Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide

California

General Info

Milk Harvest

Milk Cooling Milk Cooling

Lighting Compressed Air

Water Systems Washing & Water Heating

Air Circulation & Ventilation

Table of Contents
Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………….. vi Milk_Harvest…………………………………………………………………………………… 1
Purpose ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 Equipment……..……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2 Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs)………………………………………………………………………….. 7 Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs)…………….…………………………………………………… 8 Operator Level Checks ……………………………………………………………………………………. 16 Glossary of Milk Harvest Terms ………………………………………………………………………….. 19

Milk Cooling ………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
Purpose and Cooling Standards …………………………………………………………………………. 22 Equipment ………………………………..………………………………………………………………… 25 Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) …………..…………………………………………………………….. 37 Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) …..…………………………………………………………….. 37 Operator Level Checks.……….…..……………………………………………………………………….. 40 Glossary of Milk Cooling Terms….…………………………………………………………………………47

Lighting………………………………………………………………………………………… 49
Purpose………………………………..…………………………………………………………………….. 49 Dairy Farm Task Lighting….………….……………………………………………………………………. 50 Visually Intensive Task Lighting…….………………………………………………………………………53 Livestock Handling Lighting…………………………………………………………………………………58 General Lighting……………….……………………………………………………………………………..61 Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs)…....…………….………………………………………………………. 62 Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) …………………………………………………………………63 Operator Level Checks………………………………………………………………………………………64 Glossary of Lighting Terms………………………………………………….………………………………65

Air Circulation and Ventilation…………………………………………………………….. 68
Purpose and Design………………………………………………………………………………………… 70 Heat Stress Reduction………..…………………………………………..………………………………… 70 Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) ………………………………………..………………………………… 79 Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) ……………………………..………………………………….. 80 Operator Level Checks …………………………………………………………………………………….. 81 Glossary of Air Circulation and Ventilation Terms……………………………………………………….. 82

Washing and Water Heating………………………………………………………………...85
Purpose, Requirements..…………………………………………………………………………………… 87 Equipment……………………………………………………….…………………………………………… 87 Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) ……………………………….………………………………………… 89 Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) ……………………….……………………………………… 90 Vacuum Level Required for Washing ……………………………………………………………………. 97 Operator Level Checks…………………………………………….……………………………………… 105 Glossary of Washing and Water Heating Terms……………..………………………………………… 108

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Water Systems……………………………………………………………………………… 110
Purpose ……………………..…………………………………………………………………………….. 110 Water Supply ………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 111 Water Usage …………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 111 System Design …………………………………..……………………………………………………….. 114 Intermediate Water Storage …………………………………………………………………………….. 118 Equipment …..…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 119 Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) …………………………………………………………………….. 120 Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) ……………..……………………………………………….. 120 Operator Level Checks ………………………………………………………………………………….. 123 Glossary of Water System Terms ……..………………………………………………………….. 124

Compressed Air…………………………………………………………………………… 125
Purpose and Design Factors …………………………………………………………………………… 125 Equipment ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 126 Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) ……………………………………………………………………….. 130 Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) ………………………………..…………………………….. 131 Operator Level Checks ………………………………………………………………………………….. 135 Glossary of Compressed Air Terms ………..………………………………………………………….. 139

General Information……………………………………………………………………….. 140
Energy Efficient Electric Motors ………….…………………………………………………………….. 140 Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pumps …………………………………………………………………….. 145 Temperature Monitoring ………………..……………………………………………………………….. 147 Understanding Pump Curves ….……………………………………………………………………….. 149 Variable Frequency Drives ………………..…………………………………………………………….. 152

References…………………………………………………………………………………...159

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Inc. Ithaca.com Important: These materials are meant to examine dairy farm energy management. James A.com Richard A.© Southern California Edison February 2004 Prepared for: Southern California Edison Prepared by: Dr. New York Tel: (607) 266-6401 Fax: (607) 266-7037 Email: dltech@clarityconnect. Johnson. New York Tel: (607) 266-9007 Fax: (607) 266-9008 Email: natc1@clarityconnect. Peterson Northeast Agriculture Technology Corporation Ithaca. Mage DLtech. to clarify and illustrate typical situations. and must be appropriately adapted to individual circumstances. the materials are not intended to provide legal advice or establish legal standards of reasonable behavior. David C. Eric L. Kowalski. Ludington. Moreover. Anne L. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide iv .

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Washing and water heating is not shown because fossil fuel is primarily used to heat water. The goal of this guideline is to increase the understanding of how electric energy is used. adding a variable speed drive (VSD) to a vacuum pump will reduce energy use by 50% or more. 7. When equipment needs to be replaced. poorly maintained equipment uses more energy while not meeting original performance specifications. Electricity is not purchased as a direct end use commodity. The overall impact of each area of energy use is also represented in the chart. Opportunities for significant energy savings exist that allow dairymen options to better control their energy costs. 4. Worn. with no loss of milking system performance. By increasing the awareness for how electric energy is transformed to an end use and investigation of options for conservation. because that is the only way to remain competitive. The first. 6. better energy related management decisions can be achieved to increase profitability. 2. For example.(return to: Table_of_Contents) Introduction The American dairy farmer manages a highly efficient food production system. The guide focuses on 7 major electric energy use categories found on California dairies. Take time to analyze the specifications and make the most cost effective choices. Yet he/she continues to seek ways to become more efficient. This guidebook provides a comprehensive study of energy utilization on a modern California dairy farm. 5. select the highest efficiency equipment available. but rather for the results that can be produced thru conversion to useful light. Newer. The pressures of increasing energy costs drive the advancement of energy saving technologies. and explore available opportunities for conservation on a modern dairy farm. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide vi . their cumulative impact can help improve dairy farm profitability. including discussions of techniques to effectively manage energy costs. least cost way to approach saving energy is to carefully maintain existing equipment at peak operating efficiency. Although not all options for energy savings available are this dramatic. they include: 1. 3. heat or power. more efficient equipment is always being developed. Milk Harvest Milk Cooling Lighting Circulation & Ventilation Washing & Water Heating Water Systems Compressed Air Systems The pie chart on the following page shows the distribution of electric energy use on a representative diary farm in California. provide a measure for comparison.

Electric Energy Use on a Representative California Dairy Farm
Waste Handling 24% Miscellaneous 2% Milk Cooling 27%

Water Systems 8%

Air Circulation 10%

Milk Harvest 12% Lighting 13% Compressed Air 4%

The individual sections of the guide offer a comprehensive examination of • • • • • Purpose and function of energy use for that category. Description and discussion of typical equipment employed. Development of an Energy Utilization Index (EUI) to provide a benchmark for comparison of energy use. Describe and explain Energy Conservation Measures (ECM) that can be implemented to use energy more effectively. Provide a series of basic field testing procedures and measures that can be used to maintain equipment at peak operating efficiency.

Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) were developed to provide a measurement of how efficiently electrical energy is being utilized on the dairy farm. Values are commonly expressed in terms of kWh per cow-year, or kWh per hundredweight of milk cooled. EUIs provide a management and evaluation tool that can be used for comparison of energy use patterns on a specific dairy in relation to energy use on a representative group of dairies. EUIs are useful for determining the overall efficiency of electrical energy use on a dairy farm as well as individual processes or equipment. They provide a benchmark to indicate whether energy use is in line with that on other farms. They can also offer insight on how electrical energy is used, identify areas of excessive energy use, provide an indication of effectiveness from implementing energy conservation measures and to distinguish the impact from adopting new technologies. The following summary of EUIs for typical California dairies will provide you with typical energy use ranges for each of the major operations on the farm. They can serve as a guide to help you begin to make the most cost effective energy choices.
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Overall Farm EUI – Typical Farm EUIs vary greatly depending on farm size, method of housing and milk harvest, utilization of energy conserving technology and extent to which environmental factors (lighting, ventilation/air circulation, waste and material handling) are modified through the use of electric technologies. EUIs have been found to range from as low a 300-400 kWh per cow-year, to over 1500 kWh per cow-year. The lower values are found on large freestall, milking parlor dairies that use: • High-efficiency milk cooling systems • variable speed drive vacuum and perhaps milk pumps • heat recovery, as this effects milk cooling • high-efficiency lighting • limited application of air circulation equipment • less complicated waste handling systems • efficient water heating (for electric water heating) • efficient farmstead layouts • effective cost control methods. Farms with high EUIs generally indicate: • smaller production units • lower production efficiencies • older, less efficient equipment Larger Farm EUI values can also be attributed to: • implementation of complex, integrated waste handling systems to comply with current or future environmental regulations • extensive use of air circulation to reduce heat stress and maintain milk production levels • adoption of “Long Day Lighting” photoperiod manipulation to reduce seasonal variations to milk production. • limited management focus on energy related issues. On a dairy farm, however, careful thought needs to be given to each opportunity to save energy. Some energy conservation measures can save energy, but at a cost higher than the value of the energy saved. In the area of ventilation and air circulation, energy savings measures could result in lower ventilation performance and greater animal discomfort. In such cases the dollars saved on energy could be insignificant when compared to the cost of lost milk production. The first, least cost way to save energy is to carefully maintain equipment at peak operating efficiency. Worn, poorly maintained equipment uses more energy while not meeting original performance specifications. When equipment is replaced, try to get the highest efficiency equipment available. However, sometimes the extra cost of higher efficiency exceeds the payback realized from lower energy use. Take time to analyze the specifications and make the most cost effective choices.

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Some of the basic processes found on dairy farms are discussed in more detail in a General Information section. These include energy efficient electric motors, gas-fired absorption heat pumps, heat exchangers, temperature monitoring, understanding pump curves, and variable frequency drives. (return to top of Introduction: Introduction) (return to Table of Contents: Table_of_Contents)

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The milking system is an assembly of separate components that are connected together thru electrical and piping systems to perform the task above. Presently there are four main types of vacuum pumps that are in use: 1. 365 days per year. The vacuum pump produces a negative pressure to facilitate removal of milk from the cow and provides air movement that assists milk flow from the claw to the receiver. 4. 2. 3. 7-day a week. Careful design. and on large modern dairies this can be 24-hour a day. They also vary in their energy use characteristics and their adaptability to energy conserving measures that should be taken into account. selection. installation. The milking process is responsible for quickly and efficiently harvesting the milk produced by the dairy herd 2 or 3 or more times per day. The centerpiece of the milking system is the vacuum pump and is the primary electrical energy user.(return to: Table_of_Contents) 1. efficiency and quality of milk harvest. Total energy used by the vacuum pump can comprise 26% of all electrical energy used on California dairies. The vacuum pump operates whenever milking or washing the milking equipment takes place. A significant amount of energy must be expended to extract milk from the dairy cow and transport the milk to onfarm storage. Sliding vane rotary pump Water-ring Rotary lobe type pump Turbine Each type of vacuum pump offers different advantages and drawbacks that require careful consideration when selecting. (return to top of section: Milk_Harvest) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 1 . Milk Harvest • • • • • • Purpose Equipment – Vacuum pump Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) Operator Level Checks Glossary Section Contents: Purpose – Milk Harvest The milk harvesting system is the most important technology used on a modern dairy and accumulates more hours of use than any other piece of equipment. maintenance of this equipment is critical to optimal performance.

Figure 1-1 below shows a cross section of the vane pump. say during the washing cycle. OILER OILER CROSS OILER BRACKET ROTOR & SHAFT (INCLUDES BEARINGS & WING SEAL BEAR COLLAR (2) SET SCREW KEY HOUSING PULLEY END SCREW BALL BEARING (2) END CAP PULLEY Figure 1-1. the volume between two adjoining vanes varies from near zero to a maximum volume and back to near zero. With centrifugal force. Oil lubrication forms a seal between the vanes edge and housing.Vacuum Pumps Sliding Vane Rotary Pump The rotary vane vacuum pump is perhaps the oldest and most efficient type still being used for milking systems. Note that the center of rotation of the rotor is not at the center of the housing. Two oiling systems are used. lubrication may be reduced. This is unacceptable if the oil is discharged to the atmosphere. When the volume is decreasing. To overcome this deficiency. One could be termed passive and the other type is active. Sliding vane vacuum pump (Masport Vacuum Pump) Lubrication of the sliding vane pump is crucial. Oil reclaimers were added to the exhaust to remove oil mist from the air.Equipment . This pump uses sliding vanes set in slots in a rotating shaft. This includes the vanes and the two end bearings. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 2 . a positive oiling system has been introduced. some oil still escapes. some of the oil used for lubrication becomes atomized and entrained in the air stream discharged from the pump. the air is sucked into the pump through the inlet. the vanes are forced outward against the housing. When vacuum levels are low. However. Where the volume in increasing. As the shaft and vanes rotate through one revolution. The passive type would be a drip system where the oil rate is dependent on the vacuum inside the pump. This oil can be re-used. often coating the ground and surrounding surfaces. This may be during a time when lubrication is most needed. the air is compressed and squeezed out of the pump into the outlet. Unfortunately.

The clearances.The all stainless steel rotor is cast with short. keep the rotor in a properly centered position. ensure greater reliability and lower maintenance expenses. this water must be changed periodically. Water ring vacuum pump (Siemens) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 3 . Figure 1-2. The simplicity of the Seimens pump. along with its superior design characteristics. This water must be removed before the air is discharged to the environment. 2The design of the discharge and suction ports has an important impact on the efficient operation of any water sealed pump. rigid blades. and vacuum levels required. through its specially patented variable discharge port design. 3 & 4 – Two flat port plates enclose the rotor in axial direction.Water Ring The water ring or water seal vacuum pump is quite similar to the vane pump in principal but much different in operation. The ports on the Seimens pump are designed to compensate for motor size. These pumps are quiet and no oil is needed. Instead of the sliding vanes pressing against the pump housing. The cross section in Figure 1-2 shows the same offset between the center of the rotor and center of the housing. Because of contamination of the water with milk and air contaminants. The recovered water can be either (1) disposed of and make-up water added to the system or (2) recycled through a cooling device and returned to the vacuum pump reservoir. I . Water becomes entrained in the exhaust air. this rotor has rigid blades and the outer seal between these blades and the inside of the housing is a ring of water. maintained by separate thrust bearings. further strengthened by reinforcing rings at both ends and a full length tapered hub.

for instance. The impeller has the characteristic shape of a turbine blade. This pump has two rotating ductile iron shafts with two lobes on each shaft.000 rpm listed in the literature. Turbine vacuum pumps feature a high temperature discharge that is free of oil. the discharge air is clear of oil. the discharge air from the pump is oil free. These two shafts (impellers) rotate in opposite directions with a pair of timing gears to maintain proper orientation between them. See Figure 1-3.) The high temperatures in the pump may cause milk. See cut away view in Figure 1-3. This is done by admitting water on the inlet side. Close tolerances between the two impellers and the housing give high efficiency and allow the pumps to develop vacuums up to 15 inches Hg. With two outboard bearings and no internal lubrication. rather than developing a partial vacuum on the inlet side. Figure 1-3. to dry on the internal surfaces. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 4 . Because there is no contact between the rotating impellers and the cast iron housing. The turbine pump housing and turbine (impeller) are both made of aluminum.Rotary Lobe (blower) Pump A more recently introduced vacuum pump is the rotary lobe that was first used as a blower to deliver air. no lubrication is needed in the pump. Blower (lobe) vacuum pump (Kaeser Compressors. as the name implies. The timing gears at each end of the pump are generally lubricated with an oil bath and splash method. Because of greater clearance between the turbine and housing. one might think that the capacity would decrease faster with increasing vacuum than the vane pump. An end view of the "shaft" resembles a figure eight. The turbine operates like a centrifugal pump or fan by using the mass and momentum of the air to create a vacuum. The rpm of the turbine is higher than the other vacuum pumps with speeds up to 5. Periodically this pump should be cleaned to maintain good performance. Seals prevent oil from entering the pump. thus. (Follow manufacturer’s recommendations). See Figure 1-4. Turbine The turbine vacuum pump is the only one currently in use that is not a positive displacement pump. The turbine pump is the least efficient with an efficiency about half that for a vane or rotary lobe pump. Inc. This does not seem to be the case.

Since the introduction of the variable speed drive for vacuum pumps there may have been a shift from water Table 1-2 Distribution of Vacuum Pump Types 37% Oil vane 25% Lobe/Blower 27% Water Ring 9% Turbine 2% Did not know Source: UCCE Survey of 1997 of vacuum pump types – Appendix E ring to lobe/blower and from oil vane to lobe/blower because of the concern for oil being discharged into the environment. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 5 . The results of these test are presented in Figure 1-5.Figure 1-4. Turbine vacuum pump Table 1-2 shows the distribution of vacuum pump types in California. The tests were conducted to measure the efficiency of the vacuum pumps in terms of air delivery [cubic feet per minute (ASME)] per kiloWatt of input power while operated at various vacuum level under farm conditions. In 1993 tests were conducted on various types of vacuum pumps as selected dairy farms in New York State. The survey was conducted by the University of California Cooperative Extension.

etc. Current sizing guidelines (ASAE Standard S518. vacuum operated automatic take-offs. Ludington. Milking Machine Installations – Construction and Performance. Stanley A. Weeks) The efficiency of all pump types decreases as the vacuum level was increased. This means operating that the lowest vacuum level at the milking unit and minimizing the drop in vacuum between the milking unit and the vacuum pump.Figure 1-5. A Review of Vacuum Pump Technology (David C. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 6 . This indicates that more efficient operation can be gained by operated at the lowest possible vacuum level at the vacuum pump.2 Feb03.) recommends the following: • • • Basic reserve of 35 cfm Incremental allowance of 3 cfm per milking unit Additional allowances for ancillary equipment such as milk meters. Vacuum Pump Sizing Correctly sizing the vacuum pump for the dairy allows the pump to meet the vacuum needs of the milking center during normal operation and washing and control energy operating costs.

(return to top of section: Milk_Harvest) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 7 . Some current installations are also in excess of this guideline with the belief that the extra vacuum capacity is needed to ensure an adequate wash. Conventional vacuum systems relied on vacuum pumps that operated at full capacity and a vacuum regulator to control airflow thru the milking system. All of the energy used to move air through the conventional vacuum regulator is saved. while still producing equivalent vacuum stability. a large portion of the total vacuum pump capacity is never utilized and is vented to the atmosphere by the regulator. to equal the rate air is admitted to the system at a given vacuum level. Introduction of the variable speed drive (VSD) technology for controlling vacuum in a milking system has allowed for a dramatic reduction in energy use. (return to top of section: Milk_Harvest) Milk Harvest Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) The major energy user in the process of milk harvest is the vacuum pump. Delivery of a continuous stable vacuum supply to each individual milker unit is critical to the milk harvest process. The conventional vacuum system offered little if any means of controlling energy use. Previous guidelines have specified pump capacities of up to 10 cfm per milking unit. The “Washing and Water Heating” section of this guidebook provides instructions for tuning the CIP process for effective cleaning and a vacuum demand that is less than is required to meet the minimum effective reserve for milking. EUIs for conventional vacuum systems can easily range from 70 to 100 kWh per cow-year and represent a significant portion of total electrical use. Energy operating costs are reduced by up to 60 % by running the vacuum pump at reduced speeds. Although effective at providing adequate milking vacuum. by changing the speed of the vacuum pump motor. The VSD is able to adjust the rate of air removal from the milking system. Oversized vacuum pumps are commonly found in existing installations for a number of reasons.Providing vacuum pump capacity in excess of this guideline increases capital costs for equipment and life cycle energy operating costs. The EUIs achieved by VSD equipped vacuum pumps are reduced to 25 to 50 kWh per cow-year.

Research in 1982 showed that the actual airflow was below 3. and • do not oversize the vacuum pump.Milk Harvest Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) Efficiency of Vacuum Pump When purchasing a vacuum pump buy the pump that: • has the highest relative efficiency (see Figure 1-5). This technology is called a variable frequency drive (VFD). A second device that monitors the vacuum level is installed in the vacuum line. The VFD compares this signal with the set point. the speed of the motor/vacuum pump is changed to compensate for the change in vacuum level. The VFD is electrically installed between the motor on the vacuum pump and the switch that currently controls the motor. If the vacuum is too low the motor will go faster and if the vacuum is too high the motor will be slowed. Today there is a technology that can reduce the energy used by up to 60 percent. The difference between the air removed by the vacuum pump and what actually “leaked” into the system was admitted through a regulator. Variable frequency drive and drive installed on vacuum pump Conventionally. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 8 . With a VFD. As the actual vacuum level differs from the set point. vacuum pumps had operated at constant speed removing air from the milking system at a rate of 7 to 10 cubic feet per minute (cfm) per milking unit primarily to insure good washing. This device sends an electrical signal to the VFD that varies with vacuum level. the air removed by the vacuum pump equals the air entering the milking system and there is not need for a conventional regulator. Variable Frequency Drive for the Vacuum Pump (Photo Courtesy of DeLaval) (Westfalia-Surge) Figure 1-6. There was a common misperception that a larger vacuum pump capacity with greater horsepower was necessary to provide stabile vacuum levels and to insure proper cleaning.6 cfm/unit 99 percent of the time. • that can be driven by a variable frequency drive.

25 x no. Energy saving can be estimated by the following: Annual savings (kWh) = [Horsepower of present vacuum pump – 0. The savings depend on the hours the vacuum pump operates per day and the amount the vacuum pump is oversized.The noise level can be reduced by many decibels. Stable Vacuum . Vacuum Pump Lasts Longer. VFD vacuum pumps on California dairy Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 9 . vacuum stability can be better than with a conventional regulator.9 x Hours of operation per day x 365 • • • Noise Reduction . The reduced RPMs of the vacuum pump reduces wear. Figure 1-7.Advantages of Using a VFD: • Save Energy and Dollars – The system can have a payback of less than 2 years. of milking units] x 0.With good design and proper installation.

Applications Additional factors to consider for VFD application on the following types of vacuum pumps. Sliding Vane Rotary Pump The rotary vane pump is one of the most efficient vacuum pumps in use. This is because the amount of slip air through the close tolerances of the pump stays the same as the delivered air decreases. These pump can be operated at a lower rpm without the rattle. Care should be taken that gravity will not fill the pump with oil either. Oil discharge from the exhaust is one of the biggest drawbacks to the vane pump. The variable speed vacuum regulator also greatly increase the amount of water accumulated by the oil reclaimer. Failure of an oiling jet can cause rapid failure of the pump. Oil reclaimers minimize the amount of oil discharged but some oil vapors are still emitted. A vane pump so filled will not start or run should it ever be needed. causing an oil film to form in the vicinity of the discharge. Oil reclaimers tend to condense and accumulate this water. Some vanes may actually move away from the housing and then move back producing a rattle. This oil vapor tends to condense and precipitate out of the air stream after it has exited the exhaust system. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 10 . extreme care should be taken that no vacuum from the system and the main pump feeds back to the vane backup pump. Rotary Lobe Type Pump The rotary lobe pump is also a very efficient vacuum pump that works very well with variable frequency vacuum regulation. Oil reclaimers need to be drained of water regularly. Some vane pumps begin to rattle at low speeds because reduced centrifugal force is not strong enough to hold the vanes firmly against the pump housing. Most slide type isolation valves leak too much air to prevent the pump from filling with oil. The application of a variable speed vacuum regulator greatly improves the effectiveness of the oil reclaimer and virtually eliminates the oily residue in the vicinity of the discharge. Since the discharge air is free from oil. Vacuum applied to a vane pump while it is not running will cause the oiling system to fill the pump with oil. When a vane pump is plumbed to a system as a backup to a main pump. Most vane pumps work well on variable frequency drive . heat recovery can be installed to reclaim heat from the discharge air. A 10 hp rotary lobe pump tested on a dynamometer required 2 hp input power to develop 4 cfm at 14 inches of mercury.vacuum regulation with minimal efficiency loss at reduced speeds. A vent should be installed between the slide valve and the vane pump to vent any air leakage past the slide valve. The efficiency of the rotary lobe pump tends to decrease slightly faster at lower speeds than vane pumps. Water vapor is also present in the exhaust air. This reclaimed heat can be used to preheat water or it can be used for space heating. Special attention should be directed to the oiling system on the vane pump. Some vane pumps have springs in the rotor that force the vanes out against the housing.

Water Ring Vacuum Pumps The centrifugal nature of the ring of water limits the ability of the water ring pump to operate with a variable speed regulator. This is an inherent attribute of mechanical vacuum Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 11 . The difference in vacuum level that occurs between the regulator in the fully open . the water ring distorts. The low efficiency and inability to operate with a variable speed vacuum regulator severely limits the opportunity for energy conservation with water ring pumps. The water ring pump also has a lower efficiency than the vane or rotary lobe pumps. To maintain a set vacuum level. Regulator Location and Efficiency on Conventional Vacuum Systems Conventional vacuum systems incorporate a vacuum pump operating at a fixed speed/airflow. The vacuum regulator provides airflow into the system so that the sum of the air admitted by the milking system plus the air admitted through the regulator exactly matches the fixed airflow at the vacuum pump. Energy conservation measures with a turbine pump are limited to recovering waste heat for water or space heating. the vacuum pump must remove air from the milking system at the same rate as air is being admitted Since the air admitted is dynamic and the pump out rate is constant. as water must be squeezed out of the rotor where the ring is too thick. other device that admits air during operation and air leaks. Turbine vacuum pumps feature a high temperature discharge that is free of oil. claws. There is a real concern that the high slip of a centrifugal pump will cause rapid overheating if the turbine pump is operated at a reduced speed. a vacuum regulator is necessary to admit the difference between the pump capacity and the air load. The low efficiency has deterred attempts to apply a variable speed vacuum regulator to the turbine pump. The load consists of the air admitted by the components that make up the milking system including milking units. the regulator must admit nearly the entire pump capacity. a vacuum regulator and a load. The typical vacuum regulator is a mechanical device that adjusts the rate of air admission into the system. The turbine pump is the least efficient with an efficiency about half that for a vane or rotary lobe pump. When the load increases the regulator must close and admit less air. Turbine Vacuum Pumps The turbine vacuum pump is the only one currently in use that is not a positive displacement pump. When the air load is low. The turbine operates like a centrifugal pump or fan by using the mass and momentum of the air to create a vacuum. pulsators. The capacity and efficiency of the water ring pump varies with the supply water temperature and therefore can exhibit wide performance fluctuations throughout the year.full flow state and fully closed state will be greater than zero. This distorted ring can cause very high torque requirements and overloaded motors. Once the centrifugal force is insufficient to overcome the vacuum.

A water tank that has a constant out flow with a float controlled input valve to maintain the water level in the tank. A regulator that requires 0. The vacuum difference between the regulator and the receiver is then dependent on how much air is flowing through the receiver.6 inches of mercury below the set point. This high airflow causes a larger vacuum drop between the regulator and the receiver.6 inches of mercury below the set point with the regulator operating (Effective Reserve) and dividing this by the system airflow reserve at 0. Frictional head loss is the reduction of vacuum level due to the friction of the airflow within the pipe. This low airflow causes minimal vacuum drop between the regulator and the receiver. Lowering the float and further opening the input valve. Regulator efficiency. such as unit attachment or unit fall off. In contrast. Consider what would happen to this regulator if there were a vacuum drop between the regulator and the receiver of 0. Regulators that fully close and admit no air before the vacuum level drops to 0.6 inches of mercury below the set point to close fully will only achieve 100% regulator efficiency when the vacuum level is the same at the receiver as is at the regulator. Regulators that have not fully closed at 0.6 inches of mercury below the set point are less than 100% efficient. there is a large airflow between the receiver and the regulator.6 inches of mercury below the set point are considered 100% efficient.regulators. The location of the vacuum regulator has a significant impact on the regulator efficiency and subsequently. It has been common practice to locate the regulator away from the receiver to minimize the noise in the milking parlor and to allow the regulator to draw cleaner air that is freer of cow hair and dirt. consider the following example. Regulator efficiency is determined by measuring the system airflow reserve at 0. The National Mastitis Council (NMC) has established that a vacuum drop of 0.6 inches of mercury below the set point with the regulator forced closed (Manual Reserve). When the water out flow is increased to a new gpm. measures how close to fully closed the regulator is by the time the vacuum level drops to 0. Frictional head loss between the regulator and the receiver causes the vacuum level at the receiver to be lower than the vacuum level at the regulator. By the time the Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 12 . The new level of water in the tank will be that point where the float valve is opened far enough to again balance the outflow. To illustrate this. Long lengths of small diameter pipe with many elbows and other fittings will have much higher resistance to airflow than a short length of large diameter pipe with no fittings. During periods of low airflow at the receiver.6 inches of mercury below the stable vacuum level is acceptable to allow the regulator to close. the level of water in the tank will decrease. there is little airflow between the receiver and the regulator. Frictional head loss increases both with increased airflow and with increasing resistance of the pipe. such as normal milking or group changes. during periods of high airflow at the receiver.2 inches of mercury during peak airflow. the vacuum system efficiency. as determined by the NMC test. This new level will be lower than the original level because of the interval that occurs between opening of the input valve and establishing new outflow. Installing the regulator in locations away from the receiver introduce losses that decrease efficiency.

Consider the following example for a double 24-milking parlor. Systems with low regulator efficiencies require more pump capacity to achieve the minimum effective reserve standard. The pump size at 35 cfm plus 3 cfm per unit results in a 179 cfm pump. this balancing of the inflow and pump out rate is accomplished by a vacuum regulator. Variable Speed Vacuum Regulation As was noted in the previous section. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 13 .6 inches of mercury standard. larger air lines and greater installation costs. When a pump operates at fixed speed and flow rate. oversized pumps. The energy savings attainable by implementing a variable frequency drive “vacuum regulator” are significant.4 inches below set point. the receiver has dropped the full 0. So that the pump out rate exactly matches the vacuum load inflow rate. An alternative method of balancing the inflow rate with the pump out rate is to regulate the speed of the vacuum pump. To improve the efficiency of the regulator it is necessary to reduce frictional head loss between the regulator and receiver. The return from that investment is the effective reserve. A smaller vacuum pump and motor could also be used if conditions allow. thereby minimizing the resistance of the pipe between the regulator and receiver. This can only be accomplished with high regulator efficiency. This is best accomplished by locating the regulator as close to the receiver as possible. A typical milking system averages approximately ¼ hp of vacuum demand for each milking unit. In addition to improving the vacuum regulation at the receiver. and high volumes of air are not being introduced at the regulator and pumped through the system. High regulator efficiencies indicate the effective reserve and manual reserve are very close. It is therefore highly desirable to keep the effective reserve as close to the manual reserve as possible. Using the current pump-sizing standard of 35 cfm plus 3 cfm per milking unit to assure adequate reserve results in potential energy savings of 30 to 50%. Dairies pay for manual reserve in energy costs. or very rarely exceeds the vacuum pump capacity.regulator has dropped 0. Minimum standards for effective reserve are directed towards ensuring that the load (air flow) never. A 20 hp pump operating with a 95% efficient regulator will have a higher effective reserve than a 30 hp pump with a 60% efficient regulator. The regulator will still be admitting air to the system even though the receiver vacuum drop exceeds the 0. Relocation of the vacuum regulator to provide better regulator efficiencies can allow belt sheave ratios to be reduced to slow the pump down and lighten the load on the motor and save energy. Reducing the pump out rate by 50% reduces energy consumed by 50%. improving the regulator efficiency also has a substantial energy saving potential. During operation the average vacuum demand of this parlor would be equivalent to 12 hp or 120cfm. This control method eliminates the need to admit extra air through a regulator. Improving regulator efficiency has the potential to save considerable money.6 inches. it is necessary for the air inflow rate of the vacuum system to exactly match the pump out rate of the vacuum pump in order to maintain the desired vacuum level. At 10 cfm per hp the smallest pump for this parlor would be 20 hp.

As with conventional. The controller contains the operator interface where vacuum level settings and tuning parameters are adjusted. By reducing the frequency and voltage supplied to the motor. The controller is a microprocessor-based computer that monitors the vacuum level signal from the transducer and determines the appropriate speed to operate the vacuum pump in order to maintain the desired vacuum level. a motor running on a 30 Hz supply will run at half its rated speed and will consume half of the normal energy. The variable frequency motor drive is a device that converts standard line voltage at 60 Hz to a variable frequency and variable voltage output to drive a 3 phase induction motor. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 14 . There should be no sags or other liquid traps that would inhibit the draining of the tube. Energy savings on these older systems can be as high as 80%. permanently reducing the sensitivity and accuracy of the transducer. PVC pipe works well for this sensing tube. Variable speed drive “vacuum regulators” consist of a sensing element. and other contaminants. It is therefore recommended that the transducer be located a short distance from the vacuum line with a sensing tube from the transducer to the vacuum line. placement of the sensing element of a variable speed regulator is very important. For a vacuum system. milk foam. For distances over 10 feet. Older standards required even more vacuum capacity and systems with 10 cfm per milking unit are commonly found on older parlors. For more information on variable frequency drives see the VFD section of this guidebook. CIP residue. These contaminants may affect the sensing element and reduce the sensitivity of the vacuum regulator. The sensing element should be located as close to the receiver as possible noting the following limitations: • Vacuum lines carrying air away from the receiver typically get contaminated with water. By applying a variable speed “vacuum regulator”. A short ¼ inch vacuum hose connects the transducer to this sensing pipe. The sensing element is an electronic vacuum transducer that converts the vacuum signal into an electrical signal for processing by the controller. the speed and the power consumed by the motor will be reduced. or back into the vacuum line. the average electrical demand and energy use for this parlor would be equivalent to 12 hp for a 40% savings. This sensing tube should automatically drain any contaminants that may enter. The sensing element of a variable speed regulator consists of an electronic vacuum transducer and any plumbing needed to connect the transducer to the vacuum system near the receiver.A conventional system with a vacuum regulator would supply 120 cfm of air to operate the milker system by having the regulator admit 80 cfm of air to balance the pump capacity of 200 cfm. ¾ inch pipe is recommended. All points in this sensing tube must slope downwards towards an automatic drain. a controller. Residue of CIP agents and milk can form a crust on the diaphragm of the transducer. and a variable frequency motor drive. For short distances (less than 10 feet) a ¼ inch vacuum hose is adequate for connecting the transducer to the vacuum line. mechanical regulators.

Due to these high speed acceleration and deceleration capabilities.• High velocity air in the vicinity of the sensing element interface causes turbulence that can cause small errors in the vacuum readings at the transducer. motor. insert hose barbs or pipe adapters into the main airline as shallow as possible and square to the main airline wall. The electronic control of a variable speed vacuum regulator does not require that the vacuum level drop in order to achieve full capacity. Any protuberance into the airline causes turbulence. (return to top of section: Milk_Harvest) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 15 . A variable speed vacuum control is capable of regulating vacuum level more precisely than a top quality mechanical regulator. For milking systems with two receivers. Angled or very deep set fittings cause higher turbulence at the end of the fitting and will result in vacuum reading errors. Thereby minimizing stress on the pump. belts. the electronic controller of a variable speed regulator should allow the vacuum pump to respond to fluctuations more slowly during the washing. The electronic controller maintains the vacuum level exactly at set point until the pump is running full speed. To minimize this turbulence. High-speed acceleration and deceleration along with proper tuning assure that transient demand fluctuations are quickly corrected for during the milking phase. The sensing point should then be inserted in the center of this bridge line. particularly at high airflows. and VFD transistors during air injected CIP cleaning when large vacuum demand fluctuations are normal. This line will experience much lower air velocities and will provide a very accurate and responsive vacuum reading at the transducer. Therefore the regulator efficiency of a variable speed system should not be less than 100%. the main air lines that supply each receiver should be bridged together with the same size pipe as the main air lines.

cracked pipes. This requires higher motor speed to reach the same pump speed. • • Variable speed vacuum sensor fouled or sensor line plugged or leaking. split liners. Variable Speed Vacuum Pump Operating Speed 1. • Check for leaks. • Check for loose pump belts. 2. This gauge should be permanently mounted near the receiver or should be easily connected to a test port near the receiver. receiver.Operator Level Checks – Milk Harvest Vacuum System Vacuum Level 1. Low system vacuum will cause lower pump speed. or faulty pulsator admitting excessive air in cycles. This can cause performance problems if the cause of the low pump speed is plugged air vents or malfunctioning pulsators. Vacuum levels that have drifted from desired value cause performance changes. • • 3. efficiency changes. Check system vacuum level. milk line. Check vacuum level with a quality gauge that is independent of any variable speed vacuum sensor. higher power requirements by the vacuum pump. Gauges permanently installed can suffer shortened life from contamination by moisture and residue carry over from the receiver and trap. and reduced vacuum pump capacity. • • High vacuum levels cause injury to cow. High system vacuum will cause higher pump speed. Motor running slower than normal. Low vacuum levels cause slow milk out and can cause health problems if there is inadequate collapsing of the liner during the rest phase of pulsation. cracked or disconnected pulsator tube. leaking gaskets on filter. trap. Motor running faster than normal. i. Split liner. joints. Motor speed is erratic.e. and herd health changes. • Check system vacuum level. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 16 . 2. Use of a test port valve to isolate the gauge except during periodic vacuum level checks will reduce this contamination. higher air flow.

2. • • The causes of high pump temperature will likely cause a rise in motor temperature as well. • • • • Check the system vacuum. Small changes in end of milking temperature are normal when the ambient air temperature changes. This accumulation must be removed periodically to maintain the tolerances in the pump. For lobe blower pumps. The vacuum pump temperature should be measured near the end of milking using an infrared thermometer or adhesive temperature strip. Some milking equipment companies have introduced automatic controls to automatically wash the pump on a regular basis. Pumps that have not been cleaned as required run hot and require more input power because of the friction of this accumulation. 2. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 17 . high temperatures can indicate a lubrication problem or that the pump needs cleaning. The vacuum pump motor temperature should be measured near the end of milking using an infrared thermometer or adhesive temperature strip. A significant temperature rise usually indicates that service is required. 3. Cleaning Rotary Lobe Vacuum Pumps Rotary lobe pumps accumulate residue from milk foam and wash chemicals on the rotors during normal operation. check that the oiling system is functioning properly. Allow the pump to run for a while after washing to dry the rotors. For rotary vane pumps. Imbalanced or low line voltage and imbalanced motor currents will cause a rise in motor temperature without a rise in pump temperature. Care should be taken to prevent a slug of water from entering the pump as this can destroy the pump. Higher vacuum levels will cause higher pump temperatures. Check for exhaust restrictions. Vacuum Pump Motor Temperature 1. Rotary lobe pumps are cleaned by introducing soap and water to the inlet of the pump while the pump is running. High motor temperatures can indicate a high load on the motor or a problem with the supply voltage to the motor.Vacuum Pump Temperature 1. A restricted exhaust will cause higher pump temperatures.

These components are low energy users compared to the vacuum pump. flat barns. proper operation of these components is critical to the success of milk harvest. swing. wash and pulsation lines • Vacuum regulators and controllers • Backflush systems • Numerous configurations of milking stalls (herringbone. However. parallel. and rotary parlors). tandem. milk.Other subcomponents in the milking system include: • Pulsation system • Milking units • Automatic detachers • Milk transfer pumps • Milk meters • Vacuum. (return to top of section: Milk_Harvest) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 18 .

Distribution Tank: An air vessel or chamber. refrigerated or non-refrigerated. (Based on the assumption that a vacuum drop of 0. and discharging to atmospheric pressure in a storage tank. to maintain the system vacuum when extra air is admitted through units during milking. which acts as a manifold for other pipelines. if the regulator could close completely at 0. Milkline: A pipeline which carries milk and air during milking and has the dual function of providing milking vacuum and conveying milk to a receiver. This is the reserve pump capacity available. in the main airline between the vacuum pump or interceptor and the sanitary trap.6"below the working vacuum level. Milk Meter: A device between the cluster and milkline for measuring a cow’s milk yields in either mass or volume. either integral with a single Pulsator (self-contained Pulsator) or system controlling several pulsators. Pulsator: A device for producing cyclic pressure changes. Should be maintained at 90% and above. Clean-in-Place (CIP): The capacity to clean the milking system by circulating appropriate solutions through it without disassembly. Pulsator Controller: A mechanism to operate pulsators. Pulsator airline: The vacuum line connecting the main airline to the pulsators. moving the milk through filters and inline cooling systems. An indication of the reserve pump capacity actually available to maintain system vacuum when extra air is admitted.6" has little or no effect on milking performance and that I sufficient to allow the regulator to close Manual Reserve: The air flow rate measured at the same position and conditions as for effective reserve except that the regulator is disabled. measured with all teatcups plugged and operating. Receiver Milk Pump: A pump for removing milk under vacuum in the receiver.Glossary of Milk Harvest Terms Air Injector: A device that allows the controlled. Regulator: An automatic valve designed to maintain a steady vacuum in a milking system.6" of Hg below the working vacuum level in the receiver. cyclic admission of air during cleaning and sanitizing to produce slug flow conditions. Regulator Efficiency: The effective reserve expressed as a % of the manual reserve (ER/MR). Effective Reserve: Air flow rate. that can be admitted at or near the receiver in pipeline milking machines to induce a vacuum drop of 0. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 19 . Receiver: A collecting vessel under vacuum that receives milk from one or more milklines or milk transfer lines and feeds the receiver milk pump.

The wash pipeline is not usually in use during milking. the speed of the motor/pump is changed to compensate for the change in vacuum level. during the CIP process.Sanitary Trap: The vessel between the milk system and the air system to prevent movement of liquid from one to the other. Vacuum Pump: An air pump which produces vacuum in the system. The VFD controls the motor/pump speed to maintain a vacuum level set point. Variable Frequency Drive: VFD is a device that is installed on the motor of the vacuum pump. Energy savings are realized by not moving air thru the system that was admitted by the vacuum regulator. air removed by the pump equals the air entering the milking system. (return to top of section: Milk_Harvest) (return to Table of Contents: Table_of_Contents) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 20 . With a VFD. carries cleaning and disinfectant solutions from the wash sink to the milkline. and the vacuum regulator is eliminated. As vacuum level differs from the set point. Wash Pipeline: A pipeline which.

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the assumption will be made that milk will be cooled to 45°F and the blend temperature.(return to: Table_of_Contents) 2. [www.html] The 3-A Sanitary Standards for Farm Milk Cooling and Holding Tanks. will not exceed 50°F Since milk harvested from the dairy cow is typically 99° F and will be stored at 45° F. and to 7°C (45°F) or less within two (2) hours after the completion of milking.cfsan. Provided. The Grade “A” Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. Provided.fda. Section E1. For the purposes in this Dairy Farm Guidebook. 2001 Revision states: Raw milk for pasteurization shall be cooled to 10°C (50°F) or less within 4 hour or less. that the blend temperature after the first milking and subsequent milkings does not exceed 50 °F (10 °C). the temperature must be reduced 54 F°. where applicable. Number 13-10 is a second standard that deals with cooling milk on dairy farms. most CA dairy farmers cool their milk to 45°F. However. In California the milk temperature must be cooled to 50°F prior to pickup. of the commencement of the first milking.4 C) or less within 2 hours after the completion of milking. milk that is shipped out of state must be cooled to 45°F.1 deals with cooling. Milk Cooling • • • • • • Purpose and Cooling Standards Equipment Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) Operator Level Checks Glossary Section Contents Purpose and Cooling Standards – Milk Cooling The cooling process of milk produced on California dairy farms consumes the largest portion (30%) of total electrical energy used. This standard states: Cool the product to 50°F (10°C) or less within 4 hours or less of the commencement of the first milking and to 40 F (4.gov/~ear/pmo013. Since there is some uncertainty about final destination of the milk that leaves the farm. The cooling of milk immediately after milking is vital to maintaining high quality levels until processed for fluid consumption or used to manufacture other dairy products. To reach this temperature roughly 50 Btu of heat Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 22 . that the blend temperature after the first milk and subsequent milkings does not exceed 10°C (50°F).

Refrigeration Cycle A mechanical refrigeration cycle is nearly always used to either cool the milk directly or indirectly via an intermediate cooling fluid.pressure liquid from the condenser will be a few degrees warmer than the cooling medium. Liquid refrigerant boils [expanding] inside the evaporator thus the name “direct expansion”. This is particularly challenging when milk temperatures approach 38 °F. Theoretically there is no limit to the surface area in a heat exchanger.93 Btu/lb. Two types of milk cooling systems are used on California dairy farms. This is the most common cooling system on larger California farms in spite of slightly less efficiency due to lower evaporator temperatures and pumping energy required to move the intermediary fluid thru the heat exchangers. this milk cooling system cannot cool the milk as fast as the milk enters the tank. Because there is a possibility that no heat may be lost due to high ambient air temperatures. this cooling system cannot be used. An intermediate cooling fluid. There is a limit to the size of refrigerated milk cooling and storage tanks due to structural issues. There is also a limit to the refrigerated surface area.must be removed per pound of milk. The system consists of a motor driven compressor that compresses the cold refrigerant gas returning from the evaporator so that the refrigerant can be condensed at high temperature. The “instant” cooling system is not limited by the amount of surface cooling area in the storage tank or silo. F] Some of this heat may be lost as the milk travels from the cow to the cooling system. with large volumes of milk to be cooled within a 24 hour period. There must be time between milkings such that the cooling system can catch-up and cool the milk to 45 °F. With cows being milk up to 22 hours per day. The trend towards larger milking herds. Agitating warm milk for long periods of time can also be detrimental to milk quality.high temperature gas from the compressor flows to the condenser where the refrigerant is de-superheated and condensed by transferring heat to a cooling medium. only economical and practical limits. [Assumes the specific heat of milk to be 0. The ability to remove heat from the milk fast enough [Btu/hr] to meet cooling requirements with high milk loading rates is not possible without reducing evaporator surface temperature to the point where freezing of milk may occur. The amount of heat lost will depend on the milking system and the ambient air temperature. the cooling system should be designed to remove all this heat. The basic mechanical refrigeration system is shown in Figure 2-1. The high. One or more agitators move the milk over the evaporator plates for cooling. greater milk production per cow and larger more efficient milking parlors [cows per hours] has increased milk flow rate [gal/hr]. Milk cooling takes place within the tank. They are: “Direct expansion” refers to a system where the evaporator plates are incorporated in the lower portion of the storage tank in direct contact with the milk. “Instant” cooling is where the milk cooling is completed external to the storage tank or silo and then pumped into storage. usually air and/or water. such as chilled water from an ice builder or a glycol-water mixture from a chiller is used to cool milk rapidly in a heat exchanger rather than direct expansion. This Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 23 . The high pressure . Generally.

Figure 2-1. These factors need to be considered when selecting the refrigeration equipment. Here the liquid refrigerant boils at low pressure and temperature absorbing heat from the milk.pressure evaporator that is in contact with milk (direct expansion). EER will decrease as the difference between these two pressures increases. More discussion of their application will be presented later. (return to top of section: Milk_Cooling) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 24 . To maximize EER the low side pressure needs to be kept as high as possible and the high side pressure kept at low as possible. Schematic of a Mechanical Refrigeration System The efficiency of a refrigeration system is given in terms of an EER [Energy Efficiency Ratio] where the units are Btu (cooling effect) per Watthour of energy input. The low-pressure vapor is removed from the evaporator by the compressor where the vapor is again compressed and the cycle is completed. water (ice builder) or glycol-water solution in a chiller. There are many factors that impact EER. An assortment of energy conserving measures exists to improve the overall efficiency of milk cooling systems. water or glycol-water. One factor deals with the relationship between the high side and low side pressure. Other factors will be discussed later.liquid is then metered thru a thermostatic expansion valve into the low.

pressure atmosphere of the refrigerant. The seal is generally a weld. See Figure 2-3. Power would generally be transmitted from the drive unit [motor] to the compressor by V-belts. The motor operates in a low. The hermetic type has the compressor and motor in a common sealed housing. In some cases the low pressure . The open type has the drive unit external to the compressor.low temperature refrigerant passes over the motor.Equipment – Milk Cooling Compressors The most common refrigeration compressor found on dairy farms today is the reciprocating. hermetic or accessible hermetic. Accessible reciprocating compressor (Copeland) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 25 . Hermetically sealed reciprocating compressor (Copeland) The accessible hermetic unit is similar except the housing is bolted together in a single unit rather than welded. Figure 2-2. See Figure 2-2. Figure 2-3. The motor and compressor are accessible. Reciprocating compressors can be either open type.

which helps maintain a higher EER. The capacity of an air-cooled condenser is determined by the area of the fins. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 26 . An example of a remote air-cooled condenser is show in Figure 2-4 as installed on a dairy farm. Air. the velocity of the air across the fins. This means that for the same temperature difference. This generally means the size or footprint is less. the unit is called a condensing unit. the surface area of a water-cooled condenser will be smaller than the air-cooled condenser.and Water-Cooled The purpose of the condenser is to desuperheat and condense the refrigerant gas by removing the sensible superheat. air-cooled and water-cooled. F. Condensers may also be mounted remote of the compressor. and a mean temperature difference between the air and refrigerant. The contact time between the air and the fins is short.Condensers. The heat transfer coefficient [Btu/ft2. Figure 2-4. Air-cooled condensers can be either an integral part with the compressor on a common platform or remove. There are two major types of condensers. The refrigerant gas flows through finned tubing and air is moved over the fins perpendicular to the tubing to remove heat from the gas. Water-cooled condensers are generally smaller in size and offer a higher EER than air-cooled condensers. The air-cooled units are similar to a car radiator. the latent heat of condensation and sensible heat to subcool the liquid. This coefficient describes the heat transfer [Btu/hr] for each square foot of surface area and the mean temperature difference [F°] between the refrigerant gas and the cooling media. This also means that the temperature difference can be smaller with the same surface area. There are several reasons. If the condenser is an integral part with the compressor on a common platform. Remote air-cooled condenser A water-cooled condenser operates under the same principles as an air-cooled condenser except water is the coolant. hr] between the metal surface of the exchanger and water is greater than that for air.

A cross section of such a heat exchanger is shown in Figure 2-5 along with a complete unit. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 27 . Generally the cooling water flows through the tubes and the condensing refrigerant gas is in the shell. This reduces the contact time between the air and the condenser surface thus requiring greater face area. These units have a water-cooled condenser mounted underneath an accessible hermetic compressor. On an equal volume basis. The water pipe connections can be seen on the end of the condenser. Water-cooled shell and tube condensers are commonly used on dairy farms. The unit shown has a removable core for cleaning.500 times as much heat (Btu) for the same rise in temperature. The unit shown is a 2 tube passes with baffles in the shell to reduce short-circuiting and increase turbulence of the refrigerant. This means that a much greater volume of air is required than water to remove the same amount of heat from the condensing refrigerant.Water is a better carrier of heat than air. Condensed refrigerant collects in the bottom of the shell. Three condensing units are shown in Figure 2-6. This is not true in a water-cooled condenser. Figure 2-5. The flow of water through the water-cooled condenser is generally controlled by pressure controlled water valve. water will absorb 3. The airflow in an air-cooled condenser is perpendicular to the flow of refrigerant. Example of a shell and tube water-cooled condenser (Standard Refrigeration) An assembly of a compressor and condenser plus associated controls and equipment is call a condensing unit.

This insures that no liquid refrigerant enters the compressor. The device functions as a restrictor and flow regulator. The control is connected to the high-pressure side of the compressor.] The sensing bulb contains a small amount of refrigerant. is employed to transport heat from the milk in a plate heat exchanger to the evaporator of the mechanical refrigeration system. so the pressure in the bulb is the same as the pressure in the return pipe from the evaporator. The purpose is to maintain a constant head pressure. Thermostatic Expansion Valve [TEV] This type of expansion device is often used on refrigeration system for milk cooling. where an intermediary fluid. Water-cooled condensing units with accessible hermetic compressors The flow control valve can be seen between the right end of the water cooled condenser and the galvanized water pipe. the same refrigerant as in the cooling system. absorbing heat from the surroundings space. The refrigerant flow through the TEV is controlled such that the refrigerant gas leaving the evaporator will have a few degrees of superheat. the evaporator may be a part of the bottom of the milk cooling/storage tank [direct expansion] or a chiller.Figure 2-6. [The sensing bulb for the TEV is identified in Figure 21. There is considerable pressure drop across this restriction separating the high-pressure side condenser from the low side evaporator. such as water or a water-glycol solution. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 28 . Evaporator The evaporator is that section of the refrigeration system where the liquid refrigerant evaporates or boils at low pressure and temperature. The sensing tube provides feedback to the TEV. For milk cooling.

one pump system Having a single circulation pump requires careful sizing of the evaporator chiller and milk plate heat exchanger because each will have the same flow rate [gpm]. The chiller generally works in conjunction with a dual stage plate cooler. A schematic diagram of an instant cooling system using a one-pump (coupled) system is shown in Figure 2-7. There is a chance that the milk can be frozen at the evaporator if the evaporator temperature is too low and there is insufficient mixing of the milk that allows the milk to remain in contact with the evaporator too long. The lower temperatures and short heat transfer period along with pumping energy cause the instant cooling system to use more energy per hundredweight than a direct expansion system. The chiller provides 28-34° F water – propylene glycol solution to the second stage of the plate cooler. The reason for the lower efficiency is the lower suction pressure to achieve lower evaporator temperatures inherent to instant cooling systems and the pumping energy required to move the water/glycol thru the heat exchanger. instant chilled water/glycol cooling systems are slightly less efficient than direct expansion systems. is employed to transport heat from the milk to the evaporator. Well water is used in the first stage of the plate cooler to reduce milk temperature to within 5°F of input water temperature. The milk enters the bulk tank or silo completely cooled. The lower section of the tank is the evaporator. Instant milk cooling system with a coupled. Manufacturers of plate heat exchangers usually recommend that the coolant flow rate be 2 to 3 times the flow rate of product being cooled. such as water or a water-glycol solution. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 29 . Indirect or Instant Cooling: Here an intermediary fluid.Direct Expansion This system cools the milk directly in the milk storage tank. Generally. The two heat exchangers [evaporator and milk cooler] are coupled. When milk enters the second stage of the plate cooler. chilled solution from the chiller “instantly” cools the milk to 38° F. Figure 2-7.

A better practice may be a decoupled system where two pumps are used, one for the evaporator and a second for the plate heat exchanger. Such a system is shown in Figure 2-8. Here the two pumps can be sized individually to optimize the performance
Glycol -Water Return WaterGlycol Condenser Evaporator Chiller Final Cooler Precooler Warm Water

Warm Milk

Compressor

Pump 1

Pump 2 Water-Glycol Storage Cold “Cold” Milk Water

Figure 2-8. Instant milk cooling system with decoupled, two pump, system of the evaporator/chiller section and the final plate heat exchanger. With this system there is also an opportunity to have two feedback control loops; one to maintain the correct temperature of the water-glycol storage and second to achieve proper temperature of the cooled milk. The evaporator on a cooling system could be the cooling plates in a falling film chiller. Examples of a falling film chiller and a single plate are shown in Figures 2-9 and 2-10. The falling film chiller consists of a series of plates arranged vertically, the number of plates being determined by the required cooling capacity. These plates can be seen in Figure 29.

(Photo courtesy of DeLaval) Figure 2-9. Falling film chiller showing vertical plates and a view of a plate
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The warmed water/glycol solution from the plate cooler enters the top of the chiller cabinet and empties into a distribution pan, which is suppose to evenly disperses the solution over the vertical cooling plates. Achieving this can be a challenge. A thin layer (film) of solution cascades (falls), thus the name “falling film” chiller, down each side of the refrigerated plate and falls into an insulated reservoir located the base of the unit, where it will be returned to the plate heat exchanger. Falling film chillers are generally associated with coupled systems, one circulating pump. Generally two plates would be connected to a single condensing unit. Referring to Figure 2-10, the six white (frost covered) pipes are attached to six vertical plates. Each pipe is served by a thermostatic expansion valve with the sensing bulb attached to the exit pipe from that same plate [liquid refrigerant enters at the bottom and gas exits at the top of the plate]. The three drier/filters each serve one condensing unit and two plates.
2 chillers

6 sensing bulbs

3 electric solenoid valves

6 thermostatic expansion valves

3 refrigerant driers

Figure 2-10. Falling film chillers showing refrigerant connections There are alternative evaporators that generally associated with a decoupled cooling system. For this arrangement the water-glycol would be stored in a separate tank. Two types will be presented. These units have a much smaller foot print that the falling film chiller The first is a chiller barrels. A chiller barrel can be different shapes and sizes. An example is shown in Figure 2-11.

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Figure 2-11. Chiller Barrels (TX from Standard Refrigeration Co.) This chiller barrel is similar in constructed to a shell & tube heat exchanger discussed earlier as a water cooled condenser. This chiller does not have to be coupled to the milk plate heat exchanger so that both units need not be sized to function at the rated capacity with the same coolant flow rate (gpm). . A second alternative is the brazed heat exchanger. These units are similar in function to the single pass plate heat exchangers used to cool milk that will be discussed next. However, these units do not have gaskets between the plates and they cannot be opened, the unit is welded shut. An example of a brazed heat exchanger is shown in Figure 2-12.

Figure 2-12. Brazed plate heat exchanger; a complete unit and an expanded view (Flat Plate) Because of their design these units are more compact and have a smaller foot print than either falling film or chiller barrels. These units can be used for direct expansion. The barrel chillers and the brazen heat exchangers are more likely to be used on the decoupled system. The system pictured in Figure 2-13 is a decoupled system with barrel chillers and scroll compressors. The diagram in Figure 2-14 shows the decoupled - two pumps system.

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Flow diagram for Kool Way® by Westfalia·Surge™ Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 33 .Figure 2-13. Decoupled or two pump system (Kool Way® by Westfalia·Surge™) CHILLER BARRELS SIGHTGLASS SOLENOD VALVE TEMPERATURE SENSOR FLOW SAFETY SWITCH PROCESS RETURN LIQUID LINE DRYER ACCUMULATOR COMPRESSOR CIRCULATION PUMP REFRIGERANT BALL VALVE PROCESS PUMP PROCESS SUPPLY AIR-COOLED CONDENSER Figure 2-14.

Single Pass plate heat exchanger The flow pattern in Figure 2-15 is a counterflow configuration. Here the two fluids are in contact [on either side of a plate] as the fluids make one pass between the plates. There are three major configurations of a plate heat exchanger. Milk Cooling Heat Exchangers The heat exchangers used for cooling milk are made of stainless steel and are designed to be opened for cleaning. the cold water input is next to the cool milk out. More recently plate type heat exchangers have become dominant. the coolant and milk flow in opposite directions. A well-water-cooled heat exchanger that partially cools the milk prior to entering a direct expansion cooling system or an instant cooler has been available for over 20 years. All heat plate exchanger should be installed with counterflow. This flow pattern has a higher mean temperature difference and a greater effectiveness than parallel flow. shell & tube or double tube heat exchangers were commonly used. The refrigeration system is controlled by the temperature of the Low–Temp tank. Well Water Partial Cooling The use of a well water-cooled plate or shell & tube heat exchanger to precool milk prior to the milk entering a refrigerated milk tank or a final plate heat exchanger is common. Today this energy conservation measure [ECM] is standard equipment on larger farms. Product Out Water In Product In Water Out Single Pass Figure 2-15.The circulation pump operates whenever the refrigeration system is operating. The configuration shown in Figure 2-15 is a single pass unit. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 34 . For instant milk cooling systems this precooler is the first section of a larger plate heat exchanger with final cooling occurring in the second section. The process pump runs continuously with no feedback control. Earlier.

Here the product makes two passes so that the product is in contact with the coolant twice as long. F Dual Pass Single Pass. A linear projection of those three data points was made to estimate the temperature drop for a single pass exchanger unit with more plates. 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 10 Temperature Drop. See Figure 2-16. the expected drop in temperature for the single pass unit would be 25 F° and slightly over number of plates and temperature drop 28 F° for a dual pass unit. If both types had 32 plates. a dual pass is more effective that a single pass. actual 15 20 25 30 35 40 Number of Plates Figure 2-17. Dual pass plate heat exchanger The comparison between single and dual pass plate heat exchangers is shown in Figure 217. The graph shows the relationship between the number of plates and the expected temperature drop in the milk with single and dual pass plate heat exchangers. Figure 2-18 shows the flow configuration for this unit. Product In Water Out Product Out Water In Product Drain Dual Pass Figure 2-16. One section is used for precooling with well water and the second section is for final cooling with chilled water or glycol-water solution. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 35 . assuming all other factors are equal. Two data points are plotted for a dual pass unit. For the same number of plates. The ratio of low rate between the milk and cooling water was 1:1.A dual or double pass heat exchanger is more effective than a single pass unit. projected Single Pass. This unit is equivalent to two single pass units jointed together. There are three data points for the single pass unit. This unit is common on California dairy farms. Relationship between number of plates and temperature drop The third configuration for a plate heat exchanger is the two-stage.

F 100 90 80 70 60 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Tci = 65F Tci = 55F Tci = 75F Coolant Flow Rate. A higher coolant flow rate provides a greater mean temperature difference between the milk and coolant and a higher coolant velocity between the plates that increases the heat transfer coefficient. (return to top of section: Milk_Cooling) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 36 . Most manufacturers recommend at least a ratio of 2.Product In Water Out Product Out Chilled Water In Product Drain Water In Chilled Water Out Two Stage Figure 2-18. low flow between cycles. intermittent milk flow = 35 gpm. The data for the graphs shown in Figure 2-19 were taken from manufacturer’s literature to demonstrate the impact of coolant flow on the exit milk temperature. meaning that the average flow rate of milk when a pump was operating was 44 gpm. well water precooler and chilled water or water-glycol final cooling) The effectiveness of a heat exchanger is also dependent on the ratio of flow [gpm] between the product and the cooling media. inlet milk temperature = 98°F. coolant flow while milk pump is operating. the chilled coolant flow rate while the milk pump was operating must be 88 gpm which difficult to achieve on a dairy farm. Both receiver pumps operated 26 percent of the time. Impact of coolant flow rate on exit milk temperature for three coolant temperatures (Tci). To achieve a recommended flow ratio of 2. When the level of milk in the receiver reaches the upper probe. Tests on two conventional receiver pumps in a double parlor showed that the average milk flow rate during milking was about 12 gpm. Two stage. Milk Exit Temperature. The milk flow could be at least 25 gpm for a few seconds and then stop for perhaps a minute. The milk flow from the milk pump on a receiver is intermittent. the pump starts. gpm Figure 2-19. water flow twice the milk flow.

To help alleviate this problem. the flow rate (gpm) of milk from a receiver is not uniform. This means that there is no milk flowing through the heat exchanger 75 to 90 percent of the time and the flow during the other 10 to 20 percent of the time will be high. water flow and the effectiveness of the VFD to reduce the milk flow through the heat exchanger.4 (return to top of section: Milk_Cooling) Milk Cooling Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) There are several measures that can be implemented that will reduce the energy consumed to cool milk. Some of these were mentioned above. under conventional practice. This is not an efficient way to operate a heat exchanger.9 – 0. Milk cooling system Conventional Well water precooler Well water precooler with VFD on receiver pump EUI.6 0. Variable Frequency Drives [VFD] For Milk Pumps As stated earlier. a variable frequency drive can be applied to the milk pump.8 and 1. The concept here is to slow down the flow of milk from the receiver so that the milk pump operates a higher percentage of the time. As ECMs are added.2 kWh/cwt [hundred weight] of milk cooled. They will be described in the next section. The actual reduction in energy use will be dependent on well water temperature.8 0. This means the flow of milk through the heat Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 37 . Precoolers Well water-cooled heat exchangers partially cool milk prior to the milk entering the refrigerated storage tank or a second heat exchanger for instant cooling.7 – 0. Partial cooling the milk with a well water “precooler” will save 0. The flow of milk during milking from the milk pump will vary from zero to 25 50 gpm. On the well water or chilled water-glycol side of the heat exchanger the flow needs to be 50 to 100 gpm for that 10 to 20 percent of the time.2 kWh per cwt milk cooled. the pumps may operate 10 to 25 percent of the time while the cows on one side of a parlor are being milked. There are two EMCs that can be employed.Milk Cooling Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) The EUI for milk cooling with a well maintained cooling system and no energy conservation measures averages between 0.3 kWh per cwt milk cooled. Installing a variable frequency drive will lower the EUI an additional 0. kWh/cwt cooled 1. This practice was discussed earlier because the practice has been widely accepted and in many areas has achieved 100 percent market penetration. In a milking parlor with two milk pumps.2 to 0.2 – 0. This to is difficult. the EUI will decrease.

two to four reed switches are positioned along the probe at appropriate locations. The goal is to have the pump operate at the lowest speed for the greatest percentage of the time. between 12 and 15 inches of Hg. The curves shown in Figure 2-20 illustrate the performance of a 4-blade impeller milk receiver pump driven at different speed with a VFD. the frequency output from the VFD and thus the speed [rpm] of the receiver pump can be controlled by which reed switches are closed [one] and which ones are open [zero]. the pressure loss in the filter. Depending on the length of the probe. delivery varies with total head and rpm] as opposed to positive displacement pumps where delivery is nearly linear with speed and within reason unaffected by discharge pressure. The sensitivity of the pumping rate to pump speed is significant. Both factors improve the effectiveness of the heat exchanger. and discharge head that includes the vertical height to the discharge point or height of milk in a silo. When the float with a magnet floats up to the reed switch the switch either closes or opens depending on the logic being used. or 2. Using a binary code. the pump will start at the lowest preset speed giving the lowest milk flow. One needs to be careful when setting this lowest speed. The floats are held in place by clips on either side of the float. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 38 . Centrifugal pumps experience shut-off head.450 rpm. Stainless steel floats that hold a magnet fit around the probe and are held positioned along the probe at the same location as the reed switches. when the pump was being slowed down by the VFD. The pump had considerably different characteristics during speeding up and slowing down. When the top reed switch is activated the VFD generally goes to 60 Hz for full speed of the milk pump. At a certain combination of total head [pressure] and pump rpm. The first seven data points in Figure 2-20 are plotted on the graph in Figure 2-21. a change in pump speed of 10 Hz or about 600 rpm made little difference in flow rate. However. The total head is the sum of the suction head. the flow from the pump stops. A vacuum of 13 inch Hg was maintained in the receiver.exchanger will be lower and more continuous. When the lowest switch is activated as the milk rises in the receiver. When speeding up. Control for the variable frequency drive is generally a series of magnetic reed switches mounted inside a hollow stainless steel pipe [probe] mounted vertically near the center of the receiver through the Plexiglas cover. Nearly all receiver milk pumps are centrifugal [variable delivery.400 rpm for a motor rated at 3. the friction of the heat exchanger and piping.6 gpm for the same change of 600 rpm. Setting the preset speeds on a VFD for any milk pump must be done with care. When the float leaves the switch the switch returns to its initial position. the flow rate decreased from 14 to 0. The VFD can be programmed to provide different speeds depending on the position of the floats. With 13 inch of vacuum the shut off head occurred at 42 Hz.

When the pump is operating at full speed (the impeller was turning at 3. gpm 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 Pump Speed. Now the impeller turned 600 times per gallon or more that three times the agitation. 16 14 Milk Flow Rate.400 rpm. VFD Frequency. VFD Frequency.450 rpm) the delivery rate was about 20 gpm. Hz Figure 2-20 Characteristics of a 4 Blade Impeller Milk Pump with a VFD Another issue that should be considered is the agitation of the milk inside the milk pump at lower speeds.25 20 Flow Rate. For every gallon of milk delivered the impeller turned 172 times. The impact of this additional agitation has never been studied. gpm 15 Slow ing Dow n 10 5 0 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Speeding Up Milk Pump Speed. At low speed the delivery was less than 4 gpm but the speed was 2. Hz Speeding Up Slow ing Dow n Figure 2-21 Enlargement of a Portion of Figure 2-20 Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 39 .

Figure 2-22. (return to top of section: Milk_Cooling) Operator Level Checks – Milk Cooling Air Circulation For Air-Cooled Condensers Place condensers in an area where air temperatures will be the lowest possible.Scroll Compressors Two new classes of compressors. higher energy use and reduced refrigerating capacity. Providing air-cooled condensers with air that is as close to outside air temperature as possible will give the best possible performance. These new compressors are both more efficient. Locate condenser in shady areas. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 40 . The scroll compressor utilizes two identical scrolls. Scroll Compressor (Copeland) A study comparing a scroll compressor with a reciprocating hermetically sealed compressor on a direct expansion cooling system showed a 20 percent reduction in energy use. Because the scroll compressors operate in a circular motion. The reduction in energy use was caused primarily by a reduction in the electrical demand. have fewer moving parts and no intake or discharge valves. Condensing units are not placed on roof tops because that is the coolest place but because this is the cheapest “floor space”. one fixed and the second rotating within the fixed scroll. there is less vibration and less noise. there is no available space inside and reduces noise. the scroll and discus are now being introduced for milk cooling on dairy farms. not in the direct sun or on the roof. These units are quieter and operate with less vibration. Locating condensers in a utility room with poor air circulation causes the condensers to operate at an elevated temperature that results in a higher head pressure.

Again the exiting liquid refrigerant temperature should be a few degrees warmer than the exit water temperature. Water-Cooled Condensers Be sure ample cooling water is available for all condensers. If oil accumulates there is a refrigerant leak. The electronic detector is the most sensitive and common of the various leak detection methods. The entering water should be close to the temperature of ground/well water. The closeness of the refrigerant temperature to the ambient air is a good indication of the effectiveness of the condenser. Refrigerant Leak Detection Oil Refrigerant leaks are associated with oil leaks.The liquid refrigerant leaving a condenser will hopefully be 5 to 10 F° warmer than the ambient air temperature. Maximum water flow will occur when the compressors are working under full loaded and/or when the cooling water is warm. This is to be expected and does not indicate low refrigerant. Sight Glass and Moisture Indicator All refrigeration systems [condensing units] should have a sight glass and moisture indicator. They are capable Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 41 . Temperatures near 75 °F give the best results. Electronic Detection These instruments measure variation in current flow caused by ionization of decomposed refrigerant between two oppositely charged platinum electrodes. When the system in operating there should not be any bubbles visible in the sight glass. usually in one unit. Check the temperature of the water entering and leaving the condenser. surfaces around compressor particularly where there is highpressure refrigerant is a sure indicator of a leak. These chemicals are temperature sensitive. While the systems are starting up and when they are shutting down there may be bubbles. Built into the center of the sight glass is a chemical that changes color when exposed to water/moisture. Bubbles indicates low refrigerant. As mentioned above. This is not a scientific detector but an operator can observe oil accumulating and report this to the equipment dealer. The unit is mounted in the liquid line ahead of the thermostatic expansion valve. The temperature of the exit water will be warmer than the inlet temperature but the water should not be hot. compare the temperature of the liquid refrigerant leaving the condenser and the inlet and exit water temperatures. Remember that the compressor head pressure generally controls the water flow rate via a pressure-controlled water valve. The housing for the sight glass will show the color when the system is “dry” and the color when the system is “wet”. Oil and accumulated dirt appearing at pipe joints [solder or compression].

flow rate of water. coils. A pre-measured amount of dye is injected into the refrigeration system at a service port and allowed to circulate. water temperature. Most instant cooled systems have both precooler and final cooler in the same plate cooler so this cannot be checked. Check the temperature of the milk leaving the precooler. Mineral deposits accumulated over time can prevent the solenoid from opening fully and water flow through precooler is reduced. fittings. the exit temperature of the milk should be within about 5 to 10 degrees of the incoming water temperature. this method is suitable for most purposes.of sensing a leak as small as 1/100 oz of R-12 per year. Likewise. Air is drawn over a copper element heated by propane flame. economical method of detecting chlorinated [R 12 and R 22 for instance] refrigerant leaks. reliable. The problem could be at the precooler. and the color of the flame changes to bluish-green. fouling of 42 • • • Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide . tubing. the better. compressors and seals are scanned with a hand held ultraviolet light. per year. If the operating times become gradually longer this would indicate a problem with the efficiency or effectiveness of the chilling system as long as the amount of milk being cooled remains constant. Check the milk tank temperature. Halide Torch The halide torch is a fast. The refrigeration lines. Although not as sensitive as electronic detectors. Note the usual running time for the condensing unit. Field Tests & Maintenance Measures Milk Cooling • Periodically check that the precooler solenoid functions properly. Overcooling the milk results in a much higher energy use. they decompose. Can reveal leaks as low a 1/8 oz. How long the compressor runs after each milking depends on the relationship between the flow rate of milk into the tank and the cooling capacity. valves. the solenoid valve can leak causing high water use and cooling of the wash water. revealing their precise location. If the precooler is a separate unit. Condensing unit operating time: o Direct expansion cooling systems: the condensing unit will operate after milking is complete because the milk in the tank will not be cooled to the desired level by the end of milking. Any leaks present will glow brightly. The closer to the incoming water temperature. Dye Method Uses fluorescent dyes and an ultraviolet light to pinpoint leaks. If halogenated vapors are present.

Problem would be similar to those mentioned above. The problem could be at the condensing unit – perhaps a loss of refrigerant or the condensers are becoming dirty and less effective. • Check compressor. o Direct or instant cooling systems: the condensing unit should turn off shortly after the end of milking. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 43 . Problems with the cooling system would be indicated by a gradual rise in milk temperatures entering the silo. condenser and motor temperatures.the heat exchanger.

Table 2-1. Refrigeration Troubleshooting Chart Symptom
Slow cooling (low – Btu/hr capacity) Low suction Pressure

Problem
1. Inadequate refrigerant charge 2. Plugged suction line filter 3. Plugged suction screen 1. Plugged orifice 2. Partially pierced aeroquip fitting 3. Low head pressure (below 200 psi) 4. Restricted liquid or suction line 5. Plate iced up, thermostat cutout too low 6. Plugged evaporator inlet 1. Dirty air condenser 2. Defective fan motor 3. Inadequate ventilation 4. Restricted airflow 5. Defective fan motor switch 6. Misadjusted fan motor switch 7. Limed up TS 8. Plugged high side (liquid line) filter/drier 9. Restricted or too small orifice (metering) 10. Restricted or kinked liquid line 11. Partially pierced aeroquip fitting on high side 12. Plugged evaporator inlet 13. High suction pressure caused by tank filled with refrigerant 14. Overcharge of freon combined with evaporator covered with hot milk and 100° F ambient

Solution
1. Replace refrig. charge 2. Replace filter 3. Clean screen 1. Clean orifice 2. Remove and repierce 3. Adjust head pressure control 4. Remove restriction 5. Readjust thermostat above 36°F

High head Pressure

1. Clean condenser 2. Replace fan motor 3. Improve ventilation 4. Relocate condenser 5. Replace fan control 6. Readjust fan control 7. Delime 8. Replace Filter/Drier 9. Clean or replace with correct size 10. Locate and remove restriction 11.Disassemble and remove seal 12. Blow backward 13. Spray water on condenser 14. Correct refrigerant charge and spray water on the condenser

Compressor cut-outs on internal thermal overload

1. Internal thermal faulty 2. Compressor heating up: start relay defective 3. Compressor heating up: system low on refrigerant 4. Compressor heating up, high head or low suction pressure 5. Low capacity compressor body 1. Motor overheating 2. Defective internal thermal on motor 3. Motor failing

1. Replace overload or compressor 2. Replace start relay 3. Charge refrigeration system 4. Remove restricted lines or improve system charge 5. Replace compressor body 1. No lubricant in gear box Too heavy lubricant in gear box 2. Replace thermal overload 3. Replace or repair motor 1. Replace or adjust

Intermittent Agitator

Defective or misadjusted thermometer

1. Milk too warm

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Table 2-2. Plate Milk Pre-cooler Troubleshooting Chart Symptom
Reduced milk flow rate through plate milk pre-cooler

Problem
Plates have “burn on” milk residue Blockage / obstruction in flow path Pump is leaking before plate Filter is restricted / blocked Product viscosity has changed Water pressure too great causing plates to bulge and restrict milk flow Mineral fouling of plates General fouling of plates Debris between plates Pump is leaking Output restriction of water flow Check condition of gaskets Check frame for proper tightening Excessive line pressures Corrosion of stainless steel due to high concentration of chlorine sanitizers. Check flow rates for both sides Check coolant temperature Check for fouling or deposits

Solution
Disassemble plate cooler and manually clean Install new filter element Check inlet & outlet pressures Circulate hot acid wash for 30 min. Disassemble plate cooler and manually clean Filter inlet water Check water outflow lines Replace as necessary Retighten to mfg. spec. Check inlet & outlet pressures Consider iodophor or quaternary ammonia sanitizers. Remove obstructions Disassemble plate cooler and manually clean.

Reduced coolant (water) flow rate through milk pre-cooler

Milk and/or Coolant leaking

Product Temperature Incorrect

Source: Westfalia-Surge

Milk Pumps All Milk Pumps Pump Seal: Leaks in the shaft seals on receiver pumps can go undetected for long periods of time. This is because a leaking pump seal leaks air into the pump rather than leak milk out. The air that enters the pump aerates the milk causing lower milk quality and lower pumping efficiency. Check valve: The check valve serves to prevent backflow of milk into the receiver once the pump shuts off. The check valve should close without bouncing or leaking. Bouncing check valves can be heard as thumping or banging after the pump shuts off. Back flow of milk will cause chilled milk to be re-warmed by precooler water in instant cooling systems and milk quality suffers from excessive pumping.

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Test for leaking check valves and pump seals: Check that all clamps and gaskets between the receiver and check valve are secure. Fill the bottom of the receiver with clear, cool water. Apply normal milking vacuum to the receiver. Observe the receiver pump outlet for air bubbles entering the receiver from the pump. If no bubbles are present, then the check valve, pump seal and pipe connections are sound and no leaks exist. If bubbles are present, turn on the milk pump to fill the milk pump line with water and then turn off the milk pump. Observe for air bubbles entering the receiver. If there are no bubbles then the check valve is the cause of the leak. If there are still air bubbles entering the receiver then either the seal is leaking or the connections between the receiver and the check valve are leaking. Motor temperature: High motor temperatures on the milk pump may indicate a motor or supply voltage problem.

Variable Speed Milk Pumps In addition to the checks detailed above, variable speed milk pumps should be checked to confirm that is milk flowing at the lowest speed. One indication that the pump has stalled at the lowest speed is the audible click or thump of the check valve closing when the pump drops to the low speed. A milk pump that continues to run at the low speed, even after a long pause between groups of cows also indicates that the pump is in a stalled condition and is not pumping milk.

(return to top of section: Milk_Cooling)

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Plate Heat Exchanger: An in-line heat exchanger that uses plates to separate milk and coolant. creating a cooling effect. which either partially or fully cools milk before it enters the tank. used to cool and/or store milk from harvest until pickup. In-Line Cooler: A cooling device placed in the milk transfer system between the milk receiver and milk tank. These fluids generally exhibit a phase change during this process. Heat Exchanger: A device providing thermal exchange between two fluids. Condenser: That part of the refrigeration unit in which the refrigerant changes from a vapor to a liquid giving up heat. Heat Recovery Unit: That part of a refrigeration system that allows recovery of heat from the refrigeration process for a useful purpose. Bulk Milk Tank: An insulated sanitary container or vat. the direct expansion valve has been replaced with other flow control devices. Chiller: Chilled water system where cooling medium (generally water and propylene glycol) is circulated through a heat exchanger where refrigerant cools the chilled water and then pumps it through an in-line cooler. which holds the milk. Pre-Cooling: Partially or fully cooling the milk before it reaches the bulk tank Refrigerant: Any substance used in a refrigeration process that transfers heat from the evaporator to the condenser. which flow through alternate spaces between the series of plates. usually located I the milkroom. Expansion Valve: Part of a direct expansion refrigeration system between the condenser and evaporator where refrigerant pressure is reduced. the evaporator is part of the liner of the tank. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 47 . In modern systems. Evaporator: That part of the refrigeration system in which refrigerant absorbs heat from the milk an changes from a liquid to vapor. The condenser may be air or water-cooled. Cooling Capacity: The rate of heat removal in Btu/hour. Direct Expansion: A single-wall heat exchange method of cooling milk by a direct transfer of heat from the milk to the refrigerant contained in the evaporator.Glossary of Milk Cooling Terms Blend Temperature: Mass average temperature of milk in the bulk tank as warm milk is added to cool milk. Compressor: That part of the refrigeration unit in which the vapor from the evaporator is compressed and delivered to the condenser. In a bulk milk tank.

3-A Standards: Sanitary standards for farm milk cooling developed by sanitarians. federal administrators and manufacturers. Return to top of section: Milk_Cooling Return to Table of Contents: Table_of_Contents Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 48 .

Clearly using an efficient light source in a poor design does not provide optimal lighting. The cumulative magnitude of energy use by a broad range of lighting equipment in all areas of the farm complex is somehow perceived to not be as significant as it really is. The use of supplement lighting in every facet of our daily lives tends to lessen our perception of its existence and not consider the full impact on total farm energy consumption. efficiently and safely. The available energy conservation options for improving lighting efficiency and efficacy on the farm are enormous. As the continuing trend toward larger dairies operating around the clock continues the necessity of efficient. the application of electric lighting is a substantial energy input in the operation of a modern California dairy farm. The choices available range from simple lamp replacements to installing new hi-efficiency lighting systems with programmable logic controllers and other computer based control systems.Lighting Although often overlooked and taken for granted. well designed and maintained lighting systems becomes even more crucial to successful operation of the farm. New and improved lighting technology is being developed continually. An integral step to improving lighting on dairy farms is the performance of a specific lighting design for that area or facility. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 49 . Lighting Section Contents Purpose Dairy Farm Task Lighting Livestock Handling Lighting General Lighting Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) • Operator Level Checks • Glossary • • • • • • Purpose . Lighting represents 16% of total electric energy used on California dairies. The common theme behind the use of all these sources is the basic need for supplemental light to provide people the visual acuity to perform required functions accurately. This design should satisfy established criteria for light level. Lighting sources found on the dairy include: • • • • • • Incandescent Tungsten Halogen Fluorescent Mercury Vapor Metal Halide High Pressure Sodium.(return to: Table_of_Contents) 3.

Various work tasks on a dairy farm require differing light considerations. lighting consumes about 16% of the total electric energy used on a typical California dairy farm. Feeding area lighting 50 • Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide . but it is often considered only as an afterthought during the design. equipment maintenance and repair 4. or long-day lighting. and comfort. and equipment repair areas. office lighting 5.color rendering. On average. controls. equipment washing 3. milkrooms. matte finish that is highly reflective without producing glare. Important factors in developing effective lighting systems include the selection of appropriate luminaires designed for the task lighting required and the room environment where the lighting equipment is installed. cow treatment areas. Lighting is an environmental factor that should be given careful consideration throughout a dairy facility. walls and ceilings of lighted areas should be painted or covered with a bright. Holding area lighting 2. This is especially important in visually intensive work areas such as milking parlors. of dairy cows to increase milk production. The very best lighting systems perform poorly in dark colored. (return to top of section: Lighting) Dairy Farm Task Lighting There are three levels of work area or task lighting systems on dairy farms: • Visually intensive task lighting (generally requires highest lighting levels) 1. selection of fixtures suitable for the ambient environment. and proper wiring and circuit protection. Quality lighting is very much a factor in improving and maintaining productivity. Many areas within dairy facilities cannot be kept pristinely clean and bright. milking parlors and holding areas 2. A recent development in the application of lighting technology on dairy farms may involve photoperiod manipulation. utility room Lighting for livestock handling and equipment operation (high to moderate lighting levels) 1. construction and maintenance of a dairy facility. dingy rooms. maternity and veterinary treatment area 6. An efficient lighting design and control system must be implemented to obtain the benefits of long-day lighting. Lighting for a Dairy Facility Having a good working environment in a modern dairy is an important factor in the optimization of animal and worker efficiency. efficacy. but where possible. as do animal feeding and resting areas. safety. This management practice uses an increased light intensity over a defined time interval to stimulate increased milk production.

Livestock resting areas 2. Security lighting (indoor and outdoor) Table 3-1 provides recommended lighting requirement in footcandles (fc) for various areas within a dairy facility.7 udder) Cow return alleys 20 fc 35 57 92 0.69 Cattle confinement areas (indoor) 1 fc 20 3.9 maintenance Maternity/Treatment areas General lighting 20 fc 30 67 96 0. Lumen output of selected lamp. Animal sorting and observation 4. Wattage required for selected lamp per sq ft 6.) 1. Passageway lighting 3.8 Bulk tank/silo interior 100 fc 80 125 82 1.22 Commodity buildings 10 fc 25 40 115 0.3. General cleanup • General lighting (low to moderate lighting levels. Table 3-1 gives an estimated coefficient of utilization. hps – high pressure sodium psmh psmh psmh psmh Fluor 8 Fluor 8 Fluor 8 halogen psmh halogen psmh hps hps hps Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 51 . To assist in determining the lights (wattage) needed for a specific area. psmh – pulse start metal halide. Source: ASAE Lighting Systems for Agriculture Facilities (draft) 2.62 Cow holding area 10 fc 35 29 92 0. the percent of the Table 3-1: Suggested Dairy Facility Illumination Levels Work Area Recommend Illumination Level 1 fc Coefficient Lamp(s) Utilization 2 Output Estimate % lm/sq ft 3 Lamp Output (lm/W) 4 Power Required W/sq ft 5 Fixture 6 Suggested Milking Center Parlor.31 Milk Room General lighting 20 fc 35 57 89 0. General room lighting 4.5 Utility/Equipment Room General lighting 20 fc 30 67 89 0. Lamp output needed to meet recommended lighting level. fluor 8 – fluorescent T8.64 Equipment washing area 100 fc 40 250 89 2. lumens per Watt (rated) 5.69 Treatment or surgery 100 fc 50 200 25 8.61 Operator pit (cows 50 fc 30 167 96 1.03 Cattle confinement areas (outdoor) Feed Storage areas Grain bin areas 5 fc 20 25 115 0.35 1. lumens/sq ft 4. Coefficient of utilization given for luminaries direct at least 65 percent of light down 3.3 115 0.0 20 fc 30 67 96 0. general lighting 20 fc 35 57 94 0.75 Equipment repair and 100 fc 45 220 25 8.

multiply the lamp wattage by 1. To estimate the power consumed by a fixture with a ballast. All the lamps listed in Table 3-1 and Table 3-2 (except incandescent and halogen) use a ballast. Referring to Table 3-1. Example: Select the lighting fixtures needed for a milking parlor operator pit that is 8 ft x 45 ft.35 = sqft sqft 96 lumens/W 166lumens W 1. efficiencies and color rendition of various light types. Table 3-2 provides representative information about lamps commonly used in dairy facilities. Area to be lighted at 50 fc: Lumen output needed: Lamp rated output for psmh: Lamp Watts required: 8 ft × 45 ft = 360sqft 50lumens 166lumens ÷ 0. Pulse start metal halide lights will be used. Combining the lumens required and the lumen output yields the wattage required per sq ft.7W × 360sqft = 612W sqft Lamp Watts required for job: The lumen output [96 l/W] for the psmh lamp is the initial lumen output.7W × = 96lumens sqft sqft 1. As with all lamps. when selecting fixtures for a particular project the installed wattage should be increases by 20 percent in order to maintain the required light levels over a period of years. The light fixture (luminaire) selected will have a lumen output per rated Watt. lumen output decreases with time.lumen output from the lamp(s) that actually reaches the work plane. Therefore. With this information. Possible selection of fixtures for this milking parlor: 3 – 250 W psmh [low bay]. Assuming these lights will operate 15 hours per day. Only incandescent and halogen do not use ballasts. see Table 3-2. light intensity must be 50 fc or 50 lumens per sq ft and the coefficient of utilization will be 35%. the lumen output needed to achieve the correct light level can be calculated.13. The energy consumed by the fixture(s) will include both the lamp and the ballast. This table is not to be used for designing a lighting system but to highlight the design concepts. if one is present. what will be the annual energy consumption for lighting system? kWh / yr = (3 × 250)W × 1.600kWh 1000W day yr Selecting Luminaires Choosing appropriate luminaires and lamps for a specific lighting task requires an understanding of the relative performance. This ballast consumes energy. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 52 .13 × kWh 15hr 365days × × = 4.

Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 53 .000 18. a single row of luminaires over the center of the pit will work nicely. lighting levels in the pit area and near the cow’s udder (the work plane) should be 50 footcandles (fc) or more. Inadequate lighting can accelerate fatigue and greatly diminish the performance of the milking staff. pulse start 92-106 65-70 High Pressure Sodium 95-125 20 * Initial lumens per rated Watt ** MB – Magnetic ballast.000 12. and post-milking teat treatment. If fluorescent luminaires are used. If the ceiling is higher. standard 82-90 65-75 Metal Halide. In the milking parlor. (See Figure 3-1). Luminaire spacing is dependent on the wattage and luminaire design selected. assuming there is adequate mounting height (12 feet or more).Table 3-2.000-20. udder prepping. Poor milker performance leads quickly to herd health problems and significant drops in milk production. Lamp types and selection data Lamp Type Efficiency* Lm/Watt Color Rendering Index (CRI) Rated Life (Hours) 750-2000 2000-3000 12. generally two rows of continuous (end to end) double tube luminaires mounted over the outer edges of the pit will provide uniform lighting with little or no shadows.000-24. as recommended by the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) and the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE).000 24. See Table 3-3. CW.000 10.000-20. EB – Electronic ballast (return to top of section: Lighting) Visually-Intensive Task Lighting Milking The milking operation on a dairy farm is a critical. T12.000-30. repetitive task that requires excellent visual observations of equipment operations. metal halide luminaires are very effective. CW. udder health and cleanliness. MB** 60-71 60-80 Fluorescent. EB** 84-94 78-86 Fluorescent.000 Incandescent 12-20 100 Halogen 18-25 100 Fluorescent. T8.000 15. Moisture resistant fluorescent or metal halide luminaires provide the most effective and comfortable lighting. If metal halide luminaires.000 15. If the ceiling is 12 feet or less above the pit.000-20. compact 50-79 82 Mercury Vapor 38-46 15-50 Metal Halide. See Figure 3-2. fluorescent luminaires are generally more effective. Luminaire layout will vary depending on the parlor design. See Table 3-3.000-20.

Example of metal halide milking parlor pit lighting Parlor Stalls and Holding Area It is important to have reasonably good. and the cow return lane areas in the milking center. It is recommended that the holding area have a uniform 10 fc illumination level. it will facilitate cow traffic flow. uniform levels of illumination in the holding area. If the holding area is illuminated at a lower level than the parlor cow traffic area. Cows are more comfortable traveling from areas of lower illumination toward areas of Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 54 .Figure 3-1. parlor stall area. The IES and ASAE recommend a uniform lighting level of 20 fc in the parlor stall area and return lanes. Example of fluorescent milking parlor pit lighting Figure 3-2.

require high levels of illumination. then it would be prudent to use fluorescent or metal halide lighting in the cow traffic areas. Inspecting equipment for proper cleanliness is important in Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 55 . They offer a higher level of lighting efficiency.higher illumination. moisture resistant Metal Halide. and holding area lighting Table 3-3. Cow return lanes can often be effectively lighted with “wall pack” luminaires. and are often less expensive to install and maintain. If color rendition is not deemed critical in the cow traffic areas. at proper spacing. The lenses on these fixtures aim the light onto the traffic areas. If it is important to have color rendition like the parlor pit area. See Figure 3-3. Lighting in parlor stalls. Milking parlor pit. return lanes and holding area lighting Milking Parlor Pit at udder Parlor General Lighting Stalls and Return Lanes Holding Area 50 fc 20 fc Fluorescent. moisture resistant Metal Halide. such as the wash sink in the milkroom. high up on the sidewalls. moisture resistant Fluorescent. return lane lighting. which are rectangular lighting fixtures that are mounted. moisture resistant High pressure sodium. 2 lamp. moisture resistant 10 fc Equipment Washing Milking center equipment washing areas. moisture resistant Fluorescent. stall. high-pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires are a good choice. moisture resistant High pressure sodium. moisture resistant Metal Halide. Figure 3-3.

2 lamp. fluorescent luminaires are most common. Generally. Milkroom and equipment wash area lighting Task area Illumination Requirement Milkroom (General Lighting) Equipment washing (Wash sink area) Bulk Tank/Silo Interior Cleaning and inspection 20 fc Recommended Luminaire 100 fc 100 fc Fluorescent. The IES and ASAE recommend lighting levels of 75 – 100 fc in equipment cleaning areas. The luminaire should have a protective sleeve over the lamp to contain any glass pieces. This is best accomplished with a portable moisture resistant luminaire. Since much of the milking system is now cleaned in place. metal halide luminaires work well. this recommendation only applies to those areas where equipment is disassembled and manually cleaned. Like the equipment washing area. 2 lamp. moisture resistant Fluorescent portable wand light. However. moisture resistant Metal Halide. General lighting in the milkroom should provide a uniform 20 fc illumination level. It is recommended that 100 fc be provided for inspection of the interior or bulk tanks and silos. moisture resistant Fluorescent. See Table 3-4. Figure 3-4. See Figure 3-4. moisture resistant Metal Halide. For some situations a fluorescent wand-type may be appropriate.maintaining low bacteria count and high quality milk. if ceilings are high (12 feet or more). should the lamp break. Milkroom lighting Table 3-4. moisture resistant luminaires are appropriate to illuminate equipment wash areas. The interiors of bulk tanks or milk storage silos need to be visually inspected for cleanliness. Luminaires should be mounted above work areas to provide shadow-free light at the work surface. insulated and moisture resistant 56 Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide . fluorescent.

It is recommended that a uniform general illumination level of 20 fc be provided in the utility room. writing. Farm office general illumination levels should be at least 50 fc with specific task lighting on the desk surface of 100 fc or more. For surgery. Dairy office lighting Task Area General Office lighting Reading. computer operations. condensers. often. fluorescent lighting is most suitable to provide glare-free lighting with few shadows. Vacuum pumps. Once again. and general office work. Proper. Intense visual and often delicate tasks such as operating procedures or other animal treatment require minimum lighting levels of 100 fc. electrical distribution panels. portable halogen spotlights may be required to provide adequate task lighting. Table 3-6: Maternity and treatment area lighting (indoors) Task Area Maternity/treatment area (general lighting) Veterinary Treatment and Surgery area Required Illumination 20 fc 100 fc Recommended Luminaire Fluorescent or Metal Halide moisture resistant Fluorescent or Metal Halide moisture resistant Portable halogen spot lights for lighting surgical area Utility Room Lighting The utility room in a modern milking center houses most of the key operating systems that makes the milking parlor/milkroom area function. See Table 3-5. and. Portable Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 57 . Fluorescent or metal halide luminaires are most appropriate for these areas. keyboard and other desk tasks Illumination Requirement 50 fc 50 – 100 fc Recommended Luminaire Fluorescent with prismatic lens Fluorescent with prismatic lens Maternity and Veterinary Treatment Area The maternity and veterinary treatment area in a dairy facility requires general lighting levels of 20 fc to facilitate observations of sick cattle and cows ready to calve. refrigeration compressors. See Table 3-7. the standby power system are all found in the utility room. the luminaires need to be more concentrated and arranged to minimize any shadows. glare-free lighting is essential in an office to facilitate the daily activities of record keeping. air compressors.Office Lighting Most milking centers include the farm office space. In the treatment/operating area. See Table 3-6. Table 3-5.

uniform lighting. and performing general maintenance and cleanup operations. This lighting level is also necessary to provide safe operator movement throughout the facility. low bay Portable incandescent or halogen trouble light (return to top of section: Lighting) Livestock Handling Lighting Lighting for Dairy Cattle Confinement Structures General lighting systems for dairy cattle confinement structures. observing cattle for illness or heat detection. High pressure sodium luminaires provide the most effective and efficient illumination for this Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 58 . See Table 3-8. If ceilings are 12 feet or more in height. whether freestall barns or simple loafing shelters. Utility room lighting Task Area General lighting Equipment Maintenance and repair Illumination Requirement 20 fc 100 fc Recommended Luminaire Fluorescent with prismatic lens Metal Halide. should provide 10 fc of light. General lighting is commonly provided by fluorescent luminaires.task lighting is also required to raise local illumination levels to 100 fc when maintenance and repair is conducted on individual pieces of equipment. metal halide luminaires will also provide excellent. This is important for the performance of general work tasks such as separating cattle. Figure 3-5. Fluorescent lighting in a utility room Table 3-7.

See Figure 3-6. These high efficiency fixtures provide sufficient lighting while using less energy than other fixture types. To gain the full benefit of this supplemental lighting. A heavier concentration of the same type of fixtures used for general lighting can be used to provide the higher illumination level. in freestall resting barns. Example of metal halide lighting in a dairy cattle confinement feeding barn Long-day Lighting Numerous university studies suggest that supplemental lighting that provides lactating dairy cows with a uniform light level of 15 to 20 footcandles for 16 to 18 hours per day will increase milk production. If the structure has a very low ceiling (less than 12 feet). metal halide luminaires are commonly used.. When considering a long day lighting system. If ambient temperatures are likely to dip below 50° F. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 59 . fluorescent luminaires may be more appropriate. the dairy cows must have a 6 to 8 hour dark period every 24 hours. When herds are on 3x milking schedules. If good color rendition is desired. Illumination levels in feeding areas within confinement structures should be 20 fc. long day lighting systems utilize high-pressure sodium or metal halide light fixtures. See Figure 3-7. Generally. it is important to note that 2 to 3 times as many light fixtures are required compared to conventional freestall barn lighting recommendations.lighting need. This facilitates the operation of feeding wagons or trucks and encourages cows to move to the feeding area and eat. Figure 3-6. it is often difficult to achieve the required dark period. the fluorescent fixtures should have high output ballasts and lamps to reduce cold temperature light degradation.

Taller poles allow wider beam spread and the use of higher wattage. Example of 1. Corral lighting can best be accomplished by mounting luminaires on very tall poles. See Figure 3-8. Lighting at feeding areas in corrals should be 3 fc. A low level (less than 1 fc) of general lighting can be achieved by locating high pressure sodium HID luminaires around the perimeter of the corral. Again.000 W floodlight for feeding corral lighting Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 60 . this facilitates nighttime feeding operations and encourages animal movement to the feeding area. Freestall resting barn with supplemental long day lighting Open Corral Confinement Systems Open corral confinement systems present a special lighting challenge. which would allow luminaire mounting heights of at least 40 to 50 feet. It is difficult to provide effective. uniform lighting in large open areas. The luminaires would have to be weather-proof with wide beam angle reflectors to aim the light over a broad area of the corral. thus reducing the total energy requirement for the lighting task.Figure 3-7. Figure 3-8. more efficient luminaires.

since they are only needed for nighttime operations.25 fc Corral Feeding areas 3 fc Special Pens and Chutes General (outdoors) Sick Animal Treatment (outdoors) 10 fc 50 fc (return to top of section: Lighting) General Lighting Feed Storage and Processing Areas Feed storage areas such as commodity storage buildings and grain bins generally require less light than other areas because little work is done within the storage areas. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 61 . Cattle Confinement and Feeding Area Lighting Task Area Confinement Structures (General Lighting) Required Illumination 10 fc Recommended Luminaire High pressure sodium. Commodity storage buildings should have up to 10 fc of light in front of and within the storage facility to facilitate commodity removal and mixing operations at night. These lighting systems can be set up on dusk to dawn timers or photoelectric controls. Table 3-9 provides recommended light levels for these areas.Table 3-8. Grain bins should have 2 – 5 fc of light around them to facilitate safe walking and equipment operations around them at night. High pressure sodium luminaires will provide the most efficient light source for these areas. See Figure 3-9. High pressure sodium High pressure sodium (provided from several directions to reduce shadows) Feeding areas (in confinement buildings) 20 fc Corrals (general lighting) 0. (weatherproof with wide beam angle reflectors) on tall poles. Metal halide Fluorescent (All moisture resistant) High pressure sodium Metal halide Fluorescent (All moisture resistant) High pressure sodium (weatherproof with wide beam angle reflectors) on tall poles High pressure sodium.

A reasonable range for lighting EUI’s on California dairies would be from 30 to 75 kWh per cow-year. selection. weatherproof. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 62 . High pressure sodium fixture in commodity storage shed Table 3-9. Feed and grain storage area lighting Task Area Grain Bin area Required Illumination 2-5 fc Recommended Luminaire High pressure sodium. Maintenance of acceptable lighting levels in this area is crucial to providing operators visual acuity to perform their tasks. The kilowatt-hours used per cow-year for operating all lighting equipment on the dairy establish the EUI for lighting. with dusk to dawn control High pressure sodium. weatherproof with dusk to dawn control Commodity Storage 10 fc (return to top of section: Lighting) Lighting Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) The largest portion of all electrical energy used for lighting on the dairy farm occurs within the milking center and mainly in the milking parlor. These include: • • • • • Illumination levels required Proper design. The energy use to provide lighting on a dairy farm is driven by a number of factors. placement and installation of lighting system Duration of time period lighting is used Energy efficiency (lumens per watt) of lighting system selected Maintenance of lighting system.Figure 3-9.

energy efficient luminaires generally results in better lighting with continued energy savings over the life of the luminaire. if appropriate Convert to fluorescent tube luminaires Convert to fluorescent T-8 with energy efficient ballasts Convert to Metal Halide. Purchasing high quality. Dairies utilizing LDL technology in their freestall barns would be expected to have lighting EUI’s range from 100 to 175 kWh per cow-year. it may not pay to replace existing fluorescent T-12 luminaires with new T-8 luminaires with high efficiency ballasts. However. if appropriate Convert to High Pressure Sodium. Table 10 below illustrates energy conservation measures for lighting and the percentage savings each measure will provide. it would pay to convert the existing ballasts and lamps from T-12 to T-8 while keeping the existing fixture. For example. Buying and installing new higher efficiency luminaires may cost more than is saved in energy costs. High-pressure sodium lamps produce 5 to 6 times more lumens/watt of energy used compared to incandescent or halogen lamps. For example. Although lighting EUI’s will increase appreciably on those dairies adopting LDL. converting to high pressure sodium lighting at the same lighting level would save a significant amount of energy. if lighting for outdoor corrals and feeding areas is provided by incandescent or halogen flood lights. if appropriate 20-38% 75% 80-85% 25% 43-54% 44-59% Converting to higher efficiency luminaires may not always be cost effective. relatively modest increases in milk production make the supplementary lighting very cost-effective. most efficient luminaire for the task. (return to top of section: Lighting) Lighting Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) The most effective energy conservation measure for dairy lighting systems is to replace inefficient luminaires with higher efficiency types.The advent of photoperiod manipulation or long day lighting (LDL) to increase milk production can significantly increase the EUI for lighting. The most important point to make about lighting energy conservation is to install the most appropriate. Table 3-10. (return to top of section: Lighting) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 63 . Lighting Energy Conservation Measures and Savings Lighting Type Incandescent Incandescent Incandescent Fluorescent T-12 Magnetic ballasts Mercury vapor Mercury Vapor % Energy Conservation Measure Energy Savings Convert to halogen lamps Convert to compact fluorescent.

A metal halide lamp may only produce 60% or less of its initial lumen output at 70% of its life. As lighting system output diminishes due to dirt depreciation factors and lamp lumen depreciation factors. less light will be received and the energy consumed remains nearly unchanged. Since light reflectance of ceilings and walls is an important factor in lighting system performance. Then check footcandle levels in the same areas on a monthly basis to determine diminished system performance. They should be painted or covered with bright white or other reflective colors. In lighted dairy facilities. This is because the light loss is gradual. The light meter readings will indicate when cleaning and relamping should occur. Adequate lighting is not always a priority on dairy farms. thus reducing the quality of light in the task area. but a well designed and maintained lighting system pays dividends in improved employee and animal performance. it is important to keep reflective surfaces clean. Dust and dirt accumulation on lamps and luminaire refractors will significantly reduce the effective light output of the fixture. Luminaires in very dirty locations should be cleaned monthly. use a light meter to measure footcandle levels in each lighted area when the system is new. they will absorb light rather than reflect it. The light output for all common lamps diminishes over the life of the lamp. This loss of light output over time is known as lamp lumen depreciation (LLD). To monitor lighting system performance.Lighting In a dairy farm environment. There are many factors that influence the coefficient of utilization. Best to make these measurements at night when ambient light will not interfere with the readings. Luminaires in less dirty environments should be thoroughly cleaned at least twice per year. This is not true but the light output will be a fraction of the original lumen output. While a depreciated lamp will still “work”. a typical incandescent lamp will produce 89% of its initial lumen output at 70% of its normal life. it is appropriate to replace lamps before they burn out. As dirt accumulates on these surfaces.Operator Level Checks . This is known as room surface dirt depreciation (RSDD). (return to top of section: Lighting) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 64 . This is known as luminaire dirt depreciation (LDD). For example. and the operator tends to get used to diminished levels until the light levels are far too low. it may be difficult to sense the light loss with the naked eye. Some will say that a HID lamp will never burn out. To maintain proper light levels. even the best lighting systems lose their effectiveness quite rapidly if not properly maintained. it is important to keep walls and ceilings cleaned.

Footcandle: A measure of the level of illumination on a surface. Lens: A glass or plastic element used in luminaries to change the direction and control the distribution of light rays. above the floor. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 65 . High-bay Lighting: Interior lighting where the roof truss or ceiling is more than 25 ft. metal halide and high pressure sodium.Glossary of Lighting Terms Ballast: A device used with an electric-discharge lamp to obtain the necessary conditions (voltage. Incandescent Filament Lamp: A lamp in which light is produced by a filament heated by an electric current. General lighting: Lighting designed to provide a uniform level of illumination throughout the area involved exclusive of any provision for special localized lighting requirements. Color Rendering Index (of a light source) (CRI): A measure of the degree of color shift objects undergo when illuminated by the light source as compared with those same objects when illuminated by a reference source of comparable color temperature. width and height. the more “natural” colors appear when illuminated by the light source. Ceiling Cavity Ratio (CCR): A number indicating ceiling cavity proportions calculated from length. Light: Radiant energy that is capable of exciting the retina and creating a visual sensation. High Pressure Sodium (HPS) Lamp: A high intensity discharge (HID) lamp in which light is produced by radiation from sodium vapor operating under partial pressure. The higher the CRI. Coefficient of Utilization: The ratio [percent] of the lumens emitted from the luminaire(s) to the lumens received on the work plane. discomfort. current and waveform) for starting and operating the lamp. or loss in visual performance. High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamp: An electric-discharge lamp using a temperature stabilized light producing arc. Glare: The effect of brightness or brightness differences within the visual field sufficiently high to cause annoyance. One footcandle is light intensity produced by one lumen of light per square foot. Diffuser: A device to redirect the illumination of a lamp. Light Loss factor (Maintenance Factor): A ratio comparing the amount of light on the task surface provided by a lamp to the value if the lamp operated at its initial (rated) lumen output and if no appreciable variation or depreciation had occurred. Common HID lamps include mercury vapor.

the value is set at 70. the cow’s udder for milking parlors or the cow’s eye for long-day lighting would locate the work plane. and the wall surfaces between these two planes.Localized General Lighting: Lighting utilizing luminaires above the visual task and contributing also to the illumination of the surrounding area. together with the parts designed to distribute the light. Mercury Vapor Lamp: A high intensity discharge (HID) lamp in which the major portion of the light is produced by radiation from mercury operating at a partial pressure. Room Cavity Ratio: A number indicating room cavity proportions calculated from length. Work Plane: The plane at which work usually is done or at which the illuminance (fc) is specified. to position and protect the lamps and to connect the lamps to the power supply. Luminaire: (light fixture) A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp (or lamps). ballasting (when applicable). Task Lighting: Lighting directed to a specific surface or area that provides illumination for visual tasks. It is expressed in lumens per watt. the workplane. (return to top of section: Lighting) (return to Table of Contents: Table_of_Contents) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 66 . width and height. Metal Halide Lamp: A high intensity discharge lamp in which the major portion of the light is produced by radiation of metal halides possible in combination with metallic vapors such as mercury. Portable Lighting: Lighting involving equipment designed for manual portability. Low-bay Lighting: Interior lighting where the roof truss or ceiling height is 25 ft or less above the floor. One lumen impinging on an area one foot square will produce a light intensity of one footcandle. Rated Life: Standard HID and most lamps – number of operating hours at which 50 percent will still be operating. For pulse start metal halide. Luminous Efficacy of a Source of Light (Luminous Efficiency): The total radiant power emitted by a lamp divided by the total lamp power (watts) input. Photoperiod: The environmental (natural or artificial) light-dark cycle to which living organisms may be exposed. Lumen: A unit of measure of the quantity of light emitted from a lamp. Room Cavity: The cavity formed by the plane of the luminaires. For example.

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The value and importance of providing a comfortable environment for the high producing dairy cow is demonstrated by the expanding use of air circulation and other cooling methods. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 68 . Air Circulation & Ventilation • • • • • • Purpose and Design Heat Stress Reduction Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) Operator Level Checks Glossary Section Contents Purpose and Design – Air Circulation And Ventilation Air circulation and ventilation systems on California dairies provide fresh air to dairy cows and diminish heat stress. The effects of heat stress on dairy cows has been well documented and includes: • • • • Reduction of feed intake Drop in milk production by 20-30% Increased susceptibility to mastitis and other diseases Reduced conception rates and other reproductive problems Figure 4-1 on the following page provides a graphic illustration of the impact of temperature and humidity on stress levels for dairy cows. Numbers within the graph are wet bulb temperatures.(return to: Table_of_Contents) 4. °F.

ventilation and evaporative cooling effects represents an increasing portion of the aggregate electrical energy consumed. “Coping With Sumnmer Weather – Strategies to Control Heat Stress”. Stephenson.P. Temperature Humidity Indexes (THI) (Smith. Shirley. greater numbers of dairy farms are implementing options to mitigate the effects of heat stress. J. D. It is worthwhile to consider the energy management opportunities that exist for these systems. J. G. Harner. Stokker. Dunham.Figure 4-1. March 1998) To maintain and increase milk production levels. ventilation continues to be one of the smaller energy consuming functions on dairy farms. Myer. John. M. in California. (return to top of section: Air Circulation & Ventilation) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 69 . The rapid growth of cow comfort systems on dairy farms has occurred because of the magnitude of economic benefit that can be achieved. The energy used by these systems to provide air circulation. However. Publication MF-2319 Kansas State Universituy Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension. J.

Conventional open ridges are wide open at the peak. The shade structure casts a shadow in response to the movement of the sun throughout the day. open facilities oriented to take advantage of prevailing winds. high volume low speed fans Circulation fans with evaporative cooling . Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 70 . Shading systems. there is little or no air circulation or cooling effect within the structure.Heat Stress Reduction – Air Circulation & Ventilation Freestall Resting Areas To reduce the effects of heat stress on dairy cows a variety of measures have been developed that include: • Natural ventilation • Shading • • Circulation fans –basket. with the opening as much as 3 feet wide. Very simple structures with flat roofs or shade cloth covers provide a place for dairy cattle to get out of the direct sun. There are two types of open ridges.low pressure sprinkler & high pressure mister applications Shading Shading is a common method of heat stress reduction on Southern California dairies. like natural ventilation systems. an open ridge provides a natural outlet to allow warm air to rapidly exit the building. do not require any input energy unless they are supplemented with mechanical air moving systems and/or misting systems to facilitate cooling. Proper orientation of the building so that prevailing winds blow through the structure from one side to the other helps reduce temperatures for the livestock housed within. In large resting barn structures. Studies have shown that the conventional open ridge design exhausts warm air more effectively than the California design. The open ridge allows rising warm air in the building to quickly flow out of the structure. The major disadvantage is that when there is no wind. an open ridge is required to facilitate natural ventilation. Warm air escapes out of the opening between the primary roof and the higher roof cap (see Figure 4-2). and the cows are free to move with the shaded zone as the day progresses. California style roof design features a high roof cap that covers a very wide open ridge. The advantage of natural ventilation systems is that there is no energy input. box. cyclone. If the building has a peaked roof. The roof cap edge overlaps the primary roof to help keep out rainwater. Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation of dairy housing structures is accomplished by building high-sided.

Overall fan efficiencies vary greatly. etc. teardrop or airfoil shaped blades attached directly to a motor or to a motor and belt drive system. guards. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 71 . It is normally recommended that circulation fans should be turned on when temperatures reach 70°F in order to keep cows within their comfort zone. shutters. They have flat. motor drive. Typical Ridge Vent Designs Circulation Fan Systems The major users of electrical energy in circulation fan systems are electric motors used to drive various configurations of fans. Experts agree that heat stress in dairy cows begins when ambient temperatures reach 65°F to 70°F and relative humidity is 40% or higher. and performance is affected by numerous factors including: • • • • • type of blades clearance between the blade tip and the fan housing or orifice the design of the fan housing and orifice panel speed at which the fan operates any obstructions to air flow including fan screens. Circulation fan systems include several different types of fans as shown in Table 4-1. Most circulator fans (except the “basket” style) are mounted in a circular ring or an orifice panel to help control air flow through the fan.Figure 4-2. All circulation fans common to dairy housing systems are axial flow propeller fans.

wood or plastic box with orifice panel Round. low speed fan (Northwest Envirofan) Figure 4-3 Six types of fans Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 72 . Common types of circulator fans and their characteristics Fan Type Typical Blade Design Flat Stamped Flat stamped Or airfoil Airfoil Typical Housing Design Metal Basket guard Simple circular orifice Metal. tubal Housing None None Type of Drive Direct drive Direct or Belt drive Direct or Belt drive Direct drive Direct drive Direct drive General Operating Efficiency Low Moderate Moderate To high Moderate Moderate High Basket fan Panel fan Box fan Cyclone/Funnel Low volume Low speed High volume Low speed Flat stamped or airfoil Flat stamped or airfoil Airfoil Basket fan High volume. low speed fan Low Volume.Table 4-1.

Circulator fans generally operate at 0. Example of circulator fans mounted over cows’ backs over the feed alley Figure 4-5. Panel and box type circulator fans are usually placed in rows above the feed alley and the freestall area and are spaced at ten times the diameter of the fan. It is important to have air flow over feed alleys and each row of freestalls in a resting barn. these fans will produce their highest airflow rate as determined by testing labs or the manufacturer. while 4-foot diameter fans are spaced 40 feet apart. circulator fans are mounted under the eaves along exterior walls and aimed into the resting barn in the direction of prevailing winds Figure 4-4. Thus. about ten 4-foot circulator fans are required for each 100 cows in a freestall or resting barn. Generally. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 73 . Circulator fans mounted under the eaves and taking advantage of prevailing winds. In some instances. Circulation fan placement in a livestock resting area is dependent on the type and size fan used.0” static pressure or in free air. Thus 3-foot diameter fans are spaced 30 feet apart.

The nozzle emits the water in the form of very fine droplets. cows have to increase heat dissipation by panting. As a cow pants. Since HVLS fans are generally 10 to 20 feet in diameter. In southern California. Higher-pressure misters are not recommended because the water droplets are so quickly vaporized that their effects on cooling cows are minimized. thus lowering air temperature in the building. she increases her breathing rate thus increasing of air flow through her lungs. common much of the year in southern California. This cooling effect allows excess body heat to migrate to the cooler skin surface where it is dissipated by convection. However. but she is not very efficient at dissipating that heat at temperatures above 70° F. which will cause the water to evaporate. thus cooling the skin of the cow. Circulation Fan Systems with Evaporative Cooling A dairy cow produces a large amount of heat. circulation fans will operate 4000 hours or more annually. Although research has shown that LVLS and HVLS circulation fan systems will save energy. The spray is then turned off and air moved over the hair coat by the circulator fans. fan spacing is based on the size of the air pattern below the fan. In some cases this may be over the drive-through feed alley. The sprinkler systems are generally cycled so that water is sprayed onto cows’ backs for 3 minutes and then allowed to air dry for 12 minutes. Water is forced through special nozzles at high pressure (100 to 900 psi). The cows will be able to dissipate heat more effectively to the cooler air. If ambient temperatures are 60° F or below. carefully planned designs. There are two common types of systems used to provide cooling water: • • low pressure sprinklers and high-pressure misters Low-pressure sprinkler or “soaker” systems spray water onto the cows’ backs until the hair coat is wet. implementing timely cleaning and maintenance programs and appropriate controls to operate only when conditions warrant. at higher ambient temperatures (above 70°F). low speed fans [HVLS]). it has not been shown that they provide proper air circulation at a high enough velocity to cool cows effectively. The energy used by these systems can be substantial because of the long hours of operation when warm temperatures occur. Evaporative cooling in dairy resting barns uses the cooling effects of rapid air flow from circulator fans along with the cooling effects of evaporating water. High-pressure misters provide cooling in a different way. Evaporative and convective heat transfer moves heat from her body in the exhaled air. conductive and radiant heat transfers from the skin.If ceiling mounted fans are considered (low volume. At high ambient temperatures (above 90° F). air circulation needs to be supplemented with evaporative cooling to keep cows comfortable. Energy conservation measures center on the selection of high efficiency fans and motors. only about 20% of the excess body heat can be dissipated this way. especially those cows that are not directly beneath a fan. At Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 74 . However. they are often located only down through the center of the building. low speed [LVLS] or high volume. These droplets will quickly evaporate in the air stream of the circulator fans. a cow can dissipate excess body heat through convective.

High-pressure misters are not recommended when the humidity is high. Nozzles should be located 8 to 9 feet high and so that the majority of the water falls onto the middle of the cows’ backs.the lower end of high pressures (200 psi).1 to 0. too much water is being sprayed. because little evaporation takes place and the air can become damp and foggy. Care must be taken to observe cycle times and evaporation rates to ensure that not too much water is sprayed. Spray or soaker systems on a proper on/off cycle are generally most effective in providing evaporative cooling. Thus each nozzle will deliver 1. Figure 4-6. Use nozzles that emit large drops of water at a rate of 0. If excess water collects on the floor. the droplets are larger and provide a greater opportunity for cooling the air around the cow.5 gpm. The feed alley is a good place to install soakers because it will encourage cows to stand and eat longer. Schematic diagram of sprinkler system components Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 75 . thus improving daily feed intake. and never over areas where cows lie down. Care must be taken to locate sprinklers over areas where cows normally stand.2 to 6 gallons of water during each 12 minute spray cycle. and the excess moisture can provide a place for mastitis causing organisms to proliferate.

Iowa State Univ. Holding Area Ventilation and Cooling The holding area has a critical cooling need.Figure 4-7. Without cooling. sprinklers (or misters in very arid climates) mounted over the cows in the holding area. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 76 .) Circulator fans provide the airflow to enhance air circulation and cooling with the evaporative cooling systems. Thus. the fans should not be spaced more than 10 times their diameter. Milking Center Ventilation Milking centers require special considerations when designing ventilation systems. ventilation in the milking parlor and holding area has to meet livestock comfort needs first. Fans should be arranged in the same pattern and with the same airflow rates as circulator systems without evaporative cooling. milking cows for 8 hours or more each day. Operator comfort is an important factor in maintaining productivity and a high level of job performance. However. coupled with airflow from fans will greatly improve cooling in very warm weather. As with any circulation system. The challenge is that human operators. The fans should be tilted about 10° to blow air downward and over the cows’ backs. have an entirely different comfort requirement than the cows passing through the holding area and milking parlor for their scheduled milking. MidWest Plan Service. Thus. Cooling fans should be mounted over the cows in the holding area and direct airflow away from the milking parlor. Large groups of cows stand in crowded conditions for as much as 30 to 60 minutes or more. Recommended size of pipe based on required flow rate and length (Source: Private Water Systems Handbook. Additionally. Care must be taken not to use more water than will normally evaporate so that excessively wet conditions don’t develop in the holding area. it is important to move large volumes of cooling air over the cows. 36-inch fans should be spaced no more than 30 feet apart. cows’ internal body temperatures can increase to levels of great discomfort quite rapidly.

starting at the milking parlor entrance and continuing over the entire length of the holding area. Preferred placement of fans for cooling cows within a holding area (Source: Building Freestall Barns and Milking Centers: Methods and Materials (NRAES-148)) Figure 4-9. fans should be placed 6 to 8 feet apart in the holding area sidewalls and positioned to blow air across the holding area in the direction of prevailing winds.Fans should be placed in rows 6 to 8 feet apart. If the ceiling height is limited so that fans cannot be placed above the cows. Compromised option for locating cooling fans when ceiling heights prohibit preferred arrangement (Source: Building Freestall Barns and Milking Centers: Methods and Materials (NRAES-148)) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 77 . Figure 4-8. (see diagram below).

If ceiling heights allow. Example of panel fans for cooling holding area Milking Parlor Cooling Generally. milking parlors can be cooled in the same manner as the holding area. No sprinklers or misters can be used in the parlor because of sanitary concerns.Figure 4-10. Example of panel fans for cooling milking parlor Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 78 . fans can be placed in rows 6 to 8 feet apart facing the holding area. Figure 4-11. then cooling fans can be placed along the outside parlor wall. blowing across the parlor in the direction of prevailing winds. If ceiling height is limited.

Another indicator of general level of effectiveness for an air circulation system can be derived from the baseline recommendation of ten 4-foot circulator fans for each 100 cows in a freestall resting barn. Achieving the most effective air circulation EUI for these areas will also be influenced by the above factors. Climate and microclimate will also dictate the particular level of air circulation EUI as level and duration of heat stress increases. The kilowatt-hours used per cow-year for operating circulation fans and evaporative cooling equipment establishes the air circulation EUI. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 79 . The overall level of the air circulation EUI is linked to the climate where the dairy is located and the extent to which circulating fans are used to counter the consequences of heat stress on dairy cows. but more likely denote a lack adequate air movement to counter the effects of heat stress. Circulating fans are also employed in the holding area and in the milking parlor. A practical range for air circulation EUI’s on California dairies that have freestall barns and circulating fans would be from 100 to 175 kWh per cow-year.Cooling Employee Break Areas and Offices Offices and break areas in the milking center are best cooled by window-type airconditioning units. while maintaining adequate air circulation include: • • • • • Careful air circulation system design Selection of efficient fan blade design Use of high efficiency motors to power fans Application of an effective fan control system. This allows for a refreshingly cool environment totally separate from the environment in the rest of the milking center.6 kW. a freestall barn housing 500 cows will require 50 fans with a connected load of 46. Examination of this EUI can be interpreted from a different perspective. A relatively high EUI level may suggest that the dairy has instituted an aggressive approach to maintain cow comfort and controlling heat stress. Factors that will help reduce this EUI. Implementation of a scheduled cleaning and maintenance program. Based on this guideline. Parlor & Holding Area Air Circulation EUI – Electrical energy use for parlor & holding area air circulation typically falls in the range of 10-20 kWh per cow-year. A very low circulation EUI may not indicate a high level of efficiency. These 10 fans would have a total connected load of 9325 watts (746 watt/hp. 80% motor efficiency) or an installed fan capacity of 93 watts per cow. (return to top of section: Air Circulation & Ventilation) Air Circulation & Ventilation Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) The majority of electrical energy used for air circulation will occur in the freestall barn where cows spend a majority of their time feeding and resting.

the excess energy costs of a low efficiency. how the equipment is installed and used. “you get what you pay for” is very appropriate when choosing fans. The old adage. (AMCA). It is important to compare uniform fan test results from the same test facility (either the BESS Lab or the Air Movement and Control Association International. The cost of a fan is not a good selection criteria on its own. University of Illinois provides extensive fan test data to assist in the selection of efficient fans for dairy ventilation and circulation systems. Department of Agricultural Engineering. Consider all fan purchases as an investment that deserves careful selection considerations and performance comparisons. then cost comparison makes sense. the excess operating costs in just 2 to 3 years could exceed the extra cost of a high efficiency fan. and maintenance. When selecting 48 inch diameter or larger fans. Because fans run long hours over a period of years. look for efficiencies in the 21 to 23 cfm/watt range. Fans vary significantly in energy efficiency and air moving performance. They have identified important fan selection criteria: • Quantity of air that must be moved at different static pressures • Energy efficiency comparisons among fans • Quality of dealer service and support • Reliability and life of fans • Suitability for intended application • Cost The quality of dealer service and support is best judged by the farm operator based on his/her experience with local suppliers. Information provided at the beginning of this section will help identify suitable fans for the intended application. BESS Lab tests of commercially available 36 inch diameter fans indicate that air delivery can vary by as much as 100% when comparing low performance fans to high performance fans.Since the milking operation may occur almost around the clock the total hours of use will exceed that in the freestall. low cost fan will far exceed any initial purchase cost savings. look for efficiencies in the 16 to 18 cfm/watt range. Reliability and life expectations of equipment are dependent on many factors such as quality of construction. When selecting 36 inch diameter fans. Inc. After you identify fans of different manufacturers that meet your performance and efficiency criteria. When 48 inch diameter fans are compared. If inefficient fans are purchased and installed. the variation from low to high performance fans can be as much as 600%. (return to top of section: Air Circulation & Ventilation) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 80 . (return to top of section: Air Circulation & Ventilation) Air Circulation & Ventilation Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) Fan Selection Criteria The Bioenvironmental and Structural Systems (BESS) Laboratory.

(return to top of section: Air Circulation & Ventilation) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 81 . • • • • As a measure of long-term fan system performance of circulator systems. can improve long-term efficiency. Reattach all guards before turning power back on. Thoroughly dry the fan parts after cleaning. Remove all dust and dirt build-up from fan blades.Operator Level Checks . damaged or misaligned fan blades should be repaired or replaced. compare the thermostat with a reliable thermometer. make sure that pulleys are properly aligned and that the belt has proper tension. Proper lubrication of bearings and other moving parts will keep performance levels high and reduce energy costs. Remove all dust accumulated on controls and motors using a small blower. Repairing or replacing the blade is far less costly than purchasing a new fan. use an air velocity meter to determine initial performance of a new installation. If motor does not have sealed bearings. especially the blades. Check all wiring from the service panel to each fan to make sure there are no damaged wiring components. If fans are thermostatically controlled. The following fan maintenance procedures should be performed at least monthly to maintain peak fan performance: • • • • Disconnect power to the fan before performing maintenance. Bent. vacuum. Accumulation of as little as 1/8” of dirt on the fan blades can significantly reduce fan performance. lubricate the bearings following manufacturer’s recommendations. Make sure the service entrance ground is adequate. Cleaning of fan parts. For belt-drive fans. or stiff paint brush. Replace any worn belts. Bent or damaged blades will cause rotational imbalances that reduce fan life and performance. fan housing. Lubricate all pivot points of shutters with a fine grade machine oil. A periodic check of air velocity with the same meter is a good way to establish a maintenance schedule and to detect reductions in overall system performance. Poor maintenance can reduce fan efficiency by as much as 40%. shutters and guards with a warm detergent solution. Have a qualified electrician repair or replace any damaged wiring components.Air Circulation & Ventilation Fan Maintenance Dairy ventilation/circulation systems require scheduled maintenance.

Inc. Younger animals are more adversely affected by drafts. Btu: (British thermal unit) The quantity if heat energy required to raise 1 pound of water 1°F. Heat flows from the warmer area to the cooler area of the body. Convective Heat Transfer: The process by which heat is transferred from a body to a fluid by passing the fluid over the body. BESS Lab: (Bioenvironmental and Structural Systems Laboratory) An independent public university operated laboratory that provides testing of fans and publishes the resulting performance data. A term used to express airflow rate. Degree Of Saturation: The ratio of the weight of water vapor to the saturated weight of water vapor per pound of dry air at the same temperature and barometric pressure. such as transforming water to steam. Example is the cooling of warm livestock as water evaporates from the skin. Dry-Bulb Temperature: Temperature of air or a body measured with a conventional thermometer. Evaporative Heat Transfer: Heat energy exchange. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 82 . Evaporate: Process of transforming a liquid to a vapor. Draft: Combination of air temperature and velocity. Airflow Rate: Air movement or delivery rate generally expressed as cubic feet per minute (cfm).Glossary of Air Circulation and Ventilation Terms AMCA: (Air Movement and Control Association International.) A trade association of fan manufacturers. Cfm: Cubic feet per minute. which cause thermal stress in livestock. Conductive Heat Transfer: The process by which heat is transferred from one location to another in a body due to a temperature gradient. The BESS Lab is located at the University of Illinois. which occurs during evaporation. Fahrenheit (F): Temperature scale with the freezing point of water at 32° and the boiling point at 212°. The ratio is also known as relative humidity. Dewpoint Temperature: The temperature at which moisture begins to condense from air cooled at constant barometric pressure and humidity ratio. Also know as air velocity. AMCA does testing of fans and associated equipment for its members and publishes the results. Department of Agricultural Engineering. Effects of draft vary with the weight and age of the livestock.

Saturated Air: A condition where air can hold no additional water vapor (expressed as 100% relative humidity). By measuring the wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures simultaneously. For example. Sensible Heat: Energy absorbed or released by a material that results in a temperature change. Heat Transfer: The process of heat energy transport by means of conduction. and dewpoint temperature. Insulation under the rood of a livestock shelter will reduce the transfer of heat from the roof into the cooler area within the shelter. Fan Efficiency: The measure of a fan’s output (airflow or cfm) divided by its energy input (electrical energy or watts). convection. which can be transferred from a body of higher temperature to one of lower temperature. Sling Psychrometer: A temperature-sensing instrument containing a wet bulb and dry bulb thermometer. Natural Ventilation: The process of forcing air through a building or shelter using prevailing winds and the thermal buoyancy of air. an animal losing heat to a cooler surface with which it is in contact. Insulation: Any material that reduces heat transfer from one body to another.Fan: A mechanical device used to move air. evaporative heat transfer or condensation. Relative Humidity: The ratio (expressed as a percent) of actual water vapor pressure in the air to the vapor pressure at saturation at the same temperature and pressure. Inlet: Structural opening through which ventilation air enters. a psychrometric chart can be used to obtain the humidity ratio. which indicates how much air can be moved in one minute by one watt of electric energy input. which creates a negative pressure inside the building. thus facilitating the entry of fresh air through an inlet system. Fan efficiency is measured in cfm per watt. relative humidity. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 83 . Mechanical Ventilation: The process of forcing air through a building using mechanical equipment such as fans. radiation. Humidity: Moisture contained in the air. Radiant Heat Transfer: The process by which heat is transferred from one body to another by electromagnetic waves such as an animal radiating heat to a cool wall surface. Positive Pressure Ventilating System: A mechanical ventilating system where fans blow air into a structure creating a positive pressure. Negative Pressure Ventilation: A mechanical ventilation system where fans are used to pull air out of a building. Heat: A form of energy.

Thermal Buoyancy: The effect of warm. Throw: The velocity of the air at specific distances away from the discharge of a fan. In livestock buildings. (return to top of section: Air Circulation & Ventilation) (return to Table of Contents: Table_of_Contents) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 84 . ventilation is used to control temperature. Static pressure is measured in inches of water.Spread: The width of the air pattern at specific distances away from the discharge of the fan. Thermostat: An electro-mechanical device for controlling the operation of heating or cooling equipment to regulate air temperature within an area. Wet Bulb Temperature: The temperature measured by a thermometer whose bulb is covered by a wet wick and exposed to an air stream with a velocity of 1000 ft. The airflow rate is usually controlled by fans in a mechanically ventilated building. Ventilating Rate: Airflow rate passing through a building measured in cubic feet per minute (cfm). Temperature: A measure of a body’s ability to give up or receive heat. moisture. less dense air being buoyed up by cool. ventilation fan or air inlet. Static Pressure: The difference in pressure between inside and outside of a building. odors. pathogenic organisms and dust. Ventilation: The process of exchanging air. moredense air. The wet bulb temperature is a function of the rate of water evaporation from the wet wick and its resultant cooling which is dependent on the water vapor content in the air. Naturally ventilated buildings depend on thermal buoyancy to remove warm air./min.

Water used for cleaning milking systems including milking units. Electricity Fuel oil or gas fired water heaters are more popular on large dairy farms because they are easily sized for rapid production of hot water. Hot water requirements vary from farm to farm and are directly related to number of milking units.170°F 95°F . receivers. Requirements (gallons and temperature) An adequate and reliable supply of hot water is an essential element in the production of high quality milk on any dairy farm. Natural or propane gas 3. and system accessories (receivers. Generally. etc.25 gallons of fuel oil per hour). and sanitizing cycles are as follows: • • • • Pre-rinse cycle Wash cycle Acid rinse cycle Sanitize cycle 95°F . a minimum hot water requirement is 4 gallons of 170°F (77°C) water per milking unit for each rinse/wash/rinse cycle. in the worst case. Water temperatures required for various milking equipment rinsing. washing. Requirements Equipment Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) Vacuum Level Required for Washing Operator Level Checks Glossary Section Contents Purpose. plate coolers. weigh jars or milk meters. Failure to have adequate supplies of hot water at required temperatures can lead to rapid increases in bacterial contamination and subsequent reduction in milk quality. pipeline sizes and lengths.000 Btu/hr (about 1 to 1. The Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 85 . and bulk milk storage tanks must be available in adequate quantities and at required temperatures for each cycle in the cleaning process.110°F 155°F . an outright refusal to accept the contaminated milk at the processing plant.).000 and 150. Washing and Water Heating • • • • • • • Purpose. Milk quality reductions can lead to a loss of quality premiums or.(return to: Table_of_Contents) 5. Fuel oil 2. Typical input rates for oil fired water heaters are between 138. pipelines.110°F 75°F (minimum depending on sanitizer directions) Hot water is commonly produced by water heaters using one of three energy sources: 1.

Ft.recovery rate for oil fired water heaters is about 100 to 120 gallons of hot water (@ 170°F) per hour. Electric water heaters have some advantages over water heaters using fossil fuels. (about 75 to 150 cu. Larger volumes of storage for heated water are required to meet the hot water requirement for cleanup if electric water heaters are used. Although such a recovery rate might be adequate for many dairies. The recovery rate for natural gas water heaters is 54 to 108 gallons per hour (@ 170°F). higher wattage heating elements that provide faster heat recovery. the additional 18 kW demand could be quite costly. Thus. They are more efficient. of natural gas per hour or 0. their first cost is often lower and they are easily located near the point of heaviest hot water use to minimize water line heat losses. Commercial electric water heaters can be configured with multiple. For example.8 to 1. there are no flues.6 gal. A minimum electric water heater storage capacity is at least 30% higher than the total hot water requirement for a complete system rinse/wash/rinse cycle. a 120-gallon commercial electric water heater with three 6. The disadvantages of electric water heaters include slower recovery rates and increases in peak electrical demand and the associated higher demand charges on the farm. Typical input rates for gas fired water heaters range from 75. (return to top of section: Washing and Water Heating) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 86 . Residential electric water heaters should not be used on dairy farms because they are thermostatically limited to a peak temperature of about 140°F (60°C) to meet federal safety guidelines. commercial electric water heaters would be required for dairy farm applications. they can easily be heavily insulated to reduce heat losses.000 Btu/hr.000-watt elements operating simultaneously can heat about 62 gallons per hour to 170°F (77°C). propane per hour).000 to 150.

Overall efficiency of a storage water heater is a combination of the combustion efficiency of the fuel source and standby losses from the tank. propane and fuel oil. With this arrangement the useable water does not pass through the boiler. Figure 5-1. Fossil fuel units have heating inputs from 80 – 600. propane or oil fired. The Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 87 . Fuel sources for storage water heaters include electricity.000 Btu-Hr and recovery rates of up to 600 gallons per hour. but is generally placed within the storage tank. This reduces scaling in the boiler. a heat exchanger in storage tank to transfer heat to the water in separate insulated storage tank. The heat exchanger may be remotely located. Useable water passes through the water heater. Conventional with Integral Storage Conventional water heaters incorporate a storage tank with either electric heating elements or a burner into a single unit. Storage water heaters range in size from 30 to 120 gallon (with larger sizes available). The boiler can be natural gas. natural gas. Also.Equipment – Washing & Water Heating Types of Water Heaters Direct Water Heater. They are commonly connected via a circulating pump to larger insulated storage tanks to provide greater capacity. cold water in the storage tank will not be come in contact with the boiler that causes stress in the boiler. Storage Water Heater Indirect Water Heater Indirect water heating utilizes separate water heating (usually a boiler).

Heat pump water heater Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 88 . Indirect water heater and cross section of storage tank with heat exchanger (Crown) Heat Pump Water Heater Heat pump water heaters use electricity as an indirect energy source to move excess heat from another source and transfers that heat to water. Figure 5-2.combination of a complete condensing hi-efficiency boiler with a well-insulated storage tank makes indirect water heating very economical. Figure 5-3. See Figure 5-3.

They provide high recovery rates and adequate storage capacity. on large California dairies with a high degree of automation. Table 5-1.5 kWh Typical Range 0. but in a reverse manner. Periodically maintaining and cleaning the water heater.7 Gallons 22 – 44 kWh Fossil fuel water heaters are used almost exclusively for water heating on California dairy farms.3 Therms 1. while maintaining adequate cleaning performance include: • • • • Optimization of air injected slug flow cleaning Careful design of vacuum pump capacity and vacuum level for washing Accurate determination of wash water volumes needed and appropriate settings of water levels in wash sinks.7 Gallons 33. Accepted guidelines for hot water use on smaller dairies may be as high as 2 to 3 gallons per cow per day.0 Therms 0. the number of cows being milked has reduced the volume of hot water used to one half gallon per cow per day.4 Gallons 0.0 gpm with appropriate flow restrictors.9 – 2. (return to top of section: Washing & Water Systems) Washing and Water Heating Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) Total hot water use for CIP cleaning is driven by size of milking parlor(s) and size and number of milk tanks or silos. Selecting high efficiency water heaters.8 to 1. Limiting milker unit wash draw rates to 0. gallons. Overall energy use for water heating can be minimized by: • • • • Utilizing waste heat recovery for pre-heating water. Factors that will optimize the level of hot water use.2 Gallons 0.9 –1. However.They operate like the bulk milk cooling system. The EUI developed as a point of reference for washing and water heating is the commonly used quantity of fuel source (Therms. Providing adequately sized piping with shortest possible distances from heater to wash sink. kWh) used per cow-year. Heat is removed from ambient air [evaporator] and transferred through the refrigeration system into water [condenser] in the storage tank. 89 Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide . Washing and Water Heating EUI Fuel Source Natural Gas Propane Fuel Oil Electricity Quantity per cow-year 1.8 – 2.

The desuperheater is simply a refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger installed between the milk cooling refrigeration compressor and conventional condenser.Figure 5-4. The heat recovery equipment falls into two basic categories: desuperheating units and full condensing units. Refrigeration heat recovery equipment economically recovers and transfers this heat to water for a useful purpose. See Figure 5-5. removes this superheat as the refrigerant gas is cooled to the saturation temperature. the superheated usually consists of a stainless steel plate spot welded and expanded forming internal refrigerant passages wrapped tightly around a glass lined tank Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 90 . Conventional water heater with storage (return to top of section: Washing & Water Systems) Washing and Water Heating Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) Heat Recovery Systems A refrigeration heat recovery system links two common functions found on dairy farms to reduce energy consumption and costs. Today. A desuperheating heat recovery unit. The desuperheating unit will also remove some of the heat of condensation. This heat is normally rejected to air or water. so called. Heat recovery equipment “harvests” heat that would normally be rejected by the milk cooling condenser and applies that heat energy to preheat the water that will be used for washing the milking system prior to final heating. Desuperheating Units Superheat refers to the sensible heat stored in the refrigerant gas when heated above the condensing temperature at a given pressure.

When hot water is drawn from the water heater cold water will enter the heat recovery tank. Under typical conditions a desuperheater can remove 30% of the total heat that would have been rejected by the condenser.with insulation and an outer wrapper of steel or fiberglass.. • Allow for greater recovery rates in water heating equipment because of a reduced temperature rise. Since the amount of heat removed from milk on large dairies greatly exceeds the corresponding need for water heating. Desuperheating heat recovery systems: • Can be added to existing milk cooling systems at less cost. add-on desuperheaters have more commonly been adopted. Heat transfers from the hot gas to the water inside the tank. Desuperheater heat recovery units (5a – Paul Mueller Co. • Offer a substantial reduction of water heating costs. adequate storage must be provided or excess hot water will be discharged from the system and benefits of recovery reduced. full condensing heat recovery units are not widely used. 5b – WestfaliaSurge) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 91 . Figure 5-5. The ability to utilize all available waste heat means fully condensing systems can supply more and higher temperature (120-140ºF) water than a desuperheater. They have been able to reduce water heating costs and more reliably than fully condensing units. Because all waste heat must be transferred to water. The water is typically preheated to 95-115ºF. For these reasons. This tank is plumbed ahead of the conventional water heater. • Supply significant quantities of medium temperature water. Fully Condensing Units Fully condensing heat recovery systems are designed to remove both the superheat and all the heat from condensation of the refrigerant vapor to a liquid. The water heater heats the water to achieve CIP wash temperature of 160-180ºF. They replace the condenser found in an ordinary refrigeration system. The refrigerant gas passes thru this expanded plate before going to the condenser.

Energy savings can repay the incremental additional cost of the higher efficiency water heater quickly.GAMA. Given that the service life of a water heating system can exceed ten years. Features to consider when evaluating fossil fueled hi-efficiency water heating equipment include: • Hi-efficiency atmospheric burners – Advancements in burner design technology have improved combustion efficiency in conventional storage water heaters. GAMA’s Consumers’ Directory of Certified Efficiency Ratings For Heating and Water Heating Equipment publishes an “Energy Factor” rating that allows comparison of tested efficiency for participating manufactures. Examples of high-efficiency water heaters are given in Figure 5-6. To view these tables. • Forced combustion (Power burner) – Forced combustion or power burners are used to attain greater input capacity and efficiency. improves combustion efficiency. GAMA October.pdf If you have a hard copy of this guide. and enhances heat transfer to water in flue passages. please click on the file below: Commercial Heaters . See Figure 5-6. An important tool for evaluating and comparing the overall efficiencies of water heating equipment is available from the Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association (GAMA). and energy input. A blower or fan maintains positive pressure and promotes turbulent flow thru the combustion chamber and flue. standby loss. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 92 . Recent advancements in water heater technology have lead to significantly improved efficiencies. This improves mixing of air and fuel. please refer to the blue pages at the end of the section. 2003 “Energy Factor” ratings for commercial water heating equipment: • • • Gas Water Heaters Oil Water Heaters Electric Water Heaters are available thru the following link. the accumulation of energy savings can pay the added cost many times over. The “Energy Factor” provides a measure of a water heater’s overall efficiency. based on the recovery efficiency.High-Efficiency Water Heaters The application of high-efficiency water heaters instead of a conventional efficiency unit offers dairy farm operators a high return on investment when constructing new facilities or when replacing water heating systems.

Pulse combustion – Pulse combustion technology uses a power burner with a specially designed resonant combustion chamber and intermittent spark ignition of fuel air mixture. • Complete condensing – conventional burner design does not allow flue gases to drop below 212º F when moisture in combustion products condenses to liquid form. 93 • Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide . Complete condensing systems continue to extract heat below this temperature and transfer to water. Combustion takes place in rapid pulses instead of a continuous flame and resonant pressure waves in the combustion chamber promote exhaust gas scavenging. Plastic pipe may be used for venting since fuel gases are so cool. Complete condensing of exhaust gas products occurs and can be vented with plastic pipe. heat transfer and increase efficiency. A forced combustion burner is required to ensure adequate exhaust flow and a drain for condensate must be provided.Hi-efficiency natural Gas-fired boiler (Weil-McLain) Hi-efficiency Oil water heater (Bock Water Heater) Hi-efficiency storage tank natural gas or propane water heater (Bradford White) (Weil-McLain) Figure 5-6 High efficiency water heaters.

The temperature of the heat source [air]. W]. Will not heat water to CIP wash temperatures and Are not applicable where a heat recovery is installed. The pilot lights the main burner and is extinguished at the end of the heating cycle. instead of burning continuously.The pilot is lit by an electronic spark on a signal from the thermostat. Vent damper – An automatic vent damper minimizes standby losses thru the water heater when combustion is not taking place. higher air temperatures give higher efficiency and the temperature of the heated water. The milk cooling system with heat recovery could be considered a HPWH where the milk is the heat source and the water is the heat sink. but do suffer from the following drawbacks: • • • • • • High initial equipment expense. EER [energy efficiency ratio] is a current means of expressing efficiency. HPWH will not heat water to the temperatures needed for CIP washing. Greater mechanical complexity and associated maintenance costs. The first priority for such a heat pump is to cool milk while a HPWH is to heat water. • Heat Pump Water Heaters A heat pump water heater (HPWH) uses a reverse application of the standard vapor compression refrigeration cycle. An electrically driven refrigeration compressor is used to remove heat energy from a lower temperature source (usually ambient air) via the evaporator and transfers the heat to a higher temperature heat sink (water in a storage tank) via the condenser. Require appropriate environment to extract heat from. A supplemental benefit of an air source HPWH is the cooling and dehumidification of the heat source air. EER is the ratio of the cooling or heating output and the watt input to the motor [Btu/hr. the ratio of energy output [Btu/hr] to energy input [Btu/hr]. The efficiency of a heat pump water heater can be given in terms of Coefficient of Performance (COP). Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 94 . respectively. Heat pump water heaters can be three to five times more efficient than resistive electric water heaters.• Pilotless ignition . higher water temperature give lower efficiency. Greater efficiency than resistance electric water heating is achieved because HPWHs are able to move more energy than they consume by taking advantage of the large amount of heat absorbed and released when the refrigerant evaporates and condenses. Modest recovery rates. The EER is going to depend on the operating conditions.

(Calmac Coil HPWH)

Figure 5-7. Diagram and picture of a heat pump water heater

Alternative Sources Of Water Heating

• • •

Gas fired absorption heat pumps Solar water heating Combined Heat and Power options

Wash System Analysis – Wash Cycle (CIP) Tuning for energy efficiency Washing Basics of Milking Systems The network of equipment used to extract, collect, and transfer milk from the cows to the storage tank requires thorough cleaning between uses. A considerable amount of energy is used to clean and sanitize the milking system. Optimizing the wash cycle can improve effectiveness and reduce energy use by the cleaning process. Washing must be performed without disassembling the equipment (clean in place or CIP). Cleaning is performed through a combination of chemical and mechanical action. Chemical action is achieved through the use of detergents, acids, sanitizing agents, and the proper water temperature. Mechanical action is provided by passing the cleaning solution through the equipment at an appropriate velocity to create adequate sheer stresses on the sides of the equipment. All surfaces must be subjected to both chemical and mechanical action of sufficient duration to ensure adequate cleaning. The milk pipeline is washed by drawing a solution of water and cleaning agents from the wash sink or vat into the pipe. See Figure 5-8. This is followed by admission of a specific volume of air by the air injector to create a slug of cleaning solution. Flooding each unit with cleaning solution and allowing water to be drawn though them typically clean individual milking units. Air bleeds cause small slugs to form thereby increasing the velocity and coverage of the wash solution. A key objective is to have uniform flow to all the units.

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Figure 5-8. Wash sink on California dairy

Vacuum Pump Sizing for Washing To assure proper washing, the vacuum pump must be capable of supplying enough vacuum to draw the wash solution through the system. Sizing the vacuum pump for wash is similar to sizing the vacuum pump for milking. The required size for each function should be similar but the pump should be the larger of the two. The vacuum required to wash is the sum of:

• • •

Vacuum needed to create slug flow in each simultaneous air injected loop. Amount of vacuum each unit requires to wash (2 cfm per unit). Any extra air admitted by jetter or milk meter air bleeds. Wash jetter air bleeds can add up to 2 cfm per jetter.

The amount of vacuum needed to develop a slug flow of different velocities in different size milk lines is shown in Table 5-2. This amount of air does not change regardless of line length. Table 5-2. Air injection rate for slug flow Slug Speed ft/sec 23 25 27 29 31 33
Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide

Air injection rate (scfm) for various milk line sizes 2.5 inch 3 inch 4 inch 20 28 49 24 33 55 29 39 65 34 46 76 39 54 88 46 63 102
96

Example of vacuum pump sizing for washing:

• • • •

Consider a double 27 parlor with 2 loops of 4 inch milk line milk lines are air injected simultaneously slug velocity will be 25 fpm.

The vacuum pump capacity required is calculated as follows: 2 loops X 55 cfm per loop (from Table 5-2) Plus 54 units X 2 cfm per unit Total vacuum pump capacity = 110 cfm = 108 cfm = 218 cfm

A 25 hp vacuum pump would be required to wash this parlor because both milk lines are air injected at the same time. Sequencing the air injection so that only one line is injected at a time would reduce the vacuum requirements as follows: 1 loop X 55 cfm per loop (from Table 5-2) Plus 54 units X 2 cfm per unit Total vacuum pump capacity = 55 cfm = 108 cfm = 163 cfm

The required vacuum is reduced by 55 cfm and the vacuum pump downsized to 20 hp. The 5 hp reduction of vacuum pump capacity lowers initial cost of pump and motor. The largest savings is reduced energy costs, by not operating 5 hp of motor load for the milking parlor’s lifetime. A 20 hp vacuum pump producing 200 cfm will meet the effective reserve requirement for milking for this parlor: 35 cfm base + 3 cfm per unit X 54 units = 197 cfm (return to top of section: Washing & Water Systems)

Vacuum Level Required for Washing
Vacuum systems are quite commonly set at higher vacuum levels during wash than for milking. The perception is that higher vacuum levels will wash the system better. This may be true in isolated instances but higher vacuum levels are not a sound corrective measure for wash system problems. When the wash system has been properly tuned cleaning will be thorough and complete, even with vacuum levels as low as 9 inches of mercury. Reduced vacuum levels during washing creates a number of advantages including: • Increased milk pump capacity. • Increased vacuum pump capacity.
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The slug must travel the entire loop of pipeline before the air injector is closed or the slug will decelerate and break apart. The time is approximately 1 second. At the instant the slug completes a trip through the pipeline and reaches the receiver. Slug Flow Cleaning of Milking Systems Research has been performed at the University of Wisconsin . To find the slug velocity between two measurement point represented by channels 0 [red] and 1 [green] divide the distance between the measurement points by the time denoted by “a” in the Figure. Individual restrictors at each unit need to be larger at reduced vacuum. The load on each pump is also reduced at reduced vacuum levels. Larger restrictors reduce the likelihood that they will become plugged with debris. Multiple air injectors should be sequenced such that only one air injector is open at one time to reduce vacuum demand. If the distance between the location of channels 0 and 1 is 30 feet. Slug action should be checked with a multiple channel vacuum recorder. Air Injectors A sample vacuum trace of slug action in a pipeline is shown in Figure 5-10. the air injector closes to initiate the formation of the next slug. Each separate loop of pipeline should have an air injector so that slug formation and acceleration are controlled independently in each loop. Each channel represents a measurement point along the pipeline.Madison to identify optimal characteristics of slug formation. Figure 5-9. Water drawn from the wash sink during the closed period of air injector cycle will be reduced and the amount of air admission or leakage is also reduced at lower vacuum. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 98 . The time denoted by “a” starts when the channel 0 experiences a vacuum drop and ends when the channel 1 experiences a vacuum drop.The increase in capacity is due to reduced head across each milk pump. These findings indicate a slug of cleaning solution to be approximately 10 feet in length and travel at a speed of between 23 and 33 feet per second. Air Injected.

V AC UUM LE VE L vs T IM E 16 S lug m ea surem e nts Vacuum Level. there is a direct air passage between those points. The time interval. At around 8. When equal vacuum levels are measured at two different points at the same time.33 seconds. If the length of time interval “b” is 0. By multiplying the average velocity obtained above. This indicates that either the slug that has passed channels 0 and 1 has broken apart or there is a short circuit of air through the milk/wash valve behind the slug. by this time an estimate of the slug length is attained. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 99 . Observe in Figure 5-11 that around 39 . Figure 5-11 shows a slug flow vacuum trace from a farm. This denotes that there is no slug present and a direct air passage exists between the two channels. “b” starts when a channel experiences a vacuum drop and ends when the vacuum has reached the lowest point. inches Hg 14 12 Ch 0 10 8 6 4 2 a a a Ch 1 Ch 2 S ystem vac b 6 7 8 b Tim e. This is because the slug has passed Ch 1 and there is now no slug between Ch 0 and Ch 1.33 seconds. The time interval denoted by “b” represents the time it takes for the slug to pass by the transducer. then the estimated slug length will be 30 fps multiplied by 0.5 seconds Ch 0 and Ch 1 approach the same vacuum. The velocity between points 1 and 2 would be computed in like manner.41 seconds the vacuum level at channels 0 and 1 are the same as the system vacuum. Vacuum measurements of slug travel then the slug is traveling at an acceptable velocity of 30 feet per second (fps). sec o nd s b 9 10 Figure 5-10. One important point should be made about interpreting slug flow vacuum traces. or 10 ft. Corrective steps include checking the milk/wash valve or increasing the amount of water in the slug.

inches Hg • • • • Adjustment of air injector close time to form a slug approximately 10 feet long.0 gallons per minute to each milking unit. Operating with the parameters above will then minimize water use and vacuum pump energy use. Table 5-3 details those control points and the corresponding effect. By admitting a sufficient rate of air to keep the slug moving and cohesive. Farm Slug Measurement ECM Tuning of Wash Cycle Energy conservation measures for the wash cycle involve tuning the operation of the cycle for optimum performance.8 to 1. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 100 .VACUUM LEVEL vs TIME Thompson Farm Wash Cycle 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 25 27 29 31 33 35 Time. Utilizing 0. Ensuring the slug travels the entire length of the milk line. but not excessive amounts of air to blast right through the slug. The following can summarize optimum performance for a CIP system: Vacuum Level. seconds 37 39 41 43 45 ch 0 ch 1 ch 2 ch 3 system vac Figure 5-11. There are several control points involved with tuning the mechanical action of a CIP cycle and each control point exerts a different effect on the system. Maintaining slug velocity throughout the milk line between 23 and 33 fps. and the air injector closes before the slug has fully entered receiver thereby minimizing direct air admission from air injector to receiver.

3. the size and layout of the system will be needed to determine how much water is needed to properly wash. The sketch will reveal how far the slug must travel. Higher velocities are not advantageous when dealing with Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 101 . milk and vacuum pump capacity Tuning Guidelines: 1. This causes a much lower peak vacuum demand and a smaller vacuum pump can be employed for washing. Air injection admission of approximately 35 cfm is ideal for a 3-inch milk line. Set air injector open time to set travel distance 4. Sketch and measure the system 2. In addition to determining how far the slug must travel. Then the air injector open time can be set. 8. Each separate loop should have an independently controlled air injector to prevent more than one air injector from opening at the same time. Set air injector admission rate to set slug speed 5. water draw rate.8 and 1. as this will make it very difficult to balance flow. Set the air injector air admission rate so that enough air is introduced behind the slug to continue travel at the appropriate speed between 23 and 33 feet per second. Eliminate dual loops on single air injector controls. so the slug will travel that distance at 23 to 33 fps. Set wash sink level high enough to prevent sink running empty and unintended air admission at the sink. Select a combination of air injector closed time and proper size water draw restrictor on air injected wash draw line to achieve 10 foot slugs without exceeding milk pump capacity to evacuate water from receiver. 6. 7. Do not restrict manifold line. Tuning of Air Injector The existence of any dual loops controlled by the same air injector will also be found during the sketch and measure phase. Select unit restrictors to give even flow to each milker unit between 0. Each separate loop in the system must be sequenced such that no two air injectors are open at the same time.Table 5-3.0 gpm. Fine tune the system using vacuum analysis to evaluate Sketching and measuring the system is a very good place to start. CIP Control Points Control Point Air injector open time Air admission rate Air injector close time Water flow restrictor on wash line Water flow restrictors at units Water Volume Wash vacuum level Effect Slug travel distance Slug velocity Water draw per slug and initial slug size Slows water intake to allow milk pump to keep up Even water flow distribution to each unit Prevent draining of sink and unintended air admission Air admission rate.

Other Considerations The capacity of the milk pump to remove water from the receiver acts as a limit on how quickly slugs can be formed. Excessive air admission will blast right through the slug. Decreasing the water draw restrictor size causes each water draw period to draw less water. There should be no restriction at the wash sink end of the wash manifold line. The level of water in the sink needs to be adjusted so that wash lines do not draw air. Cleaning performance declines substantially at slug velocities higher than 33 feet per second. The wash sink level should not be depleted during the course of a wash cycle. When this happens air injector control of slug formation is lost. Slug stability suffers at higher velocities and performance of the slug becomes erratic throughout the milk line. Timing of wash manifold air injection is different than air injection for the milk line. through the milking units. Restrictors should be used to regulate and balance water flow at each unit. the manifold air injector should close. Restricting the wash manifold at the sink reduces the capability of the wash manifold line to deliver the required 0. Wash manifold air injection can cause milk line slugging problems if the timing of the air injection is not correct Air injection on the wash manifold should move the water from the wash line. allowing suspended particles to be redeposit.wash slugs.8 to 1. sequencing the manifold and milk line air injector to not open at the same time prevents disruption of slug travel. and increases the milk pump capacity to evacuate the receiver. It is necessary to select the correct combination of air injector closed time. The milk line air injector should then open to push the slug around the milk line. reduces washing effectiveness and forcing the vacuum pump to move excessive amounts of air through the system. Depleting the water level in the wash sink causes the wash line to draw air in an uncontrolled fashion. Air injecting the wash manifold can result in increased velocity in the units but is usually not required.0 gallons per minute is required for every unit. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 102 . In addition to requiring less vacuum capacity. Between 0. and wash vacuum level such that slugs are the appropriate size and sequenced far enough apart that the receiver does not flood and trap over. Care should be taken if air injecting the wash manifold. Reducing the vacuum level both reduces the amount of water drawn in during each injection cycle. Milking Unit Washing Individual milking units should be flow measured using a water trap to determine the actual amount of wash water passing through each unit. through the manifold or jetters. This extra air may cool pipeline surfaces. and then into the milk line. Increasing the air injector closed time increases the size of the slug and increases the total flow of water into the receiver.0 gpm to each unit. restrictor size on the main draw line. causing smaller slugs and lower total flow of water to the receiver. Once the wash water has passed into the milk line.8 and 1.

Figure 5-13 shows the same system with the air injector closed after about 2 seconds open. This extra air can also cause significant water carry over into the trap. This temperature drop is particularly pronounced in cool or very dry climates. too much air passes directly into the receiver. Figure 5-12 shows a CIP vacuum trace with the air injector open too long. As well as rapid temperature drops of the wash water. Notice that the air injector is opened for about 3. the system vacuum has dropped sharply nearly a second earlier. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 103 . By the time the air injector closes. The air injector and vacuum pump speed signals were fed into the data acquisition system and plotted on the graph. The vacuum pump speed rose sharply as well. indicating air passing directly into the receiver. Vacuum analysis and keen observation are needed when fine-tuning the air injection to optimize system performance.5 seconds. This extra air causes higher vacuum demand and higher energy use for variable speed vacuum systems. If the air injector is open too long.Vacuum Analysis At this point the wash system will function and perform adequately. Notice that the system vacuum does not drop sharply as the slug enters the receiver and the vacuum pump does not experience a sharp rise in speed indicating that excess air has not been admitted into the system.

% 9 Drop in system vacuum and pump running at full speed indicates that the air injector is open too long and is passing air directly into the receiver 140 ch 0 120 ch 1 ch 2 ch 3 system vac air injector pump speed 60 100 6 80 3 40 20 0 22 23 24 25 26 27 Time. seconds 28 29 30 31 32 0 Figure 5-12. Air injector closing appropriately (return to top of section: Washing & Water Systems) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 104 . seconds 26 27 28 29 30 0 Figure 5-13. Air injector open too long VACUUM LEVEL and PUM P SPEED vs T IM E 15 200 180 12 160 140 Vacuum Level. inches Hg Pump Speed. inches Hg ch 0 9 120 ch 1 ch 2 100 6 80 ch 3 system vac air inje vac spd 60 3 40 20 0 20 21 22 23 24 25 Time.VACUUM LEVEL and PUM P SPEED vs T IM E 15 200 180 12 160 Vacuum Level.

The force should be sufficient to splash sheets of water over the lid. Leak detector – (TIF or dye method) detect leaks to and from. If compressor is operating. The wash sink should not run out of water during the wash cycle. check temperature differential between water supply temperature and temperature out of unit. The air injector should not remain open after this slug of water begins to enter the receiver. • Wash cycle • Slug action during the wash cycle can be observed at the receiver. check for temperature differential between in-flow and out-flow of refrigerant to heat recovery. before washing starts. there should be a forceful entry of water into the receiver. Unit cleaning can be observed by the shaking of the units. At the end of each air injection cycle. If access is available to heat recovery water output.Operator Level Checks – Washing & Water Heating Heat Recovery • • • • Add a small amount of oil to compressor – ID leaks from oil stains. Prerinse water that is too hot not only uses more energy. Only wash water should be drawn into the pick up tubes at the sink. but also increases the risk of a cleaning failure. Should have temperatures of at least 90° F (100 -120°F after milking. • • • Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 105 . Units that do not shake when wash water passes through are not likely to be receiving enough high-speed water flow to clean effectively. Wash water temperature should be checked periodically to ensure that the temperature is correct for each cycle. and in heat recovery unit. Infrared thermometers do not accurately measure water temperature.) Electronic sight glass – check system refrigerant levels.

etc. . Popping sounds.. Iron Deposits Filtration Electrolysis (Stray Current) or Air Properly ground heater & replace Air from hot water fixtures introduced by water supply anode rods. Softener. Check well pump system.3 million Btu per year. Reduction of Hot Water Leaks and Waste A leak as small as one quart per hour can waste 2200 gallons of hot water and 1.200 F deg.) Replace. CONDITIONS SOLUTIONS Water Hardness Above 7 grains Water treatment. Common Water Heater Conditions & Solutions SYMPTOMS Lime deposits in tank. dip tube Install dielectric unions Galvanic corrosion Dissimilar metals Excessive water temp. Closed system requires expansion device. Rust staining.Water Heating Common Water Heater Conditions and Solutions Table 5-4. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 106 . Identifying and elimination of leaks is can be done with minimal effort. bad taste and odor in water Hydrogen Sulfide Rotten egg odor. Scale. simply repaired at minimal costs and offer real energy savings. Dip Tube Reduction in recovery Inlet / Outlet fitting corrosion Temperature & Pressure gushing water Temperature & Pressure dripping (Bock Water Heating. Flush tank with Chlorine solution & Install Aluminum anode rods. Inc. Excessive pressure (above 150 psi) Adjust or replace Aquastat & T/P valve Check Incoming supply press.

Periodic inspection and replacement of anode rods can dramatically extend the life of a water heater. 4. 5. refill the heater. and poor maintenance increase corrosion problems. Install a 3/4" x 6" nipple with a garden hose adapter into the drain valve spud (opening) and run it to the floor drain. Corrosion Protection Corrosion in water heating equipment is inevitable. Completely drain the heater and remove the drain valve. • Install heat traps on storage tank hot and cold piping connections.) Periodic Burner Maintenance Fossil fuel combustion burners should be inspected. Inc. or another method of removing water from the work area. cleaned. a bucket. dissolved oxygen in water. Slowly begin to lower the nozzle into the tank until it reaches the bottom. use of dissimilar metals in plumping. Use a straight adjustable spray nozzle (set for wide angle) attached to a garden hose. Tank Flushing Procedure 1. calcium carbonate and other minerals are forced out of solution and accumulate as sludge on the tank bottom or scale on tank and piping surfaces. High water temperatures. decreases efficiency and capacity.Reduction of Standby Heat Loss Standby heat loss occurs in storage tanks and piping and can be reduced with: • Additional insulation to storage tanks if appropriate • Insulation of hot and cold water piping within three to five feet of water heater. and return it to service. The following method can be used for removal. Close the drain valve. 3. The insulating effects of scale and sludge reduces heat transfer to water. This will remove any particles that have adhered to the sides of the tank. (From: Bock Water Heating. Repeat this process several times to be sure the interior walls are clean. 2. Scale and Sludge Formation When water is heated. adjusted and performance tested annually to maintain system efficiency. Shut off electrical power to the heater and disconnect the cold water supply. Insert the nozzle into the cold water inlet spud and wash down the interior sides of the tank. serviced. (return to top of section: Washing & Water Systems) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 107 . softened water.

S. Hard Water – Water that has a high concentration of dissolved minerals. Energy Efficiency Ration (EER) – The ratio of cooling effect [Btu/hr] to the power input [Watts]. and published in the GAMA Consumer’s Directory of Certified Water Heater Efficiency Ratings. A measure of a water heater’s overall efficiency. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 108 .E. Coefficient of Performance (COP) – The ratio of total useful work output by a machine to the net energy input. Recovery Rate – The amount of water in gallons per hour that can be heated by a water heater based on a specified temperature rise (usually 80 or 100º F). based on the recovery efficiency. This motion may occur naturally or it may be forced by mechanical means such as pumps or fans. Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) – A device that uses the vapor compression refrigeration cycle to extract heat form a source and deliver it to the domestic hot water system at a higher temperature. Conduction – The transmission of heat energy through solids and liquids by interaction of adjacent molecules. British Thermal Unit (Btu) – The amount of heat [energy] required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one (1) degree Fahrenheit. ie from 62 to 63ºF. derived from an anode of more reactive material to maintain the surface at a negative potential. components and related products used in connection with space heating. The anode acts as a sacrificial element to protect the surface. Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association (GAMA) – is a national trade association whose members manufacture appliances.O. Aquastat – A thermostat which senses water temperature. Desuperheater – A refrigeration heat reclaim device designed to heat water using heat recovered from a refrigerant stream which is superheated above the saturated vapor temperature. Convection – The transfer heat by the motion of a liquid or gas. and energy input.D. water heating and commercial food service. standby loss. Units must be consistent.Glossary of Washing and Water Heating Terms Anode Protection – A means of protecting a surface from corrosion using a naturally occurring current. The units are Btu/W-hr. Energy Factor – A rating for water heater efficiency defined by U. Pressure Relief Valve – A safety valve that opens when pressure exceeds a preset level.

in a water heating system. primarily calcium carbonate.A safety valve that opens when pressure or temperature exceeds preset limits. Temperature and Pressure Relief Valve . Standby Loss – The heat loss from a water heating system that results from maintaining water at a require temperature. Thermostat – Adjustable temperature actuated switch.Resistance Heating . Scale reduces the efficiency of fossil fuel-fired water heaters by insulating the heat transfer surfaces in the tank. (return to top of section: Washing & Water Systems) (return to Table of Contents: Table_of_Contents) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 109 .A heating process that involves conversion of electricity into heat energy by a resistance element. and the subsequent transfer of that heat into a target object or fluid Scaling – The formation of mineral deposits.

A milking dairy cow may consume 35 to 50 gallons of water per day. Overall water consumption is comprised of the following end uses: • • • • • • • • • • Potable water for direct consumption by dairy animals in all stages of growth and lactation and environmental conditions. Evaporative cooling sprays [misting] for the dairy cow to reduce heat stress during hot weather and increase cow comfort.(return to: Table_of_Contents) 6. Wash pen water use to clean cows prior to entering the milking parlor. holding area and milking parlor. Fire protection (return to top of section: Water Systems) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 110 . Water supply to water-cooled refrigeration equipment. Water Systems Purpose Water Supply Water Usage System Design Intermediate Water Storage Equipment Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) Operator Level Checks Glossary Section Contents: • • • • • • • • • • Purpose . Coupled with all the auxiliary uses. total water consumption can exceed 175 gallons per cow per day. Cleaning water for CIP washing of parlor and milking system equipment.Water Systems The availability of an adequate water supply is critical to the operation of any dairy farm. Pumping of water constitutes a major end user of energy on California dairy farms. Washdown water for cleaning of milking parlor surfaces and general sanitation. Flush water for manure removal in confinement areas. Water supply to water ring vacuum pumps. Partial cooling (pre-cooling) of milk with well water.

Adequate planning for the water system on a modern dairy must incorporate added capacity for future growth. A cow producing 100 pounds of milk per day could consume 50 gallons of water depending upon moisture levels in feed consumed. and other water uses are expanded. Having water meter to monitor water consumed by the milking herd is a recommended practice. An integral step for determining capacity of intermediate water storage is evaluating the total volume (gallons) of water used in a day and the peak flow rate in gallons per minute (gpm) that will be used in a 1 to 5 minute interval during the day. provides sufficient water flow during peak water use periods. This forecast of future use should be partially reflected in present capacity (cushion of 10-30% excess capacity) and a strategy in place to secure additional supply for expansion of the dairy herd. Adequate water supply must be maintained to all lactating animals or production will suffer.Water Supply Water sources must provide an adequate supply of potable and palatable water to the dairy farm on a continual uninterrupted basis. the total gallons of water needed to be pumped continues to increase. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 111 .5 – 5 pounds of water per pound of milk produced. Intermediate water storage extends low volume supplies. (return to top of section: Water Systems) Water Usage Actual water use can vary significantly from dairy to dairy and reflect seasonal changes to water consumption but reasonable engineering estimates are available to calculate daily water requirements. The competitive pressures for adequate water supplies from agricultural. The following table provides information to estimate daily water use for a dairy herd. As herd sizes continue to grow. Milking cows will consume 4. Satisfying drinking water requirements for dairy animals in all stages of growth and lactation is the primary component of water supply. offers flexibility during instances of water supply restriction or drought and is a source of water for fire protection. municipal and industrial water users that currently exist and are projected to increase in the future must be addressed when planning for dairy water needs. residential. • • • • Individual groundwater wells plus backup wells Municipal water supply systems Surface water supplies Rural water supply districts An important design consideration is the implementation of on farm “intermediate water storage”. Water supplies are generally secured from the following sources.

First a “soak” cycle of one minute is used to wet the udder and loosen debris from the cow. peak flow. Wash pen on California dairy The cyclical nature of wash pen usage contributes to the large peak flow requirements imposed on the water supply system. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 112 . This is followed by a “stand” time for two minutes to allow material to soften. Midwest Plan Service. Iowa State University) Wash pens are one of the next larger consumers of water on open-lot dairies.5 gal per 100 lb) Heifers Dry cows Milking cows Sprinkler systems Gal/head -day 6-10 10-15 20-30 35-50 10-20 *During periods of heat stress (hot weather) drink water intake can easily reach twice the highest amount in each size category *Cows drinking from a water trough may consume at the rate of 6 to 7 gpm. Figure 6-1. loosen and drain. (Source: Private Water Systems Handbook. Estimates of usage. The third cycle is a three-minute “wash” stage where water is applied and any remaining matter is rinsed away. All discarded wash pen water is reused as “flush water” for the removal of waste in animal confinement and holding areas. Most wash pens utilize a three-stage cycle to clean cows for milking. MWPS-7 Water Consumption Animals Calves (1 to 1. Water Requirements.Table 6-1. Water use can range from 18-30 gallons per cow per wash. and booster pump sizing can be made from Table 6-2.

1 Total Daily Use (gallons) 36.P.000 20. 15 H.5 (gal / day) 153. of wash pen space per cow. Estimates of usage.000 91.000 6. water per lb milk 5 7. Table 6-3. peak flow.000 6.P.511 4.763 Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 113 .Table 6-2. ft.500 11.P 10 H.P *Based on 30 sq. Estimate of daily water requirements and demand for dairy farm Average Flow rate* GPM 30 5 6 10 3 5 17 76 GPM 95 Number Drinking Water 800 200 500 Lactating cows Dry Cows Calves / Heifers Milking Parlor Plate Cooler** Wash Water Parlor Flush water Cooling sprinkler systems Total Future Capacity Total * based on 20 hours pumping ** based on 80 # milk/cow-day Average Daily Usage (gal / day) 45 30 15 1. 20 H.5 lb.000 7. ft.5 20 122.011 (gallons) 113. and booster pump sizing Wash pen Capacity 50-86 cows 86-118 cows 118-161 cows 161-214 cows # of Wash heads 24-40 40-55 55-75 75-100 GPM Required 125-200 200-275 275-375 375-500 Booster Pump Size 7. An example of estimating total daily water requirements (gallons) and flow rate (gpm) is provided in Table 6-3 below. spacing of wash heads and 14 sq.5 H.

These include the following: • Main line (or water main) that carries water from the supply source thru any intermediate storage and into the dairy complex. wash heads. Distribution lines transfer water from the main line to a specific building (parlor. There are three basic components in the water supply distribution system. Branch line brings water from the distribution line to the final end use (waterers. etc) where the water will be utilized. freestall. Ample capacity for growth within the dairy complex should be anticipated in sizing the main line. wash pen. Primary factors affecting design of the water distribution system are based on volume of water required and the peak flow rate that must be delivered thru the system. Branch lines are generally adequately designed because they are sized to handle a defined 114 • • Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide . number. Distribution lines need to be sized to include capacity for anticipated additions to water use in that building or area. Other factors that must also be evaluated are frictional losses that occur due to overall pipe length and size. type and size of fittings and valves used and head losses due to differences in elevation. flush tanks. Parlor flush cleaning (return to top of section: Water Systems) System Design Piping System The water supply distribution system links the water supply source to the water consuming end use. CIP functions. cow cooling sprinkler systems).Figure 6-2. Consideration should also be given to include some capacity for unforeseen future water uses.

600 5 fps 3 7 12 20 30 50 80 110 200 440 780 1. wide open Gate valve.25 1. “Water System Design Considerations for Modern Dairies”. Limit pressure losses in branch lines to less than 5 psi Limit maximum water velocity in branch lines to 5 fps. “Water System Design Considerations for Modern Dairies”. J.800 2. Frictional losses from pipe fittings and valves Fitting Type 90° long sweep elbow 90° standard elbow 45° elbow Gate valve. Problems can occur when a branch line is converted into a distribution line if new end uses are added.100 7. Pressure loss considerations: • Limit pressure losses in main line to less than 1 psi per 100 feet of pipe. Western Dairy Management Conference.05 0.200 1.600 4. Table 6-4.G.5 fps 5 10 20 30 40 70 120 160 300 660 1. 2001) Table 6-5.500 5. Water hammering may occur at velocities greater than 5 fps [feet per second] and require special fittings Nominal Pipe Diameter (inches) 0.5 2 2.5 3 4 6 8 10 12 16 24 Flow through Pipe (gal per min) Flow Velocity 4 fps 2 6 10 15 20 40 60 90 160 350 630 980 1.000 7.800 3..500 (Source: Martin.5 0.G.8 0. 2001) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 115 .700 10.200 1. Recommended maximum flow rate through pipe using different flow velocity.02 0. half open Flow meter Pressure loss (psi) 0. J.41 0.400 2. • • • Select pipe diameter from Table 6-5 to provide maximum water velocity in main and distribution lines to 4 fps to prevent water hammer.14 Equivalent pipe length (ft) 14 20 8 5 130 32 (Source: Martin.end use.75 1 1. Western Dairy Management Conference..03 0.

Friction loss – Loss of head in feet due to resistance to water flow. The capacity or flow rate (gpm) for the pump is developed from the anticipated amount of water used on a daily basis as developed in Table 6-3. Consequently. so pumps usually end up being oversized. Each pump has it own set of pumping curves and the challenge is to select the pump that will operate efficiently under normal flow rates. Select an appropriate pump by matching the Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 116 . Figure 6-3. a pump can be selected. size and type of fittings. 50 psi would be equal to115. length and diameter of pipe use and the number. Two primary water supply Figure 6-4. One way to address over sizing pumps to meet future flows is to select a pump that can accommodate larger impellers when system capacity increases. The two fundamental factors for pump selection are total dynamic head (TDH) and desired flow rate. Over sizing however.Pump Sizing and Selection Selecting the suitable centrifugal pump can be challenging because of pump performance varies depending on pressure (head).g. Two pump systems are shown in Figures 6-3 and 6-4. Too small a pump will not produce adequate flow. Once the TDH has been calculated and the water system flow rate is determined from the worksheets above. The complexity associated with pump selection often results in a pump that is improperly sized for its application. Typical well water supply pump pumps on California dairy The THD is derived as the sum of the head pressures as follows: • • • • Vertical lift / elevation – The vertical distance (ft) between the pitless adapter and pressure tank Service pressure – The average pressure maintained in the distribution system to deliver water to the point of use. increase initial costs and higher energy costs because the pump is operating at a lower efficiency. This is based on the type. (E.5 ft of head) Pumping level – The vertical distance in feet from the well seal or pitless adapter to the water draw-down level in the well that yields the flow rate required by the pump. Choosing a pump that is either too large or small will reduce system performance. using a knowledgeable experienced dealer / installer is essential for selection of an efficient system.

McDonald Mfg. Adequate storage to satisfy peak water demands. Co. It will require a 5 horsepower pump to deliver the same 20 gpm at a TDH of 500 feet. consider the following example.values obtained for TDH and desired flow rate as a best fit to the pump curves for various pumps. Timely maintenance to reduce leaks and other losses. Figure 6-5. See Figure 6-5.Y. • • The 1 horsepower pump will deliver a capacity of 20 gpm at a TDH of 160 feet. Items to consider for an efficient water delivery system include: • • • • • High efficiency motors. Maximum efficiency of the water pumping system is achieved thru proper selection of all subcomponents and adequate system maintenance. Selection of appropriate type and size of pump. Adequate sizing of piping distribution system to reduce pressure losses. Pump curves (Source: A. Increasing the TDH the pump must work against by slightly over 3 times. 4/98) The previous chart shows the pump curves for five different small centrifugal submersible pumps. the power consumption increases fivefold. To illustrate the effect of THD on pump sizing and energy consumption. Pump Basics. (return to top of section: Water Systems) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 117 .

Provide reception point for emergency water supply. Figure 6-6. Intermediate water storage reservoir on California dairy Figure 6-7. Can serve as source for pressurized and non-pressurized uses. Allow supply from multiple water sources.Intermediate Water Storage The use of a non-pressurized intermediate water storage reservoir provides many advantages in the dairy water system: • • • • • Supply ample water storage capacity at a low cost to meet daily water volume needs and peak flow rates. Pressure tank on California dairy (return to top of section: Water Systems) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 118 . Water source for fire protection.

(return to top of section: Water Systems) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 119 .Equipment . Their efficiency is high when pumping against heads of 20 ft. and bowl assemblies to be suspended from. Surrounding water cools the pump motor. a connection point to deliver discharge water and a stand to mount the pump driver. They consist of four major components: • • • • Bowl assembly with one or more impellers each contained in their own housing. The pump consists of a revolving propeller contained in a bowl with guide vanes above and below the propeller. lake. The driver can be either an electric motor or fossil fuel engine that supplies power thru the line shaft to the impeller(s) in the bowl assembly at the bottom of the column. The total head delivered is the sum of head developed by each stage. Column and shaft assembly. The complete assembly is suspended below the water line by a pipe that carries water to the surface. To supply increased amounts of pumping head several impellers on a common shaft are stacked in series so that the discharge from the first passes to the next impeller. which consists of the pipe to carry water to the surface with the bowl assembly. stream. Discharge assembly provides a base for the column. suspended at the end and a shaft centered inside to power the impellers. Deep Well Vertical Turbine Pumps Vertical turbine pumps are a form of centrifugal pump installed vertically in a well. Maximum vertical suction lift is limited to 15 feet. Submersible Pumps The submersible pump consists of a multistage vertical turbine bowl connected directly to the electric drive motor. Common water sources for horizontal centrifugal pumps are surface supplies such as an irrigation canal or pond.Common Pump Types Horizontal Centrifugal Pumps Horizontal centrifugal pumps are frequently used when water supply permits the vacuum at the pump to lift water into the impeller and keep it flowing. a shallow well or intermediate surface storage. or less. As the name implies the pump utilizes a rotating impeller within a casing that uses centrifugal force to move water from the center of the impeller and discharge the water into the piping system Axial Flow Propeller Pumps Axial flow propeller pumps are designed for pumping at low head and high volume (more than 500 gpm) typical to many irrigation or drainage applications. The propeller of an axial flow pump must be completely submerged in water to operate. shaft.

Energy used in this function focuses solely on operation of pumping equipment. selection and operation of water systems play an important role in determining their overall energy efficiency. and sound water management practices reduce total water demands and electrical costs. sizing & selection of water system components. Distribution system pressures required. Proper design. reuse. There are a large number of variables that must be addressed when configuring the “best” pumping equipment to meet the dairies need. These variables may include: • • flow rates and pressures well depth and vertical lift requirements 120 Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide . motor and control system selected? Do the head pressures used for design agree with actual pressures utilized? Can a variable speed drive (VSD) or improved control package be used to better match actual system requirements Pump Selection The process of selecting the appropriate pump for a particular application is crucial in determining the overall efficiency of the water delivery system. Typical annual kWh consumption per cow-year on California dairies ranges from 35 to 75 kWh per cow-year. The electrical energy consumed on California dairies to supply water is driven by a number of factors that include: • • • Total daily water volumes needed. Water conservation measures are key to managing this energy usage. The development of a water systems energy utilization index (EUI) provides a benchmark for the efficient delivery of this essential commodity. (return to top of section: Water Systems) Water Systems Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) To help identify potential energy savings in a farmstead water supply system consider the following questions: • • • • • Is the pump or system absolutely necessary or do alternatives exist? Is the pump properly sized or has the system been over designed with too much excess capacity for potential future use? Was an efficient pump.Water Systems Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) Delivery of a continuous ample supply of potable water to the dairy is a vital component in the production of milk. Careful design. Conservation.

Equally important is choosing the correct size of motor. Variable Speed Drive Pump Application Variable speed drive provides one of the best available options to improve pumping efficiency. “Energy Efficient Motors”. Equally important is the careful choice of an experienced. Pump Modification In-service pumps that are oversized and generating too much pressure may be good candidates for impeller replacement or “trimming”. which shortens their operating lives. In some applications. Reducing impeller diameter by machining decreases the speed of the fluid in order to reduce the energy added [pressure] to the system. but also suffer efficiency loss when the operating load falls beneath about onehalf of the motor’s rated load. see Table 8-4.• • • • frictional losses environmental factors operating and duty cycles and numerous others The effectiveness of the final selection process depends on complete communication of all needed parameters between the end user and equipment supplier. For providing water system pressure from an intermediate water storage. Motors that are not large enough may have to operate above their rated load. For further discussion of electric motors. Variable speed drives can be effective with the following situations: • • • To control varying flow conditions. knowledgeable. Long-term energy savings can be locked in for the life of the equipment by selecting the most efficient motor available. forcing them to run at elevated temperatures. VSD’s can provide constant control for pressure. Often. Motor Selection In selecting a pump. As a suitable retrofit on oversized pumps to reduce speed and energy use. and reputable pumping equipment supplier who can integrate all design parameters and configure the optimum pumping solution. flow or fit to pump curve. the buyer can select one of several motors to be installed with a pump. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 121 . there are two components to consider: the pump and the motor. in the General Information Section. Motors that are much larger than required not only cost more. however. the pump and the motor are sold as a package.

Wash head (Cow Washer) (return to top of section: Water Systems) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 122 . These water-conserving wash heads offer the following benefits: • • • Reduced water consumption of up to 2 gallons per minute. A new innovative design of wash head can significantly reduce water consumption for cow cleaning compared to conventional dome covered irrigation style sprinkler heads. Variable Speed Drive Pump (Gould) Water Conservation Measures Utilize water-conserving wash heads in wash pens. throttle. Figure 6-8. Figure 6-8.Although the primary benefit of a VSD is energy reduction they are also able to: • • • • Reduce need for other pump control equipment. and other types of valves. increasing wear life. Gentle fan spray of large droplets less stressful to cows and don’t require guards that can cause injuries to cow’s legs and udders. which allows a reduction in starting loads and stresses to both pump and motor. Reduce incidence of water hammer. Improved nozzle design and rotational spray pattern can reduce cleaning time by 20-50%. Provide soft start & stop. Eliminate bypass.

Re-evaluate total dairy water needs annually. 6. A few preventative maintenance measures can eliminate many of these situations: 1. 4. or if the water supply system or well is serviced. pipes and valves. controls. Water source maintenance is very important.Operator Level Checks – Water Systems Water systems serving livestock can be designed to survive the abuse and daily wear animals impose. 3. Furthermore. 2. inspected every 3-5 years by a qualified well driller or pump installer. leaving no cracks or other entry points for potential pollutants. Review existing storage tank and proper sizing of water distribution lines. (return to top of section: Water Systems) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 123 . fittings. Check the condition of the well covering. casing and well cap to make sure all are in good repair.Inspect your wellhead several times a year. Public water sources are monitored and provide minimal maintenance if they are available. An annual bacterial and water chemistry test is recommended to verify water quality. storage and pressure tanks for leaks or plugging. and water flow. Have the well system. Inspect valves. 5. including the pump. odor or appearance. pumps. Well Inspection . storage tank. water quality should be checked anytime there is a change in taste. The dairy’s cooperative or milk handler may be able to provide testing and information regarding water quality requirements.

and elevation (return to top of section: Water Systems) (return to Table of Contents: Table_of_Contents) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 124 . or undesirable milk flavor. 2. mixtures. or substances into the distribution pipes for a potable water supply from any source other than its intended source. Hydraulic head is composed of three elements – velocity. pressure refers to gauge pressure. Non-Potable Water: Water that is not safe for human consumption. US Public Health Service (USPHS) Grad “A” Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO). The chemical and physical quality of the water must be within the limits acceptable to health authorities and regulatory agencies and 3. it must be safe and practically free of any type of bacterial contamination that may affect milk quality. such as sea level. GPM) at which a liquid is moved. pressure.31 × W gal/min. Potable Water: For a dairy farm water supply to be in compliance with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Flow Rate: The volumetric flow rate (gallons per minute. Cross connection: non-potable supply. Plumbing System: Includes the water supply and distribution pipes. Any physical connection between a potable water supply and a Elevation Head: The elevation head (vertical) is always measured relative to some other elevation. soil. Q = water flow in 5. that is of questionable potabilty for farm use. [see potable water below] Negative Pressure: A vacuum or reduced pressure [in Hg]. the following conditions must be satisfied at point of use: 1. H = total head (ft) and W is input Watts to motor. the measure of force per unit of area (pounds per square inch. Bacteriologically. QH × 100 where ŋ= efficiency (percent). waste and vent pipes. Pumping Efficiency: η= Total Dynamic Head: Energy per unit of weight. In pumping systems. building drains and sewers. and traps.Glossary of Water Systems Terms Backflow: The flow of water or other liquids. elevation head generally refers to the difference between the pump elevation and discharge or suction elevation. psi) relative to ambient pressure. plumbing fixtures. [Source:DPC Guideline #30] Pressure: In this section. There should be no impurities present in the water supply that might create problems in cleaning milking center equipment. corrosion in the pipeline.

Parlor stall entry and exit gates. Its primary advantages are the ability to deliver controlled force to assist animal movement without injury and elimination of potential sources of electric shock in a wet environment. Maximum system efficiency is derived from careful selection of all air handling components. Operate “flush” valves for waste removal in parlor and freestall Electricity provides the power source to produce compressed air that is used to operate airpowered equipment in the milking center.(return to: Table_of_Contents) 7. Parlor stall rapid exit “reels” and other gang exit systems. (return to top of section: Compressed Air) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 125 . storage tanks. Compressed Air Section Contents: • • • • • Purpose and Design Factors Equipment Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) Operator Level Checks • Glossary Purpose & Design Factors – Compressed Air The use of compressed air in the milking center is a relatively recent addition to the array of equipment employed to harvest milk. Control indexing and positioning brisket rails in parlor stalls. air treatment and delivery systems and an extensive range of end-use devices. Compressed air is able to provide the pneumatic force to operate a variety of devices that have been developed to further automate milk harvest. Examples of equipment that is currently utilized on California dairy farms that use compressed air as an energy source include: • • • • • • • • Holding area crowd gates. The air compressors utilized are common commercially available systems. employing various types of compressors. Operate wash valves in some CIP systems. Operate dairy cattle sorting gates Operate milker claw detacher systems.

As the rotor turns. This simple process lowers the operating temperatures approximately 50% (as compared to reciprocating designs). A rotary compressor uses a coolant to cool its internal components. Reciprocating compressor (Quincy) Rotary Screw – lobe style rotor A rotary compressor uses two intermeshing rotors to compress air. Figure 7-2. See Figure 7-1. increases efficiency and delivers a clean air supply. They can be configured in single or multiple cylinders to provide required air flow (cfm) and pressures (psi). This allows the compressor to operate in a fully loaded. continuous duty cycle. Generally classified as single stage (95 psi or less) and two-stage compressors (100-175 psi) depending on operating pressure required.Equipment – Compressed Air Air Compressors Reciprocating Compressors Reciprocating compressors utilize a piston. crankshaft and connecting rod to transform rotary power input (from electric motor or engine) to linear motion to compress air. Figure 7-1. their configuration compresses the air trapped between them. Rotary screw – lobe style rotor (Kaeser) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 126 . See Figure 7-2.

In general contaminant removal is divided into main line and point-of-use air treatment products. These units remove 75% of the water and 70% of the oil. Figure 7-3.) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 127 . Air or water-cooled aftercooler (Thermal Transfer) Refrigerated Dryer These units use mechanical refrigeration to chill the compressed air to 35 to 50°F. dirt particles and other contaminants. Depending on the air quality requirements of the end use. If not removed these contaminants can interrupt operation. Mainline air treatment usually takes place directly after compression and treats all or a major portion of air used. Inc. Typical equipment employed includes are discuss below. Compressed air will contain water vapor. Air or Water-cooled Aftercooler An air cooled aftercooler is shown in Figure 7-3.Air driers – Compressed Air Treatment An essential part of any compressed air system is the air treatment equipment. Refrigerated dryer (Kaeser Compressors. As the air is heated the relative humidity decreases and a dry air is produced. damage equipment and controls. The exit air is saturated at this dew point temperature. a wide array of air treatment options is available. oil. and reduce operating life. The amount of air treatment needed is driven by the air quality requirement of the end use device. Figure 7-4. Up to 96% of water vapor and 40% of oil from compressed air is removed.

Auto-electric drain valve (Wilkerson) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 128 . and other air system components. A unit is shown in Figure 7-5. condensate separator and drain. Automatic. Figure 7-6. It handles high inlet temperatures without the need for separate aftercooler.9% of water).Regenerative Desiccant Dryer – Compressed air flows through beds of desiccant material. Figure 7-5. which absorbs water vapor. Three-in-one dryer (Speedaire) Automatic-Electric Drain Valves – The unit shown in Figure 7-7 drains liquid water from air compressor receiver tank. Produces -40°F pressure dew point for ultra-dry air (removes up to 99. Figure 7-7. Use of oil removal filter upstream is recommended to prevent contamination of desiccant material. Regenerative desiccant dryer (Hankison) Three-In-One Dryer – The unit shown in Figure 7-6 is a refrigerated dryer that incorporates an aftercooler and reheater. Requires upstream aftercooler to pre-cool incoming air. aftercooler.

Options include: • • • • Air Line Filter – Removes dirt particles and some liquid from compressed air Oil Removal Filter – Reduces oil content of air to very low levels for critical applications. Compressed air system (Westfalia Surge) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 129 .Point-of-use treatment takes place immediately before the end use and treats only the air used by that device. motors and other pneumatic equipment requiring lubrication.Wilkerson) Figure 7-9. See Figure 7-8. c . Point-of-use air treatment options (8a. b – Speedaire.d – Campbell Hausfield. Lubricator – Provides proper amount and type of lubricant to operate air tools. Manual Desiccant Dryer – Desiccant material absorbs any remaining water vapor in compressed air. Figure 7-8.

Greatest operating pressure (psi) required by end use device. Pressure losses and leaks within air delivery piping. web site – www. Efficiency (cfm/watt) of compressor/motor package. Electric energy used to produce compressed air on California dairies is controlled by: • • • • • • Air volumes (cfm) consumed by end use devices.westfaliasurge.A typical air handling system of a milking parlor is shown in Figure 7-10. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 130 . sizing & selection of compressed air system. mainly in the milking parlor. (Source: Westfalia-Surge LLC – September 1999. Operating schedule of milking parlor equipment. Proper design. Typical Parlor Air Supply System (return to top of section: Compressed Air) Compressed Air Energy Utilization Indices (EUIs) The majority of electrical energy used to provide compressed air on the dairy farm occurs within the milking center.com) Figure 7-10. The adaptation of compressed air operated equipment to the milking parlor has increased the total level of automation and allowed increased labor efficiency of milk harvest.

there are two components to consider: the air-end and the motor. and vary or stop the compressor to match system use. VSDs can provide constant pressure control. Motors that are not large enough may have to operate above their rated load. In some applications. As a suitable retrofit on oversized compressors to reduce speed and energy use. Longterm energy savings can be locked in for the life of the equipment by selecting the most efficient motor available. For further discussion of selecting an energy efficient electric motor. however. which allows a reduction in starting loads and stresses to both compressor and motor. Provide soft start & stop.Compressed Air Application Variable speed drive provides one of the newest available control options to reduce energy consumption of compressed air systems. This data will vary widely dependent on the following: Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 131 . Variable speed drives can be more efficient than conventional stop/start or load/unload control systems when: • • Varying flow conditions are present. Variable Speed Drive . forcing them to run at elevated temperatures. but also suffer efficiency loss when the operating load falls beneath about one-half of the motor’s rated load. the airend and the motor are sold as a package. or a poorly maintained leaky compressed air system. increasing wear life. High Efficiency Compressors An indicator of relative energy efficiency for an air compressor is the output of air (cubic feet per minute) delivered at a specific pressure per input watt of electrical power to the motor (cfm/watt). see The General Information section. Often. “Energy Efficient Motors”. Equally important is choosing the correct size of motor. the buyer can select one of several motors to be installed on the air-end. EUIs on the upper end of range can indicate milking parlor systems using a high level of air-operated equipment. EUIs on the lower end of the range may suggest very efficient compressed air systems or low levels of animal handling automation. Motors that are much larger than required not only cost more. which shortens their operating live.General levels for compressed air EUIs will commonly range from 15 to 50 kWh per cowyear on most California dairy farms. Although the primary benefit of a VSD is energy reduction they are also able to: • • Reduce need for other air compressor control equipment. (return to top of section: Compressed Air) Compressed Air Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) Motor Selection In selecting an air compressor.

Cfm per watt can provide a guide for comparing compressor performance if they are tested under equivalent conditions. The dew point temperature is simply the temperature at which water vapor contained in the compressed air condenses to liquid form and can cause damage or operating problem in air operated equipment. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 132 . The best opportunity for energy reduction in air-drying hinges on the selection of an appropriate level of dew point reduction. the drying equipment selected should be able to produce a dew point below the lowest temperature to which your pneumatic equipment requires. To evaluate the most cost effective compressed air drying system for your application. As the need for higher levels of air-drying. the unit with the greater value provides superior energy efficiency. Select drying equipment to meet dew point requirements. Use appropriate filters on driers to maintain efficiency and performance. To prevent liquid water from forming in air lines. When comparing the cfm/watt delivered by two compressors. Compressors that are located inside equipment utility rooms must compress warm inside air. should be retained to assist in selection of this equipment. consider the following factors: • • • • Determine maximum acceptable dew point temperature necessary to operate your system. experienced supplier. Some manufacturers will express the efficiency of their compressors in terms of horsepower per 100 cubic feet of air produced (Hp/100 cfm).• • • Operating pressure Efficiency of electric motor Efficiency of compressor These figures are not verified or published by an independent testing lab but derived from manufacture’s testing. A knowledgeable. Air compressors work more efficiently and run cooler when the intake air is clean. Efficient Dryer Applications Compressed air drying applications are tied to the dew point temperature requirements of end use devices. energy requirements to achieve those levels also increase. and do not exceed this. The lower the dew point temperature needed the more expensive the dryer will be to purchase and operate. Outside Air An assessment of the ambient conditions in the utility room where the compressor draws air from should be performed. In this instance the compressor with the lower value will be the most energy efficient. familiar with dairy applications. Consider dryer energy operating costs and maintenance costs. cool and dry.

If operating pressure could be dropped 20 psi. System pressures tend to be operated at higher than the end use requirements due to a number of factors.Installing an outside air intake will allow the compressor to use cooler outside air. energy costs will increase 1%. Reduction of System Operating Pressure The level of system operating pressure and energy consumption are directly related. and longer life of components and equipment due to reduced stress at lower pressures. If the intake air comes from a hot. a 10% reduction in energy costs will occur. simply because the pressure is higher than required. This represents an increase in compressed air use of 40 percent. Utilizing a higher system pressure than required at the end devices creates an “artificial demand” on the compressed air system. which is easier to compress. but now the air consumption will be 7 cubic feet per stroke (1 cubic foot displacement times 7 atmospheres of pressure) or 7 cfm to do the same job. hoses and other distribution system restrictions may cause low working pressure at the end uses. The best way to illustrate this concept is to consider the following. Generally a 5-6°F reduction in air intake temperature will provide a 1% reduction in energy use. The majority of equipment that operates on compressed air requires an article pressure of 80 psi or less. through the distribution and air treatment systems on its way to the actual end use. To compensate for pressure drop in the distribution system and for undersized regulators. This measure will also reduce the noise level in the utility room. These include: • • • The belief that the extra pressure provides a buffer against pressure sags. particularly during periods of highest airflow. Comparatively wide control band employed on most air compressors that are operating without adequate control storage capacity in the system. Pressure drop is the loss of air pressure that occurs as air travels from the compressor. Reducing system-operating pressures will also provide supplemental benefits such as reducing leakage rates. humid and or dusty utility room. The cylinder will still perform adequately. Based on these parameters. Undersized regulators. The wide control band found on most air compressors creates low working pressure during the tank Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 133 . hoses and other distribution system restrictions. increasing system capacity. consider ducting the intake to the outdoors. Now consider what happens when this cylinder is operated with a supply pressure is 105 psi. A rule of thumb for systems operating around 100 psi is that for every 2-psi increase in operating pressure. Suppose an air cylinder requires 75 psi to operate a device 1 time per minute with a displacement of 1 cubic foot. the cylinder should use 5 cfm of compressed air (1 cubic foot times 5 atmospheres of pressure). Maintaining system pressures at levels greater than required to operate end use devices only serves to increase energy usage. A properly designed system will have a pressure loss of much less that 10% of the compressor’s discharge pressure.

Minimizing pressure drop within a compressed air system is an effective way to counter elevated operating pressures and associated energy costs. Carefully evaluate and investigate air motors. cylinders. resulting in increased air usage. Select air treatment components (aftercoolers. increased electric consumption and increased thermal and mechanical stresses on the compressed air system. adjustment of compressor control set points can be fine tuned to obtain greater efficiency. (return to top of section: Compressed Air) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 134 .pressure drop before the air compressor turns on. Operate and maintain air filters and drying equipment to keep interior of piping system clean and free of corrosion. separators. Effective measures to minimize pressure drop are as follows: • • • • Have air distribution system properly designed instead of a “hodgepodge” of components that have grown and been added to over time. In addition to reducing air consumption. and other air consuming devices to obtain lowest possible compressed air consumption rates. dryers and filters) that produce the least possible pressure drops. the lower distributed pressure will reduce fatigue on cylinder and valve seals and reduce the amount of air lost through system leaks. decreased compressor capacity. The typical solution to low working pressure is to raise the storage tank pressure. The storage tank pressure should be set such that the compressor starts before the tank pressure drops to the level of the regulated. The overall reduction in total airflow thru the system will also improve the effectiveness of air dryers. the pressures maintained in distribution headers can typically be reduced to approximately 85 psi. When system pressures can be successfully reduced and controlled. Utilizing the most efficient end use devices will ensure energy savings for the entire operating life of the compressed air system. distributed air pressure. Improve End Use Device Efficiency Select individual end use components that have lowest cfm requirements to perform a particular function. Provide the shortest possible path for air to travel within the distribution system from the compressor to the end use. Through the use of control storage tanks and intermediate controllers or regulators.

it is important to have a systematic approach to leak detection. shortened equipment life. and amplifiers. Then observe formation of air bubbles to pinpoint leaks. to locate high frequency sounds associated with air leaks. The ultrasonic acoustic detector is fast. Pipe joints. A very poorly maintained system may likely have a leak rate equal to 20-30% of the total compressed air production capacity. accurate and able to detect very small leaks. These devices employ directional microphones. Leaks are usually inexpensively and easily repaired.10 per kWh. The operator is directed to the leak location with either a visual display or thru earphones. Since small air leaks are almost impossible to see or recognize before they become so large that they are readily audible. With energy prices at $0. it can be time consuming when looking for generalized leaks in a system.000. tubes. a well maintained system with timely leak detection and repair can reduce leakage to much less than 10% of compressor output.Operator Level Checks –Compressed Air Compressed Air System Leaks The existence of air leaks in a compressed air delivery system can represent a significant source of wasted energy. but allowing a leak to persist can be very costly and inefficient as indicated in Figure 7-11. but relatively expensive to justify on small compressed air systems. Besides wasting input energy. and thread sealants Air using equipment left in operation when not needed There are two common methods that can be used for the detection of leaks. and can lead to greater periods of unscheduled downtime. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 135 . pressure regulators and fittings. hoses. disconnects. Open condensate traps and shut-off valves. While leakage can occur in any part of the system. The second simpler method is to apply a soapy water solution to suspected leak locations with a brush. the most prevalent sources are: • • • • Couplings. increased running time. The more sophisticated technique utilizes an ultrasonic acoustic detector. the energy that could be saved by reducing the cross section area of air holes (leaks) by 1/8 inch could approach $4. Conversely. Although this method is cheap and reliable. air leaks can also be a factor for inefficient operation of end use devices.

April 1998) Figure 7-11. Record the average times the compressor is running and stopped.(Source: Compressed Air Challenge – Fact Sheet #7. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 136 . Release air at a convenient location until the compressor cycles on. when compressed air is not needed. • • • • First ensure that all air operated end-use equipment is turned off and not functioning. This method can be performed during parlor down time. Make certain the air compressor itself is on and operating. Costs of Leaks Per Year Common locations for leaks to be found in a compressed air system: • Condensate traps • Pipe work • Fittings and flanges • Flexible hoses • Filters • Pneumatic cylinder seals • Hose connections and controls to tools • Instrumentation Estimating Amount of Leakage The following is fairly straightforward method for estimating the amount of leakage for compressors that use start/stop controls.

A 20 hp air compressor is found to be running 6 minutes (T) and stopped for 24 minutes during a half hour cycle when no air is being used. High temperatures can mean a drift upward in system pressure. Leakage in a well-maintained system should be 10% or less. Poorly maintained systems can have losses as high as 20-30%.300 just to push air through leaks. Verify Distributed Pressure Pressure higher than 90 psi uses more air.000 kWh and cost of $1. Monitor Compressor and Motor Operating Temperature Check temperature of compressor and motor with self-adhesive recording strips. time compressor is running (minutes) t = Ave. time compressor is stopped (minutes) Leakage will represent the percentage of compressor capacity that is lost. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 137 . Leakage (%) = [(6 x 100) / (6 + 24)] Leakage (%) = 20% This amount of unnecessary air leakage corresponds to an annual kilowatt-hour use of 13. or other compressor problem. Figure 7-12.The compressor will stop and start as the pressure drops from air escaping through leaks in the system. The following example illustrates how significant these losses can be. and exceeds the design operating pressure of most equipment. lubrication problem. is a check list that could be useful in maintaining a compressed air system. Total leakage (percentage) can be determined as follows: Leakage (%) = [(T x 100) / (T + t)] Where: T = Ave. runs compressor hotter and uses more energy. and represent excessive waste of air and electricity. The intermittent nature of the air compressor means higher temperatures may result from longer run times associated with air leaks or higher air consumption The following check list. restricted intake air filter.

and end-use equipment for leaks. fittings. Inspect daily and topoff or replace per manufacturer specifications. and clean/replace filters and heat exchangers per manufacturer specifications. Inspect and clean or replace per manufacturer specifications. Basic Maintenance Checklist (return to top of section: Compressed Air) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 138 . and temperature. Replace particulate and lubricant removal elements when pressure drop exceeds 2 to 3 psid. Drain Traps. Check system for compressor and motor lubricant leaks and cleanliness. whichever is less. filters. Water Cooling System. For water-cooled systems. lubricators. flow. valves. Verify that operating temperature is per manufacturer specifications. Inspect all elements at least annually regardless of pressure drop indication. Check lines (especially joints). Select compressor and electric motor lubricant per manufacturer specifications. or when pressure drop exceeds 10 psid. Clean out debris and check operation periodically. check water quality (especially pH and total dissolved solids). Air Line Filters. Change per manufacturer specifications. Dirty filters increase energy consumption. clamps. Operating Temperature. Belt Condition. System Cleanliness. regulators. ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ Source: Compressed Air Challenge – Fact Sheet #5. April 1998) Figure 7-12. System Leaks. Compressor Lubricant Level. disconnects. Required frequency is often related to operating conditions.B Ba as siic cM Ma aiin ntte en na an nc ce eC Ch he ec ck klliis stt ‰ Inlet Filter Cartridges. hoses. Check belts for wear and check/adjust tension per manufacturer specifications. Change lubricant filter per manufacturer specifications. Air Lubricant Separator (Lubricant-injected Rotary Screw Compressors). Lubricant Selection. gauge connections.

Glossary of Air Compression Terms Air Pump (Compressor Head): The part of compressor that compresses the air. (return to top of section: Compressed Air) (return to Table of Contents: Table_of_Contents) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 139 . E. other particles) contained in air produced by the compressor. The first cylinder compresses air into the next. Duty cycle: The percentage of time in an hour that the compressor should be allowed to run. Relief valve: Vents the tank if excess pressure builds up to prevent damage. PSI: Pounds per square inch of pressure that a compressor can deliver or are required by end use devices to operate properly. CFM: Cubic feet per minute of air flow at a designated pressure that a compressor can deliver or an end use device consumes to operate. Main line air treatment – devices that treat all air produced by the compressor between the air tank and end use devices. Automatic Tank Drain Valve: Installed at bottom of air tank.g. which compresses it further and then pumps to the air tank. Air Tank (Receiver): Stores compressed air produced for peak loads or intermittent use. dirt. When compressor stops. Has two or more cylinders in series. preventing loss of air from tank or damage to pump valves. Air Treatment: Removal of contaminants (water vapor. opens briefly during each pumping cycle to release moisture condensed from the air. Single-stage – for applications requiring operating pressures of 95 PSI or less. If a compressor has a 50/50 duty cycle and is going to run in a 10 minute cycle. from pump to tank. Point-of-use air treatment – apparatus that only treats air used by a single end use device. Two-stage – for applications requiring operating pressures of 100-175 PSI. Check valve: Allows air to flow one way only. this valve closes. it should be run for a combined maximum of 5 minutes ON and 5 minutes OFF. oil.

When major modifications or updates are made to dairy facilities. When To Select Energy-Efficient Motors The selection of energy-efficient motors should be strongly considered in the following situations: • • • • For all new dairy complexes. usually expressed as a percentage. When purchasing equipment packages. Relatively small increases in efficiency can pay for the additional costs for higher efficiency motors quickly. etc. about 10 times its initial cost. Using these standards as a benchmark. NEMA Premium Efficiency motors must equal or exceed a higher level of nominal efficiency to be considered energy efficient. To replace oversized and under-loaded motors.700 worth of electricity annually. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) requires that most general purpose motors manufactured for sale in the United States after October 1997 meet minimum efficiency standards. The annual energy costs of running a motor is usually many times greater than the initial purchase price. 140 Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide . General Information • • • • Energy Efficient Electric Motors Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pumps Temperature Monitoring Understanding Pump Curves • Variable Frequency Drives Section Contents: Energy Efficient Electric Motors Efficiency is an important factor to consider when buying a new electric motor. the NEMA Premium Efficiency class of motors has been established. such as cooling and air compressors. water and vacuum pumps. Motor efficiency is the ratio of mechanical power output to the electrical power input. The “nominal efficiency” published by NEMA is an average value obtained through testing of a population of motors. air circulation equipment. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) performs motor efficiency tests in accordance with standards developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Once a particular motor is selected and installed. you are locked into the energy use characteristics for the life of the motor with no option for improvement.(return to: Table_of_Contents) 8. For example a typical 20 hp motor running 18 hours a day at 12¢ per kWh. uses $11.

Annual Energy Savings Savings = Hp x L x 0. Energy-efficient motors offer other benefits. operate more quietly. which offers further savings. better power factor. and less vibration. energy-efficient motors have higher service factors. % Energy-efficient motor efficiency rating.746 x hr x C x [100/Estd – 100/Eee] = = = = = = = motor rated horsepower Load factor (percentage of full load) annual operating hours average energy costs ($/kWh) standard motor efficiency rating. higher quality insulation and longer bearing life. Because they are constructed with improved manufacturing techniques and superior materials. produce lower waste heat output.746 Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 141 . % conversion from horsepower to kW Hp L Hr C Estd Eee 0. How Much Can An Energy-Efficient Motor Save? The following Table 8-1 provides estimated savings for Premium Efficiency motors at 1 to 3% improvements in nominal efficiency: Table 8-1. Many of these motors are also rated for use with variable frequency drives.A general rule of thumb indicates a simple payback of two years or less for replacement of standard efficiency with Premium Efficiency motors that operate at least 4000 hour per year or slightly less than half time. Annual value of efficiency gains for fully loaded motor operating 8000 hours annually at an electric rate of $0. use the following formula in Table 8-2: Table 8-2.12 per kWh Motor Horsepower 5 10 20 50 Annual Savings 1% Efficiency Gain $51 $96 $183 $426 2% Efficiency Gain $102 $192 $366 $852 3% Efficiency Gain $153 $288 $549 $1278 To calculate actual Annual Energy Savings from selecting a more efficient motor. all of which increase reliability.

Factor To Consider When Choosing A New Motor: • Motor size – Motors should be sized to operate with a load factor between 65% and 100%. Careful evaluation of all motors operating 12+ hours daily (4. lightly loaded motor will be less efficient than a smaller.000 hours annually) can yield substantial opportunities for energy savings. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 142 . The first step is to verify if the old motor was correctly sized for the application. NEMA Frame Size – match frame designation so replacement motor will have the same physical dimensions. Typical enclosures: Open Air Over ((OAO) or Open Drip Proof (OPDP) Enclosed – Either totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC) Total enclosed non-ventilated (TENV) Total enclosed open air (TEOA) Hazardous Location – explosion proof (XP) • • • • Although the perception that increases in efficiency between standard and Premium Efficiency motors is comparatively small (1-3%). Enclosure Type – match enclosure type to the environment the motor will be subjected to. fully loaded motor. Operating voltage – make sure to select motor with correct voltage. A larger. A motor will consume 50-60 times its initial price in electric expense during a typical 10-year life. The common practice of over sizing results in less efficient operation. As well as more expensive to purchase. the benefits in energy savings and operating costs can be significant. A list of manufacturers that sell NEMA Premium motors is given in Table 8-3 along with the web site address. The additional costs of a Premium Efficiency motor will be returned many times during that life in lower energy costs. Operating speed – ensure the correct operating speed is selected and compare efficiencies for motors at the same speed.

tecowestinghouse.reliance.wegelectric.0 .United States Department of Energy.com/motors www.com www. Smith Electrical Products Baldor Electric Co.doe.Table 8-3. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 143 .com www.com www.O. The table gives specification for motors – open and enclosed and for 1. MotoMaster+ 4.ramusa.com www. 5/3/02 WEB SITE www.aosmithmotors.leeson.oit.siemens.com www.gov/bestpractices . Emerson Motors GE Motors Leeson Electric Lincoln Motors Marathon Electric RAM Industries Rockwell Automation Siemens Sterling Electric TECO-Westinghouse Toshiba International WEG Electric Motors Rev. This table is from the Consortium for Energy Efficiency [CEE].sea.600 rpm [theoretical speed].com www.com Motor management and Selection Software. Office of Industrial Technologies.toshiba.Software to evaluate and select energy efficient motors and estimate potential savings.com www.com www.emersonmotors.com www.lincolnmotors.com www.200.com www.geindustrial. http://www.baldor. NEMA Premiumtm Motor Manufacturers COMP ANY A. 1.marathonelectric.com www.800 and 3.sterlingelectric.tic. The specifications of Premium efficiency for motor 1 to 200 hp is given in Table 8-4.

7 92.4 93. integral horsepower.5 87.1 95.5 87.5 89.0 95.6 91 91.6 30 30 93 94.5 95.0 93. equivalent to NEMA Table 12-10.6 93.4 100 100 94.6 94.5 88.5 94.5 86.5 95.6 93.5 89.6 25 25 92.4 93.4 93 94.0 95 95.0 85.1 95. Information about the current status of any CEE specification may be obtained from CEE at its website [CITE] by clicking on www.4 93 93 93.5 91.5 1.0 94.7 91.5 84 85.6 94.5 1 1 84 86.0 90.5 5 5 88. New motors manufactured and imported for the US market must meet or exceed these full load nominal efficiencies.5 89.7 93.5 95.0 89.5 85.2 90.6 94.4 94.7 91 93 89.5 2 2 86.5 89.4 125 125 94. are in the form in effect as of February 1.5 84 86.5 87.5 91.0 94.5 87.0 94.5 50 50 93. 2001 Nominal Full Load Efficiencies for EPAct – covered equipment 1-200 horsepower NEMA design A and B. three phase.5 84 86. and are subject to change or withdrawal at any time by CEE.5 85.1 93 94.0 80 82.6 95 93 93.6 94.2 91.2 91 91 91.0 91.5 87. Inc.7 10 10 90.1 95.4 93. and not by Southwest Energy Efficiency Project.8 95 95.5 90.5 91.5 1.2 91.0 92.5 88.5 90.2 91. Such specifications are copyright protected and owned by CEE.5 84.1 95.2 90.5 89.5 93.7 91.5 91.5 7. 144 .7 91 92.5 84 85.7 91.5 87.5 93.6 95 60 60 93. All rights reserved.2 91.8 150 150 94.1 91.5 87.5 94.5 N/A 77.0 91.1 95 93 93.4 93.5 85.4 95 95.0 89.2 88.7 93.5 89.5 90.6 94.1 95 95.6 94.5 82.5 3 3 87. Table 8-4.5 91.5 89. 1800.0 91.5 84 86.8 93.5 95.4 95 95.5 84 85.5 94.2 91. general purpose motors (1200.5 90.cee1. 2004.5 87.0 85.1 95.1 94.4 15 15 91.2 91.5 95 77.1 95. CEE Premium-Efficiency Motors Initiative Efficiency Premium Efficiency Premium Efficiency Premium Standard* Efficiency Standard* Efficiency Standard* Efficiency HP HP 80 82.7 7.5 89.5 88.7 89.6 94.4 93.5 89.4 © 2003 Consortium for Energy Efficiency.8 95 96.5 86.8 94.5 95.4 93 93.5 95.1 91 91.5 82.EFFICIENCY SPECIFICATIONS CEE Specification aligned with NEMA PREMIUM™ on June 13. The CEE specifications contained in this publication were developed by CEE members and other participants in its Initiatives.1 40 40 93 94.1 93 94.7 93.5 88.4 93.5 91 87.0 94.7 91 93 20 20 91.6 93.0 92.4 91 93 90.7 92.5 86.6 92.5 90.0 84.5 82.5 89.5 92. See next page for Terms of Usage.5 86.0 92.0 93 94.6 94. 3600 RPM).4 75 75 94.6 94.0 95. went into effect in October 1997.1 93 94.5 82.7 93.1 95.1 93 94.5 89. 1200 RPMs NEMA EPACT NEMA EPACT NEMA EPACT NEMA EPACT NEMA Open Drip-Proof (ODP) 1800 RPMs 3600 RPMs 1200 RPMs Totally Enclosed Fan-Cooled (TEFC) 1800 RPMs 3600 RPMs EPACT NEMA EPACT Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) is a nonprofit public benefits corporation whose members are utility and other administrators and public stakeholders involved with energy-efficiency programming.5 89.7 92.5 84 86.5 85.5 88.7 88.org Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide Efficiency Premium Efficiency Premium Efficiency Premium Standard* Efficiency Standard* Efficiency Standard* Efficiency 75.2 200 200 *This standard.

Absorption heat pumps are thermally driven. Mechanical energy is primarily limited to pumping. natural gas Refrigerant vapor Condenser Liquid Refrigerant Generator Weak solution Restrictor Expansion Valve Strong solution Refrigerant vapor Pump Evaporator Absorber Refrigeration/Cooling (heat input) Heat out Figure 8-1. Primarily operating on natural gas (or bio-gas) this technology utilizes highly efficient heat pump cycles to provide both heating and cooling energy streams. The liquid flows through the expansion valve to the evaporator and evaporates .absorbing heat. The refrigerant boils/vaporizes at a lower temperature than the absorbent. The strong solution is pumped back to the generator. The absorbent [weak solution] remaining in the generator flows to the absorber.Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pumps A potential future technology for water heating and space product cooling is the gas fired absorption heat pump. The heating effect could be employed to heat water for dairy CIP washing and the cooling stream used to cool milk. Heat is released as the refrigerant is absorbed by the absorbent. Absorption systems utilize the ability of liquids or salts to absorb the vapor of the refrigerant fluid. Schematic diagram of an absorption refrigeration system Heat is added at the generator. The refrigerant vapor is drawn to the absorbent [weak solution] in the absorber. This heat must be removed to keep the temperature in the absorber low to maintain a high solubility. which means that heat rather than mechanical energy is supplied to drive the cycle. Heat out Heat input: waste heat. The Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 145 . Figure 8-1 shows a schematic diagram of a gas-fired absorption heat pump. biogas. The most common working pairs for absorption systems are: water (refrigerant) and lithium bromide (absorbent). The vapor moves through the rectifier and analyzer on its way to the condenser. The “generator” includes a rectifier and an analyzer. and ammonia (refrigerant) and water (absorbent). The refrigerant is condensed in the condenser by removing heat.

waste heat. there is a secondary circuit around which the liquid absorbent [water] flows. The major advantages of the absorption heat pump are: • • • • • Ability to deliver more than one unit of output energy per unit of input energy (COP greater than 1) Delivers two useful energy streams (heating and cooling) Ability to use multiple sources of input energy (natural or biogas. Using an ammonia-water system the temperature in the evaporator can be below freezing. which must be removed. however. The low-pressure liquid absorbent/refrigerant mixture is pumped to the generator [higher pressure] to start the process again. The process starts as heat is applied to the generator and ammonia is vaporized – driven off to a condenser. Here the low-pressure ammonia liquid boils and vaporizes absorbing heat to provide cooling. Use of more environmentally friendly refrigeration/absorbent in place of standard CFC refrigerants (return to top of section: General Information) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 146 . Useful heating energy is recovered from both absorber and condensing sections.generator and condenser are at high pressure and the evaporator and absorber are at low pressure. This absorption process releases heat. In the absorption cycle. The above portion of the absorption cycle. steam) in place of electricity. functions much like the standard vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The cooled ammonia liquid then passes through an expansion valve to the evaporator. The low-pressure ammonia vapor is drawn to the absorber where the ammonia recombines with the water. Few moving parts or mechanical components to wear out.

compressors. These strips are suitable for spot-checking temperatures as they indicate the current temperature of the device. The equipment should be in the same portion of the operating cycle each time the temperatures are measured. lighting ballasts. Measurements can be made on equipment that cannot be reached such as circulation fan motors and lighting ballasts. others have a preset emissivity generally at 0. ensuring that peak temperatures will not Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 147 .Temperature Monitoring Equipment operating temperature is one of the most powerful. heat exchangers. The emissivity of the surface being measured will make a difference in the temperature reading. More accurate temperatures would be read as the thermometer became closer the fan motor. At 6 feet of the motor the temperature would be the most accurate. condenser coils. yet underused status indicators available to monitor the health of equipment. These strips record the highest temperature reached since the strip was installed. Intermittent equipment such as air compressors may never reach a steady operating temperature. Infrared thermometers are a very handy temperature measurement instrument for performing spot checks. the cause of the heat build up can be remedied before heat damage occurs. The highest temperature typically occurs long after the equipment is started so the temperature measurement should be made near the end of the operating cycle. gearboxes. vacuum pumps. Several different devices are available for measuring equipment temperature. Some infrared thermometers have an adjustment for emissivity. These strips have several temperature zones that change color as the indicated temperature is reached. Some of the apparent inaccuracies may not be a problem since the purpose is to make enough observations of the same object so that a “high” temperature can be identified. These hand-held thermometers measure the surface temperature without contacting the surface. Other devices useful for measuring temperature include self-adhesive temperature indicating strips that attach directly to the device being measured. Infrared thermometers have a cone shaped field of view.95. An infrared thermometer with a distance specification of 12:1 means that at 12 feet the temperature reading will be the average temperature within a 1-foot diameter circle. water heaters and electrical panels. making spot checks unreliable. Many times. This aiming feature becomes important as the distance to the target increases. the reading would be average temperature of the motor and the background surfaces within the cone. Self-adhesive temperature indicating strips are available that will show the maximum temperature. Excessive heat also indicates poor efficiency. Excessive heat build up indicates a problem with the equipment and causes many equipment failures. Many infrared thermometers feature a laser-aiming device to ensure that the invisible infrared beam is properly aimed at the desired target. Using such a thermometer to measure the temperature of a 6-inch fan motor 12 feet from the infrared thermometer. Devices that should have a periodic temperature check include motors and motor contactors. as extra power is required to generate the heat.

Regular temperature checks are needed to establish normal values so that irregularities can be identified.be missed. such as seasonal changes. (return to top of section: General Information) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 148 . Another type of temperature measuring device is the thermocouple pipe clamp probe. High equipment temperatures do no need to exceed the manufacturer’s temperature rating to indicate a problem. Here a special pipe clamp holds a thermocouple firmly against a pipe surface for quick and uniform measurement of the temperature of a pipe surface. These strips should be replaced periodically in response to downward trends in maximum temperature.

The pump will operate on the curve that corresponds to the impeller size. a high head estimate is only a starting point. for example. Under estimating the head usually results in poor efficiency and low flow rates. Over estimating the system head can result in overloaded motors. Figure 8-2. If the system head is reduced to 300 feet. Consider the pump curves in Figure 8-2. Centrifugal pumps operating at fixed speed do not operate below the curve as a positive displacement pump could. The pump is appropriately applied with a 100 hp motor.Understanding Pump Curves Applying centrifugal pumps presents some challenges that are not immediately obvious. If the system head is increased to 400 feet the operating area will be at point 3 and the pump will have widely varying flow between 0 and 350 gpm. For instances where the exact pump head is not known in advance. then this pump will operate at point 1 with the 9 3/8 inch impeller. Specifying a pump with higher head rating at the desired flow in order to provide a reserve buffer of capacity will result in performance following the curve to the point where the system flow and head matches the pump curve. Trimming the impeller or adjusting the driven speed of the pump will then tune the pump to match the system requirements. Pump efficiency will be less than 60% and the motor efficiency and power factor will decline at reduced loading. the operating point will move to point 2 and 100 hp motor will be overloaded. If the application requires 850 gpm at 350 feet of head. 3500 RPM Pump Curves Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 149 .

1750 RPM Pump Curves Figure 8-4. are for the same pump at different motor speeds.Figure 8-3. 1150 RPM Pump Curves These three curves. Figure 8-2. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 150 . 3 and 4.

31 Specific Gravity Dynamic Suction Lift (Feet) x .883 x Specific Gravity GPM x Head (Feet) x Specific Gravity 3960 x Pump Efficiency GPM x Head (Feet) x Specific Gravity Water Horsepower (Water) Horsepower (Brake) Positive Factors – Negative Factors = = = = = = = Affinity Laws: Effect of Change of speed or impeller diameter on centrifugal pumps.Useful Pump Formulas Pressure (PSI) Head (Feet) Vacuum (inches of Mercury) Horsepower (Brake) Horsepower (Water) Efficiency (Pump) NPSH (Available) Head(Feed) x Specific Gravity 2. Head BHP Q2 = Q2 = D2 Q1 D1 RPM 2 Q1 RPM 1 ⎛ D2 ⎞ H2 = ⎜ ⎜D ⎟ ⎟ H1 ⎝ 1⎠ ⎛ RPM 2 ⎞ ⎟ H2 = ⎜ ⎜ RPM ⎟ H 1 1 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎛ D2 ⎞ P2 = ⎜ ⎜D ⎟ ⎟ P1 ⎝ 1⎠ ⎛ RPM 2 ⎞ P2 = ⎜ ⎟ P1 ⎜ RPM ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ 3 3 Where Q = GPM. D = Impeller Diameter. RPM = Pump Speed (return to top of section: General Information) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 151 . P = BHP. H = Head. GPM Capacity Impeller Diameter Change Speed Change Ft.31 Pressure (PS) x 2.

Pulse Width Modulation Inverter Converter DC Link Inverter L1 Diode IGBT L2 L3 Control Logic L1 C1 Motor Figure 8-5. ventilation fans.Variable Frequency Drives A variable frequency drive (VFD) is a sophisticated electronic device for regulating the speed of three phase motors. The increased magnetizing currents result in greater stator or line currents that could cause over-current trips or destroy the motor. milk pumps. The VFD rectifies the incoming 60 Hz power into DC voltage through a 6-diode full wave three-phase rectifier. These applications include vacuum pumps. If the input frequency is reduced. Variable frequency drives can be applied to a wide range of farm applications requiring precise speed control or soft-start characteristics. the magnetic flux and magnetizing currents increase as does the torque produced by the motor. magnetic flux remains constant. so is the ‘back EMF’. the motor will run at a reduced speed. Large capacitors form the ‘DC Bus’ and smooth the ripple. By holding the volts per hertz ratio constant. crowd gates. and air compressors. based on the input power frequency of 60 Hz (Hertz). glycol pumps. Pulse Width Modulated VFD From the DC bus the drive draws power to create AC voltage at the specified frequency and amplitude. Figure 8-5 is a functional schematic of a pulse width modulated (PMW) variable frequency drive. VFD’s are simply a source of variable frequency three-phase power. The drive must draw power from the DC bus in pulses such that the RMS value of the pulses is Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 152 . As the speed of an induction motor is reduced. The VFD produces the variable frequency output at the proper voltage through a series of conversions of the commercial input power. This ‘back EMF’ is created by the interaction of the magnetic fields in the motor and serves to limit the current through the motor. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors or IGBTs are used to pulse the power from the DC bus to the output terminals to form three-phase output. Current drive technology does not produce sine wave output voltage. If the frequency is reduced while holding the voltage constant. A typical AC induction motor runs at its rated speed. and the motor is considered to have constant torque. water pumps.

the cooling effect of the fan is greatly reduced. causing the output voltage to be close to the DC bus voltage. the duty cycle is high and the pulses are close together. Figure 8-6 shows the output voltage and current of a modern VFD. even if the motor runs satisfactorily on 60 Hz line power. Standard motors may not be suitable for VFD application and an inverter rated or inverter duty motor would be required.000 Hz) in order to create an output current that approximates a standard sinusoidal waveform. The added insulation of inverter rated motors is necessary to endure the high stresses that pulsing the voltage creates on motor insulation. causing the output voltage to be low. Motors and Conductors The high switching frequency of the IGBTs creates special concerns for the motor(s) driven from a VFD and the conductor(s) that connect the motor(s) to the VFD. These pinholes can lead to frequent short circuit trips on the VFD. The IGBTs switch on and off at very high frequencies (upwards of 20. Standard motors with class B insulation typically experience shortened motor life because the voltage spikes cause pinholes to form in the motor winding insulation. As such. When the pulses are narrow.equivalent to a sinusoidal voltage. When the pulses are wide. the duty cycle is low and the pulses are farther apart. Modern VFDs incorporate motor thermal protection within the control circuitry of the drive. Figure 8-6. These inverter rated motors have a much higher insulation standard than regular motors. the drive will effectively power any number of connected Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 153 . This is necessary because at reduced motor speeds. Output voltage and current of PWM VFD The width of the pulse determines the amplitude of the voltage. Separate motor thermal protection for the motor is not necessary unless multiple motors are driven from the same VFD. Inverter duty motors are also more effective at self-cooling. Most VFDs act simply as a source of variable frequency three-phase power.

the thin jacket allows multiple conductors to be very close to each other. All joints in the conduit must make good electrical bonds and the conduit needs to be well grounded. Metallic conduit that is also insulated on the outside reduces conduction of noise onto other conduits or metallic building components. When more than one motor is connected. This cable contains the phase and ground wires with the appropriate insulation as well as a noise suppression shield. most of these drives are capable of running in an open loop or volts/hertz mode. This high frequency electrical noise is caused by the high carrier frequencies of the pulse-width modulation. Armored cable is also available for drive applications. This will reduce the emitted electrical noise discussed in the next section. This conductor acts as an antenna that broadcasts electrical noise directly through the air. While this insulation does not suffer from pinholes. the associated short rise times of the IGBT output devices. There is no requirement that the motors be the same power. The conductor that connects the motor(s) to the VFD is subject to the same voltage spikes as the motor windings. The appropriate conductor for drive applications is either type XHHW or XLPE. computers. Though Sensorless Flux Vector control is not suitable for running multiple motors. The drive’s built in motor thermal protection is only effective for a single motor connected to the drive. Metallic conduit that is well bonded to ground greatly reduces this noise.5 MHz to 30 MHz. Standard THHN building wire has very thin insulation. type or even speed. It is therefore recommended to use separate motor thermal protection for each motor and disable the drive’s internal motor thermal protection. The largest source of transmitted noise is from the conductor to the motor. Selecting the proper conductor becomes more critical as the distance between the drive and motor increases. and the reflected waves from the motor terminals. EMI & RFI A variable frequency drive (VFD) will generate radio frequency interference (RFI) and electromagnetic interference frequencies (EMI) in the range of 0. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 154 . The drive must also be programmed with the nameplate current rating for the connected motor. and AM radio reception. This close proximity allows capacitive and inductive coupling between the phase wires and leads to false short circuit trips of the VFD. It is essential that the proper conductor be used on submersible pumps or any other instance where the motor wiring must pass under water. the drive does not know if one motor is in an overloaded state while the other motor is in a partially unloaded state. Immersion in water greatly increases the capacitive coupling effect between conductors. The wiring between the drive and motor should be in metallic conduit or a metal flexible conduit. This high frequency electrical noise can adversely affect cow ID systems. Some drives use a Sensorless Flux Vector feedback from the motor to precisely regulate the motor speed. Check with your drive supplier to see if your drive is suitable for driving multiple motors.motors as long as the sum of the motor power does not exceed the power rating on the drive.

DC welders. Once the AC voltage reaches the peak of the waveform. Figure 8-7 illustrates the current waveform for a variable frequency drive.Special flexible conduit is available for connecting the motor to the drive. This conduit consists of a normal metal spiral wrapped in a fine copper or aluminum mesh and then sheathed with plastic to form a liquid tight conduit. The filter removes the high frequency noise from the power lines and sinks it to ground. when replacing a motor. Instead of having a constant impedance drawing current in proportion to the sinusoidal voltage. EMI/RFI will be coupled from one cable into another. the motor cable may be found to have a high potential at the end of its conductors even though the motor's drive is disconnected from the line. It is therefore very important to have a good ground at the filter. Fine stranded ground wires should be used on EMI/RFI filters to maximize their effectiveness. The electrical noise can also transmitted back into the power distribution system. As a result. This conduit is more effective at reducing noise transmission than solid metal conduit because it provides a low impedance path for the noise back to the drive. The plastic sheath also prevents noise from conducting onto other conduits or structural members and spreading to other parts of the facility. A hazard exists with long motor leads that are run in parallel with other motor leads in a cable tray. DC rectifiers draw no current for those periods of the voltage waveform where the AC voltage is less than the DC voltage. The noise in the power distribution system can then conducted into other devices or transmitted through the air. utilize current differently than other AC equipment. the current flows when the voltage waveform peaks with respect to each of the other two phases so there are two current pulses in each half cycle. Mitigating noise requires an EMI/RFI filter in the power supply directly in front of the drive. The current stops once the AC voltage has again dropped below the DC voltage. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 155 . the AC voltage is higher than the DC voltage and the current flows in one pulse per half cycle. Fine stranded wire has much lower resistance to high frequencies than solid conductors. Harmonics DC rectifiers used in variable frequency drives. For three phase rectifiers. When a VFD is operating. computers. and battery chargers. High frequency electricity conducts primarily on the surface of the conductors.

Harmonic currents can be likened to the vibration of water in a water line when a valve is open and closed suddenly. The reactor also serves to protect the drive from transients and imbalanced line voltages. it is necessary to use a True-RMS ammeter. This approximation is not suitable for electronic power devices where the error can be as high as 40%. In addition to causing electrical problems. The distorted voltage waveform propagates itself through the electrical distribution system and can effect other electronic equipment. so check with your drive supplier to see if an external reactor is necessary. nonsinusoidal current pulses during a portion of the peak voltage waveform. A low cost remedy for harmonics exceeding the IEEE 519 standard is to install a 3% impedance reactor to the input of the drive. These abrupt pulsating current pulses introduce reflective currents (harmonics) back into the power distribution system.Figure 8-8. In order to obtain an accurate current reading with a VFD. Harmonic related problems are unlikely when a small percentage of the total electrical load is used by VFD’s or other similar harmonic generating devices. they cause harmonic distortion to the system voltage. IEEE Standard 519-1992 sets a limit on total harmonic currents at the point of common coupling. Current Waveform For a Variable Frequency Drive Switching loads on and off during part of the waveform results in short. Determining harmonic content requires sophisticated power quality monitoring equipment. The distorted shape of the current waveform creates special problems for measurement devices like ammeters. Some variable frequency drives have built in reactors. The typical digital clamp-on meter is not suited to measuring the current in an electronic device because the meter uses a mathematical approximation to determine the RMS current in a conductor. abrupt. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 156 . As these harmonic currents flow through the impedance of the electrical distribution system. The harmonic currents operate at frequencies other than the fundamental 60 Hz. Harmonic Distortion and Mitigation Harmonic currents and voltage distortion can cause problems in other electrical devices.

several maintenance items do require attention. Cooling is typically accomplished with heat sink and a fan. Electrical power system components such as fuses. If the heat fins require frequent cleaning then the drive is in an unsuitable environment.What is True-RMS? “RMS” stands for Root-mean Square and comes from a mathematical formula that calculates the “effective” value (or heating value) of any AC wave shape. measure the RMS current and compare the measured value to the rated value for the component in question. the value they display is not a true value. but rather is a calculated value based on an assumption about the wave shape. This is more common on the output side of the drive where the power leads go directly to the motor. It is very important to check that the power terminals on the drive stay tight. Vibration could come from the wall that the drive is mounted on or through the power leads. If the terminals loosen regularly. . then longer intervals may be used. Accumulations of debris in the heat sink can cause localized hot spots in the drive. conductors. If a current clamp is labeled and specified to respond to the True-RMS value of current. This heat sink assembly must be kept free of dust and dirt. Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 157 . For example. Torque the terminals per the installation manual and regularly recheck that the terminals have not loosened. and thermal elements in circuit breakers are rated in RMS current because their main function is related to heat dissipation. The average responding method works for pure sine waves but can lead to large reading errors up to 40 percent. damaging the terminals and possibly the entire drive. when a waveform is distorted by nonlinear loads such as adjustable speed drives or computers. These ammeters use a short cut method to find the RMS value and are specified to be “average responding-RMS indicating. bus bars. This heat can contribute to premature component failure. This method will give the correct heating value regardless of the current wave shape. Most digital current clamps do not have True-RMS circuitry.1 to calculate the RMS value. then the element would supply the same amount of heat with 240 volts DC as with 240 volts AC. Drives requires clean airflow for cooling. If the terminals stay tight. it means that the clamp’s internal circuit calculates the heating value according to the RMS formula. the AC RMS value is equivalent to the DC heating value of a particular waveform— voltage or current. In order to check an electrical circuit for overloading. Check that the terminals are still tight after several hours of operation after startup. if a resistive heating element in an electric furnace were rated at 15 kW of heat at 240 VAC rms. Then check the terminals regularly afterwards.” These meters capture the rectified average of an ac waveform and scale the number by 1. In electrical terms. In other words. Drive Maintenance Though modern variable frequency drives have very few moving parts and very limited serviceability. check for excessive vibration at the terminals. Loose power terminals can quickly heat and fail. Loose terminals can also create a fire hazard. Look for the words True-RMS on the front panel to ensure accurate current readings.

(return to top of section: General Information) (return to Table of Contents: Table_of_Contents) Dairy Farm Energy Management Guide 158 . a NEMA 1 drive should not be located there either. Check with the drive manual for other routine service requirements and environmental specifications. Typical VFDs have NEMA 1 enclosures which are suited for clean areas only.The drive should be installed in a conditioned cabinet or a ventilated enclosure. If delicate paperwork cannot be left in the immediate vicinity of the drive.

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