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Factors to Consider When Designing Materials

1. Learners -know their learner well -begin with need analysis

2. The curriculum and the context - ensure the goals and objectives are kept close at hand

3.Resources and facilities - be realistic about what they can achieve within the limitations of available resources

4.Personal confidence and competence - influenced by teacher's level of teaching experience, his artistic skills and overall understanding of principles.

5.Copyright compliance - aware of the restrictions that copyright laws place on authentic materials.

6.Time - manageable by sharing materials with other teachers.

Guidelines for Designing Effective English Teaching Materials

1. English language teaching materials should be contextualised contextualised to the experiences, realities and first languages of the learners contextualised to topics and themes that provide meaningful, purposeful uses for the target language.

contextualised to the curriculum

2. Materials should stimulate interaction and be generative in terms of language allow sufficient scope for their learners to be 'streched' build on from what is provided to generate new language progress beyond surface fluency to proficiency and confidence.

3. English language teaching materials should encourage learners to develop learning skills and strategies materials provide self-evaluation by providing the necessary metalanguage and incorporating activities which encourage learners to assess their own learning and language development

4. English language teaching materials should allow for a focus on form as well as function.

encourage learner to take an analytic approach and form and test their own hypotheses about how language works.

alerting learners by providing opportunities for regulated practice in addition to independent and creative expression.

5. English language teaching materials should be authentic in terms of the text, materials designer shouls think of writtten material and also authentic spoke and visual texts. in terms of the tasks, consider the types of real world tasks that reflect the language and behaviours required of them.

7. English language teaching materials should link to each other to develop a progression of skills, understandings and language items.

clearly stated objectives at the outset of the design process.

clearly progress specific learning goals while also giving opportunities for repetitionand reinforcement of earlier learning

8. English language teaching materials should be attractive physical appearance consider density of the text, the type size and the cohesiveness and consistency of the layout user-friendliness attractive in the terms of their usability Durability robust enough to last the required distance

Ability to be reproduced

9. English language teaching materials should have appropriate instructions

written in language that is appropriate for the target learners

use of the metalanguage

10. English language teaching materials should be flexible

Content-providing a range of possible inputs

teacher or students choose which of these to use and which procedure to apply to them