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PSYC 1000-05: Introductory Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide: Chapters 5, 6, 8, and 9 Tuesday, March 19, 2013: 11:00 a.m.

12:00 p.m. in Jones 102 ***Bring your Tulane student ID splash card & number 2 pencils with erasers***
Chapter 5: Learning
Definitions of learning, stimulus, reflex, and habituation; three assumptions of learning theories Aristotle's Laws of Association (contiguity & similarity); associative learning (classical & operant conditioning) Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning o Unconditioned stimulus (US); unconditioned response (UR); conditioned stimulus (CS); conditioned response (CR); Pavlovs classic experiment; conditioned taste aversions (e.g., Garcias experiment); conditioned emotional responses and phobias (e.g., Watson & Rayners experiment with Little Albert) o Stimulus generalization and discrimination (e.g., Hovland's study using the galvanic skin response) o Acquisition, extinction ("CS only trials"), and spontaneous recovery o Timing issues: forward vs. simultaneous vs. backward conditioning; interstimulus interval (ISI) o Prepared learning (e.g., findings from Garcia & Koellings experiment) o What do organisms learn in classical conditioning? Operant (instrumental) conditioning o Law of Effect (Edward Thorndike and definition of instrumental conditioning); B.F. Skinner (definition of operant conditioning and operants); classical vs. operant conditioning o Positive & negative reinforcement; extinction (removal of the reinforcer); schedules of reinforcement & their impact on behavior: continuous vs. intermittent (fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable interval) o Positive and negative punishment and five problems with punishment Cognitive-social theory o Latent learning (e.g., Tolman & Honzik's experiment on cognitive maps) o Social observational learning (modeling and Banduras Bobo doll study) o Expectancies (self-fulfilling prophecy and internal vs. external locus of control) Zimbardos Discovery Psychology Program: Learning [video on demand (VoD) link is on Blackboard]

Chapter 6: Memory

Memory (encodestoreretrieve) as mental representations (sensory, verbal, and motoric representations) Standard model: sensory registers, short-term memory (STM) / working memory (WM), long-term memory (LTM) o Know the characteristics of the three types of memory: Sensory registers: very brief; echoic storage and iconic storage (including Sperling's experiment) STM: limited duration (20-30 seconds); limited capacity (7 2 items); Ebbinghaus; maintenance vs. elaborative rehearsal; working memory (definition; central executive; visuospatial sketchpad; phonological store; independence of WM stores; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) LTM: may last a lifetime; theoretically limitless; involves retrieval; serial position curve (primacy effect vs. recency effect); interaction of LTM and WM (chunking); declarative memory (semantic vs. episodic), procedural memory, explicit memory (recall vs. recognition), and implicit memory Neuropsychology: hippocampus (case of H. M.); amygdala; basal ganglia; occipital, parietal, and frontal lobes Everyday memory (e.g., Herrmann et al. experiment) Encoding: levels of processing (shallow vs. deep), five strategies for processing information semantically, encoding specificity principle, context and retrieval, and spacing effect (including Bahrick et al. experiment) Mnemonic devices: SQ3R Method, Method of Loci, and Peg Method Networks of association; spreading activation theory (e.g., Nisbett & Wilson); schemas (e.g., Brewer & Treyens) Memory and emotion negative effects of emotion on memory; positive effects of emotion on memory (flashbulb memories and Larry Cahills research as shown in the video clip "Enhancing Memory: The Role of Emotion") Forgetting: rate (Ebbinghaus); three theories (decay; proactive vs. retroactive interference; motivated forgetting) Zimbardos Discovery Psychology Program: Remembering and Forgetting (VoD link is on Blackboard)

Chapter 8: Intelligence

Three components of intelligence (multifaceted, functional, influenced by culture); definitions of intelligence, psychometric instruments, and intelligence tests Sir Francis Galton hereditary intelligence; used simple measures; invented bivariate distribution Alfred Binet (father of intelligence testing) used complex measures; created Binet-Simon scale & mental age concept Lewis Terman & the Stanford-Binet Scale know the formula of the intelligence quotient: IQ = (MA/CA) x 100 David Wechsler developed standardized IQ score with M = 100 and SD = 15 o Know the frequency distribution of normally distributed IQ scores (i.e., know the percentage of cases from 3 standard deviations below the mean to 3 standard deviations above the mean) o WAIS-IV: Full Scale IQ, Index scores (verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed), and subtests (verbal vs. performance, M = 10, SD = 3) Validity of IQ tests (predicts school success, r = .60/.70); criticisms (no theoretical basis; cultural bias) Mental Retardation: three criteria for diagnosis (IQ < 70 and deficits in adaptive behavior and documented before age 18) and four classifications (Mild vs. Moderate vs. Severe vs. Profound) Giftedness (IQ > 130; longitudinal research findings) Three Approaches to Intelligence 1. Psychometric uses factor analysis o Spearmans 2-factor theory (g factor & s factors); neuroimaging support (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) o Cattell and Horns Gf-Gc theory: fluid vs. crystallized intelligence and 7 additional factors 2. Information Processing (cognitive perspective) know the 3 variables to explain differences in intelligence 3. Gardners Theory of Multiple Intelligences: know 4 lines of evidence to support the theory & 8 intelligences Zimbardos Discovering Psychology Program: Testing and Intelligence (VoD link is on Blackboard)

Chapter 9: Consciousness / Sleep & Dreaming

Definition; William James stream of consciousness and consciousness of self; 2 functions of consciousness Attention (definition) selective attention (cocktail party phenomenon) and selective inattention o Know the three functions of attention and the brain areas involved in mediating those three functions 1. Maintaining alertness (vigilance/sustained attention) continuous performance tasks; reticular formation and frontal lobes 2. Controlling behavior & the contents of consciousness thought, movement, self-control, divided attention (dichotic listening task), working memory; basal ganglia and frontal lobes 3. Orienting toward the environment Posners Covert Orienting of Visuospatial Attention Task, including anterior attention system (frontal lobes, anterior cingulate, basal ganglia) vs. posterior attention system (pulvinar, superior colliculus, parietal cortex), and endogenous vs. exogenous covert orienting Psychodynamic view of consciousness: conscious, preconscious, and unconscious (including repression) Cognitive view: consciousness of self, preconscious, unconscious, and Implicit Association Test video clip: Hidden Prejudice: The Implicit Association Test Neuropsychology: hindbrain / midbrain / reticular formation; thalamus; prefrontal cortex the cortex and consciousness (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and the Stroop Interference Test) Altered states: (1) drug ingestion of psychoactive substances hallucinogens, stimulants, and depressants; (2) religious experiences; (3) meditation; and (4) hypnosis (including possible effects of hypnosis) Sleep and Dreaming o Evolution (circadian rhythms; suprachiasmatic nucleus of hypothalamus; pineal gland and melatonin); species variation in sleep; sleep differences across human lifespan; sleep duration & mortality rates; 3 functions of sleep o EEG: frequency, amplitude, synchrony vs. desynchrony Know the frequencies and associated features of delta, theta, alpha, and beta waves o Stages of sleep: know the EEG patterns and associated features of NREM sleep (stages 1-4) and REM sleep o Sleep disorders: narcolepsy and insomnia o Three views of dreaming: psychoanalytic, biological, and cognitive Zimbardos Discovery Psychology Program: The Mind: Awake and Asleep (VoD link is on Blackboard)