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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Waterloo

Chapter 1: Introduction to Broadband Networks

ECE 610 Winter 2013

Dr. Mohamed Mahmoud


1.1 What are communication networks?

1.2 Important definitions and concepts 1.3 Internet network architecture 1.4 Communication network layers

A network is a communication system which enables users (or devices) at different locations to exchange data. A network function: Transfer data (voice, video, texts, etc) between devices. A network includes: - Links - Switches - Routers - End hosts (computers - servers) - Protocols/applications - etc

Applications of data networks - Sharing data and resources - Communicating with remote I/O devices - Share data/file access - Personal communications (chat and email) - Commerce and governance

Email server


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Why we need networking? - Direct point-to-point communication possible or efficient solution. is not always

- In order to transfer data (or connect computers) efficiently, we need a mesh connection of switches and routers.

Router Router Router



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1.1 What are communication networks?

1.2 Important definitions and concepts

1.3 Internet network architecture 1.4 Communication network layers

A human protocol A computer network protocol

Protocols are communicate.






- Protocols define the agreement between communication entities, e.g., the format of the messages exchanged, order of messages sent, and actions taken on messages, etc. - Protocols implement services at a layer, e.g., TCP, IP,
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- Different protocols can achieve different performance requirements, e.g., TCP is used in file transfer applications and UDP is used in real-time applications. - Communication Link: a connection that moves bits between two devices. It is characterized by:1- The used medium to transfer data: includes (1) Guided medium: signals propagate in solid media (copper wire, fiber optics) and (2) Unguided media: signals propagate freely (radio waves) 2- Link rate: how many bits can be sent though the link per second. 3- Bit error rate (BER): the probability of transferring wrong bit. Router 1.5 Mbps
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- Hosts or end systems: - Computing devices (such as computers, PDA, servers, etc.) that are either the source (data generators) or destination (absorber of data). - The network purpose is to connect hosts through one or more links. - They run application programs (such as Web, email), and are located at edge of network. - Node: Any device in a network, e.g., host, router, server, etc. - Types of communication: Unicast: one and specific node is the receiver Broadcast: all nodes in the network are receivers Multicast: subset of the network nodes are receivers
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Routing: The process of determining how to forward messages toward the destination node based on its address. Route: A set of nodes that relay messages from the source node to the destination.

Source node (S) C E F

Destination node (D)

Intermediate nodes: {A, B, C, E, F} Routes: {S, A, B, D}, {S, C, E, F, D}

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Transmission Modes
- Simplex One direction data transfer

- Half Duplex

Either direction, but only one way at a time

- Full Duplex Both directions at the same time

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The Scale of a network - Personal Area Networks (PAN): very small network. - Local Area Networks (LAN): Privately owned - single office, building, or campus. - Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN): covers a city - Wide Area Networks (WAN): - Covers a country or continent - End hosts may be connected through subnets - This may require connecting different and incompatible networks using gateways

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Network quality of service (QoS) - Network measures to judge the quality of the service provided by the network (delivering data). -Typically, QoS is described in terms of reliability, transmission speed, end-to-end delay, etc. - These metrics depend on transmission media, capacity of devices, efficiency of protocols, etc.
1- QoS metric - Reliability

- The accuracy of transmission represented by packet loss rate, the bit error rate (BER), packet delivery ratio, etc. - Packet error rate: The percentage of packets lost or damaged - Bit error rate: The percentage of bits lost or damaged
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- Usually, a reliable service is implemented by having the receiver acknowledge the receipt of each message, so that the sender is sure it has arrived. -Un-delivered packets should may be retransmitted by previous node, by source end system, or not retransmitted at all

Why packets are lost? Many reasons:1- Channel impairment: very obvious in case of wireless transmission 2- Congestion: if packet arrival rate > packet transmission rate, routers buffers become full and incoming packets are dropped.

Packet arrival rate Packet drop

Packet transmission rate


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2- QoS metric - Transmission speed - Throughput, bandwidth, data rate, and bit rate are used interchangeably to evaluate transmission speed. - Bandwidth: The data rate (bits/s) at which bits are transmitted per link or between sender and receiver (end-toend). - Throughput: The data rate (bits/s) at which bits are delivered per link or between sender and receiver (end-toend). - Throughput: Effective data transmission per second, Bandwidth throughput, bandwidth = throughput + dropped packets - A link on end-end path may constrain end-end throughput
Link capacity Rs bits/sec link capacity Rc bits/sec
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3- QoS metric - End-to end packet delay - The average time taken to deliver a packet to the destination host. - It is due to the following delays:
- Nodal processing delay: Check bit errors - determine output link - a few microsecs or less. - Queuing delay: Time waiting for transmission in routers buffer - depends on congestion level of router. - Propagation delay: time needed for signal to travel the medium = link length/propagation speed of medium - a few microsecs to hundreds of msecs - Transmission delay = packet size(bits)/link rate (bps). Depend on link speed.


nodal processing



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- Different applications require different quality of services. - Some applications (such as file transfer) require reliable service. - An application where delays are unacceptable is digitised voice or video traffic (in general any real-time traffic). - It is preferable for telephone users to hear some noise in the background than to wait for acknowledgements of delivered voice frames. - Network design should support application-specific quality of service. - QoS is specified on a percentage basis, e.g., the maximum latency is no more than 100 ms 97% of the time. - To guarantee the QoS 100% of the time would be impossible
Class interactive streaming elastic Application VoIP live video email, ftp Delay < 150 ms up to 10s tolerable Data Rate 64kbps 400kbps N/A Packet loss 1%-3% 1% Zero
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Security - Protecting data from unauthorized access or manipulation. - Protecting the network proper operation. Privacy - Preserving sensitive information from disclosing, e.g., data content, users location privacy, the identities of the users that communicate. - Security and privacy can be considered QoS metrics. -Notice: 1KB = 210 bytes 1MB = 220 bytes 1GB = 230 bytes

1kbps = 103 bits per second 1Gbps = 109 bits per second

1Mbps = 106 bits per second

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Network Topologies
- A topology is the physical configuration of a network (how a network is connected), ex. bus, star, ring, mesh, etc.
1- Bus topology

- A bus is a single electrical circuit to which all devices in the network are connected. - When a node transmits a signal, each node connected to the bus receives the signal. - However, a node ignores any signal that is not specifically addressed to it.

Common bus

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- Signals may collide with each other who will get the bus

need to arbitrate

- Efficient for broadcasting message (one send & many listen) - The bus failure may bring down the network - Failure of one node causes no network failure
Master slave slave slave

2- Star Topology



- Each node is linked to a central node. - All messages are sent from one client to another through the central node. -If one slave client fails no other clients are affected.
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- The entire network may go down if the central node fails. - Easy to arbitrate among slaves (master decides) - Not scalable (the master is the bottleneck)

3- Ring Topology

Nodes are arranged in a ring

- Arbitrate who can access the ring - Data flows only in one direction. - A message sent out from one node is passed along to each node in between until the target node receives the message. - The ring can be broken if any cable or a computer is damaged or broken.

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4- Mesh Topology - Point-to-point links connect every node to every other node. - All computer-to-computer communications are through one link (one hop). - The number of links increases sharply with the number of computers. - A mesh topology is often used for MAN or WAN networks.

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Types of communications 1- Client/Server 2- Peer to Peer 1- Client/Server - The client initiates communication by sending a request to the server and waiting for a response. - A server receives a clients request, and responds with a reply satisfying the request.

CNN server


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- Typically, a client is a lower-capability computer, but the server is dedicated always-on computer with larger capacity. - Servers do most or all of the processing - Both client and server are dedicated to their respective tasks, and those roles never reverse. - Different servers perform different tasks: File server, Web server, Email server, etc. - Web Server is usually a computer running the http server program.

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2- Peer-to-Peer communication
- Minimal (or no) use of dedicated servers, e.g. Skype

(VoIP), BitTorrent (file sharing) - The two computers have roughly the same power and can perform approximately the same services for each other. - Each computer (peer) has equal responsibilities and can initiate communication. - Each computer's user can decide what resources to make available to other peer users.


Network Pop
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Important network nodes Repeater switch gateway - router


1- Repeater A repeater operates at the physical layer and forwards everything between the two LANs amplify/re-construct signals. 2- Switch - Link layer device - stores and forwards frames
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- A device that receives packets from an input link, and then transmits them over the proper link that connects to the node addressed. - Examines frame header and selectively forwards the frame based on MAC destination address - Suppose C sends frame to D, the switch checks its table and sends the frame to interface 2.
switch 1 2 3


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Bridge - A data-link-layer device that connects two or more networks with the same protocol. - Used to build extended LANs to increase speed and efficiency: Large networks can be separated into smaller networks and connected by bridges. - Unlike repeaters, bridges will not forward a frame onto another LAN segment if it knows about the location of the destination node. - Switch: Receives frame on input port - translates address to output port. - Bridge: Connects shared media - all ports bidirectional repeats subset of traffic.

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Router - A network-layer device that sends packets in one of many possible directions to get them to their destination. - Features more sophisticated addressing software than bridges. - Can determine preferred paths - Stores/update a routing table that helps determine the outgoing line for incoming data to route packets to the intended device - Switches vs. Routers - Both store-and-forward devices - Switches are link layer devices routers are network layer devices (examine network layer headers) - Routers maintain routing tables, implement routing algorithms - Switches maintain switch tables, implement filtering
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Institutional network
mail server router switch web server

to external network

IP subnet

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Gateway - Connects two networks that employ different architectures and use dissimilar communication protocols - Translation between frame formats - Operates at or above the OSI transport layer


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1.1 What are communication networks? 1.2 Important definitions and concepts

1.3 Internet network architecture

1.4 Communication network layers

What is the Internet? - A network of millions of connected computing devices running distributed applications: Web, VoIP, email, file sharing, etc - Made up of thousands of overlapping hierarchical networks
Access networks
Backbone networks (Internet service provider (ISP))

cellular network

Two parts: 1- Access networks 2- Backbone network (Core network)

home network.

institutional network. (e.g., UW)

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1- Access networks
- Access networks connect hosts to edge router that connects it to the internet service provider.

- Examples: - Dial-Up modem - Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) - Residential access - Ethernet Internet access - Wireless access networks - Institutional access networks (school, company)

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Access networks: Dial-Up modem

- Use the existing telephony infrastructure - Up to 56 kbps - Can not surf and phone at the same time
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Access networks: Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

- Use the existing telephony infrastructure - Up to 8 Mbps downstream 1 Mbps upstream - Can surf and phone at the same time
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Access networks: Residential access

1- Using cable TV infrastructure 2- Using fiber optics: very large bandwidth 1- Using cable TV infrastructure

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Access networks: Residential access

1- Using cable TV infrastructure

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Access networks: Residential access

2- Using fiber optics

Optical links from central office to the home OLT: optical line termination ONT: Optical Network Terminal
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Access networks: Ethernet Internet access

- Used in companies, universities, etc - 10 Mbps, 100Mbps, 1Gbps, 10Gbps Ethernet - End systems typically connect into Ethernet switch via twisted pairs.
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Access networks: Wireless access networks

- Shared wireless access network connects end system to router via base station also known as access point - Wireless LANs (WiFi): 11 or 54 Mbps

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2- Backbone networks: - Infrastructure interconnects different subnetworks - Mesh of interconnected routers network of networks
Access networks
Backbone networks (Internet service provider (ISP))

cellular network

home network.

-How is data transferred through the backbone? 1- Circuit switching 2- packet-switching

institutional network. (e.g., UW)
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1- Circuit switching
- Ex. telephone network

- Three phases involved in the communication process: 1. Establish the end-to-end circuit (Routing & resource allocation) 2. Transmit data 3. Terminate the circuit (Deallocate the dedicated resources) - An end-to-end dedicated communication path (sequence of links-circuit) is established between the two end nodes.

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- The multiplexer combines (multiplexes) data from several input lines and transmits over a single medium. -The demultiplexer separates (demultiplexes) the multiplexed data, and delivers data to the appropriate output lines. - Multiplexing is used to make efficient use of high-speed 44 links.

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- Static multiplexing is used in circuit switching - Divide link bandwidth into slots (time or frequency) that are allocated to calls.
Example: 4 users

Frequency division multiplexing (FDM)

frequency time

Time division multiplexing (TDM)



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n is the number of inputs - the data rate of the link is n times faster, and the unit duration is n times shorter. A connection occupies a fixed bandwidth of each link for the entire lifetime of the connection.

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Disadvantage of static multiplexing

Waste bandwidth in case of idle links Resource piece is idle if not used by owning call (no sharing)
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Circuit switching
- End-end dedicated resources are reserved - Guaranteed performance (data is not delayed at switches fixed data rate) - For voice traffic: a high percentage of utilization because most of the time one party or the other is talking. - For data traffic: most of the time the connection is idle - Some delay to establish a connection, after that information is transmitted at a fixed data rate with no delay other than the propagation delay.

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2- Packet Switching
- Used in the Internet - Messages are divided into smaller-size packets discrete chunks - Each packet contains control information (source/destination addresses, sequence number (to know its order in a message), information for checking transmission errors etc) - Packets traverse the network individually and may use different routes - The packets are reassembled and reordered at the destination - The destination address is used to forward packets to the right node. - Node receives complete packet before forwarding - packets move one hop at a time

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Packet Switching
- Uses statistical multiplexing: bandwidth is used on demand and as needed - No resource reservation - Packets share the network resources (buffers, links) - Each packet uses full link bandwidth - Resource contention: Packets may be buffered in intermediate nodes and transmitted when line becomes available, i.e. store-and-forward - Aggregated input traffic can exceed the link capacity buffer may overflow congestion at the router - Protocols are needed for reliable data transfer (because of packet drop), and congestion control mechanisms are needed because of congested routers 1- 46

Statistical multiplexing

4 Mb/s

4 Mb/s

Statistical multiplexing
6 Mb/s

queue of packets waiting for output link

buffered or dropped

bandwidth time


Traffics A and B do not have fixed pattern

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- If source peak rate can exceed link ratepackets may need to be queued - If buffer capacity is not sufficient, packets may be dropped and hence lost

1 Mb/s link - each user: 100 kb/s when active active 10% of time Circuit-switching: 10 users Packet switching: with 35 users, probability > 10 active at same time is less than .0004

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Static multiplexing versus statistical multiplexing

Static multiplexing

Statistical multiplexing
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Why not message switching?

host 1

node 1

node 2

host 2

Message size (M) = 7.5 MB , Bit rate per link (R) = 1.5 Mbps For simplicity, ignore processing and propagation delays

M Transmission delay = 3 = 15 Seconds R

This large delay is because of receive complete message and than forward
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Using packet switching

-Split the message into packets each with 1500 bits long - Receive only 1 packet and then forward it - 1 ms to transmit packet on 1 link - Pipelining: each link works in parallel - Delay reduced from 15 s to 5.002 s!!!
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Why not message switching? Second motivation

host 1 BER = 10-6 BER =10-6 host 2

(1- 10-6) = the probability of transmitting a bit successfully through one link Approach 1: send 1 Mbit message 6 106 106106 = e1 1/ 3 Probability message arrives correctly = (110 ) e On average it takes about 3 transmissions/hop or total number of bits transmitted 6 Mbits Approach 2: send 10 packets with 100 kbit Probability packet arrives correctly = (1 10 )
6 105

10510 6

= e 0.1 0.9
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On average it takes about 1.1 transmissions/hop or total number of bits transmitted 2.2 Mbits

Timing Comparisons of circuit and packet switching

Switch or routers

circuit establishment

Data Transfer


Circuit Switching

circuit termination

Packet Switching

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Packet Switching
Store-and-forward packets Uses statistical multiplexing No guarantees about loss or delay Good for data transmission some links may be inactive very often Send/receive messages at variable rate High utilization of resources (bandwidth) - allows more users to use network

Circuit Switching
Carry bit streams Uses static multiplexing Guaranteed bandwidth and delay and no packet loss Good for delay-sensitive applications Send/receive bit stream at constant rate Waste bandwidth - inefficient in case of bursty traffic

No startup overhead for setting Initial startup overhead for up connection, but the persetting up connection, but very packet processing overhead is fast forwarding of bits larger thereafter Utilizes resources according to traffic demand Links reserved for use by communication channel
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1.1 What are communication networks? 1.2 Important definitions and concepts 1.3 Internet network architecture

1.4 Communication network layers

We use the concept of layers in our daily life. As an example: consider two friends who communicate through postal mail.

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- Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is an ISO (International Standards Organization) standard that covers all aspects of network communications. - OSI is a network architecture that partitions overall communication process into separate functional areas called layers

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The interaction between layers in the OSI model

Each layer passes data and control information to the layer immediately below it, until the lowest layer is reached. 1- 57

An exchange using the OSI model


message Decapsulation

Segment Datagram Frame

- The headers may include control information (such as sequence numbers), sizes, times, etc.

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- Encapsulation: On the sending node, each protocol adds its own header to a message as it moves downward through the stack. - Decapsulation: On the receiving node, each protocol removes its own protocol header before passing the message up to the layer above. - Segmentation/Reassembly: If a layer receives a message that is too long, it divides the message into manageable fragments. The corresponding layer on the receiver reassembles the message - Layer N on one machine communicates with layer N on another machine - The rules and conventions used in this communication are known as the layer N protocol
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- Layers 4-7 communicate with the same layers on the end host - Layers 1-3 communicate with the same layers on the next hop node - Layers 1-2 are concerned with the flow of data along one hop - Layers 34 are concerned with end-to-end data flow through the network - Layer 5 is concerned with services to the applications

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Main benefits of layered architecture Decomposition of the overall network function into a set of layers results in a number of benefits: 1. Simplifies network design, implementation, and testing. 2. Simplifies how network protocols are designed as the function of each layer and the layers interaction are well defined. 3. Provides easiness and flexibility in maintaining, modifying, or updating protocols and services. 4. Addition of new services and management of network architecture is easy. 5. Change of a layers service is transparent to the rest of system - layer N change doesnt affect other layers
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Layer 7 Application Layer



- Responsible for providing services to the user such as email, file transfer, HTTP, etc (Running network applications). - It sends/receives messages to/from presentation layer.
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An application-layer protocol is run at each end host and the end hosts protocols exchanges messages. (Process-toprocess communication)

Examples of application layers protocols: HTTP: Web document request and transfer Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): the transfer of email messages File Transfer Protocol (FTP) : the transfer of files between two end systems. DNS: the translation of human-friendly names for Internet end systems to an IP address.

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Layer 6 Presentation Layer

Allows applications to interpret meaning of data, e.g., providing data compression and encryption - code (data format) conversion
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Layer 5 Session Layer

Responsibility: - Session set up (user or host authentication (login) Access management). - Graceful connection termination.
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- Internet stack (TCP/IP) is missing session and presentation layers.

- Their services, if needed, must be implemented in application layer.

- Whereas the application, presentation, and session layers are concerned with application issues, the lower four layers are concerned with data transport issues.

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Layer 4 Transport Layer

Responsible for: - Defining port addresses for services (processes) - Segmenting a message at the sender and reassembling it at the receiver. 1- 67

Process-to-process data delivery

Transport layer deals with end-to-end issues such as: - End-to-end reliable delivery of messages from one process to another by ensuring that the receiver receives the messages it sends. - End-to-end flow control: by ensuring that it does not send data with a rate more than that the receiver can absorb. 1- 68

- Examples of internet transport layer protocols: TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol). TCP provides guaranteed delivery of application-layer messages to the destination and flow control. - TCP also provides a congestion-control mechanism. UDP provides no reliability, no flow control, and no congestion control, but has minimum overhead - TCP is suitable for email and file transfer applications but UDP is more proper for real-time applications (video)
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Layer 3 Network Layer

Responsible for: - Making routing decisions to determine the routes that packets take from source host to the destination one. - The delivery of individual packets from the source node to the destination node across (potentially) multiple data links.
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Example: IP Protocol defines global unique addresses; construct routing tables - Challenge: Scalability (must be able to deal with billions of devices)

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Layer 2 The Data Link Layer

Responsible for: - Grouping bits into frames (i.e., attach frames separator) - Moving frames from one node to the next - Error detection/correction (ensure reliable transmission over one link)
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Responsible for: - Flow control (to limit the rate of data that is sent) - Medium access control (arbitrate the access to common physical media) - The network layer: Routes a datagram through a series of routers between the source and destination - A datagram may be handled by different Link-layer protocols at different links along its route - Link Layer: Moves entire frames from one node (host or router) to an adjacent one in the route - Physical layer: Moves the individual bits within the frame from one node to the next
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- The network layer relies on the services of the link layer, and the link layer relies on the services of the physical layer - Examples of link layer protocols: Ethernet, WiFi, and the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)

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Layer 1 The Physical Layer

- Responsible for: Transmission/reception of unstructured bit stream between any pair of nodes joined by a physical communication link (wireless, wireline, optical fiber, etc).
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- Concerned with issues like: - Characteristics of transmission medium - Voltage levels and duration of a bit - Data rates - Modulation and coding scheme used to represent a bit. - The protocols in this layer depend on the actual transmission medium of the link.

Physical Media 1- Twisted Pair: - Two independently insulated wires twisted around one another - 10-100 Mbps Ethernet
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2- Coaxial cable Two concentric copper conductors - Has better data transmission rate than twisted pair - Less susceptible to interference 3- Fiber optic cable - Glass fiber carrying light pulses, each pulse is a bit - High data rate (e.g., 10-100 Gps) - It can send a wider set of frequencies. - Low error rate: Immune to electromagnetic noise 4- Radio waves - Signal carried in electromagnetic waves - Environment effects: Reflection - Obstruction by objects interference - LAN (e.g., Wifi) 11Mbps, 54 Mbps
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- Addresses used in the TCP/IP protocols: physical, logical, and port. - Port address is a unique identifier to a process run in a host - used by transport layer - each application on a (multi-tasking) host needs a unique address within the host - Logical address (or IP address) is a unique identifier to a host connected to the internet used by network layer. - Physical address is a unique identifier to a host connected to a LAN used by the physical and link layers. - No two nodes in a LAN have the same physical address. - No two processes in a host have the same port address. - No two hosts in the internet have the same logical address. 1- 79

Physical addresses A node with physical address 10 sends a frame to a node with physical address 87.

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IP addresses

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- Two routers are connecting three LANs. - Each device (computer or router) has a pair of addresses (logical and physical) for each connection. - Each computer is connected to only one link and therefore has only one pair of addresses. - Each router, however, is connected to three networks (only two are shown in the figure). So each router has three pairs of addresses, one for each connection. - The computer with logical address A and physical address 10 needs to send a packet to the computer with logical address P and physical address 95.

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Port number
Running processes Processes a and j communicate

The physical addresses change from hop to hop, but the logical and port addresses remain the same from the source to destination 1- 83


Mohamed Elsalih Mahmoud