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Chapter 1

Introduction

The extent of students learning in academics maybe determined by the grades a student earns for a period of learning has been done. It is believed that a grade is a primary indicator of such learning. If a leaner earns a high grades it is concluded that they may also have learned a lot while low grades indicate lesser learning. However, there are also several factors that would account for the grades. No single factor can be definitely pointed out as a predicting grade. It has been interplay of so many factors: gender, IQ, study habits, age, parents educational attainment, television viewing hab its, etc. In fact, almost all of existing environmental and personal factors are variable of academic performance. Students preferentially take in and process information in different ways: by seeing and hearing, reflecting and acting, reasoning logically and intuitively, analysing and visualizing steadily and in fits and starts. This is clearly seen when one enters the academic arena. One student can learn well if action is involved, another learns well when they manipulate something; still others learn when they just listen to the teacher. Moreover, some students learn through watching TV programs which can help to increase their knowledge.

We are all aware of the great impact made by television on us. Knowingly or unknowingly, we are hypnotized by the advertisements or shows like soap opera, news, movies, etc. on television. Television is usually not considered extracurricular activity. It is considered more of a leisure activity. It uses frequent movements and cuts that may discourage sustained activities. Although television viewing does require the viewer to absorb information, it usually does not require much brain processing - typically, no imagination or reasoning skills are developed or utilized, as they are in reading. The effect of television viewing of the students is one of the main controversies which have an effect on their academic achievement. Television is a source of wealth of information, but doubt has been over its ability to enhance academic performance. It has been said that it can cast impair a students progress at school. Viewing fewer than ten hours a week had a slightly positive effect on achievement; viewing more than ten hours a week had negative effects that increased up until thirty five to forty hours after which there was little further effect. Television can be powerful tool in the classroom so it was important to ascertain students opinions about its usefulness. The amount of television watched, or thought to have been watched, by students has caused considerable concern for parents and educators alike. It is thought that student remain glued to the set for long period of time, viewing unsuitable programmes which may adversely affect not only their cognitive and emotional development, but their academic achievement. There is no doubt that student are susceptible to the images which they see on the television screen.

Student viewers are in very active developmental stages. Their attitudes, beliefs and ideas about the world, as well as physical and social skills, are taking form; and they absorb information from everywhere. Because of the considerable number of hours spent viewing television, however, television becomes a disproportionately informational and attitudinal source. Heavy television watching is likely to affect performance in school, and may even effect students development. Adolescents and young adults who watch lots of TV have a greater risk of sleep problems. Students, or teenagers, perhaps that watch sexually explicit television programs may even become sexually active at an earlier age. For many people, television watching constitutes dependence and TV may even be considered an addiction in some individuals.

Statement of the Problem This study attempted to find out the television viewing habits of the First Year BSAccountancy Students of Aklan State University and its implications to their academic performance. This study sought to answer the following questions: 1. What were the profile and the television viewing habits of student respondents based on the following: Amount of time spent in watching television Usual television programs watched 2. What was the academic performance of student respondents? 3. Was there a significant relationship between the television viewing habits of student as respondents as described by themselves and their academic performance? 4. What were the implications of the television viewing habits of the students to the improvement of their academic performance?

Statement Hypothesis

In view of the preceding problems, this study aimed to verify the following null hypothesis: 1. Watching television displaces or takes time away from intellectually demanding activities such as doing homework and studying, which has a negative effect on grades and performance. 2. Television viewing encourages impulsive behaviour and may eventually decrease academic performance. 3. Students who watch highly informational programs such as news programs and documentaries may have a greater opportunity to increase their knowledge and learn more. 4. Students who watch low informational programs such as cartoons or anime movie and music videos may have a less opportunity to increase their knowledge. 5. There were no significant relationships between the television viewing habits of the students to their academic performance.

Conceptual Framework

Independent Variables Student Profile: Age Gender Length of time Spent in Watching Television

Dependent Variables

Academic Performance

Television Program Watched

Figure 1: The possible relationship between independent and dependent variables of the study.

Scope and Limitation of the Study:

This study aimed at identifying factors related to the implication of television viewing habits which is limited to the First Year BSAccountancy Students Academic Performance of Aklan State University, Banga, Aklan. The approached conducted, to come up with the resolution for this topic. It was made through survey. The sample size used to acquire the date of the normal percent of the group was thirty- (32) for the BSAccountancy 1-1 and thirty (30) respondents for the BSAccountancy 1-2. The normal number size of the respondents for this survey will be able to compare the subject level of differences of the selective topic. Independent Variables involved were the personal characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, amount of time spent in watching television and usual television programs watched. The dependent variables were the academic performance. It is only limited to their first semesters overall grades. Furthermore, the research method that will be used in this study will be the descriptive method.

Significance of the Study:

Given the central role popular media plays in the lives of the students, it is important to have an understanding of the impact television viewing habits has on academic achievement and school performances. This study is important because the results of the study would help to explain the implication of television viewing habits of students academic performance of Aklan State University, Banga, Aklan. Likewise, the findings of the study may help the students to be more effective and rational in decision to improve their academic performance. Further, it could provide information on how the students manage their time on viewing television as well as to their academic performance. Also, the insight and understanding about this research will serve as reference to the behaviour of the first Year BSAccountancy students in watching television and its implication to their academic performance. It can also benefit the student for they could identify measures and strategies in their television viewing to maintain their effectiveness in academic performance. Impression for this topic will answer the students interest on their behaviour towards their studies and leisure moments on watching television. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine wether or not the television viewing habits of the students have an effect on their academic performance and the relationship between television viewing, and academic performance among student.

Definition of Terms:

For the purpose of better understanding and clarification of this study, the following terms are defined conceptually and operationally. Implications a relation implicated by virtue of involvement or close connection (especially on incriminating involvement); something implied or suggested as naturally to be inferred or fairly be understood, through not expressed on words. In this study, same concept was used.

Habits is an effect of repeated acts and aptitude to reproduce them, and maybe defined as a quality difficult to change, whereby an agent whose nature it is to work one way or another indeterminately, is disposed easily and readily at will to follow this or that particular line of action. As used in this study, it refers to the activity of television viewing of the students.

Academic Performance - is the ability to study and remember facts and being able to communicate your knowledge verbally or down on paper. In this study, it refers to the knowledge, skills and values learned or developed in school as reflected in the grades given to the student in different subjects. The students general average obtained during first semester.

In this study, same concept was used. Age the length of time that a person or thing has lived or existed; the time of life when one is legally, socially, physically or mentally qualified for a particular purpose. In this research the term refers to the present age of the respondents. Sex the area of human behaviour concerning sexual activity. In this research it is categorized as male or female. Academe - it is pertaining to a college, academy, school, or other educational institution, especially one for higher education. In this study, it refers to the ASU, Banga Campus where the BSAccountancy program is offered.

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Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature:

This chapter presents a review of related literature which relevant to the present study conducted. Our eye is being drawn by a moving image. Weve put this irritating little graphic in for a reason. We all tend to notice movement, and television takes advantage of this fact. Television is even more destructing as what we thought what it is, because it contains a combination of images and sounds. If you try to have a conversation with somebody in a room where a television set is on, it will be almost impossible to you to stop glancing at the set now and again When you sit down to watch television, you will almost instantly start to relax. You will tend to become less alert and more passive. When you stop watching, you dont feel relaxed anymore, but you remain passive and lees alert which you notice as a feeling of being drained or lacking energy. An instant antidote to this and relaxed state is more television! Watching more will tend to relax again. Some scientist thinks that heavy television users are drawn into a vicious circle in this way. It is common for people to report that they watch more television than they intend to. Some psychologists even believe that people can suffer from television addiction.
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The home environment is among the most important influence on academic performance. A correlation appears to exist between the activities that student choose outside of the classroom and their academic performance. Mass media, particularly television, influence public conception and attitudes toward the students learning. A negative impact on performance was found in its consistent decrease as both the number of sets and the time the sets are on impact of television viewing on achievement determined through met- analysis of many studies and are also consistent with those in the literature at large. Furthermore, the totally blind participation of the subjects lends a degree of authenticity ra rely found in a classically designed study. The impact of television on social adjustment and youth behaviour is also not fully understood. Tentative findings are that high amounts of television viewing are associated with relatively poor social skills and poor relations among some youth populations. There is a negative relationship between television viewing and academic performance. Studies have been published on measuring the effect of television on students. The results suggest of a correlation between high rates of television viewing and aggressive and violent behaviour, lower academic performance. And article in education found that some studies have found no significant relationship between television viewing and academic performance, and a few studies have found a large and significant relationship, although most have discovered a small, yet significant relationship. There was a significant relationship between low self-esteem and heavy viewing of cartoons, which is often viewed as a form of escapist behaviour. When total hours of

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all types of programming were considered, however, the relationship was not significant. Some televiewing was beneficial, with viewing up to ten hours a week correlating positively with reading achievements. Beyond this amount, however, the correlation is negative; ready achievements declines sharply with increased viewing. Television watching reduces time available to participate healthy activities and increases exposure to the marketing of unhealthy products. Children who watch a lot of TV have a greater risk or a range of health problems. Excessive TV watching has also been linked to poor academic performance.

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Chapter 3

Methodology

The descriptive survey method was utilized in this study. The data gathered through the use of questionnaire. Likewise, the academic performance of the student respondent was taken from their report cards during first semester. There were sixtyfour (64) student respondents including the researcher.

Research Environment

Aklan State University, Banga, Aklan is located at Banga, Aklan. This institution has an interesting history. It is considered as one of the oldest institutions of learning in Western Visayas. It started as the Banga Intermediate School in 1917 through a resolution passed by the Provincial Board headed Governor Simeon Mobo. The school became a farm school with the conversion of the Banga Intermediate School into Capiz Farm School, Aklan being part of Capiz then, which was formally opened in June 1918. Through the Republic Act No. 3439 authored by Congressman Jose B. Legaspi, the Banga Rural High School was named the Aklan Agricultural College (AAC) in 1963. A two year technical courses was first offered. Subsequently, the College was permitted

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on May 19, 1966 to offer the Bachelor of Science in Agriculture (BSA) program, with Agronomy and Animal Husbandry as major fields. Having met the standards and requirements of an agricultural State College. The Aklan Agricultural College was converted into the Aklan State College of Agriculture (ASCA) on April 10, 1992 by virtue of Republic Act No. 7371 which was sponsored by Congressman Ramon B. Legaspi. Pursuant to pertinent provisions of R.A. 7722, and R.A. 8292, four (4) CHED supervised institutions were integrated to ASCA in 1999. These were the Roxas Memorial College of Arts and Trades (RMCAT) in Kalibo; the Aklan National College of Fisheries (ANCF) in New Washington; the Northern Panay Teachers College in Makato; and the Western Aklan Polytechnic College (WAPC) in Ibajay. But better things are yet to come for ASCA. The consolidated version of House Bill 1548 authored by Congressman Allen S. Quimpo and Senate Bill 2236 were passed on final reading on February 5, 2001 and January 29, 2001, respectively, and on April 4. 2001, R.A. 9055 entitled An Act Converting the Aklan State College of Agriculture in the Municipality of Banga, province of Aklan into a State University, Appropriating Funds Therefore and for other Purposes was finally signed into law by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo which elevated the former ASCA to Aklan State University (ASU). Today, the school where boys love to work and pretty girl sing, cook and dance has gone a long way from its obscurity in the good old days to its present national prominence.

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Research Respondents: There were more female (74%) than male (26%) respondents. The mean age of the female was closely the same as the male respondents which was of 16 21 years old.

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