ATLANTIS Engineering Consultants Ltd. (“ATLANTIS”) grants to you (“the Customer”) the nonexclusive rights with respect to the utilisation of the program BEAMPASK (“the Software”) and its User Documentation. One copy of the Software may be made for backup or archival purposes. This Software and Documentation may otherwise not be used, modified, reproduced, sold, transferred or distributed without ATLANTIS prior written permission. No attempt shall be made to deassemble or decompile the executable.
ATLANTIS warrants that the Software and User Documentation are free from defects in material and workmanship under normal use for a period of two months following its acquisition. The liability of ATLANTIS under the warranty set forth above shall be limited to the amount paid by the Customer for the product.
ATLANTIS does not make any warranty expressed or implied as to the use, or the results of use, of the Software and User Documentation in terms of correctness, accuracy and reliability. The Customer is expected to make the final evaluation as to the usefulness of the Software in his own environment and shall assume the entire risks as to its results and performance.
ATLANTIS shall not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential or incidental damages (including damages for loss of business profits, business interruption and the like) arising from the use or inability to use the Software even if ATLANTIS has been advised of the possibility of such damages.
11.11 
FiniteLength Beam 
09.09 
First Issue 
Version 
Description 
BEAMPASK
Finite Length Beam on a Continuous Pasternak Support
Version 11.11

1 


2 

2.1 
Model 
2 
2.1.1 
Beam 
2 
2.1.2 
Foundation 
2 
2.1.2.1 Winkler Spring Layer 
2 

2.1.2.2 Pasternak Shear Layer 
3 

2.2 
Governing Differential Equation 
4 
2.2.1 
Subcritical Deformed Shape 
4 
2.2.2 
Critical Deformed Shape 
4 
2.2.3 
Supercritical Deformed Shape 
4 
2.2.4 
Unitization of Deformed Shape Functions 
5 
2.3 
Forces and Deformations Along an Infinitely Long Strip 
6 
2.3.1 
Concentrated Force 
6 
2.3.2 
Uniformly Distributed Load 
7 
2.3.3 
Triangular Load 
8 
2.3.4 
Concentrated Moment 
9 
2.4 
Beams of Finite Length 
10 
2.4.1 
Soil Layer Deformations Outside the Beam 
10 
2.4.2 
Boundary Conditions 
11 
2.4.3 
Elements of Reduction at Beam Extremities 
12 
2.4.4 
Boundary System 
12 
2.4.4.1 General Solution 
12 


14 

3.1 
Input Data 
14 
3.2 
Default Values 
15 
3.3 
Output Data 
15 

16 

4.1 
Recommended Values of the Shear Stiffness 
16 
4.2 
Residual Shear at the Free Edges of a Finite Beam 
16 
4.3 
Infinite Hinged Beam 
17 
4.4 
Finite Length Beam Equivalent to an Infinite Strip 
18 
4.4.1 
SemiInfinite Beam 
18 
4.4.1.1 Concentrated Force 
18 

4.4.1.2 Concentrated Moment 
18 

4.4.2 
Equivalent Stiffness Matrix 
18 
4.5 
Beam in Tension Resting on a Winkler Foundation 
19 

20 

5.1 
Upstream 
20 
5.2 
Downstream 
20 
5.3 
Related Software 
20 

21 

6.1 
References 
21 
6.2 
Bibliography 
22 

24 

7.1 
Infinite Beam 
24 
7.1.1 
Concentrated Load 
24 
7.1.1.1 Winkler Model 
25 

7.1.1.2 SubCritical Pasternak Model 
26 
14/11/11
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BEAMPASK
Finite Length Beam on a Continuous Pasternak Support
Version 11.11

27 

28 

32 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

39 

39 

43 

43 

44 

44 
14/11/11
Page ii
BEAMPASK
Finite Length Beam on a Continuous Pasternak Support
Version 11.11
1 
SCOPE 
The program computes the forces and deformations along an infinite EulerBernoulli beam subjected to a vertical concentrated load and resting horizontally on an elastic twoparameter Pasternak foundation.
twoparameter foundation, Pasternak layer, Winkler layer, modulus of subgrade reaction, shear modulus
Figure 11 – Projected Freeway Extension Outside Los Angeles, CA
14/11/11
Page 1
BEAMPASK
Finite Length Beam on a Continuous Pasternak Support
Version 11.11
2 
ASSUMPTIONS AND METHODOLOGY 

2.1 
Model 
The beam is characterized by a constant width B and flexural rigidity EI over its entire length L. The system attached to the beam is such that
 the origin is set at the left extremity of the beam,
 the xaxis corresponds to the beam centerline, directed from left to right,
 the yaxis is positive upwards.
2.1.2 Foundation
The soil is regarded as an elastic medium represented by a twoparameter WinklerPasternak model.
Figure 21 – Infinite Beam on a Pasternak Foundation [from Ref./3/]
2.1.2.1 Winkler Spring Layer
This representation assumes that the vertical reaction force exerted by the foundation at any point is proportional to the beam deflection at that point alone.
where
p = kB y
k
= modulus of subgrade reaction of the soil
The combined flexural rigidity of the beam and spring stiffness of the soil can be merged into the foundation parameter b which has dimension L ^{}^{1} .
14/11/11
Page 2
BEAMPASK
Finite Length Beam on a Continuous Pasternak Support
Version 11.11
b =
2.1.2.2 Pasternak Shear Layer
The shear force Q in the Pasternak layer is proportional to the rotation w of the beam at this section
Q = GB
dy
dx
The ratio of flexural to shear stiffness is expressed by the parameter g which has dimension L ^{}^{1} .
g =
Figure 22 – Hard Landing of an Antonov 124 Under Strong Lateral Winds
14/11/11
Page 3
BEAMPASK
Finite Length Beam on a Continuous Pasternak Support
Version 11.11
2.2 
Governing Differential Equation 
The expression of the deflection in any section of an infinitely long strip resting on a continuous elastic support and supporting the load w(x) is the solution of the 4 ^{t}^{h} order differential equation
=
[1]
These roots are all either complex conjugate or real, depending on the magnitude of r with respect to unity. The integration constants C and D factoring the positive exponential term in the solution of the homogeneous equation are identically equal to zero on the conditions that the deflections of the beam must remain finite far away from the loaded area.
2.2.1 Subcritical Deformed Shape
When the flexural stiffness of the beam prevails over the shear stiffness of the soil, then r < 1 and
r
1, 2,3, 4
= ±m ± in
where
m
=
b
n
=
b
The solution of the homogeneous equation becomes
y
=
e
 m
x
cos
n
x
+
B
sin
n
+
m
e
x
n
cos
x
+
D
sin
n
2.2.2 Critical Deformed Shape
When the flexural stiffness of the beam is about equivalent to the shear stiffness of the soil, then r = 1 and
r
1, 2
= ±m
where
m =
The solution of the homogeneous equation becomes
y
=
e
m
x
+
Bx]
+
e
m
x
+
Dx]
2.2.3 Supercritical Deformed Shape
When the shear stiffness of the soil prevails over the flexural stiffness of the beam, then r > 1 and
r
1,2 ,3, 4
= ±m ±n
where
m
=
b
n
=
b
The solution of the homogeneous equation becomes
BEAMPASK
Finite Length Beam on a Continuous Pasternak Support
Version 11.11
2.2.4 Unitization of Deformed Shape Functions
The above equation can be expressed analytically in terms of hyperbolic, polynomials or circular functions
depending on the rigidity ratio r, i.e. whether or not the shear rigidity of the Pasternak layer prevails over the flexural stiffness of the beam combined with the spring stiffness of the Winkler layer.
Those functions are more conveniently represented here by their series development
Figure 23 – High Speed Track of the East TGV
14/11/11
Page 5
BEAMPASK
Finite Length Beam on a Continuous Pasternak Support
Version 11.11
2.3 
Forces and Deformations Along an Infinitely Long Strip 
The forces and deformations along the continuous beam (x 0) at the point of load application are
Ï 
e 
 m x 
cos n x 
r < 1 

q ( x 
) = e 
 m x 
f 0 
( 
x ) 
Ô 

2

b x 
if 
r 1 

= 
Ì 
e 

Ô 
 m x 
cosh n 
r > 1 

Ó 
e 
x 

Ï Ô 
b e  m x 
È cos Í 
n x + 
sin n x ˘ ˙ 

Ô 
Î 
m 
n 
˚ 

) 
˘ 
= Ô Ô Ì Ô 
˘ 

f 
( x 
) = b 
 m x e Í Î 
È f 0 m 
( x 
+ 
f 1 
( 
x ) 
˙ ˚ 
e
È
1

2 b x
Í
Î
2

+ b 
x 
˙ ˚ 

Ô 
 m x 
È cosh 
n x 
sinh n 
x ˘ 

Ô 
b e Í 
+ 
˙ 

Ô Ó 
Î 
m 
n 
˚ 

Ï Ô 
b 
2 
 m x e 
sin n x 
r 
< 1 

Ô 
mn 

z 
( x 
) = 
b 
2 
 m x 
) 
Ô 
b

2
e
2
b x x 
if 
r 
1 

m 
e 
f 1 
( x 
= Ì Ô 

Ô b 
2 
 m x 
sinh n x 
r 
> 1 

Ô 
mn 
e 

Ó 

Ï 
b e  m x 
È cos 
n x 
sin n x ˘ 

Ô 
Í 
 
˙ 

Ô 
Î 
m 
n 
˚ 

y 
( x 
) = 
b 
 m x e 
È f 0 Í 
( 
x 
) 
 
f 1 
( x ) 
˘ ˙ = 
Ô Ô Ì 
e 
È
1

2
b x
Í
Î
2

 
b 
x 
˘ ˙ 

Î 
m 
˚ 
Ô 
˚ 

Ô 
 m x 
È cosh 
n x 
sinh n 
x ˘ 

Ô 
b e Í 
 
˙ 

Ô Ó 
Î 
m 
n 
˚ 
r 
< 1 

if 
r 
1 
r 
> 1 

r 
< 1 

if 
r 
1 
r 
> 1 
q 


b 
[ (x) f + 
r 

y 
(x)] 

f 

=  z 
2 
b 
z 
(x) 

= b
y
(
b 
(x)
[q 
( x )  
r 

z 
(x)] 
2.3.1 Concentrated Force
The concentrated load P is counted positive when directed downwards. The local origin is set at the point of application of the load.
Figure 24 – Concentrated Load
14/11/11
Page 6
BEAMPASK
Finite Length Beam on a Continuous Pasternak Support
Version 11.11
Because of symmetry only formulas for x 0 need to be considered.
y
= 
P
8 EI b
3
f (
x
)
w
P
=
4 EI b
2
z (
x
)
M
P
=
4 b
y
(
x
)
V
= 
P
2
q
(
x
)

r
z
(
x
Q
= 
P
r
z (
x
)
2.3.2 Uniformly Distributed Load
The load intensity is constant equal to q over a length 2a and zero outside this area. It is counted positive when directed downwards. The local origin is set at the center of the loaded area.
Figure 25 – Uniformly Distributed Load
Because of symmetry only formulae for x 0 need to be considered.
The formulae below are derived from the integral
f
(u)
du
= 
1
[q (u) rz (u)]
b
+
The shear force in the Pasternak layer is
Q
= 
4EI
rb
2
w
14/11/11
Page 7
BEAMPASK
Finite Length Beam on a Continuous Pasternak Support
Version 11.11
section 0<x<a 

y =  
q 8 EI b 
4 
{ 
2 
 q 
( 
a 
 
x 
) 
 
q 
( a 
+ x ) 

w 
= 8 
q EI b 
3 

[ 
f 
( 
a 
 
x ) 
 
f 
( 
a 
+ x ) 
] 

M 
= 
q 4 b 
2 

[z 
( 
a 
 
x 
) 
+ 
z 
( 
a 
+ 
x 
) ] 

V 
=  
q 

[y 
( a 
 
x 
)  
y 
( 
a 
+ 
x 
)] 

4 b 

section x>a 

y =  
q 8 EI b 
4 
{ 
q 
( 
x 
 
a 
) 
 
q 
( x 
+ a 
) 
+ r 

w 
= 8 
q EI b 
3 

[ 
f 
( 
x 
 
a ) 
 
f 
( 
x 
+ 
a ) 
] 

M 
=  
q 

[z 
( 
x 
 
a 
) 
 
z 
( 
x 
+ 
a 
) 
] 

4 b 
2 

V 
=  
q 

[y 
( x 
 
a 
)  
y 
( 
x 
+ 
a 
)] 

4 b 
 
r 

[z 
( 
a 
 
x 
) 
+ 
z 
( 
a 
+ 
x 
) 
]} 

[2] 


[ 
z 
( x 
 
a 
) 
 
z 
( x 
+ 
a 
) 
]} 

[3] 
2.3.3 Triangular Load
The load intensity is linearly increasing from zero to q over a length a and equal to zero outside this interval. It is counted positive when directed downward. The local origin is set at the start of the loaded area.
The formulae below are derived from the integral
u
f
(
u
)
du
= 
1 È
b
Í
Î
u
q
(
u
)
+
y
(
)
˘
r
u
˙

2 b
˚
b
È
Í
Î
u
z
(
u
)
+
f
(
u
)
˘
˙
b
˚
The shear force in the Pasternak layer is
Q
= 
4EI
rb
2 w
section x<0
y
= 
q
16 EI
b
5
a
{
y
(
x )

y
(
a

x
)

2
b
a
q
(
a

x
)
+
2
r
f
(
x
)

f
(
a

x
)

b
a
z
(
a

x
)
w
=
q
8
EI
b
4
a
{
q
(
a

x
)

q
(
x
)
+
b
a
f
(
a

x
)
+
r
z
(
a

x
)

z
(
x
)
M x
=
8
b
3
a
a

q
f
(
)

f
(
x
)
+
2
b
a
z
(
a

x
)
V x
=
4
b
2
a
a

q
z
(
)

z
(
x
)

b
a
y
(
a

x
[4]
14/11/11
Page 8
BEAMPASK
Finite Length Beam on a Continuous Pasternak Support
Version 11.11
section 0<x<a 

y =  
q 
{ 
y 

16 EI 
b 
5 a 

w 
= 
q 

{ q 
( 
a 

8 EI b 
4 
a 

q 
[ 

M 
= 
8 
b 
3 a 

f 
( 
a 
 

V 
= 
4 b 
q 2 
a 
[ 
z 
( a 
 

section x>a 

y =  
q 16 EI 
b 
5 a 
{ 
y 

w 
= 
q 
{  
q 

8 EI b 
4 
a 

q 
[ 

M 
= 
8 
b 
3 a 

f 
( 
x 
 

V 
= 
4 b 
q 2 
a 
[ 
z 
( 
x 
( 
x ) 
 
y 
( a 
 
x 
) 
 
2 b 
a 

q 

 
x 
)  
q 
( x 
) 
+ 
b 
a
f 
( a 
 

x 
)  
f 
( x ) 
+ 
2 b 
a 
z 
( 
a 
 

x 
)  
z 
( x 
)  
b 
a 

y ( 
a 
 
x 

( 
x ) 
 
y 
( x 
 
a 
) 
+ 2 b 
a 

q 

( 
x 
 
a 
) + 
q 
( 
x 
) 
+ 
b a 

f 
( 
x 

a 
)  
f 
( x )  
2 b 
a 
z 
( 
x 
 

 
a ) 
+ 
z 
( x 
) 
 
b 
a 
y 
( x 
 
( 
a 
 
x 
) 
+ 
4 b 
x 
+ 
2 
r 
[ 
f 
( x 
)  
f 
( 
a 
 
x 
) 
 
b a 

z 
( 
a 
 
x 
) 
]} 

x ) 
 
2 
+ 
r 
[z 
( 
a 
 
x 
) 
 
z 
( x 
) ]} 

[5] 

x 
) ] 

)] 

( 
x 
 
a 
) 
+ 
2 r 
[f 
( 
x 
)  
f 
( x 
 
a 
) 
+ 
b 
a 

z 
( 
x 
 
a 
) ]} 

 
a ) 
 
r 
[ 
z ( 
x 
 
a 
)  
z 
( x 
) ]} 

[6] 

a 
) ] 

a )] 
2.3.4 Concentrated Moment
The concentrated moment C is counted positive when applied clockwise. The local origin is set at the point of application of the couple.
Figure 26 – Concentrated Couple
14/11/11
Page 9
BEAMPASK
Finite Length Beam on a Continuous Pasternak Support
Version 11.11
Because of symmetry only formulae for x 0 need to be considered.
y 
=  C 4 EI b 2 z 
( x ) 

w 
=  C y 
( x ) 

4 EI b 

C
= 2
[q ( x )  r
z x C b 

[
= 
f x + r 2 ( ) 2 y 
( 
x 
)] 

Q 
= C rb
y ( x ) 

2.4 Beams of Finite Length 
2.4.1 Soil Layer Deformations Outside the Beam
Whereas the 4 ^{t}^{h} order differential equation [1] prevails within the inner domain 0 £ x £ L covering the finite length of the beam, the deformations of the semiinfinite soil layer outside the beam (EI = 0; outer domain) are governed by the 2 ^{n}^{d} order differential equation
which admits the solution

y
=
y
0
exp
where
x = absolute distance measured from the extremity of the beam
y
0 = deformation of the soil layer just outside the beam edge
[7]
Figure 27 – SemiInfinite Beam on a Pasternak Foundation [from Ref./3/]
14/11/11
Page 10
BEAMPASK
Finite Length Beam on a Continuous Pasternak Support
Version 11.11
The program assumes that the soil deformation y _{0} is only a fraction u of the deflection at the edge of the beam where 0 £ u £ 1. The restraining effect of the Pasternak soil layer on both sides of the beam can therefore be reduced to equivalent linear springs by reference to the vertical deflection at the edges of the beam
2.4.2 Boundary Conditions
The most general elastic restraint provided by the supports at either extremity of the beam are expressed by a linear elastic, symmetrical stiffness matrix
where
 shear spring terms,
H _{A} , H _{B}
 rotational spring terms,
K _{A} , K _{B}
 coupling spring terms.
J _{A} , J _{B}
at end (B) 
K 
at origin (A) 
K 
B
=
È H
B
Í
Î
J
B
A
=
È H
A
Í
Î
J
A
J
˘
B
˙
K
B
˚
J
˘
A
˙
K
A
˚
The most general boundary conditions at the beam extremities are therefore expressed by the equations
Ê Á R B ˆ È H
Á ˜ ¯ end (x = L) ˜ =  

Ë M B 
Î 
Ê Á R A ˆ È H
Á ˜ ¯ origin (x = 0) ˜ =  

Ë M A 
Î 
H 
J 
˘ 

B 
+ 
S 
B 
˙ 

J B 
B 
˚ 

H 
J 
˘ 

A 
+ 
S 
A 
˙ 


A 
K 
A 
˚ 
Ê y
¥ Á
Á
Ë
w
L
L
Ê y
¥ Á
Á
Ë
w
0
0
ˆ
˜
˜
¯
ˆ
˜
˜
¯
where
R _{B} = V _{L} Q _{L} M _{B} = M _{L} R _{A} = +V _{0} +Q _{0} M _{A} = +M _{0}
It ought to be noted that
= vertical reaction applied by the end support B to the beam = moment applied by the end support B to the beam = vertical reaction applied by the start support A to the beam = moment applied by the start support A to the beam
 the reactions applied to the beam by the end support B have opposite sign compared to the shear and moment in that section,
 the vertical reactions R _{A} and R _{B} are the sum of shear forces in the beam and in the Pasternak layer respectively.
14/11/11
Page 11
BEAMPASK
Finite Length Beam on a Continuous Pasternak Support
Version 11.11
2.4.3 Elements of Reduction at Beam Extremities
The elements of reduction in the section just ahead of the end of the beam (x = Le) are
È
Í
Ê V
Á
L
+
Q
L
Á
M
L
Á
Á
Á
Ë
w
L
y
L
ˆ
˜
˜
˜
˜
˜
¯
Ê V
Á
L
+
Q
L
Á
=
Á
Á
Á
Ë
M
L
w
L
y
L
ˆ
˜
Í
Í
˜
Í
˜
˜
+ Í
Í
˜
¯
Í
Í
Í

Í
Î
1
2
1
4 m
0
b
2
2 m kB

b
2
2 m

1
2

b
4
m kB
0

1
2
(
q
L
+
rz
L
)
1
y
4
b
b
2
z
kB
L
L

b
f
2
kB
L

b
f
2
L
˘
˙
˙
1
2
(
q
L

rz
L

3
b
y
kB

b
2
z
kB
L
L
)
˙
˙
˙ ¥
˙
˙
˙
Ê P
Á
B
Á
C
B
Á
Á
Á
Ë
P
A
C
A
ˆ
˜
˜
˜
˜
˜
¯
˙
˙
˚
The elements of reduction in the section just past the start of the beam (x = e) are
Ê V
Á
0
+
Q
0
Á
M
0
Á
Á
Á
Ë
w
0
y
0
ˆ
˜
˜
˜
˜
˜
¯
Ê V
Á
0
+
Q
0
Á
=
Á
Á
Á
Ë
M
0
w
0
y
0
ˆ
˜
˜
˜
˜
˜
¯
È 1
Í
Í
2
Í
Í
+ Í
Í
Í
Í
Í
Í
Î

(
q
L
+
rz
L
1
y
4
b
L

b
2
z
kB
L
b
2
f
2
m kB
L
)

b
f
2
L

1
2
(
q
L

rz
L
)

3
b
y
kB
L
b
2
z
kB
L

1
2
1
4
m
0

b
2
kB

b
2
˘
˙
2 m
˙

1
2
b
4
˙
˙
˙ ¥
˙
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