sufficient controllability.
• Include saturation and iron losses in the generator model


66




[1] Ackermann, T. (2005). Wind Power in Power Systems. Wiley.
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Wing Generation Systems Considering Loss Minimization of Machines. Busan: IEEE.
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Germany.
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CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY.
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Farms Connected to the Grid through VSC-HVDC Link. Duisburg: IEEE.
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Induction Motor Drive. IEEE.
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67

[22] Robert Leidhold, G. G. (2002). Field-Oriented Controlled Induction
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68

Appendix
A Nomenclature

Symbol Description
A Rotor Radius
a
1
Number of Current Paths
C
p
Power Coeficient
f Frequency
f
0
Frequency modulation
ϕ Angele between Current and Voltage
ψ Flux
i Current
k Pitch Factor
k
0

V3
2V2

L Inductance
λ Tip Speed Ratio
N Number of Turns
ρ
air
Air Density
P
c
Copper Loss
P
gen
Generated Power
P
m
Mechanical Power
P
md
Modulation d axis
P
mq
Modulation q axis
R Resistance
s Slip
T
e
Electrical Torque
θ Blade Pitch Angle
v Voltage
V
w
Wind Speed

Subscripts: Description
a Air Gap
avg Average
AC Alternating Current
DC Direct Current
d d axis
q q axis
r Rotor
s Stator


69

m Magnetizing
nom Nominlal
max Maximum
min Minimum
pu Per Unit
B Calculations

Matrix([[Rs,w*(Ls+Lm),0,w*Lm],[-w*(Ls+Lm),Rs,-w*Lm,0],[0,(w-
wr)*(Lm),Rr,(w-wr)*(Lm+Lr)],[-(w-wr)*Lm,0,-(w-wr*(Lm+Lr)),Rr]]);

> Matrix([[Rs,w*(Ls+Lm),0,w*Lm],[-w*(Ls+Lm),Rs,-w*Lm,0],[0,(w-
wr)*(Lm),Rr,(w-wr)*(Lm+Lr)],[-(w-wr)*Lm,0,-((w-wr)*(Lm+Lr)),Rr]]);

> A:=Vector([iqs,ids,iqr,idr]);

>B:=Matrix([[Rs,w*(Ls+Lm),0,w*Lm],[-w*(Ls+Lm),Rs,-w*Lm,0],[0,(w-
wr)*(Lm),Rr,(w-wr)*(Lm+Lr)],[-(w-wr)*Lm,0,-((w-wr)*(Lm+Lr)),Rr]]);

>
Rs w Ls + Lm ( ) 0 w Lm
-w Ls + Lm ( ) Rs -w Lm 0
0 w - wr ( ) Lm Rr w - wr ( ) Lm + Lr ( )
- w - wr ( ) Lm 0 -w + wr Lm + Lr ( ) Rr
é
ê
ê
ê
ê
ê
ê
ê
ë
ù
ú
ú
ú
ú
ú
ú
ú
û
Rs w Ls + Lm ( ) 0 w Lm
-w Ls + Lm ( ) Rs -w Lm 0
0 w - wr ( ) Lm Rr w - wr ( ) Lm + Lr ( )
- w - wr ( ) Lm 0 - w - wr ( ) Lm + Lr ( ) Rr
é
ê
ê
ê
ê
ê
ê
ê
ë
ù
ú
ú
ú
ú
ú
ú
ú
û
A :=
iqs
ids
iqr
idr
é
ê
ê
ê
ê
ê
ê
ê
ë
ù
ú
ú
ú
ú
ú
ú
ú
û
B :=
Rs w Ls + Lm ( ) 0 w Lm
-w Ls + Lm ( ) Rs -w Lm 0
0 w - wr ( ) Lm Rr w - wr ( ) Lm + Lr ( )
- w - wr ( ) Lm 0 - w - wr ( ) Lm + Lr ( ) Rr
é
ê
ê
ê
ê
ê
ê
ê
ë
ù
ú
ú
ú
ú
ú
ú
ú
û


70

> B.A;

>
>
> idr:=solve(-(w-wr)*Lm*iqs-((w-wr)*(Lm+Lr)*iqr)+(Rr*idr),idr);

> subs(idr=solve(-(w-wr)*Lm*iqs-((w-
wr)*(Lm+Lr)*iqr)+(Rr*idr),idr),B.A);

> B:=Matrix([[Rs,w*(Ls+Lm),0,w*Lm],[-w*(Ls+Lm),Rs,-w*Lm,0],[0,(w-
wr)*(Lm),Rr,(w-wr)*(Lm+Lr)],[-(w-wr)*Lm,0,-((w-wr)*(Lm+Lr)),Rr]]);

> B;

> A:=Vector([iqs,ids,iqr,idr]);

Rs iqs + w Ls + Lm ( ) ids + w Lm idr
-w Ls + Lm ( ) iqs + Rs ids - w Lm iqr
w - wr ( ) Lm ids + Rr iqr + w - wr ( ) Lm + Lr ( ) idr
- w - wr ( ) Lm iqs - w - wr ( ) Lm + Lr ( ) iqr + Rr idr
é
ê
ê
ê
ê
ê
ê
ê
ë
ù
ú
ú
ú
ú
ú
ú
ú
û
idr :=
Lm iqs w - Lm iqs wr + w Lm iqr + iqr w Lr - iqr wr Lm - iqr wr Lr
Rr
B . A
B :=
Rs w Ls + Lm ( ) 0 w Lm
-w Ls + Lm ( ) Rs -w Lm 0
0 w - wr ( ) Lm Rr w - wr ( ) Lm + Lr ( )
- w - wr ( ) Lm 0 - w - wr ( ) Lm + Lr ( ) Rr
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Rs w Ls + Lm ( ) 0 w Lm
-w Ls + Lm ( ) Rs -w Lm 0
0 w - wr ( ) Lm Rr w - wr ( ) Lm + Lr ( )
- w - wr ( ) Lm 0 - w - wr ( ) Lm + Lr ( ) Rr
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A :=
iqs
ids
iqr
Lm iqs w - Lm iqs wr + w Lm iqr + iqr w Lr - iqr wr Lm - iqr wr Lr
Rr
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71

> B.A;





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Rs iqs + w Ls + Lm ( ) ids +
w Lm Lm iqs w - Lm iqs wr + w Lm iqr + iqr w Lr - iqr wr Lm - iqr wr Lr ( )
Rr
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,
-w Ls + Lm ( ) iqs + Rs ids - w Lm iqr [ ],
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w - wr ( ) Lm ids + Rr iqr
+
w - wr ( ) Lm + Lr ( ) Lm iqs w - Lm iqs wr + w Lm iqr + iqr w Lr - iqr wr Lm - iqr wr Lr ( )
Rr
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, [
- w - wr ( ) Lm iqs - w - wr ( ) Lm + Lr ( ) iqr + Lm iqs w - Lm iqs wr + w Lm iqr + iqr w Lr - iqr wr Lm - iqr wr Lr
]
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72

C Matlab Optimization Script
% This M-File Contains the Newton Raphson initialization of Generator
% Currents, rotor speed dependancy on rotor resistance, and optimization
% regarding the maximum power output


clear all
close all
clc

syms iqs ids iqr Rr ws wr vs

%Electrical Constants
Ls=0.18; %Stator Inductance
Lr=0.07; %Rotor Inductance
Lm=4.4; %Manetizing Inductance
Rs=0.01;%Stator Resistance
Lss=Lm+Ls;
Lrr=Lm+Lr;


%Mechanical Constants
teta=0; % Blade Pitch Angle
beta=0; % Blade Pitc Angle
rho=1.225; % Air Density
Awt=40; %Radius of turbine Blade
Wmin=4; %Minimum Wind Speed
Wmax=4; %Maximum Wind Speed
Omega_s=33; %Inverse stepsize factor for stator frequency
Omega=33; %Inverse stepsize factor for rotor frequency

%Base Values
wb=1; % Base value for Frequencies, could be removed
Pnom=1.8*10^6; %Nominal Power Of Wind Turbine

%Self defined factors for computation
R_factor=200; %Rotor resistance step size
lfac=2.64; % Lambba factor
prop=0.355; %Proporsionality Factor

%Trafo Parameters Kundur 2-vinding transformer
Rprim=0.00225; %Primary Resistance
Lprim=0.0216; %Primary Inductance
Rsec=0.00225; %Secondary Resistance
Lsec=0.0216; %Secondary Inductance
Lmt=175; %Magnetizing Inductance
Rmt=300; %Magnetizing Resistance
LV=690; %Low Voltage
HV=33000; %High Voltage

% Electrical Equations equal to Zero
F1=(-vs)+(Rs*iqs)+(ws*(Ls+Lm)*ids)+(ws*Lm*((Lm*iqs*ws)-
(Lm*iqs*wr)+(ws*Lm*iqr)+(iqr*ws*Lr)-(iqr*wr*Lm)-(iqr*wr*Lr)))/Rr;
F2=(-ws*(Ls+Lm)*iqs)+(Rs*ids)-(ws*Lm*iqr);
F3=((ws-wr)*Lm*ids)+(Rr*iqr)+((ws-wr)*(Lm+Lr)*((Lm*iqs*ws)-
(Lm*iqs*wr)+(ws*Lm*iqr)+(iqr*ws*Lr)-(iqr*wr*Lm)-(iqr*wr*Lr)))/Rr;

%Creating Jackobian Matrix


73

G1=[diff(F1,iqs) diff(F1,ids) diff(F1,iqr)];
G2=[diff(F2,iqs) diff(F2,ids) diff(F2,iqr)];
G3=[diff(F3,iqs) diff(F3,ids) diff(F3,iqr)];

%Defining Matrixes for Newton - Raphson
J=[G1;G2;G3];
F=[F1;F2;F3];

%Unknown currents, Initial guess
iqs(1)=0.005;
ids(1)=0.005;
iqr(1)=0.005;
x=zeros(3,4);

x(1,1)=subs(iqs);
x(2,1)=subs(ids);
x(3,1)=subs(iqr);


for Vw =Wmin : Wmax;
for Ws = 1 :Omega_s;
ws=(0.5-(1/(Omega_s-1)))+(Ws/(Omega_s-1)); %Calculation of stator
frequency
if ws <= 1 ;
vs=ws %Calculation of stator voltage
else
vs=1; %Calculation of stator voltage
end

for rr=1:10
Rr=0.009+(rr/R_factor); %Calculation of Rotor resistance
%Initiazing Step for Finding and veryfing opperational point
for Ws_in = 1 :Omega_s;
ws_in=(0.5-(1/(Omega_s-1)))+(Ws_in/(Omega_s-1));
if ws_in<=1
vs_in=ws_in;
else
vs_in=1;
end

for Wr_in = 1:Omega

wr_in=(0.5-(1/(Omega-1)))+(Wr_in/(Omega-1));


%Equations seen from the Electrical Side
s(Wr_in,Ws_in)=(ws_in-wr_in)/ws_in;
topp(Wr_in,Ws_in)=
(ws_in/wb)*(Lm^2)*Rr*s(Wr_in,Ws_in)*vs_in^2;

bottom(Wr_in,Ws_in)=(Rs*Rr+s(Wr_in,Ws_in)*((ws_in/wb)^2)*(Lm^2-
Lss*Lrr))^2+((ws_in/wb)^2)*(Rr*Lss+s(Wr_in,Ws_in)*Rs*Lrr)^2;
Te(Wr_in,Ws_in)=topp(Wr_in,Ws_in)/bottom(Wr_in,Ws_in);
PmEl(Wr_in,Ws_in)=(-1)*wr_in*Te(Wr_in,Ws_in);

%Equations seen from the mechanical side
lambda_in(Wr_in)=(Awt*wr_in*lfac)/Vw;
Cp_in(Wr_in)=prop*(lambda_in(Wr_in)-0.022*(teta^2)-
5.6)*exp(-0.17*lambda_in(Wr_in));


74

Pm_in(Wr_in)=((rho/2)*pi*Awt^2*Cp_in(Wr_in)*Vw^3)/Pnom;
end

%Finding the rotor rotational speed in the opperation Point
wr_plot=linspace(0.5,1.5,Omega)';
ff= @(A) interp1(wr_plot,Pm_in,A,'linear')-
interp1(wr_plot,PmEl(:,Ws_in),A,'linear');

%First Constrain

[wr_vector(Ws_in,rr),feval(Ws_in,rr),exitflag(Ws_in,rr)]=fsolve(ff,(ws_in))
;
wr_vector1(Ws_in,rr,Vw)=(wr_vector(Ws_in,rr));


% Calculating third constrain
a=(PmEl(:,Ws)==max(PmEl(:,Ws)));
aa=ind2sub(size(PmEl),find(a==1));

% Initializing second, third and fourth constrain
if exitflag(Ws,rr) == 1 & PmEl(aa,Ws)>Pm_in(aa) &
wr_vector(Ws,rr)/ws <= 1.1
wr=wr_vector(Ws,rr);
slip(Ws,rr,Vw)=(ws-wr_vector(Ws,rr))/ws;

% Calculating Curents using Newton-Raphson
for i=2:4

x(:,i)=subs([x(1,i-1);x(2,i-1);x(3,i-1)]-
subs(J)\subs(F));

iqs=x(1,i);
ids=x(2,i);
iqr=x(3,i);
idr=(((Lm*iqs*ws)-
(Lm*iqs*wr)+(ws*Lm*iqr)+(iqr*ws*Lr)-(iqr*wr*Lm)-(iqr*wr*Lr))/Rr);

iqs1(Ws,rr,Vw)=x(1,i);
ids1(Ws,rr,Vw)=x(2,i);
iqr1(Ws,rr,Vw)=x(3,i);
idr1(Ws,rr,Vw)=(((Lm*iqs1(Ws,rr,Vw)*ws)-
(Lm*iqs1(Ws,rr,Vw)*wr)+(ws*Lm*iqr1(Ws,rr,Vw))+(iqr1(Ws,rr,Vw)*ws*Lr)-
(iqr1(Ws,rr,Vw)*wr*Lm)-(iqr1(Ws,rr,Vw)*wr*Lr))/Rr);


flux_qs(Ws,rr,Vw)=Ls*iqs1(Ws,rr,Vw)+Lm*(iqs1(Ws,rr,Vw)+iqr1(Ws,rr,Vw));

flux_ds(Ws,rr,Vw)=Ls*ids1(Ws,rr,Vw)+Lm*(ids1(Ws,rr,Vw)+idr1(Ws,rr,Vw));

flux_qr(Ws,rr,Vw)=Lr*iqr1(Ws,rr,Vw)+Lm*(iqs1(Ws,rr,Vw)+iqr1(Ws,rr,Vw));

flux_dr(Ws,rr,Vw)=Lr*idr1(Ws,rr,Vw)+Lm*(ids1(Ws,rr,Vw)+idr1(Ws,rr,Vw));

flux_s(Ws,rr,Vw)=sqrt(flux_qs(Ws,rr,Vw)^2+flux_ds(Ws,rr,Vw)^2);

flux_r(Ws,rr,Vw)=sqrt(flux_qr(Ws,rr,Vw)^2+flux_dr(Ws,rr,Vw)^2);

flux_m(Ws,rr,Vw)=sqrt(flux_r(Ws,rr,Vw)+(Lr^2).*(sqrt(iqr1(Ws,rr,Vw)^2+idr1(
Ws,rr,Vw)^2)));


75



ir(Ws,rr,Vw)=sqrt(iqr1(Ws,rr,Vw)^2+idr1(Ws,rr,Vw)^2);

is(Ws,rr,Vw)=sqrt(iqs1(Ws,rr,Vw)^2+idr1(Ws,rr,Vw)^2);
end
else
wr_vector(Ws,rr)=0;
wr=0;
slip(Ws,rr,Vw)=0;

ids=0;
idr=0;
iqr=0;
iqs=0;

ir(Ws,rr,Vw)=0;
is(Ws,rr,Vw)=0;

end
end

%Calculating losses in the transformator
Zprim=sqrt((ws*Lprim)^2+Rprim^2);
Zsec=sqrt((ws*Lsec)^2+Rsec^2);
Zmt=((1/((ws*Lmt)^2))+(1/Rmt))^-1;
PrimLoss=(iqs^2+ids^2)*Rprim;
Imt=(iqs^2+ids^2)*(Zprim/(Zmt+Zprim));
MagLoss=Imt*((ws*Lmt)/(Rmt*(ws*Lmt)))*Rmt;
SecLoss=((iqs^2+ids^2)-Imt)*Rsec*(LV/HV);

Tloss(Ws,rr,Vw)=PrimLoss+MagLoss+SecLoss;

lambda=(wr*Awt*lfac)/(Vw);
Cp=prop*(lambda-0.022*(teta^2)-5.6)*exp(-0.17*lambda);

Ploss(Ws,rr,Vw)=((((iqr^2+idr^2))*Rr)+((iqs^2+ids^2)*Rs));
Pm(Ws,rr,Vw)=((rho/2)*pi*Awt^2*Cp*Vw^3)/Pnom;
Pgen(Ws,rr,Vw)=Pm(Ws,rr,Vw)-Ploss(Ws,rr,Vw);
P(Ws,rr,Vw)=Pgen(Ws,rr,Vw)-Tloss(Ws,rr,Vw);
Ps(Ws,rr,Vw)=vds*ids+vs*iqs;
Qs(Ws,rr,Vw)=vs*ids+vds*iqs;

%initializing 5th Constrain
if ws >= wr | wr > 1.5
Pm(Ws,rr,Vw)=0;
Pgen(Ws,rr,Vw)=0;
Ploss(Ws,rr,Vw)=0;
P(Ws,rr,Vw)=0;
Ps(Ws,rr,Vw)=0;
Qs(Ws,rr,Vw)=0;
slip(Ws,rr,Vw)=0;
ir(Ws,rr,Vw)=0;
is(Ws,rr,Vw)=0;
end
end
end
Vw
end


76



% Finding Maximal Power Production and Corresponding operational points
for Vw=Wmin:Wmax
g=(P==max(max(P(:,:,Vw))));
[I1(Vw),I2(Vw),I3(Vw)] = ind2sub(size(P(:,:,Vw)),find(g==1));
PowerCurve(Vw)=P(I1(Vw),I2(Vw),Vw);
RotorSpeed(Vw)=wr_vector1(I1(Vw),I2(Vw),I3(Vw));
end

%Operational Points
omega_s=((0.5-(1/(Omega_s-1)))+(I1./(Omega_s-1)))*50
Rotor_resistance=0.009+(I2./R_factor)




77



www.elektro.dtu.dk/cet
Department of Electrical Engineering
Centre for Electric Technology (CET)
Technical University of Denmark
Elektrovej 325
DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby
Denmark
Tel: (+45) 45 25 35 00
Fax: (+45) 45 88 61 11
E-mail: cet@elektro.dtu.dk

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