Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Waterloo

Chapter 1: Introduction to Broadband Networks
ECE 610 – Winter 2013

Dr. Mohamed Mahmoud


1.1 What are communication networks?
1.2 Important definitions and concepts 1.3 Internet – network architecture 1.4 Communication network layers

A network is a communication system which enables users (or devices) at different locations to exchange data. A network function: Transfer data (voice, video, texts, etc) between devices. A network includes: - Links - Switches - Routers - End hosts (computers - servers) - Protocols/applications - etc

Applications of data networks - Sharing data and resources - Communicating with remote I/O devices - Share data/file access - Personal communications (chat and email) - Commerce and governance

Email server


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Why we need networking? . Router Router Router Router Router 1. is not always .Direct point-to-point communication possible or efficient solution.In order to transfer data (or connect computers) efficiently.3 . we need a mesh connection of switches and routers.

3 Internet – network architecture 1.2 Important definitions and concepts 1.1 What are communication networks? 1.Outline 1.4 Communication network layers .

.g.Protocols implement services at a layer.Protocol A human protocol A computer network protocol - Protocols are communicate. e.… 1. rules by which network elements . TCP. and actions taken on messages.. order of messages sent.g. e. etc.4 . .Protocols define the agreement between communication entities. IP. the format of the messages exchanged.

Bit error rate (BER): the probability of transferring wrong bit.Different protocols can achieve different performance requirements..g. .5 . e. fiber optics) and (2) Unguided media: signals propagate freely (radio waves) 2.Link rate: how many bits can be sent though the link per second. It is characterized by:1. Router 1. TCP is used in file transfer applications and UDP is used in real-time applications. 3.5 Mbps 1.Communication Link: a connection that moves bits between two devices..The used medium to transfer data: includes (1) Guided medium: signals propagate in solid media (copper wire.

6 . .Node: Any device in a network.) that are either the source (data generators) or destination (absorber of data). host..Computing devices (such as computers. server. .. . servers.They run application programs (such as Web.The network purpose is to connect hosts through one or more links. email). etc. e. and are located at “edge of network”.g. etc.Types of communication: Unicast: one and specific node is the receiver Broadcast: all nodes in the network are receivers Multicast: subset of the network nodes are receivers 1. router.Hosts or end systems: . PDA. .

F} Routes: {S. E. B. Route: A set of nodes that relay messages from the source node to the destination. A. D} 1. A B Source node (S) C E F Destination node (D) Intermediate nodes: {A.Routing: The process of determining how to forward messages toward the destination node based on its address. B. E.7 . C. D}. {S. C. F.

Full Duplex Both directions at the same time 1.Transmission Modes .Half Duplex Either direction.8 . but only one way at a time .Simplex One direction data transfer .

.End hosts may be connected through subnets .Local Area Networks (LAN): Privately owned .Wide Area Networks (WAN): . building.This may require connecting different and incompatible networks using gateways 1.The Scale of a network .9 . .single office.Personal Area Networks (PAN): very small network.Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN): covers a city . or campus.Covers a country or continent .

These metrics depend on transmission media.The accuracy of transmission represented by packet loss rate.Reliability . etc.Network quality of service (QoS) . -Typically.QoS metric .10 . packet delivery ratio.Network measures to judge the quality of the service provided by the network (delivering data). etc. transmission speed. . the bit error rate (BER). QoS is described in terms of reliability. 1. capacity of devices. etc. . efficiency of protocols.Packet error rate: The percentage of packets lost or damaged .Bit error rate: The percentage of bits lost or damaged 1. end-to-end delay.

by source end system.11 . -Un-delivered packets should may be retransmitted by previous node..Congestion: if packet arrival rate > packet transmission rate.Channel impairment: very obvious in case of wireless transmission 2. or not retransmitted at all - Why packets are lost? Many reasons:1. Packet arrival rate Packet drop Packet transmission rate Router 1. so that the sender is sure it has arrived.Usually. a reliable service is implemented by having the receiver acknowledge the receipt of each message. routers buffers become full and incoming packets are dropped.

A link on end-end path may constrain end-end throughput Link capacity Rs bits/sec link capacity Rc bits/sec 1. and bit rate are used interchangeably to evaluate transmission speed. .2.12 . data rate.Throughput: The data rate (bits/s) at which bits are delivered per link or between sender and receiver (end-toend).QoS metric .Throughput. .Bandwidth: The data rate (bits/s) at which bits are transmitted per link or between sender and receiver (end-toend). bandwidth. bandwidth = throughput + dropped packets .Transmission speed . . Bandwidth ≥ throughput.Throughput: Effective data transmission per second.

determine output link . Depend on link speed.a few microsecs to hundreds of msecs . A propagation B nodal processing queueing transmission 1.3.13 .End-to end packet delay .It is due to the following delays: .depends on congestion level of router.Propagation delay: time needed for signal to travel the medium = link length/propagation speed of medium .QoS metric . . .The average time taken to deliver a packet to the destination host.Transmission delay = packet size(bits)/link rate (bps). .Queuing delay: Time waiting for transmission in router’s buffer .a few microsecs or less.Nodal processing delay: Check bit errors .

. e. .Different applications require different quality of services.Network design should support application-specific quality of service. .It is preferable for telephone users to hear some noise in the background than to wait for acknowledgements of delivered voice frames.14 . the maximum latency is no more than 100 ms 97% of the time. . . ftp Delay < 150 ms up to 10s tolerable Data Rate 64kbps 400kbps N/A Packet loss 1%-3% 1% Zero 1.QoS is specified on a percentage basis..To guarantee the QoS 100% of the time would be impossible Class interactive streaming elastic Application VoIP live video email..Some applications (such as file transfer) require reliable service.An application where delays are unacceptable is digitised voice or video traffic (in general any real-time traffic).g. .

Security . users location privacy.Preserving sensitive information from disclosing.Protecting the network proper operation.Security and privacy can be considered QoS metrics.Protecting data from unauthorized access or manipulation. . . data content.g..15 . Privacy . the identities of the users that communicate. e. -Notice: 1KB = 210 bytes 1MB = 220 bytes 1GB = 230 bytes 1kbps = 103 bits per second 1Gbps = 109 bits per second 1Mbps = 106 bits per second 1.

etc.However.Bus topology . ring.A topology is the physical configuration of a network (how a network is connected). bus.When a node transmits a signal. a node ignores any signal that is not specifically addressed to it.A bus is a single electrical circuit to which all devices in the network are connected. star. ex.16 . 1. . Common bus 1.Network Topologies . . mesh. each node connected to the bus receives the signal.

17 . 1.The bus failure may bring down the network .All messages are sent from one client to another through the central node. -If one slave client fails no other clients are affected.Star Topology slave slave .Each node is linked to a central node. .Efficient for broadcasting message (one send & many listen) ..Signals may collide with each other who will get the bus need to arbitrate .Failure of one node causes no network failure Master slave slave slave 2.

Ring Topology - Nodes are arranged in a ring .A message sent out from one node is passed along to each node in between until the target node receives the message.The entire network may go down if the central node fails..Not scalable (the master is the bottleneck) 3. .The ring can be broken if any cable or a computer is damaged or broken.Data flows only in one direction.Easy to arbitrate among slaves (master decides) . 1.18 .Arbitrate who can access the ring . . .

Mesh Topology .All computer-to-computer communications are through one link (one hop).4.The number of links increases sharply with the number of computers.A mesh topology is often used for MAN or WAN networks. 1.19 . . . .Point-to-point links connect every node to every other node.

Types of communications 1.The client initiates communication by sending a request to the server and waiting for a response.A server receives a client’s request.20 . . and responds with a reply satisfying the request.Peer to Peer 1. CNN server Network 1.Client/Server .Client/Server 2.

- Typically, a client is a lower-capability computer, but the server is dedicated always-on computer with larger capacity. - Servers do most or all of the processing - Both client and server are dedicated to their respective tasks, and those roles never reverse. - Different servers perform different tasks: File server, Web server, Email server, etc. - Web Server is usually a computer running the http server program.

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2- Peer-to-Peer communication
- Minimal (or no) use of dedicated servers, e.g. Skype

(VoIP), BitTorrent (file sharing) - The two computers have roughly the same power and can perform approximately the same services for each other. - Each computer (peer) has equal responsibilities and can initiate communication. - Each computer's user can decide what resources to make available to other peer users.


Network Pop
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Important network nodes Repeater – switch – gateway - router


1- Repeater A repeater operates at the physical layer and forwards everything between the two LANs – amplify/re-construct signals. 2- Switch - Link layer device - stores and forwards frames
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- A device that receives packets from an input link, and then transmits them over the proper link that connects to the node addressed. - Examines frame header and selectively forwards the frame based on MAC destination address - Suppose C sends frame to D, the switch checks its table and sends the frame to interface 2.
switch 1 2 3


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.Bridge .Switch: Receives frame on input port .translates address to output port. Bridge 1. bridges will not forward a frame onto another LAN segment if it knows about the location of the destination node.A data-link-layer device that connects two or more networks with the same protocol.25 .all ports bidirectional repeats subset of traffic.Bridge: Connects shared media . . .Used to build extended LANs to increase speed and efficiency: Large networks can be separated into smaller networks and connected by bridges.Unlike repeaters. .

implement filtering 1.26 .Router . .Both store-and-forward devices .Stores/update a routing table that helps determine the outgoing line for incoming data to route packets to the intended device .Switches vs. Routers .Features more sophisticated addressing software than bridges.Routers maintain routing tables.Can determine preferred paths .Switches are link layer devices – routers are network layer devices (examine network layer headers) .A network-layer device that sends packets in one of many possible directions to get them to their destination. . implement routing algorithms .Switches maintain switch tables.

Institutional network mail server router switch web server to external network IP subnet 1.27 .

Connects two networks that employ different architectures and use dissimilar communication protocols .Gateway .28 .Translation between frame formats .Operates at or above the OSI transport layer Gateway 1.

1 What are communication networks? 1.4 Communication network layers .Outline 1.3 Internet – network architecture 1.2 Important definitions and concepts 1.

What is the Internet? .g. institutional network.. email. UW) 1.Backbone network (Core network) home network.29 . (e. file sharing. etc .A network of millions of connected computing devices running distributed applications: Web. VoIP.Access networks 2.Made up of thousands of overlapping hierarchical networks Access networks Backbone networks (Internet service provider (ISP)) cellular network Two parts: 1.

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) . company) 1-34 1.Access networks .30 .Dial-Up modem .Access networks connect hosts to edge router that connects it to the internet service provider.Residential access .Ethernet Internet access .1.Institutional access networks (school.Examples: . .Wireless access networks .

Access networks: Dial-Up modem .Can not surf and phone at the same time 1.Up to 56 kbps .Use the existing telephony infrastructure .31 .

32 .Can surf and phone at the same time 1.Use the existing telephony infrastructure .Up to 8 Mbps downstream – 1 Mbps upstream .Access networks: Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) .

Using cable TV infrastructure 2.Using fiber optics: very large bandwidth 1.Using cable TV infrastructure 1.33 .Access networks: Residential access 1.

Access networks: Residential access 1.34 .Using cable TV infrastructure 1.

Using fiber optics Optical links from central office to the home OLT: optical line termination ONT: Optical Network Terminal 1.Access networks: Residential access 2.35 .

10 Mbps.Used in companies. 10Gbps Ethernet . 1Gbps. 1.End systems typically connect into Ethernet switch via twisted pairs. 100Mbps. universities. etc .Access networks: Ethernet Internet access .36 .

Access networks: Wireless access networks .37 .Wireless LANs (WiFi): 11 or 54 Mbps 1.Shared wireless access network connects end system to router via base station also known as “access point” .

UW) 1.packet-switching institutional network.2. (e..Infrastructure interconnects different subnetworks .Mesh of interconnected routers network of networks Access networks Backbone networks (Internet service provider (ISP)) cellular network home network.38 .Circuit switching 2.g. -How is data transferred through the backbone? 1.Backbone networks: .

1.Ex. telephone network .1. Terminate the circuit (Deallocate the dedicated resources) .39 .Three phases involved in the communication process: 1.An end-to-end dedicated communication path (sequence of links-circuit) is established between the two end nodes. Establish the end-to-end circuit (Routing & resource allocation) 2. Transmit data 3.Circuit switching .

. -The demultiplexer separates (demultiplexes) the multiplexed data.Multiplexing/Demultiplexing . 1.The multiplexer combines (multiplexes) data from several input lines and transmits over a single medium. and delivers data to the appropriate output lines.Multiplexing is used to make efficient use of high-speed 44 links.40 .

Example: 4 users Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) frequency time Time division multiplexing (TDM) frequency 1-45 time 1.Divide link bandwidth into slots (time or frequency) that are allocated to calls..Static multiplexing is used in circuit switching .41 .

the data rate of the link is n times faster. 1.n is the number of inputs . and the unit duration is n times shorter. A connection occupies a fixed bandwidth of each link for the entire lifetime of the connection.42 .

43 .Disadvantage of static multiplexing Waste bandwidth in case of idle links Resource piece is idle if not used by owning call (no sharing) 1.

End-end dedicated resources are reserved .Circuit switching .Guaranteed performance (data is not delayed at switches – fixed data rate) . 1. after that information is transmitted at a fixed data rate with no delay other than the propagation delay.44 .For data traffic: most of the time the connection is idle .Some delay to establish a connection.For voice traffic: a high percentage of utilization because most of the time one party or the other is talking. .

Used in the Internet . .Each packet contains control information (source/destination addresses. sequence number (to know its order in a message).2.Messages are divided into smaller-size packets “discrete chunks” .Packet Switching .45 .The destination address is used to forward packets to the right node. information for checking transmission errors etc) .Packets traverse the network individually and may use different routes .The packets are reassembled and reordered at the destination .Node receives complete packet before forwarding .packets move one hop at a time 1.

e. i.Protocols are needed for reliable data transfer (because of packet drop).Each packet uses full link bandwidth . and congestion control mechanisms are needed because of congested routers 1. links) .No resource reservation .Aggregated input traffic can exceed the link capacity buffer may overflow – congestion at the router .Packets share the network resources (buffers. store-and-forward .Packet Switching .46 .Uses statistical multiplexing: bandwidth is used on demand and as needed .Resource contention: Packets may be buffered in intermediate nodes and transmitted when line becomes available.

Statistical multiplexing A B 4 Mb/s 4 Mb/s Statistical multiplexing 6 Mb/s C queue of packets waiting for output link buffered or dropped A bandwidth time B 1-51 Traffics A and B do not have fixed pattern 1.47 .

0004 1.. probability > 10 active at same time is less than . packets may be dropped and hence lost 1 Mb/s link .each user: 100 kb/s when “active” active 10% of time Circuit-switching: 10 users Packet switching: with 35 users.48 .If buffer capacity is not sufficient.If source peak rate can exceed link rate—packets may need to be queued .

Static multiplexing versus statistical multiplexing Static multiplexing Statistical multiplexing 1.49 .

Bit rate per link (R) = 1.Why not message switching? host 1 node 1 node 2 host 2 Message size (M) = 7.50 . ignore processing and propagation delays M Transmission delay = 3 ⋅ = 15 Seconds R This large delay is because of “receive complete message and than forward” 1.5 MB .5 Mbps For simplicity.

Delay reduced from 15 s to 5.002 s!!! 1.1 ms to transmit packet on 1 link .Receive only 1 packet and then forward it .51 .Using packet switching -Split the message into packets each with 1500 bits long .Pipelining: each link works in parallel .

2 Mbits .1 transmissions/hop or total number of bits transmitted ≈ 2.9 1.10-6) = the probability of transmitting a bit successfully through one link Approach 1: send 1 Mbit message −6 106 −10610−6 = e−1 ≈1/ 3 Probability message arrives correctly = (1−10 ) ≈ e On average it takes about 3 transmissions/hop or total number of bits transmitted ≈ 6 Mbits Approach 2: send 10 packets with 100 kbit Probability packet arrives correctly = (1 − 10 ) −6 105 ≈e −10510 −6 = e −0.Why not message switching? Second motivation host 1 BER = 10-6 BER =10-6 host 2 (1.1 ≈ 0.52 On average it takes about 1.

53 .Timing Comparisons of circuit and packet switching Switch or routers circuit establishment Data Transfer 1-57 Circuit Switching circuit termination Packet Switching 1.

allows more users to use network Circuit Switching Carry bit streams Uses static multiplexing Guaranteed bandwidth and delay and no packet loss Good for delay-sensitive applications Send/receive bit stream at constant rate Waste bandwidth .Packet Switching Store-and-forward packets Uses statistical multiplexing No guarantees about loss or delay Good for data transmission some links may be inactive very often Send/receive messages at variable rate High utilization of resources (bandwidth) . but very packet processing overhead is fast forwarding of bits larger thereafter Utilizes resources according to traffic demand Links reserved for use by communication channel 1.inefficient in case of bursty traffic No startup overhead for setting Initial startup overhead for up connection.54 . but the persetting up connection.

Outline 1.4 Communication network layers .2 Important definitions and concepts 1.1 What are communication networks? 1.3 Internet – network architecture 1.

We use the concept of layers in our daily life.ics.ppt 1.55 . www. As an example: consider two friends who communicate through postal

.OSI is a network architecture that partitions overall communication process into separate functional areas called layers 1.56 .Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is an ISO (International Standards Organization) standard that covers all aspects of network communications. .

until the lowest layer is reached.57 . 1.The interaction between layers in the OSI model Each layer passes data and control information to the layer immediately below it.

58 .The headers may include control information (such as sequence numbers).An exchange using the OSI model Encapsulation message Decapsulation Segment Datagram Frame . etc. times. sizes. 1.

it divides the message into manageable fragments.Decapsulation: On the receiving node.Segmentation/Reassembly: If a layer receives a message that is too long.Layer N on one machine communicates with layer N on another machine . each protocol adds its own header to a message as it moves downward through the stack. . The corresponding layer on the receiver reassembles the message .59 .The rules and conventions used in this communication are known as the layer N protocol 1. .Encapsulation: On the sending node. each protocol removes its own protocol header before passing the message up to the layer above..

60 .Layers 1-2 are concerned with the flow of data along one hop .Layers 3–4 are concerned with end-to-end data flow through the network ..Layer 5 is concerned with services to the applications 1.Layers 1-3 communicate with the same layers on the next hop node .Layers 4-7 communicate with the same layers on the end host .

or updating protocols and services. Simplifies how network protocols are designed as the function of each layer and the layers’ interaction are well defined. Simplifies network design. and testing. Provides easiness and flexibility in maintaining. 5.61 . modifying. 2. implementation. Change of a layer’s service is transparent to the rest of system . 4. 3.Main benefits of layered architecture Decomposition of the overall network function into a set of layers results in a number of benefits: 1.layer N change doesn’t affect other layers 1. Addition of new services and management of network architecture is easy.

Responsible for providing services to the user such as email.It sends/receives messages to/from presentation layer. HTTP. file transfer.62 .Layer 7 – Application Layer FTP FTP . 1. etc (Running network applications). .

(Process-toprocess communication) Examples of application layer’s protocols: – HTTP: Web document request and transfer – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): the transfer of email messages – File Transfer Protocol (FTP) : the transfer of files between two end systems. 1. – DNS: the translation of human-friendly names for Internet end systems to an IP address.63 .An application-layer protocol is run at each end host and the end hosts’ protocols exchanges messages.

e. providing data compression and encryption .code (data format) conversion 1.64 ..Layer 6 – Presentation Layer Allows applications to interpret meaning of data.g.

Layer 5 – Session Layer Responsibility: . .65 .Session set up (user or host authentication (login) Access management). 1.Graceful connection termination.

the lower four layers are concerned with data transport issues. if needed. 1. .Whereas the application.. . and session layers are concerned with application issues.Their services.Internet stack (TCP/IP) is missing session and presentation layers.66 . presentation. must be implemented in application layer.

Segmenting a message at the sender and reassembling it at the receiver.Layer 4 – Transport Layer Responsible for: .67 .Defining “port” addresses for services (processes) . 1.

End-to-end flow control: by ensuring that it does not send data with a rate more than that the receiver can absorb. 1.68 .End-to-end reliable delivery of messages from one process to another by ensuring that the receiver receives the messages it sends.Process-to-process data delivery Transport layer deals with end-to-end issues such as: . .

no flow control. .TCP is suitable for email and file transfer applications but UDP is more proper for real-time applications (video) 1.TCP also provides a congestion-control mechanism. but has minimum overhead . and no congestion control..69 . – UDP provides no reliability. – TCP provides guaranteed delivery of application-layer messages to the destination and flow control.Examples of internet transport layer protocols: TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol).

The delivery of individual packets from the source node to the destination node across (potentially) multiple data links.Making routing decisions to determine the routes that packets take from source host to the destination one. 1.70 .Layer 3 – Network Layer Responsible for: . .

71 .1.

72 .– Example: IP Protocol defines global unique addresses.Challenge: Scalability (must be able to deal with billions of devices) 1. construct routing tables .

Error detection/correction (ensure reliable transmission over one link) 1.. attach frames separator) .e.73 .Moving frames from one node to the next .Layer 2 – The Data Link Layer Responsible for: .Grouping bits into frames (i.

Medium access control (arbitrate the access to common physical media) .Flow control (to limit the rate of data that is sent) .Link Layer: Moves entire frames from one node (host or router) to an adjacent one in the route .Physical layer: Moves the individual bits within the frame from one node to the next 1.A datagram may be handled by different Link-layer protocols at different links along its route .74 .Responsible for: .The network layer: Routes a datagram through a series of routers between the source and destination .

and the link layer relies on the services of the physical layer . and the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) 1.Examples of link layer protocols: Ethernet. WiFi.The network layer relies on the services of the link layer..75 .

wireline. 1.Layer 1 – The Physical Layer .76 . etc). optical fiber.Responsible for: Transmission/reception of unstructured bit stream between any pair of nodes joined by a physical communication link (wireless.

Characteristics of transmission medium .The protocols in this layer depend on the actual transmission medium of the link.10-100 Mbps Ethernet 1.Modulation and coding scheme used to represent a bit.77 ..Data rates .Twisted Pair: .Concerned with issues like: . Physical Media 1. .Two independently insulated wires twisted around one another .Voltage levels and duration of a bit .

g. .Low error rate: Immune to electromagnetic noise 4.Radio waves . each pulse is a bit . Wifi) 11Mbps.g.Glass fiber carrying light pulses.Has better data transmission rate than twisted pair .78 . 54 Mbps 1..Environment effects: Reflection .It can send a wider set of frequencies.Coaxial cable Two concentric copper conductors .Signal carried in electromagnetic waves .LAN (e. 10-100 Gps) .High data rate (e.Less susceptible to interference 3.2.Obstruction by objects –interference .Fiber optic cable ..

Addressing . logical.No two hosts in the internet have the same logical address.Port address is a unique identifier to a process run in a host .No two nodes in a LAN have the same physical address. . and port. .Logical address (or IP address) is a unique identifier to a host connected to the internet used by network layer.each application on a (multi-tasking) host needs a unique address within the host .used by transport layer .Physical address is a unique identifier to a host connected to a LAN used by the physical and link layers. 1.79 . . . .No two processes in a host have the same port address.Addresses used in the TCP/IP protocols: physical.

1.Physical addresses A node with physical address 10 sends a frame to a node with physical address 87.80 .

IP addresses 1.81 .

.Each computer is connected to only one link and therefore has only one pair of addresses. . . So each router has three pairs of addresses.Each device (computer or router) has a pair of addresses (logical and physical) for each connection. is connected to three networks (only two are shown in the figure). . one for each connection. .82 .Two routers are connecting three LANs. however. 1.Each router.The computer with logical address A and physical address 10 needs to send a packet to the computer with logical address P and physical address 95.

but the logical and port addresses remain the same from the source to destination 1.Port number Running processes Processes a and j communicate The physical addresses change from hop to hop.83 .

Questions Mohamed Elsalih Mahmoud .

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