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Original Title: Lab 2

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Course:

Lab Date: January 23, 2009

Report Date: January 26, 2009

Abstract:

states that for a thin rectangular plate

with a crack perpendicular to the load,

the fracture strength of a brittle

material decreases as the crack length

increases. For different crack lengths,

we have tested the corresponding

glass fracture strengths for glass

slides of identical dimensions.

Results The experiments yielded a

positive feedback as predicted by the

Griffith theory. There is an inverse

relationship between the fracture

strength of the glass and the square of

the given crack length. There was no

sample outside such behavior.

Conclusions The greater is the

size of the crack in the given material

under a load, this is more likely to fail

because of the multiplier effect for

stress when the cross sectional area

of the tested material is reduced. This

trend supports the Hook’s law for axial

loads. As crack lengths are greater,

sectional cross areas decrease, and

then the failure stress is less for the

samples that are more torn out.

Lab Report

I I

NTRODUCTION

increasing amount of load was applied perpendicular to the small

cracks made with sandpaper. We made an attempt to prove and

apply the Griffith crack equation

Sigma = (EG/(pi)*a)^.5

Where E is the elastic modulus, G is the strain energy release rate,

A is the crack length. The experiment yielded a positive feedback

with respect what the equation states. The formula applies for the

simple case of a thin rectangular plate with a crack normal to the

load.

It is necessary to know the effects of fractures as it is possible to

predict the likelihood of the materials to fail functionally, when used

in engineering structures. Preventing wear out and understanding

how the internal stresses distribute inside the body in order to take

the required preventions against failure is useful to prevent

economic and even human losses, in a wide spectrum of

engineering and technology applications.

II E

XPERIMENT PROCEDURE

A) TEST DESCRIPTION

For this test we needed a Griffith test fixture, which consist of a

manual lever press pivoting on the edge of a table platform. In

the middle of this platform, there was the glass support, where

the wedge of the press provided the cutting contact force over

the slide. A back support in the opposite edge of the pivot was

there for constructive convenience, but it is required that the

lever do not support in this point when attempting to increase

the load to the glass slide, as accuracy in the measurement

would be lost.

In order to increase the load to the glass slide, incremental

amounts of weight was added to a bucket hanging on the far

extreme of the lever. The more weight we add to the bucket, the

higher the load applied to the glass slide is. The force equation

that relates Fl (bucket weight) and Sigma-fs (cutting load upon

glass slide) is given by the following relation based on the

geometry of the frame:

Sigma-fs = 3*Fg*L/2bd^2

Where L is the distance between support

b is the width of glass

d is thickness of glass

The distances and geometry is described by the drawing of the

Griffith test fixture below. A counterweight in the lever in the

opposite tip from where the handle is balances the lever from tilting

when the lever is unloaded. When Fl = 0, the weight of the lever

itself do not impose a load on the glass slide.

With this set up, the corresponding scratched glass slides are to be

tested against load in the fixture supporter. To determine

experimentally the critical strength with accuracy, the applied load

should be increased gradually until failure.

G = pi*Sigma^2*a/E (look for more detail in the intro)

There is a direct relationship between the critical strain

energy release rate and the length of the crack of the tested thin

plate. The energy release rate is the energy rejected as a material

breaks per every new fracture surface unit. The surface area of

fracture will be greater the bigger are the cracks, which implies that

the dissipation rate of energy G will be higher as more surface area

is available from the beginning of the test, and as new surface

emerges as the fracture process goes on.

exists stress concentration, opposed to a uniform distribution

described by a continuous function or a constant value of stress

around a relative extensive area. Cracks behave as stress risers

as they reduce the available surface for load distribution,

tending to localize the stresses in sharp spots that make the

material prone to fail faster. The fatigue strength (failure stress)

will be higher in a material as less localized stressed is solicited

in the given body. Higher strength in a material will be attained if

microfractures do not appear internally in the material. This

quality of integrity of the materials should be taken into account

in machining processes and casting.

D) A THEORETICAL PLOT OF THE FRACTURE STRESS VS.

CRACK LENGTH

THE ROOT OF THE CRACK LENGTH USING THE DATA

COLLECTED IN YOUR LAB

Comments

(1) There is a direct relationship between Sigma-fs and the inverse square

undefined form 1/0

for the given x-value a^-.5; max allowable value for stress ever is Sigma-fs

(inf) = 129.83 MPa

experimentation

(5) Use attached picture to reference the dimentions about the stress tester

(CAD drawing)

Given formulas:

F_G = F_L*b/a

Sigma-fs = 3*F_G*L/2bd^2

sqrt(a)

Sigma-fs

(MPa)

Constants

lengths:

x

y

a

0.23

88.73565094

47.59

b

0.69

112.2427067

69.52

L

0.915

125.491161

73.29

d

0.001

162.0083923

92.23

b/a

3

1.5*L/(b*d^2)

1.99E+06

F) YOUR PREDICTION OF THE FRACTURE STRENGTH FOR

CRACK LENGTHS OF 0.5E-03" AND 7.5E-03"

SI units

unless We first find out an average value for Gglass from the experimental

otherwise data. According to the Griffith formula,

specified

G = pi*Sigma^2*a/E (J/m^2) (1)

G1 = 11.3

G2 = 15.07

G3 = 13.4

G4 = 12.72

From where Gavg = 13.12 J/m^2

F_L (kg-f)

F_L Sigma = sqrt(EglassGglass/pi*a) (2)

F_G

a Now E = 80E09 (Pa)

a^-.5 G = 13.12 (J/m^2)

Sigma-fs

(1) For a = 7.5E-03’’

Converting to SI units

0.813 a = 7.5*25.4E-06 m

7.97553 Sigma1 = 42 MPa

23.92659(2) For a = .5E-03’’

1.27E-04 Converting to SI units

88.73565094 a = .5*25.4E-06 m

4.76E+07 Sigma2 = 162 MPa

1.1875

11.649375G) A DISCUSSION OF THE TEST RESULTS AND TRENDS

34.94813 INCLUDING ANY OBSERVATIONS OF THE CONDUCTED

7.94E-05 TEST THAT WOULD LEAD TO DISCREPANCIES WITH THE

112.2427067 THEORETICAL RESULTS.

6.95E+07

As a is grater, 1/sqrt(a) is smaller, so we observe an effect of

linear proportionality between Sigma-fs and 1/sqrt(a). The

1.252 opposed we observed in the decreasing function of the graph

12.28212 Sigma-fs vs a. Besides experimental errors accumulated by an

36.84636 improperly settled balance, distortions of the fixture lever, poor

6.35E-05 precision when doing the measurements or incrementing the

125.491161 loads, we know that the experimental value of G given the

7.33E+07 Griffith formula will always be greater theoretically than in

experiments. This is because in reality there are internal cracks

1.5755

15.455655

46.36697

3.81E-05

162.0083923

2.22

21.7782

65.3346

0

inf in the bodies that are subject to induce localized stress not

1.30E+08 considered in the experimentation. The quality of the material

will determine how close the obtained experimental values are

from the Griffith equation.

4 CONCLUSION

propagates inducing a multiplier effect of stress location. The

greater the crack lengths the material happen to have, there will be

points of stress concentration that obey macroscopically with the

hook’s law, and microscopically, with the energy release due to the

unstable arrangement of the atoms that are close at the surface of

the given solid.

5 REFERENCES

& Sons, Inc.

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