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COURSE DESCRIPTIONS: The course includes the Plotting Techniques, principal ARPA system, IMO Performance Standards for Automatic RADAR Plotting Aids (ARPA), acquisition of targets, tracking capabilities and limitations, processing delays, setting up and maintaining displays, representation of target information, errors of interpretation, errors in displayed data, system operational tests, risks of over-reliance on ARPA, obtaining information from ARPA displays, application of COLREG and integrated navigation system.
3. NUMBER OF UNITS FOR LECTURE AND LABORATORY: 3 LECTURE, 2 LABORATORY = 5 UNITS 4. NUMBER OF CONTACT HOURS: 3 LECTURE, 6 LABORATORY = 9 HOURS 5. PREREQUISITES: E NAV 1 – Electronic Navigation 1 and RADAR 6. COURSE OBJECTIVE: The student shall be able to use Radar and ARPA. He shall be able to choose the appropriate mode of display, select plotting and graphics controls suitable to the circumstances, make appropriate use of operational alarms, acquire and track targets which present a potential threat of collision, extract the information needed to establish the course, speed and nearest approach to enable early action to be taken to avoid close quarters situation and make use of ARPA to confirm and monitor their actions. The student shall be able to state the dangers of over reliance on the automatic acquisition and tracking of targets and operational alarms and how these dangers can be counteracted. The student shall also explain the concepts of integrated navigation as needed for navigation and maneuvering system. FUNCTION: F1 – Navigation at the Operational Level (STCW Code, Table All/1) 7. COURSE OUTLINE: LEARNING OBJECTIVES: The students shall be able to . . . . . .
D51 – E NAV 2
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describe the criteria to be used for manual acquisition of targets.1 Plotting Techniques 7. list the data which should be available in alphanumeric form. use a relative plot to determine the alteration of course or speed needed to achieve a required CPA. explain why targets not posing a potential threat should be deleted from the tracker register if the limit on the number of acquired targets has been reached. speed and aspect of other ships from true and relative plots. 7.1.5 use plotting sheet and reflection plotter to construct the relative motion triangle.1. state changes in CPA and TCPA resulting from alteration of course or speed of “own” or target ship.3 7.2.4 7.1.1 7.4 7.3. state the criteria for automatic acquisition of targets.3 7.4 Acquisition of Targets 7.4 potential points of collision (PPC). describe the requirements for acquisition and tracking of targets.4.3 digital read-out.1.1. state the optimum number of targets.1.2 7. state performance standards for range and bearing accuracy and discrimination of radar.7.1 vectors. detect alteration of course of a target and find the alteration from a plot. and identify course. describe the operational warnings required.2.2 7. 126.96.36.199.4.4.2 graphics.4.1.1. 7.4 7.2. 7.2.3 IMO Performance Standards for Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA) 7. calculate Closest Point of Approach (CPA) and Time of Closest Point of Approach (TCPA) from true and relative plots.5 explain how ARPA acquires a target.3. page 2 of 8 D51 – E NAV 2 .2 7.2 Principal ARPA Systems 7.3.2 7.4. 7.1.5 outline the IMO performance standards for ARPA. 7.2. describe the different ways in which targets may be acquired.1 7.3 7.5 predicted areas of danger (PAD).1. 7.1 7.1 describe the different methods of displaying information: 7.2.
6. 188.8.131.52 explain why targets first appearing closer than the preset guard ring do not actuate alarms. select an appropriate time scale for vectors or graphics to produce information required.1 7.5. use manual acquisition and exclusion areas.1 explain the reasons for a delay in the display or processed ARPA data after target acquisition.6.7 Setting Up and Maintaining Displays 7.8 7.6 Processing Delays 7. depending on whether the sea stabilized mode or the ground stabilized mode is used. Representation of Target Information 7.7.2 explain the delay in the display of new data when the target ship maneuvers. D51 – E NAV 2 page 3 of 8 . 7.5. correctly adjust the radar controls for optimum display of echoes.7.3 explain the graphic display of PPCs and PADs.2 demonstrate the benefits of switching between true and relative vectors.8. 7. explain the use of echo referencing in the true motion mode. explain how derived information differs. 7.4 describe the effect of target swop on displayed data. 7.5 7. 7.8 select an appropriate display presentation having regard to the required task and current situation. 7.2 describe how a target is tracked by ARPA.7 7.2 7. explain how an acquired target may be “lost” if its echo fades temporarily.5. 7.3 state why full accuracy of derived information may not be attained.7.4.4 7. 7.8.5 Tracking Capabilities and Limitations 7.6 explain under which circumstances target acquisitions may be suppressed over certain areas and how this situation shall be handled.7.3 describe the circumstances leading to “target swop”. 7.1 use display in true and relative modes and demonstrate the use of true and relative vectors in each mode.5.7.1 7. use automatic acquisition and exclusion areas.3 184.108.40.206. select the appropriate mode for the circumstances.7.4.6 7.
4 assess the threat of collision by-forward extrapolation of vectors and by the use of PADs. explain how a “lost target” which is subsequently reacquired may temporarily show a course and speed suggesting an alteration when none has occurred.1.9.2 7.9 describe the benefits and limitations of operational warnings.8. check information from vectors with numeric display.8.10.4 state how errors will be introduced by inputs from compass and log.10.4 7.5 explain how past positions of tracked targets are displayed. 7.9.1 7.1. 7. state how the length of line from target to PAD or PPC is not an indicator of target speed.8.10.3 explain how the smoothing filter in the tracker combined with alterations in “own ships” course may temporarily produce unreliable indications.9.9.6 7. 7.9. 7.6 explain how the results of trial maneuvers are approximations depending on the model of “own ships” maneuvering characteristics.10.2 state the factors that may cause errors in range. explain how the PADs and PPCs displayed apply only to “own ship” and targets and do not indicate mutual threats between targets. 7.7 7. explain how a change of direction in the relative history display does not necessarily imply that the target has altered course.10.10 use area rejection boundaries where appropriate to avoid spurious interference.5 220.127.116.11 Errors In Displayed Data 7.9. 7. 7.8. use history display in the same mode as vectors.7 state the need to refer to the equipment manual for description of the maneuvering characteristics model used.1 backlash.8. D51 – E NAV 2 page 4 of 8 . 7.4 azimuth quantization. 7. if any.1 state how errors in bearing are generated in the radar installation by: 7.3 asymmetrical antenna beam.8 state how the use of vectors in the wrong mode is a common error.3 7. 7.8.9 Errors Of Interpretation 18.104.22.168.8 demonstrate the setting and acknowledgment of operational warning. explain how the incorrect interpretation of ARPA can lead to a dangerous misunderstanding of the traffic situation. 7. 22.214.171.124.10.2 ship motion. 7. 7.
7. 7. 7.11.1 state why the use of ARPA does not relieve the officer of the watch from the need to comply with basic principles in keeping a navigational watch.1 analyze displayed situations.14. interpret displays of past positions for detecting changes in course of speed of target.6 demonstrate ability to obtain information in both true and relative modes. determine and execute actions to avoid close-quarters situations. including trial maneuver by manual plotting.5 7.3 check performance.14.4 7.13.2 monitor subsequent situation and resumes original course and speed when safe to do so. 7. operate trial maneuver facility to check validity of intended alteration of course or speed.5 describe the effects of heading and speed errors on derived information.11.12.11 System Operational Tests 7.12.6 state how the smoothness of the displayed true history track gives some indication of satisfactory tracking by ARPA. D51 – E NAV 2 page 5 of 8 .7.14 Application of COLREG 7.4 state action to take after malfunction of ARPA.10. 126.96.36.199. 188.8.131.52 7.4 state how sensor input alarms only operate on failure of input and do not respond to inaccurate inputs. 184.108.40.206 explain why small predicted passing distances must not be relied upon. determine relative course and speed of target.1 7. 7. 7.11. identify critical targets.13 Obtaining Information from ARPA Displays 7.2 use system of self-diagnostic routines.3 7. use test programs to check performance against known solutions.2 7.12 Risks of Over-Reliance on ARPA 7. determine true course and speed of target.2 explain the dangers of relying on operational alarms to warn of the presence of other vessels or impending close-quarters situation.13.12. 7. 7.
CHEMICALS. 7.15. 154) Navigation Training Unit 1 RADAR Collision Avoidance: 8.1 RADAR simulator capable of simulating the operational capabilities of navigational radar equipment.2 any assessment of competency required by part A of the STCW Code which is carried out by means of a simulator.2RADAR Plotting (with student workbooks). spurious echoes and other propagation effects.4 8. which meets all applicable performance standards.5.1 explain the concept of integrated navigation on-board of modern vessels.15.7. current. PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR SIMULATORS: Any simulator used for simulator-based training shall: 8.1. and include parameters for at least 20 target ships and appropriate communication facilities.1.1 all mandatory simulator-based training 8.2 model weather. R1 Code No. and 8.7. MATERIALS.1 The performance standards and other provisions set forth in section A-I/12 and such other requirements as are prescribed in part A of the STCW Code for any certificate concerned shall be complied with in respect of: 8. EQUIPMENT. 8.1Automatic RADAR Plotting Aids Video On (Catalogue No.2 identify and describe data emanating from navigational sensors.3 8.1. 7. TEACHING AIDS: 8. 220.127.116.11 Integrated Navigation System 7.4 describe the function of a navigation unit.3 explain the total integration system in navigation.1.1RADAR Theory.7. navigational buoys and search and rescue transponders. 8. and generate coastlines. 7.2 8.15.5 8. adopted by CHED and incorporate facilities to: 8. and D51 – E NAV 2 page 6 of 8 .6. 8.3 create a real-time operating environment incorporating at least two own ship stations with ability to change own ship’s course and speed.6.6 8.7.5 identify and describe route tracking subsystem. 7.15.7 Plotting charts and equipment shall be available for each set Instructor’s Manual Video-cassette player Cassettes: 8. explain the performance function of optimum steering. tidal streams.1 operate in the stabilized relative motion mode and sea and ground stabilized true motion modes. shadow sectors.
8. monitor and record exercises for the effective debriefing of trainees. the instructor.1 RADAR simulator which meets all applicable performance standards.1 be capable of satisfying the specified assessment objectives.1. 8.8. 8. as appropriate.7 provide an interface through which a trainee can interact with the equipment. and include the capabilities. limitations and possible errors of such equipment.3 have sufficient behavioral realism to allow a candidate to exhibit the skills appropriate to the assessment objectives. 8. capable of producing a variety of conditions. 8. limitations and possible errors of such equipment.5 provide a controlled operating environment. page 7 of 8 8.6 provide a controlled operating environment.18.104.22.168.4 be capable of simulating the operating capabilities of shipboard equipment concerned. the simulated environment and. hazardous or unusual situations relevant to the training objectives.8 permit an instructor to control. at the discretion of the Party concerned.6 permit an assessor to control.7.8 Any simulator used for the assessment of competence or for any demonstration of continued proficiency shall: 8.3 be suitable for the selected objectives and training tasks. 8. capable of producing a variety of conditions.7.8. and 8. monitor and record exercises for the effective assessment of the performance of candidates. 8. 8.7. which may include emergency.7.8. 8.8. ARPA simulators capable of simulating the operational capabilities of ARPAs which meet all applicable performance standards adopted by CHED shall incorporate the facilities for: 8. of continued proficiency required by part A of the STCW Code. by means of a simulator.5 have sufficient behavioral realism to allow a trainee to acquire skills appropriate to the training objectives. 8.3 past track information.9. and include the capabilities.8. 8. hazardous or unusual situations relevant to assessment objectives.9 D51 – E NAV 2 .2 be capable of simulating the operational capabilities of the shipboard equipment concerned to a level of physical realism appropriate to the assessment objectives.7.2 Simulators installed or brought into use prior to 1 February 2002 may be exempted from full compliance with the performance standards reffered to in paragraph 1.7. to a level of physical realism appropriate to training objectives. 8. 8.2 manual and automatic target acquisition.4 provide an interface through which a candidate can interact with the equipment and simulated environment. adopted by CHED 8.8. 8.3 any demonstration. which may include emergency.
8. 8. Marquez III.9. D51 – E NAV 2 page 8 of 8 . 1985. and 8.1 9.4 9. Torrechilla.2 9.4 use of exclusion areas.3 9.. IMO Model Course 7.9 9. The IMO/ILO document for Guidance.6 9. ISBN 92-801-6105-9.5 vector/graphic time-scale and data display.10 REFERENCES: IMO Model Course 1. IMO Assembly Resolution A.7 9. IMO Sales No. 1999 Edition. John Mark M. Radar Observation and Plotting.E. International Regulations for Preventing Collision at Sea (COLREG). 935 87. and Payde. 904 85. Lauro S. IMO Model Course 1.01.8 9. Angel A.03.08E. as amended.9.6 trial maneuvers.09 – RADAR Simulator.07. IMO Model Course 1.482 (XII) – Training in Radar Observation and Plotting. 9. Electronics Navigation 2 including RADAR and ARPA.5 9. Assembly Resolution A.08: The Operational Use of ARPA/BRM/SAR. 9. IMO Assembly Resolution A. IMO Sales No.9.422 (XI) – Performance Standards for Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA).482 (XII) – Training in the Use of Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA).
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