TEACHER’S GUIDE

OCTOBER 2013

Jonathan Moscone Artistic Director Susie Falk Managing Director Clive Worsley Director of Artistic Learning

Guide compiled by Trish Tillman
Pictured: Omozé Idehenre, who plays Hermione  in Cal Shakes’ production of A Winter’s Tale; photo by Jeff Singer.

PREP YOUR STUDENTS FOR THE SHOW–
Book your pre- or post-show classroom workshop! Contact the Artistic Learning Coordinator at 510.548.3422 x133 for more -info. 1 -

IN THIS GUIDE:
1. 2. Cal Shakes Overview Cal Shakes’ Mission, Funders, and Partners.......................................3 Artistic Learning Programs at Cal Shakes...........................................4 A Winter’s Tale Overview A Note to Teachers.........................................................................6 Plot Summary................................................................................7 Fun Facts about A Winter’s Tale.......................................................8 Who’s Who–The Actors & Characters................................................9 Who’s Who–The Characters.............................................................10 Character Map...............................................................................11 Seeing the Play: Before and After.....................................................12 Shakespeare’s Language..................................................................13 A Winter’s Tale: “Water Wears Away Stone” Storytelling As Healing....................................................................15 Shakespeare’s “Romances”..............................................................17 Hermione and Leontes: Water vs. Stone............................................18 Festivals........................................................................................20 Behind the Scenes: Elizabethan Times William Shakespeare: A Mysterious Life............................................23 The Language of Flowers.................................................................25 Resources A Winter’s Tale on Film...................................................................27 The Internet...................................................................................28 Books............................................................................................29 Classroom Activity Guide Cal Shakes’ Mission, Funders, and Partners.......................................31 Social Networking Character Study: “Shakesbook”..............................32 BoMEMEia: Make Your Own Meme..................................................37 Dear Me in 16 Years.......................................................................38 Dear Diary.....................................................................................39 Shakespeare’s Runway....................................................................41 “Brush Up Your Shakespeare” Reference Sheet..................................48 Cal Shakes Critique: Elementary and Middle School...........................49 Cal Shakes Critique: Middle and High School.....................................51

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GUIDE CREDITS Editor: Trish Tillman Contributors: Tommy Statler, Jacinta Sutphin, Megan Wicks, Miriam Salameh Copy Editors: Stefanie Kalem Layout & Graphics: Callie Cullum and Sarah Soward 2

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OUR MISSION
We strive for everyone, regardless of age, circumstance, or background, to discover and express the relevance of Shakespeare and the classics in their lives by: • Making boldly imagined and deeply entertaining interpretations of Shakespeare and the classics; • Providing in-depth, far-reaching, creative educational opportunities for diverse youth; •  Developing new models that expand who participates in making theater, how they participate, and why.

OUR FUNDERS AND SPONSORS
STUDENT DISCOVERY UNDERWRITERS

The National Endowment for the Arts in partnership with Arts Midwest presents Shakespeare for a New Generation. California Shakespeare Theater is one of 42 professional theater companies selected to participate in Shakespeare for a New Generation, bringing the finest productions of Shakespeare to middle- and high-school students in communities across the United States. This is the 11th year of Shakespeare for a New Generation, the largest tour of Shakespeare in American history.

Artistic Learning programs are supported by generous contributions the numerous donors to our annual Gala Make-a-Difference Fund and the following foundation and corporate sponsors: Dale Family Fund, Dodge & Cox, Sidney E. Frank Foundation, Walter and Elise Haas Fund, The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, Dean and Margaret Lesher Foundation, Thomas J. Long Foundation, MCJ Amelior Foundation, Morris Stulsaft Foundation, The National Endowment for the Arts/ Arts Midwest: Shakespeare for a New Generation, RHE Foundation, The Safeway Foundation, and the Wells Fargo Foundation.
PRESENTING PARTNERS SEASON PARTNERS

SEASON UNDERWRITERS

California Shakespeare Theater 701 Heinz Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94710 510.548.3422

• www.calshakes.org

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ARTISTIC LEARNING PROGRAMS AT CAL SHAKES
The vision of the Artistic Learning department of Cal Shakes is to become a leading Bay Area citizen, creating a culture of lifelong learners and nourishing imaginations in preparation for the work of life. Cal Shakes offers a variety of theater programs taught by theater professionals throughout the school year and summer.

IN-SCHOOL ARTIST RESIDENCIES
With innovative curriculum, Cal Shakes brings working artists into the schools to teach theater arts to develop students’ intellectual and social skills. We work with classroom teachers to choose the text—Shakespeare or otherwise—and to align curriculum and methods in conjunction with the classroom teacher’s goals. All residencies consist of 10-12 hours of instruction.

STUDENT DISCOVERY MATINEES (Field trips)
Our well-rounded approach to Student Matinees consists of multiple offerings, including this free Teacher/Student Guide, optional pre- and post-show classroom visits by teaching artists, a lively pre-performance engagement at the Theater, and a Q&A session with actors immediately following the show. This multipronged approach offers a unique opportunity for students to develop a lasting appreciation of theater and of Shakespeare.

AFTER-SCHOOL CLASSES
After-school programs are a popular offering in many aspects of theater including acting, physical comedy, and improvisation as well as Shakespeare. First grade and up.

SUMMER SHAKESPEARE CONSERVATORIES
Cal Shakes hosts Summer Shakespeare Conservatories in Lafayette and Oakland in which students study with professional Cal Shakes actors and artists. Students return year after year to experience the joy of working intensely in theater fundamentals such as acting, improvisation, stage combat, and voice, culminating in a production of a Shakespeare play in original language. Scholarships are available.

For more information or to register for any of our programs, please call the Artistic Learning Coordinator at 510.548.3422 x133, or email learn@calshakes.org.

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OVERVIEW

Pictured: Cal Shakes students as (left to right) Perdita, Paulina, Hermione, and Leontes in a Summer Shakespeare Conservatory production of A Winter’s Tale; photo by Jay Yamada.

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A NOTE TO TEACHERS
“… a wild dedication of yourselves To unpath’d waters, undream’d shores…”
Camillo, Act 4, scene 4 We are thrilled to have you and your students join us for this season’s Student Discovery Matinee production of A Winter’s Tale. Our goal is to enliven students’ engagement with this play in a deep and memorable way, through the live Cal Shakes performance and your use of the background information and activities provided in this Teacher’s Guide. The intent is to address the complexity of teaching Shakespeare (and in this case, a lesser-known play) and provide specific tools you can use to make it vivid and personal for yourself and your students. This wonderful play was written near the end of Shakespeare’s life, and it is easy to imagine his deciding that, this time, he could really mix it up. Modern scholars have wrestled with how this play should be categorized: Directors have struggled with how to believably represent a man-eating bear and a statue that comes to life; actors continually experiment with how stock character types such as the jealous husband and the virtuous wife can have meaningful depth; designers worry over how to create not only one distinct and detailed setting but two, Sicilia and Bohemia; directors wonder how to meaningfully stage the convention of Time’s long, explanatory monologue skipping 16 years from Act 3 to 4. But what is the core of the play? The theme of our guide is “Water Wears Away Stone”: Director Patricia McGregor finds that the primary story of the text is one that emphasizes grace, hope, faith, and forgiveness. She argues that this play illustrates how these positive, seemingly gentle emotions are ultimately more powerful than anger, fear, paranoia, and jealousy. They are the waters that wear away the stone. This is a play that can especially resonate in our time. Sometimes retaliation, reasonable or not, becomes how societies operate under extreme duress. Told through the exquisite metaphor of a family almost completely destroyed by jaded emotions, we can see how our actions can significantly influence the world around us—be it our family, our friends, our pets, or our country. Tragedy tends to claim our tears—all of us know it in our own lives, and we cry to see our pain recognized—but the gentle power of patience and love is not so extroverted. It simply waits, through the passage of time, through panic and disorder, until it can be seen: until Hermione is stone no more, and she steps down with feet of flesh. Theater teaches us to engage the whole body, the brain, and our emotional intelligence — and if you let Shakespeare play in your class as his actors played onstage, the students cannot help but connect. And yes, it’s fun; and yes, that can be the same as doing rigorous and demanding work. Theater is a great way to bridge the resistance gap. Enjoy! The Cal Shakes Artistic Learning Department

A Winter’s Tale OVERVIEW

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PLOT SUMMARY:
By Cal Shakes Resident Dramaturg Philippa Kelly

Where it all begins: Sicilia, kingdom of King Leontes Who’s there: Various servants herald the entrance of Leontes; his heavily pregnant wife, Hermione; and his childhood friend, Polixenes, King of Bohemia Don’t let your heart outshout your brain: Leontes begs Polixenes to stay a week longer; Polixenes says he can’t. Leontes occupies himself somewhere else while Hermione presses his case. Polixenes relents, agreeing to stay; and, out of nowhere, Leontes decides that because he didn’t succeed and his wife did, there has to be something going on between the two of them. Leontes gives birth to this suspicion; his imagination does the rest. Ask an oracle before, not after: Leontes orders Polixenes gone; he sends Hermione to jail, where she delivers a baby girl; Leontes sends the child away to be killed and asks an oracle to tell him the truth of what has gone on; the oracle confirms that Hermione was true to her husband. But it’s too late: Leontes’ pre-teen son dies of grief and trauma; Hermione falls in a swoon and her servant reports that she, too, has died. Not even a good act can save you from a bear: Antigonous, charged with murdering the infant, leaves her on the Bohemian coast instead. A bear chases and kills him. The baby is found by a shepherd. Sixteen years later: The infant, Perdita, has been raised by the shepherd in the forests of Bohemia. One day King Polixenes’ son, Florizel, sees her and falls in love with her. Wronged people are not immune from doing wrong themselves: Polixenes and his servant Camillo (who was once Leontes’ servant) attend, in disguise, the betrothal of Florizel and Perdita. Polixenes tears off his disguise and orders his son never to see this lowly shepherdess again. Sicilia is now a sanctuary: Florizel and Perdita escape to Sicilia. Florizel is embraced by the suffering Leontes, who has mourned his actions for the last 16 years. Florizel soothes Leontes’ grief and remorse by telling him he’s on a mission from his father to bury the hatchet. The best-laid plans… Florizel’s cover is blown when his furious father arrives, along with Camillo, who longs to see his homeland again. Nature may solve it all: The story unravels itself. We find that Perdita is in truth Leontes’ long-lost infant daughter; that Hermione is not dead, but safely maintained by her loyal servant Paulina all these years; and that Leontes can now have both wife and daughter back again. Sometimes, just sometimes, life is indeed a miracle.

A Winter’s Tale OVERVIEW

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Fun facts about

A winter's Tale

It was originally printed in the First Folio of Shakespeare’s plays in 1623 as The Winter’s Tale. We are calling it A Winter’s Tale both because the title has also been published under that title, and in our storytelling-based production we felt that A Winter’s Tale emphasized the mythological aspects of this story. It is generally agreed that this play was written around 1609–11. The first recorded performance of the play was at The Globe on May 15, 1611; later that year it was presented at Whitehall before King James I. In 1613, the play was presented as part of the wedding celebrations of James’ daughter Elizabeth to Frederick V, later to become King of Bohemia. (The King of Bohemia would have a special interest in watching a character named after himself!) In the First Folio, it was printed at the end of the Comedies section.

A Winter’s Tale OVERVIEW

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WHO’S WHO: The Actors
CAST

Aldo Billingslea* Polixenes, ensemble

L. Peter Callender* Leontes, Shepherd, ensemble

Tristan Cunningham* Perdita, Emilia, ensemble

Margo Hall* Paulina, Clown, ensemble

Omozé Idehenre* Hermione, Mopsa, ensemble

Christopher Michael Rivera* Autolycus, Antigonus, ensemble

Tyee Tilghman* Florizel, Camillo, ensemble

Mackenzie Kwok Veronica Larkin Second Lady, Dorcas, Ensemble Second Lady, Dorcas, Ensemble

Akili Moree Mamillius, ensemble
*Denotes member of Actors’ Equity Association.

Zion Richardson Mamillius, ensemble

A Winter’s Tale OVERVIEW

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WHO’S WHO: The Characters
Leontes: King of Sicilia, married to Hermione; father of Perdita and Mamillius Hermione: Queen of Sicilia and married to Leontes; mother of Perdita and Mamillius Perdita: Princess of Sicilia; daughter of Leontes and Hermione, younger sister of Mamillius; in love with Florizel Mamillius: Prince of Sicilia; son and heir of Leontes and Hermione; brother to Perdita Polixenes: King of Bohemia; best friend of Leontes and father of Florizel Florizel: Prince of Bohemia and son of Polixenes; in love with Perdita Paulina: Lady of the Sicilian court and wife of Antigonus; trusted advisor of Leontes Antigonus: Husband of Paulina and member of the Sicilian court Emilia: Lady-in-waiting to Hermione Camillo: A Lord and trusted administrator and friend of both Leontes and Polixenes Shepherd: A man who raises Perdita from an infant Shepherd’s Son: Son of the Shepherd; sometimes known as “Clown” Autolycus: Formerly in the service of Florizel, now cons others of out their money Dion and Cleomenes: Lords of the Sicilian Court Dorcas and Mopsa: Two country girls involved with the Shepherd’s Son Archidamus: Member of the Bohemian Court Mariner: A sailor Jailer: The jailer of Hermione Officer at the Court: In charge of Hermione’s trial

Note: Role assignments subject to change.

A Winter’s Tale OVERVIEW

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CHARACTER MAP

A Winter’s Tale OVERVIEW

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BEFORE AND AFTER
“There’s some ill planet reigns: I must be patient till the heavens look With an aspect more favorable.”
Hermione, Act 2, scene 1

SEEING THE PLAY:

Consider the following questions before and after the show. BEFORE Viewing the Play
Why do you think Leontes is so jealous? Look for reasons. What do you wonder about Hermione, just from knowing the plot? Watch for the way the director has decided to show the play skipping over the 16 years after the baby Perdita is abandoned. Look for all the opposites in the play: actors that play opposite kind of characters; how the characters act in Sicilia vs. how they act in Bohemia; the difference in colors, shapes, and sizes between the two countries. As you watch the play, look for characters that act like people in your real life. Is there a character here that is a kind of person you’ve never met before? Would you want to meet them?

AFTER Viewing the Play
Do you think Hermione really died? Is the statue of her a real statue that changes to flesh? Did the setting and costumes of the characters make sense to you? Do you think what Shakespeare did was a good way to end the story? Is it a good way to end in real life? Do you think jealousy is justified in certain cases? What should you do about it? What do you think of Paulina? What do you think A Winter’s Tale is really about? Did you recognize any parts of this story from your own life? Do you know any people like these, or anyone that acts like this in a relationship?

See the “Write Your Own Critique” page in the Activity Appendix for more ideas about what to watch for and how to write about your reactions after the show.

A Winter’s Tale OVERVIEW

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SHAKESPEARE’S LANGUAGE
When asked the number-one challenge with Shakespeare’s works, modern-day audiences will almost always respond: “the language.” It’s true that the language does sound different to our ears and that Shakespeare uses phrases we no longer use in our everyday speech. But think of this: There are phrases that we use today that would baffle Shakespeare, should he magically time-travel to this day and age. That’s because language (especially English) is constantly transforming.

Can you match these original quotes from A Winter’s Tale to their modern-day translations?
We were as twinned lambs that did frisk i’ the sun, And bleat the one at the other: what we changed Was innocence for innocence; we knew not The doctrine of ill-doing, nor dreamed That any did. Polixenes, Act 1, scene 2 Good my lord, be cured Of this diseased opinion, and betimes; For ‘tis most dangerous. Camillo, Act 1, scene 2 Since what I am to say must be but that Which contradicts my accusation, and The testimony on my part no other But what comes from myself, it shall scarce boot me To say, “Not guilty.” Mine integrity, Being counted falsehood, shall, as I express it, Be so received. Hermione, Act 3, scene 2 When daffodils begin to peer, With heigh! the doxy over the dale, Why, then comes in the sweet o’ the year; For the red blood reigns in the winter’s pale. Autolycus, Act 4, scene 3 The self-same sun that shines upon his court Hides not his visage from our cottage, but Looks on all alike. Perdita, Act 4, scene 4 I lost a couple, that ‘twixt heaven and earth Might thus have stood begetting wonder as You, gracious couple, do: and then I lost-All mine own folly--the society, Amity too, of your brave father, whom, Though bearing misery, I desire my life Once more to look on him. Leontes, Act 5, scene 1 Tis time; descend; be stone no more; approach. Paulina, Act 5, scene 3 See Brush Up Your Shakespeare on page 48.
A Winter’s Tale OVERVIEW

The same sun that shines on the royal court shines on cottages too—the sun does not care if we are Royal or not. Since anything I say won’t be believed, and I’m the only one who can say I am innocent, I shouldn’t even bother to say “not guilty.” My honesty counts as a lie, so when I speak truthfully, it will be heard as lying.

I lost two people that might have stood here with me between heaven and the grave; they might be as astonished as you two are. Then I lost that craziness; and I lost the company and friendship of your father. Even though I’m responsible, I’d give my life to see him once more.

When daffodils start to bloom and the wenches call over the hill, it is the sweetest time of the year, because red life rules over winter’s pale authority.

Please, my lord, this jealousy is like you are sick. Cure yourself by stopping to think this way; and do it fast, it’s dangerous.

It’s time; come down; be human again; come to us.

We were so innocent, like twin lambs playing together in the sun. We had no idea evil even existed, or that anyone could know of evil.

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WATER WEARS

AWAY STONE

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STORYTELLING AS HEALING
(page 1 of 2)
“It is required You do awake your faith. Then all stand still.”
Paulina, Act 5, scene 3 In A Winter’s Tale, Leontes is caught in a terrible storm of emotions, and cannot allow himself to trust his beloved wife, even to the point of denying an oracle from the gods. We’ve all been in a dark place where our worst feelings are overwhelming us. “That’s not fair. They are out to get me.” “Is that rumor true?” “How could someone say something like that about me?” “I wish I had what that person has.” “Why do I have to go through this?” “I’m all alone.” “No one knows how I feel.”

Our director puts it like this: “Set as a fable told by Paulina and her traveling group of gypsies, using the simple magic of traveling storytellers and natural beauty of our outdoor setting in the Orinda hills, this play evokes the elements that draw us towards and away from our best natures.” The reason our play is framed through the act of sharing stories is that storytelling lets us listen to others, instead of hearing only the constant chatter of our own minds. There is an unceasing human need to hear about others: to see our own difficulties mirrored; to be reminded that we are not alone; to experience triumph and joy through what others are going through, doing, and feeling. Storytelling is almost the only thing we do. And it is one of the best ways to learn and understand oneself through the experiences of others. “You’ll never guess what happened today!” “So, once, when we were at the park…” “I think that we can work it out like this…” “That reminds me of the time when…”

WATER WEARS AWAY STONE

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STORYTELLING AS HEALING
(page 2 of 2)
STORY JOURNAL
For one day, write down every story you read or hear during the day. (Don’t write down the whole story! Just a note like, “Tasha told me about her cat.”) This includes people talking to you, of course, but also most anything you read on the internet or in a book you’re reading, the lyrics to a song you hear, what the teacher tells you in class. Name the story and a brief line to describe what the story was about. Now take stock: How many of these were meaningful to you? Which ones provoked an emotion in you? Extension exercise: There’s a lot of data that shows that people are, more and more, limiting their interactions with the world to what makes them comfortable, or what they already know and agree with. So tabulate your list of stories: Which of these stories did you seek out on purpose? Which ones came unexpectedly? Take stock: Do you tend to go online to read stories that suit you, or do you seek ones that you don’t know much about? What is your conclusion about how you interact with the world on this basis?

WATER WEARS AWAY STONE

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SHAKESPEAre’S “ROMANCES”
“I’ll make the statue move indeed, descend, And take you by the hand…”
Paulina, Act 5, Scene 3

“O, she’s warm! If this be magic, let it be an art Lawful as eating.”
Leontes, Act 5, scene 3 Scholars have debated for years over how to classify Shakespeare’s plays into established literary genres; and there are many categories beyond the traditional Comedy, Tragedy, and History into which the First Folio categorized Shakespeare’s plays. To make it more fun, each of Shakespeare’s plays that can be fairly recognized as a Tragedy, Comedy, etc. usually incorporating some elements from the other genres as well. The name “Romance” was specifically created in order to categorize four of Shakespeare’s late plays: Pericles, The Tempest, Cymbeline, and A Winter’s Tale. Each of these plays incorporates several elements: • Fantastical aspects such as magic, fairies, nonhuman creatures, or visions • Families split and reunited • Young love • Faraway, near-mythical settings • Highly poetic language • Both comic and tragic plot elements; in fact, the Romance genre has also been called Tragicomedy.

For Students—What Grabs You?
After you have done a basic exploration and explanation of the play’s plot and characters, use the following as the basis for a discussion and/or writing prompt. The goals are to get the students to become aware of their own reactions and to help them express them nonjudgmentally. You may find this useful; the “audience” of the classroom will help direct your exploration of the play. What strikes you most about the play right now? What is most interesting to you? Why?

WATER WEARS AWAY STONE

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Hermione and leontes: water vs. stone
(page 1 of 2)
“I have tremor cordis* on me; my heart dances, But not for joy, not joy.”
Leontes, Act 1, scene 2
* Fluttering of the heart

“The crown and comfort of my life, your favor, I do give lost, for I do feel it gone, But know not how it went.”
Hermione, Act 2, scene 1

Plays offer us a chance to understand characters more deeply than people we may meet in real life. One reason for this is that for characters to be believable on stage, they show reasons for all of their actions. Even if their logic or actions do not match our personal standards, we can usually work to understand them. Their logic and actions are often explained to us through dialogue or an actor’s portrayal. With Leontes and Hermione, Shakespeare has given us two great characters with which to try this out. Let’s take Leontes first. His actions may be particularly difficult to understand, since Shakespeare gives few clues as to his reasons. Again, our jobs as actors and directors of this play demand that we find reasons that make human sense. Our director spoke about Leontes’ unjust actions being caused, perhaps, by his paranoid jealousy; and, as we know, it results in the tragic deaths of his son Mamillius and his wife as well as the loss of his friendship with Polixenes. She paraphrased James Baldwin in saying “I understand why people hold on to anger. Because when you let go of anger, you have to deal with the pain lying underneath.” Is Leontes acting so angry because he is so pained by the idea that his wife might not love him? This starts to get the actor to a place where the reasons become clear and recognizable to an audience. Hermione is also a study in action, although hers seem much more consciously chosen than her husband’s. She is accused of infidelity, but she doesn’t retaliate. Though she could do so, as a person of some power and position, she chooses not to engage Leontes in the same angry, accusatory way. She effectively breaks the cycle of retaliation by refusing to meet him at his level. So why doesn’t Hermione fight back with anger?

WATER WEARS AWAY STONE

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Hermione and leontes: water vs. stone
(page 2 of 2)
Finding Reason
Have students divide two sheets, one for Leontes, and one for Hermione, into three columns each, with the following headings. • Leontes’/Hermione’s actions • Why Leontes/Hermione says s/he does it • What you believe influenced that decision This will give you and your students an opportunity to work through the text using a process similar to what an actor playing Leontes would undertake. It allows you to take a look at what they do, and then at the two viewpoints on every decision: the interior and exterior. The interior is someone’s personal view, through their “eyes”—why they do or have done something. The exterior is the view from the outside, through our eyes—why they do or have done something. Extension Exercise: Think of one time that you did something in which you felt completely justified, but later learned from others was the wrong decision.

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festivals and culture
(page 1 of 2)
“…pray you, bid These unknown friends to’s welcome; for it is A way to make us better friends, more known. Come, quench your blushes and present yourself That which you are, mistress o’ the feast: come on, And bid us welcome to your sheep-shearing, As your good flock shall prosper.”
Old Shepherd, Act 4, scene 4 fes·ti·val; noun 1. a day or time of religious or other celebration, marked by feasting, ceremonies, or other observances: the festival of Christmas; a Roman festival 2. a periodic commemoration, anniversary, or celebration: an annual strawberry festival 3. a period or program of festive activities, cultural events, or entertainment: a music festival 4. gaiety; revelry; merrymaking Festivals are held in all cultures around the world, to celebrate and honor what each culture values. In A Winter’s Tale, the central festival is that of sheep shearing, which highlights the value of one of the major commodities of the countryside: wool to sell or make into clothing, blankets, etc. Since most of us in this particularly built-up area of Northern California are not familiar with sheep-rearing, we opted for a different kind of festival—a festival of flowers. Textually, this is consistent with both our modern sensibilities and Shakespeare’s undisputed love of spring flowers in his native country of England. He writes long, lovely lists of flowers in A Winter’s Tale, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, and many of his other plays. You can even find Shakespeare gardens in many parks across the U.S. and England, planted specifically with the flowers he mentions.

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festivals and culture
(page 2 of 2)
Hold Your Own Festival
If you were to make a festival of something, what would you celebrate? Think about local culture, and the things your community treasures or reveres. As sheep were highly significant to rural England (and still are), what is a central part of your community? Martin Luther King, Jr.? Mount Diablo? Fog? Hot weather? A certain kind of music or food? Now, to go even further: What is something you would celebrate individually? Guitars? Basketball? Penguins? Do you think others might share your enthusiasm? It’s okay if you don’t think so—you might be interested in some very cool things that other people don’t really know about. In three paragraphs, describe your own festival: What it’s about, where would you hold it, and what would the activities would be to would honor the thing you are celebrating? Fun fact: California Shakespeare Theater was known as the Berkeley Shakespeare Festival when it was founded back in 1974.

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ELIZABETHAN CULTURE

OVERVIEW

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William Shakespeare: A Mysterious Life
(page 1 of 2)
I see the play so lies That I must bear a part.
Perdita, Act 4, scene 4 Sure, he’s one of the most highly regarded writers of all time. But the really interesting thing is that we don’t actually know if the man known as William Shakespeare—of Stratford-on-Avon, son of a glove-maker—was really the author of all the plays written under his name. A common argument is that a lower middle-class man such as Shakespeare could not have had sufficient education or knowledge of court matters to write so insightfully and profoundly of the human condition and of kings, much less use language so skillfully. Who could have written the plays? Frequently suggested are: • Queen Elizabeth • The Earl of Oxford • Sir Francis Bacon • A bunch of playwrights writing under one name. Even his real birthday is unsure. (Birth records of the time are rare and unreliable.) Shakespeare was born on April 23, or maybe the 20th, or the 21st, or maybe even May 3. It’s pretty certain that it was in 1564, and that he was baptized on April 26. To add to the confusion, common spellings of “Shakespeare” include “Shakespere,” “Shackspeare,” and “Shakspeare.” (Standardized spellings are actually a modern trend.) In 16th-century England, words could be spelled in a variety of ways—even in the same document. These crazy spellings combined with Shakespeare’s messy, messy handwriting have made it difficult for historians to identify which historical records actually pertain to the famous playwright-poet-actor; Shakespeare used to be a common name. William…Shakespeare?

Furthermore, only a few samples of handwriting are thought actually to be his—plays were

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Elizabethan Culture Overview

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William Shakespeare: A Mysterious Life
(page 2 of 2)
copied out by actors and others in the theater company to carry for rehearsals. There are a few things about Shakespeare, however, that we do know for sure. A man known as William Shakespeare definitely was involved in the theater: His name is listed among the acting company known as the Lord Chamberlain’s Men in London, which was very popular with the people and with Queen Elizabeth. The company also built the famous Globe Theatre in London, which premiered most of Shakespeare’s plays. Shakespeare had a son named Hamnet who died young, and is thought to have inspired the name of Hamlet. Shakespeare had two other children: Hamnet’s twin, Judith; and another daughter, Susannah. Unfortunately, the Shakespeare line ended when his granddaughter Elizabeth died in 1670, having no children of her own. Therefore, there are no descendants who kept records of the time. Shakespeare is buried in the Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon, his birthplace. On this grave there is an inscription cursing anyone who dares to move his body from that final resting place. To this day his bones remain undisturbed. What do you think?

For Students
Look up the clues that people have collected about who Shakespeare was. Do you think there really was one man from Stratford-on-Avon who wrote all of the plays, or was the name used to cover up the real author(s)? Why would someone want to cover it up? Does any of this matter in the end?

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Elizabethan Culture Overview

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the language of flowers
“Give me those flowers, there, Dorcas. Reverend sirs, For you there’s rosemary and rue; these keep Seeming and savour all the winter long: Grace and remembrance be to you both…”
Perdita, Act 4, scene 4 Many flowers and plants have had a particular meaning since ancient times. In Perdita’s speech above, she reminds her listeners that rosemary stands for remembrance, possibly because its scent and shape are distinctive and hard to forget. Legend has it that Greek students used to put it in their hair while studying for exams so they would remember the material better. Rue is called “herb of grace” but it commonly stands for regret, since its leaves—though edible—taste very bitter. If you are a fan of The Hunger Games novels or movies, you might remember a girl named Rue that Katniss helps in the games. Her fate is what you might call extremely regretful, so her name is appropriate. Here is one example of a common flower and its various meanings: Roses: Dark Pink - Thankfulness Lavender - Enchantment Orange - Fascination Pale Pink - Grace, Joy Red - Love, Respect Single Full Bloom – “I Love You” or “I Still Love You” Thornless - Love at First Sight White - Innocence and Secrecy White and Red Together – Unity Yellow - Joy, Friendship

Your Flower Message
Think of someone to whom you would want to send a message (perhaps look at your cell phone contacts). You may use the list provided above to make a message, or look up more flowers and their meanings at thelanguageofflowers.com.

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Elizabethan Culture Overview

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A Winter's tale
on Film
The Winter’s Tale, being a complex and mixed-genre story, seems to have had limited appeal to commercial filmmakers over the years, in contrast with the multiplicity of Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet films. However, the fantastical elements have tempted a few filmmakers over the years to try and capture the story:

The Winter’s Tale (1910) Directed by Theodore Marston and Barry O’Neil Starring Anna Rosemond, Martin Faust, and Frank Hall Crane Black-and-white, abridged, silent version The Winter’s Tale (1967) Directed by Frank Dunlop Starring Laurence Harvey, Jane Asher, and Jim Dale Film adaptation of Dunlop’s 1966 Edinburgh Festival production The Winter’s Tale (1981) Directed by Jane Howell Starring Jeremy Kemp, Anna Calder-Marshall, and Robert Stephens Minimalist BBC production, with an ensemble cast acting on a unit set

Note: There is a very funny film by Kenneth Branagh called A Winter’s Tale, that is about a group of amateur actors putting on a production of Hamlet in an old church in the dead of winter. This is a British precursor to Waiting for Guffman by the great Christopher Guest, but it is not an adaptation of the Shakespeare play The Winter’s Tale.

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THE INTERNET
Folger Shakespeare Library—massive collection of lesson plans and activites for teaching Shakespeare at all grade levels: www.folger.edu Life in Elizabethan England: • Elizabethan.org/compendium • Teachit.co.uk/armoore/Shakespeare • Snaithprimary.eril.net/ttss.htm

Activities on Shakespeare’s various plot and character relationships: • Collaborativelearning.org/muchadoplotrelationships.pdf (for Much Ado About Nothing, but can be adapted to any Shakespeare play) • The Stratford Festival’s “Tools for Teachers: Stratfordfestival.ca/education/teachers. aspx?id=1096 • Shakespeare Resource Center’s “Elizabethan England”: Bardweb.net/England.html The Kennedy Center’s “The Poetics of Hip Hop”: Artsedge.kennedy-center.org/educators/lessons/ grade9-12/Poetics_of_Hip_Hop.aspx Shakespearean Insult Worksheet: Gallery.carnegiefoundation.org/collections/quest/collections/sites/ divans-hutchinson_yvonne1/Yvonne%20scans/insultsheet.pdf

Shakespeare retold: BBC.co.uk/drama/shakespeare

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BOOKS
Davis, James E., ed. Teaching Shakespeare Today: Practical Approaches and Productive Strategies. Urbana, Ill: National Council of Teachers of English, 1993. Crystal, David, and Crystal, Ben. The Shakespeare Miscellany. The Overlook Press, Peter Mayer Publishers, Inc. Woodstock and New York, 2005. Crystal, David, and Crystal, Ben. Shakespeare’s Words: A Glossary and Language Companion. Penguin Books, The Penguin Group. London, 2002. Papp, Joseph and Elizabeth Kirkland. Shakespeare Alive! New York, New York: Bantam Books, 1988. Epstein, Norrie. The Friendly Shakespeare: A Thoroughly Painless Guide to the Best of the Bard. New York, New York: Penguin Books, 1993 Asimov, Isaac. Asimov’s Guide to Shakespeare. New York, New York: Random House, 1970. Foster, Cass and Lynn G. Johnson. Shakespeare: To Teach or Not To Teach. Grades three and Up. Scottsdale, AZ: Five Star Publications, 1992. Garfield, Leon. Shakespeare Stories. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1998. Morley, Jacqueline and John James. Shakespeare’s Theatre: The Inside Story. East Sussex, London: Simon and Schuster Young Books, 1994.

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CLASSROOM ACTIVITY GUIDE
September/October 2013

Jonathan Moscone Artistic Director Susie Falk Managing Director Clive Worsley Director of Artistic Learning

Pictured: Omozé Idehenre, who plays Hermione  in Cal Shakes’ production of A Winter’s Tale; photo by Jeff Singer.

“The first and most important lesson…is that there are no rules about how to do Shakespeare, just clues. Everything is negotiable.”
–Antony Sher and Greg Doran, Woza Shakespeare! 1996, on training in the Royal Shakespeare Company
Note to Teachers: This guide was created as a supplement for teachers preparing students to see California Shakespeare Theater’s production of A Winter’s Tale. Worksheets are designed to be used individually or in conjunction with others throughout the guide. While we realize that no aspect of this guide fully outlines a course for meeting a subject area’s standards, discussion questions and topics are devised to address California state standards in English, Performing Arts, and History. The activities here can be minimally reproduced for educational, nonprofit use only. All lessons must be appropriately credited. There are many excellent lesson plans for A Winter’s Tale and other Shakespeare plays that can be adapted to fit A Winter’s Tale on the Internet. Please see the “Resources” section of this guide for links. This guide concentrates primarily on ideas that help students understand language, plot, and character through activities that get students on their feet and speaking. If you are interested in a California Shakespeare Theater Professional Development Workshop, which provides easy-tolearn tools for teachers to incorporate theater and arts education activities into California standards-based core curriculum, please contact the Artistic Learning Department at 510.548.3422 x136 or learn@calshakes.org.

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OUR MISSION
We strive for everyone, regardless of age, circumstance, or background, to discover and express the relevance of Shakespeare and the classics in their lives by: • Making boldly imagined and deeply entertaining interpretations of Shakespeare and the classics; • Providing in-depth, far-reaching, creative educational opportunities for diverse youth; •  Developing new models that expand who participates in making theater, how they participate, and why.

OUR FUNDERS AND SPONSORS
STUDENT DISCOVERY UNDERWRITERS

The National Endowment for the Arts in partnership with Arts Midwest presents Shakespeare for a New Generation. California Shakespeare Theater is one of 42 professional theater companies selected to participate in Shakespeare for a New Generation, bringing the finest productions of Shakespeare to middle- and high-school students in communities across the United States. This is the 11th year of Shakespeare for a New Generation, the largest tour of Shakespeare in American history.

Artistic Learning programs are supported by generous contributions the numerous donors to our annual Gala Make-a-Difference Fund and the following foundation and corporate sponsors: Dale Family Fund, Dodge & Cox, Sidney E. Frank Foundation, Walter and Elise Haas Fund, The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, Dean and Margaret Lesher Foundation, Thomas J. Long Foundation, MCJ Amelior Foundation, Morris Stulsaft Foundation, The National Endowment for the Arts/ Arts Midwest: Shakespeare for a New Generation, RHE Foundation, The Safeway Foundation, and the Wells Fargo Foundation.
PRESENTING PARTNERS SEASON PARTNERS

SEASON UNDERWRITERS

California Shakespeare Theater 701 Heinz Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94710 510.548.3422

• www.calshakes.org

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Social Networking Character Study
(Page 1 of 5)
Have your students create a “Shakesbook” profile for a character from the play. Overview: Being able to empathize with fictional characters sheds light on our own personal situations, and recasts the plot of the play in relevant terms. Grade: 6–12 Goal: To bring the characters of A Winter’s Tale into a real-world context. State Standards: English Literary Response and Analysis 3.0-3.4 Outcomes: Students will be able to use basic facts from the text to imaginatively enter into the thoughts, feelings, and motivations of fictional characters by creating a mock Facebook page. Activity: Familiarize students with the profile layout of a social networking site page, such as Facebook. (See following examples.) 1. Ask the students to fill in the profile with: a. vital statistics b. likes and dislikes c. friends Note: Students should use information drawn from their knowledge of the play (for example, Hamlet is dressed in black), filled out by their imaginations (for example, Hermione always won at Freeze Tag when she was a little girl). 2. Profile photos may be drawn or cut out from magazines, or an actual photo of the student could be used and attached to the page. Remember, many actual Facebook profile pages do not have an actual photo of the person who made them—Facebook members sometimes choose a picture of something they feel represents them, e.g., a tree or a poster they like. 3. Share the pages you have created in student pairs or in a group discussion.

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Social Networking Character Study
(Page 2 of 5)
Reflection
• Name one thing you had to imagine about your character that you think is really interesting. • W  as it easy to imagine beyond the play—for instance, what Autolycus’ activities and interests might be? Or do you feel the play did not provide enough information? How so? • H  ow easy was it to decide who your character’s friends are? Would your character ignore a friend request from other characters in the play? Why or why not?

Note: Require the students to fill out the worksheet manually, rather than actually filling out a public profile online. If you can post their mock profile pages onto your school website or blog for students to fill out within the framework of this project, that would work as well, but false profiles in a public space should be actively discouraged. Student examples should show a deep understanding of the plot and qualities of the character. Some examples follow.

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shakesbook
Autolycus

A Winter’s Tale
I just figured out how to hack into the school’s student database. Grades for sale!

Studied Faking injuries in soccer games Married to myself

Wall

Write something...

Married to
Myself RECENT ACTIVITY

Autolycus updated their status
Friends (3,001)
Mopsa

“You should buy my new bear-repellant spray. Totally works, dude.”

Florizel wrote:
Dorcas

“Hey, that ‘gold’ ring you sold me for Perdita turned her finger green! I want my money back!”

Polixenes sent Autolycus a private message.
Perdita

Autolycus wrote on Florizel’s wall.
Florizel

Autolycus opened a shop on Etsy. Renaissance Country Trinkets of Love

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shakesbook
Perdita

A Winter’s Tale
I’ve pledged to give a flower a day to every new person I meet this spring.

Studied Flower-growing, sheep-herding In a relationship with Florizel

Wall

Write something...

Friends (30)
Florizel RECENT ACTIVITY

Perdita wrote: “Best day ever!! I’m in love!” Florizel likes this
Autolycus

Perdita “So excited about the festival. Hope Florizel buys me something pretty!”

Mopsa

Florizel wrote: “Meet me at the big oak tree before the festival...”

Dorcas

Perdita wrote on Florizel’s wall

Clown

Florizel wrote on Perdita’s wall

Old Shepherd

Perdita wrote on Florizel’s wall Old Shepherd wrote: “Don’t be so forward, Perdita!”

Perdita likes flowers and Bohemia and sunshine and unicorns

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shakesbook

A Winter’s Tale

Studied Relationship status

Wall

Friends ( )

RECENT ACTIVITY

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Bohmemeia
Overview: Students will use popular images or “memes” from Internet culture to relate to A Winter’s Tale. Grade: 7–12 Goal: To connect the situations and characters into modern pop culture. Outcome: Students will be able to relate action and language in the play with current portrayals of similar situations or emotions. Preparation: Students should be familiar with the story. Activity: Create a meme (picture with text) relating to the plot or a scene in A Winter’s Tale. These are meant to be comedic. The students will go to this link: http://www.mememaker.net/create/upload in order to create the meme. The background of the meme can be anything they like. A good example for the background of the meme could be William Shakespeare’s face, or a bear. Here’s what we created. Now go have fun and create your own!

Art Source: hyperboleandahalf.blogspot.com

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Dear ME IN 16 YEARS
Overview: Students will imagine what their older selves might need to know from their younger selves. Grades: 6–12 Goal: To fully imagine the emotional and situational changes that might happen to them as they grow older, and to offer advice to the older self. Outcomes: Through the experience of relating to their own lives, students will be able to gain compassion and understanding of Leontes’ change over the course of 16 years; and of Perdita’s growing up never knowing her true identity.

Activity
A Winter’s Tale contains a 16-year leap into the future between the first part of the play and the second. The characters in this play, as people in real life, grow older and experience many life events, but the audience or reader does not witness all of these. The characters in the play are obviously changed by the circumstances that have arisen in 16 years; in real life, shifts can be so gradual that people may forget some of the perspectives, feelings, and thoughts of their 16-yearsyounger self. What would it be like if you could really remember that earlier part of your self—would you benefit? Would it affect how you make decisions and interact with people around you today?

This portion of the lesson can begin with a discussion about how the 16-year time jump affects the character development and story arc in the play. How do people change and/or stay the same over the years? Then have the students write a letter to their 16-years-older selves. Prompt them with a few broad topics such as: What would you want yourself to remember about your likes and dislikes and aspirations? Is there any advice they’d want to give? What is your favorite food, smell, book? Once the students are finished, have them put the letter in an envelope addressed to themselves with the date on it and the date of when they can open it. If possible, they should give it to a guardian for safekeeping, or put it in a special place where they’ll remember to open it years later.

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Dear Diary
(page 1 of 2)
Overview: Writing a diary, blog, or journal entry from the perspective of one of the play’s characters creates empathy with fictional characters, sheds light on our own personal situations, and recasts the plot of the play in relevant terms. Grades: 6–12 Goal: To bring the characters of A Winter’s Tale into a real-world context. Outcomes: Students will be able to use facts from the text to imaginatively enter into the thoughts, feelings, and motivations of fictional characters by writing a diary entry about an offstage moment from the perspective of a character in the play.

Activity
1. Ask the students to write a diary, blog, or journal entry from the point of view of a character in A Winter’s Tale, describing a moment when that character is not seen onstage. Think about: What is happening when the character is in this offstage situation? What is the character thinking and feeling? 2. Ask the students to choose a character and a moment to write about. Examples: • What is Leontes doing, thinking, and feeling during the 16-year gap? Remember that he repents at the end of the play—what happens to him between the time he accuses his wife and abandons their daughter, to when he comes back to loving them? • Imagine the Old Shepherd’s life before he finds Perdita and decides to raise her. • It’s fairly clear that Polixenes and Hermione are not having an affair—the oracle says so and they themselves deny it. Then what are they really doing spending so much time together in that first scene? • How has Hermione survived all these years? Is she really a statue, magically brought to life? Did Paulina lie when she said Hermione died, and has been taking care of her in hiding all these years?

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Dear Diary
(page 2 of 2)
Reflection
• Name one thing you had to imagine about your character that you think is really interesting. • Was it easy to imagine beyond the play—for instance, what Leontes’ thoughts might be? Do you feel the play did not provide you with enough information? How so? • How easy was it to decide which character to write an entry for? Are there characters you think might be more likely to keep a diary or blog?

 Extension Exercise Do the same writing exercise, but have one student write about the same incident from multiple characters’ points of view. Alternatively, have many students describe the same incident from different characters’ viewpoints. Instead of a written piece, do a vlog (video blog) from the point of view of one character, or featuring two characters talking about the incidents and expressing their opinions and feelings about what happened.

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MAKE IT WORK! Shakepeare’s Runway
(page 1 of 7)
Overview: To delve into the understanding of character through translating the text into a design concept. Goal: Students will use contextual clues and their understanding of text to inspire an original, artistic representation of the character. Outcomes: Students will gain personal understanding of the characters by relating the text through the group process to create an original interpretation of the character. Materials: • A scene featuring each of the three characters being studied • A variety of art supplies: markers, scissors, tape, etc. • About 40 clothing items that can create a wide variety of looks • Safety pins and/or binder clips to adjust fabric to fit • Body templates for design sketching (see Male and Female Templates on page 47) and scrap paper for notes

HOW TO PLAY: Ask your students to study one of the characters from the play in order to outfit this character in a way that reflects who they are, based on your study of the text. 1. You are provided text in the next few pages that will give character and costume clues for each person. Read the selected scene, taking note of words or character clues in the text as you go. Share with your group the images that popped out at you, seeming to best describe the character. 2. As a group, select three key words that inspire you in your design process. 3. On your own, create a rendering of your character using various art supplies and the template provided for you. Join your group again and, as a team, select one rendering to be brought to life. Elements may be combined from multiple drawings, but be prepared to explain your choices in the design presentation. 4. You will have a box of clothing including hats, shoes, skirts, etc.; choose the items that represent your character. You may also use found objects, your own clothing, and other assorted art supplies on hand.

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(page 2 of 7)
5. One person from your team will serve as the model, one person will serve as the main presenter to tell the class what line from the text most fully embodies your look, and each member of the team must explain how the words are reflected in the clothing choices you made. The model must perform this line of text. If possible, take a photo of the model next to the design ideas to complete the activity. Reflection: • Were there things about the character that you did not recognize before when you were looking at the text from a designer’s perspective? • How did your group arrive at the design concept that you ended up modeling? Did you have to make some compromises? • When looking at the other group’s designs, what do you think they most successfully represented about their given character? When you see their word choices, what costume item most embodies one of those words to you? • What element of the character’s costume do you find the most intriguing or thoughtprovoking?

Note: Students do not need to be worried about a look that would go well in a magazine, i.e., one that could have commercial appeal. It might be easy for some students to fall into this way of thinking as this kind of advertising is seen everywhere, but this exercise is only about physically embodying the character’s personality.  Extension activities: Those who are interested in fashion or artistically oriented might want to base a clothing line on all of the main characters in the play, presented as a runway. Scrapbooking or creating a collage from different magazines or drawing a costume rendering first provides the opportunity for students to share their own ideas about their character with their classmates.

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Shakepeare’s Runway
(page 3 of 7) TEXT FOR CHARACTER OF LEONTES
LEONTES How blest am I In my just censure, in my true opinion! Alack, for lesser knowledge! How accursed In being so blest! There may be in the cup A spider steeped, and one may drink, depart, And yet partake no venom, for his knowledge Is not infected; but if one present Th’ abhorred ingredient to his eye, make known How he hath drunk, he cracks his gorge, his sides, With violent hefts. I have drunk, and seen the spider. Camillo was his help in this, his pander. There is a plot against my life, my crown. All’s true that is mistrusted. That false villain Whom I employed was preemployed by him. He has discovered by design, and I Remain a pinched thing – yea, a very trick For them to play at will. —A Winter’s Tale, Act 2, scene 1

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Shakepeare’s Runway
(page 4 of 7) TEXT FOR CHARACTER OF PERDITA
PERDITA I wish I had some flowers o’ the spring….daffodils, That come before the swallow dares, and take The winds of March with beauty; violets dim, But sweeter than the lids of Juno’s eyes Or Cytherea’s breath; pale primroses, That die unmarried ere they can behold Bright Phoebus in his strength – a malady Most incident to maids; bold oxlips and The crown imperial; lilies of all kinds, The flower-de-luce being one. O, these I lack To make you garlands of, and my sweet friend, To strew him o’er and o’er! FLORIZEL What, like a corse? PERDITA No, like a bank for love to lie and play on. Not like a corse; or if, not to be buried, But quick and in mine arms. Come, take your flowers. Methinks I play as I have seen them do In Whitsun pastorals. Sure this robe of mine Does change my disposition. FLORIZEL What you do Still betters what is done. When you speak, sweet, I’d have you do it ever. When you sing, I’d have you buy and sell so, so give alms, Pray so and for the ordering your affairs, To sing them too. When you do dance, I wish you

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(page 5 of 7)
A wave o’ the sea, that you might ever do Nothing but that, move still, still so, And own no other function. Each your doing, So singular in each particular, Crowns what you are doing in the present deeds, That all your acts are queens. —A Winter’s Tale, Act 4, scene 4
Corse = corpse, dead body; flower-de-luce = fleur-de-lis, or iris; Whitsun pastorals = plays or morris dances presented around Whitsun, the seventh Sunday after Easter

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(page 6 of 7)

Pictured: Students from Northern Light school in Oakland, designing Ophelia’s death scene from Hamlet in the exercise “Shakespeare’s Runway”; photo by Trish Tillman.

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(page 7 of 7)

Female and Male Templates

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Brush Up Your Shakespeare
Reference Sheet
Below are some commonly used, but unfamiliar, words that Shakespeare used. addition – title affined – bound by duty alarum – call to arms with trumpets anatomize – to analyze in detail ancient – ensign anon – until later arrant – absolute aroint – begone assail – to make amorous siege attend – to await aye – yes baffle – to hang up (a person) by the heels as a mark of disgrace baggage – strumpet, prostitute balk – to disregard barm – the froth on ale belike – maybe belov’d – beloved blank – a target bolted – refined brach – bitch hound brake – bushes brave – fine, handsome bum – backside, buttocks caitiff – a wretched humble person catch – song character – handwriting Cousin, ’coz – relative, good friend chuck – term of endearment, chick clout – a piece of white cloth cog – to deceive coil – trouble cousin – any close relative descant – improvise discourses – speaks dispatch – to hurry e’en – evening enow – enough fare–thee–well – goodbye fie – a curse fustian – wretched got – begot grammarcy – thank you halter – noose honest – chaste, pure heavy – sorrowful housewife – hussy, prostitute impeach – dishonor list – listen mayhap – maybe mess – meal, food mew – confine minister – servant moiety – portion morrow – day nay – no ne’er – never office – service or favor oft – often passing – surprisingly, exceedingly
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perchance – maybe perforce – must politician – schemer post – messenger power – army prithee – please quest – a jury recreant – coward resolve – to answer, reply to but soft – be quiet soundly – plainly stale – harlot subscription – loyalty, allegiance tax – to criticize, to accuse troth – belief teem – to give birth thee – you (informal) thou – you (informal) thy – your (informal) tucket – trumpet flourish verge – edge, circumference verily – truly villain – common person, not noble want – lack of, don’t have well–a–day – alas wherefore – why yea – yes zounds – by his (Christ’s) wounds

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You’re the Critic: Cal Shakes Play Critique
Elementary and Middle School (page 1 of 2)
NAME: __________________________________

1. Circle the number of stars that best matches how you’d rate this performance. (One star is the lowest rating and five stars is the best rating.) Then write a paragraph on the back of the paper that specifically describes why you gave it that rating. Do not simply say “I didn’t like it,” but say why. For example, “I didn’t like the fact that the director changed the setting to New York” or “I loved the way the actors made me believe that they were really going to kill each other.”

Star rating: ___ stars 2. Outline the main actions that happened in the plot (what were the big events in the story?). a. b. c. d. e. f.

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You’re the Critic: Cal Shakes Play Critique
Elementary and Middle School (page 2 of 2)
3. What is the central idea or theme of the play?

4. Describe what the actors did to help you understand the Shakespearean language.

5. What did you particularly like or dislike about the staging (set design, lights, costumes, music, etc.)?

6. Shakespeare writes about feelings that we all experience. In A Winter’s Tale, we see people with feelings like love, jealousy, anger, frustration, and others. Pick one of these emotions that you’ve experienced strongly and write what happened in your life to make you feel that way and what happened because of it.

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You’re the Critic: Cal Shakes Play Critique
Middle and High School (page 1 of 2)
Give this production a rating of 1 to 5 stars. (One star is the lowest rating and five stars is the highest.) On a separate sheet of paper, write a paragraph review of the play. In other words, describe why you gave it that rating. Give specific examples to support your reasons. On the same sheet of paper, reflect on the following questions:

Star rating: ___ stars 1. How would you describe the world of this play? 2. Does Shakespeare give good reasons as to why the characters act the way they do? What justifications can you find? 3. Why are we still staging this play 400 years since Shakespeare wrote it? Why do you think the director chose this play? 4. Which character did you sympathize with most? Why? 5. Think about and describe: i. The vocal and physical actions of the actors (characterization) ii. The set iii. The costumes

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You’re the Critic: Cal Shakes Play Critique
Middle and High School (page 2 of 2)
6. What do you think are some of the themes of the play? 7. Did the elements of characterizations, set, and/or costumes reinforce any of these themes? 8. Shakespeare writes about things that we all experience: love, jealousy, death, anger, revenge, passion, misunderstandings, etc. Write a paragraph about one big emotion in the play that you’ve also experienced in your life. 9. Now, imagine you are the director of A Winter’s Tale, and use a new sheet of paper to create your new production. • Cast the characters of Leontes, Hermione, Florizel, and Perdita with famous actors. Why would you choose these two people? • Many directors set Shakespeare plays in time periods other than the Renaissance. What other setting could you place the play in that would make sense? Why? • How about costumes? Imagine how the characters in your new production would be dressed that would illustrate the kinds of characters they are and what setting you have put the play in.

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