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# Linear Algebra with Applications, 8th Ed. Steven J.

Leon
The following pages include all the items of errata that have been uncovered so far. In each case we include the entire page containing the errata and indicate the correction to be made. Help in uncovering additional errata would be greatly appreciated. Please send any errata you discover to sleon@umassd.edu Corrections will be made in later printings of the book.

2)}. the systems x1 + x2 + x3 = 3 −2x1 − x2 + 4x3 = 1 and 2x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 = 6 −2x1 − x2 + 4x3 = 1 are equivalent. Therefore.4 Chapter 1 Matrices and Systems of Equations Therefore. the new system will be equivalent to the original system. they must have the same solution set. 3. . This follows since the n -tuple (x1 . (x1 . any solution of system (b) must also be a solution of system (a). this will have no effect on the solution set. By a similar argument. For example. this will have no effect on the solution set. and the new system will be equivalent to the original system. The reordered system will be equivalent to the original system. consequently. x2 . both systems have the same solution set. the systems x1 + 2x2 = 4 3x1 − x2 = 2 4x1 + x2 = 6 and 4x1 + x2 = 6 3x1 − x2 = 2 x1 + 2x2 = 4 both involve the same three equations and. . it can be shown that any solution of (a) is also a solution of (b). x3 ) is a solution of system (b) if and only if it is a solution of system (a). For example. . . Deﬁnition Two systems of equations involving the same variables are said to be equivalent if they have the same solution set. xn ) will satisfy the two equations ai 1 x1 + · · · + ain xn = bi a j 1 x1 + · · · + a jn xn = b j if and only if it satisﬁes the equations ai 1 x1 + · · · + ain xn = bi (a j 1 + α ai 1 )x1 + · · · + (a jn + α ain )xn = b j + α bi Leon: Linear Algebra with Applications 8/E 6/22/07 10:42 Page 4 . If one equation of a system is multiplied through by a nonzero real number. {(−2. This can be done by subtracting the ﬁrst equation from the second: = 3 x2 3x1 + 2x2 − x3 = −2 −3x1 − x2 + x3 = 5 Then add the ﬁrst and third equations: 33x1 + 2x2 − x3 = −2 2x3 = 4 3x1 + 2x2 + x3 = 2 Thus. Clearly. if we interchange the order in which two equations of a system are written. If a multiple of one equation is added to another equation.

8 Chapter 1 Matrices and Systems of Equations Returning to the example. the entries in the pivotal row are all in bold type and the entire row is color shaded. When this is done. 3 times the ﬁrst row is subtracted from the second row and 2 times the ﬁrst row is subtracted from the third. We end up with the matrix ⎫ ⎧ 1 2 1 3⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 −7 −6 −10 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1 4⎭ 0 0 −7 −7 This is the augmented matrix for the strictly triangular system. which is equivalent to the original system. the pivot is −7 1 = 1 is the multiple of the pivotal row that is subtracted from the and the quotient − −7 7 third row. The solution of the system is easily obtained by back substitution. we ﬁnd that the ﬁrst row is used to eliminate the elements in the ﬁrst column of the remaining rows. EXAMPLE 4 Solve the system 4 − x2 x1 + x2 2x1 + 4x2 3x1 + x2 − x3 + x3 + x3 − 2x3 + x4 + x4 − 2x4 + 2x4 = 0 = 6 = −1 = 3 Solution The augmented matrix for this system is ⎫ ⎧ 0 −1 −1 1 0⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 1 1 1 6⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 4 1 − 2 − 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 3 1 −2 2 Since it is not possible to eliminate any entries by using 0 as a pivot element. We refer to the ﬁrst row as the pivotal row. The ﬁrst nonzero entry in the pivotal row is called the pivot. we end up with the matrix ⎫ ⎧ 1 2 1 3⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ← pivotal row ⎪ 0 −7 −6 −10 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 0 −1 −1 −2 At this step we choose the second row as our new pivotal row and apply row operation III to eliminate the last element in the second column. For emphasis. ⎫ ⎧ (pivot a11 = 1) ← pivotal row 1 2 1 3⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ entries to be eliminated ⎭ ⎩ 3 −1 −3 −1 ⎪ →⎪ a21 = 3 and a31 = 2 4 2 3 1 By using row operation III. The new ﬁrst row will be the pivotal row and the pivot element will be 1: ⎫ ⎧ ← pivot row (pivot a11 = 1) ⎪ 1 1 1 1 6⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 −1 −1 1 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 4 1 −2 −1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩2 3 3 1 −2 2 Leon: Linear Algebra with Applications 8/E 6/22/07 10:42 Page 8 . This time. we will use row operation I to interchange the ﬁrst two rows of the augmented matrix.

Determine the values of x1 . x3 . 15. x3 . Consider a linear system whose augmented matrix is of the form ⎧ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎩ 1 1 2 3 3 4 a ⎫ 2⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3⎪ ⎪ ⎭ b 380 x4 x1 450 430 x2 420 (a) For what values of a and b will the system have inﬁnitely many solutions? (b) For what values of a and b will the system be inconsistent? 11. x2 . Consider the trafﬁc ﬂow diagram that follows. b1 . if the system is overdetermined. what are the possibilities as to the number of solutions? Explain. a4 . Consider a linear system whose augmented matrix is of the form ⎧ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎩ −1 2 5 1 1 3 β ⎫ 0⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎪ ⎪ ⎭ 0 13. b4 are ﬁxed positive integers. (b) For what values of β will the system have inﬁnitely many solutions? 10. x4 and show that the system will be consistent if and only if a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 = b1 + b2 + b3 + b4 What can you conclude about the number of auto- Leon: Linear Algebra with Applications 8/E 6/22/07 10:42 Page 25 . Given a nonhomogeneous system of linear equations.2 Row Echelon Form 25 8. Given the linear systems x1 + 2x2 = 2 (b) x1 + 2x2 = 1 3x1 + 7x2 = 8 3x1 + 7x2 = 7 solve both systems by incorporating the right-hand sides into a 2 × 2 matrix B and computing the reduced row echelon form of (a) ⎧ ⎩1 ( A | B) = ⎪ 3 12.1. Given the linear systems (a) x1 + 2x2 + x3 = 2 −x1 − x2 + 2x3 = 3 2x1 + 3x2 =0 2 7 2 8 ⎫ 1⎪ ⎭ 7 540 x3 400 420 470 16. Set up a linear system in the unknowns x1 . b3 . a3 . and x4 for the following trafﬁc ﬂow diagram: (a) Is it possible for the system to be inconsistent? Explain. Given a homogeneous system of linear equations. where a1 . x2 . if the system is underdetermined. 14. Consider a linear system whose augmented matrix is of the form ⎧ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎩ 2 2 4 −2 1 3 a ⎫ 1⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ ⎭ 3 (b) x1 + 2x2 + x3 = −1 −x1 − x2 + 2x3 = 2 2x1 + 3x2 = −2 solve both systems by computing the row echelon form of an augmented matrix ( A | B ) and performing back substitution twice. For what values of a will the system have a unique solution? 9. a2 . b2 . what are the possibilities as to the number of solutions? Explain.

x3 . α c2 ) is also a solution. for any real number α . The chemical equation for this reaction is of the form x1 C6 H6 + x2 O2 → x3 C + x4 H2 O Determine values of x1 . 1) was obtained by setting the free variable x4 = 1. x2 . In Application 4. How many moles of nitrogen. such as 2. the solution (6. 6. Determine the amount of each current for the following networks: (a) 16 volts i1 17. hydrogen. In Application 3. c2 ) be a solution of the 2 × 2 system a11 x1 + a12 x2 = 0 a21 x1 + a22 x2 = 0 Show that. x2 . Liquid benzene burns in the atmosphere. and oxygen are necessary to produce 8 moles of nitric acid? 21. water will condense on the object and a deposit of soot (carbon) will also form on the object. the ordered pair (α c1 . 4. and x4 to balance the equation. and x3 if the distribution of goods is as described in the following table: F M 1 3 1 2 1 6 C 1 3 1 6 1 2 x2 x4 F M a2 x3 b3 C 1 3 1 3 1 3 b2 a3 22. Next. does this solution give about the chemical reaction? Is the term “trivial solution” appropriate in this case? (b) Choose some other values of x4 . 6. the NO2 reacts with some of the water to form nitric acid (HNO3 ) and nitric oxide (NO). In the ﬁrst reaction. Let (c1 . 18. 20. the ammonia is combined with oxygen (O2 ) to form nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and water. (a) Determine the solution corresponding to x4 = 0. or 5. if any. determine the relative values of x1 . Nitric acid is prepared commercially by a series of three chemical reactions. If a cold object is placed directly over the benzene.26 Chapter 1 Matrices and Systems of Equations mobiles entering and leaving the trafﬁc network? a1 b4 b1 x1 a4 these reactions are measured in moles (a standard unit of measurement for chemical reactions). What information. The amounts of each of the components of 2 ohms A i3 C 4 ohms i 5 i2 A i2 2 ohms 2 ohms B i3 3 ohms i1 (b) 2 ohms A i2 20 volts 4 ohms B i3 2 ohms 8 volts i1 (c) 4 ohms B i4 D 5 ohms 10 volts i6 Leon: Linear Algebra with Applications 8/E 6/22/07 10:42 Page 26 . Finally. and determine the corresponding solutions. How are these nontrivial solutions related? 19. nitrogen (N2 ) is combined with hydrogen (H2 ) to form ammonia (NH3 ).

One type of application that leads to symmetric matrices is problems involving networks. Indeed. V4 . we can deﬁne an n × n matrix A by ai j = 1 if {Vi .54 Chapter 1 Matrices and Systems of Equations Symmetric Matrices and Networks Recall that a matrix A is symmetric if A T = A. A graph is deﬁned to be a set of points called vertices.2 gives a geometrical representation of a graph. Graph theory is particularly useful in applications involving communication networks. {V3 . a graphical picture of the network would be quite confusing. {V4 . and V5 as corresponding to the nodes in a communication network.4. An actual communication network could involve a large number of vertices and edges. Figure 1. An alternative is to use a matrix representation for the network. The adjacency matrix for the graph in Figure 1. V5 }. V5 } Each edge represents a direct communication link between two nodes of the network. V1 V2 V3 V5 V4 Figure 1. If the graph contains a total of n vertices. The line segments joining the vertices correspond to the edges: {V1 .4.2 is given by ⎧ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 A=⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 ⎫ 0⎪ ⎪ 1⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1⎪ ⎪ ⎭ 0 Leon: Linear Algebra with Applications 8/E 6/22/07 10:42 Page 54 .4. V4 }. APPLICATION 3 Networks and Graphs Graph theory is an important areas of applied mathematics. together with a set of unordered pairs of vertices. V j } is an edge of the graph 0 if there is no edge joining Vi and V j The matrix A is called the adjacency matrix of the graph. V3 . It is used to model problems in virtually all the applied sciences. We can think of the vertices V1 .2. These problems are often solved with the techniques of an area of mathematics called graph theory. {V2 . V5 }. V2 }. V2 . which are referred to as edges. if there are millions of vertices. {V3 .

Prove that if B is singular. Let A and B be m × n matrices. (b) ﬁnd a 2 × 2 matrix Y such that Y A = B . Show that if Ax0 = B x0 and x0 = 0. then C must be singular. (b) Prove that any two nonsingular n × n matrices are row equivalent. xn +1 are all distinct. 2. n . Let U be an n × n upper triangular matrix with nonzero diagonal entries. a1 . Prove that B is row equivalent to A if and only if there exists a nonsingular matrix M such that B = MA. (a) Explain why U must be nonsingular. Prove that if A is row equivalent to B . the (n + 1) × (n + 1) matrix V deﬁned by vi j = 1 j −1 xi if j = 1 for j = 2. then A−1 is also symmetric. Given −3 6 8 ⎫ ⎧ −3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ 1⎪ −1 (h) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 −1 ⎫ 1⎪ ⎭ 2 0 1 −2 ⎫ 1⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1⎪ ⎪ ⎭ −3 ⎫ 2⎪ ⎭ 4 ⎧ ⎩3 A=⎪ 5 and ⎧ ⎩1 B=⎪ 3 21. Let A and B be n × n matrices and let C = A − B . (a) Show that if Vc = y and p (x ) = c1 + c2 x + · · · + cn +1 x n then p (xi ) = yi . x2 . in certain special cases the commutative property does hold. 28. compute A−1 and use it to (a) ﬁnd a 2 × 2 matrix X such that AX = B .e. . Show that if c is a solution to V x = 0. . i = 1.2. . B = ⎪ ⎩6 2 2 ⎫ ⎧ 2⎪ ⎭. n + 1 (b) Suppose that x1 . 24. Given a vector x ∈ Rn +1 . Let A and B be n × n matrices and let C = AB . Let ⎧ ⎩5 A=⎪ 3 ⎫ ⎧ 3⎪ ⎭. . . Let U and R be n × n upper triangular matrices and set T = UR . (b) if A is an n × n matrix and B = a0 I + a1 A + a2 A 2 + · · · + ak A k where a0 . then B is row equivalent to A. . Let A be a 3 × 3 matrix and suppose that 2a1 + a2 − 4a3 = 0 How many solutions will the system Ax = 0 have? Explain.5. then A is row equivalent to C . 16. . c2 . [Hint: Use Theorem 1. . 26.C = ⎪ ⎩ 4 4 −6 ⎫ −2 ⎪ ⎭ 3 22.] 19. .1. .5 Elementary Matrices 67 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ −1 ⎪ 2 (g) ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 3 11. Leon: Linear Algebra with Applications 8/E 7/15/07 19:13 Page 67 . (a) Prove that if A is row equivalent to B and B is row equivalent to C . . . ak are scalars. matrix multiplication is not commutative (i. Show that (a) if D1 and D2 are n × n diagonal matrices. Show that the reduced row echelon form of ( A | B ) is ( I |C ). 23.. . Prove that if B is row equivalent to A and U is any row echelon form A. then B is row equivalent to U . . Show that if A is a symmetric nonsingular matrix. (b) Explain why U −1 must be upper triangular. . 20. of is called the Vandermonde matrix. 15. In general. AB = B A). then the coefﬁcients c1 . Is A nonsingular? Explain. 17. Show that T is also upper triangular and that t j j = u j j r j j for j = 1. . 12. . . Let A be a nonsingular n × n matrix and let B be an n × r matrix. . Is the transpose of an elementary matrix an elementary matrix of the same type? Is the product of two elementary matrices an elementary matrix? 14. However. . where C = A−1 B . 18. Is it possible for a singular matrix B to be row equivalent to a nonsingular matrix A? Explain. n + 1 Solve each of the following matrix equations: (b) XA + B = C (a) AX + B = C (d) XA + C = X (c) AX + B = X 13. . 27. 25. Let A be a 3 × 3 matrix and suppose that a1 = 3a2 − 2a3 Will the system Ax = 0 have a nontrivial solution? Is A nonsingular? Explain your answers. . . then C must be singular. cn must all be zero and hence V must be nonsingular. then AB = B A. . then D1 D 2 = D 2 D 1 .

If E is an elementary matrix. 3. Every homogeneous linear system is consistent. If b = a1 + a2 + a3 . If A and B are nonsingular n × n matrices. and suppose that x1 and x2 are both solutions and x1 = x2 . Leon: Linear Algebra with Applications 8/E 6/22/07 10:42 Page 82 . then ( A − B )2 = A2 − 2 AB + B 2 . If AB = AC and A = O (the zero matrix). This proves that statement (ii) is false. If x and y are nonzero vectors in Rn and A = xyT . 4. Find all solutions of the linear system x1 − x2 + 3x3 + 2x4 = 1 −x1 + x2 − 2x3 + x4 = −2 2x1 − 2x2 + 7x3 + 7x4 = 1 2. then E T is also an elementary matrix. If A is a 4 × 3 matrix and b = a1 + a3 . The product of two elementary matrices is an elementary matrix. 10. reduced 1. 5. If AB = O . Give a similar geometric interpretation of a linear equation in three unknowns. If A = A−1 . then B = C. how many solutions will it have? Explain. then the system Ax = b will have inﬁnitely many solutions. then A must be equal to either I or −I . 12. If A and B are n × n matrices. 15. If A is nonsingular. (b) Is the matrix A nonsingular? Explain. If the row echelon form of A involves free variables.82 Chapter 1 Matrices and Systems of Equations then ⎧ ⎩4 AB = ⎪ 7 ⎫ 5⎪ ⎭ 10 and ⎧ ⎩ 11 BA = ⎪ 4 ⎫ 7⎪ ⎭ 3 7. An n × n matrix A is nonsingular if and only if the reduced row echelon form of A is I (the identity matrix). 2. then the system Ax = b must be consistent. (b) How can one choose a nonzero vector b so that the system Ax = b will be consistent? Explain. what is the possible number of solutions? Give a geometric explanation of your answer. 11. then A must be singular. CHAPTER TEST B 1. (c) Given a homogeneous linear system consisting of two equations in three unknowns. (a) Explain why the system ⎧ ⎫ ⎭ ⎩3⎪ Ax = ⎪ 1 must be inconsistent. 9. then A + B is also nonsingular and ( A + B )−1 = A−1 + B −1 . If A is a 3 × 3 matrix and a1 + 2a2 − a3 = 0. then the system Ax = b will have inﬁnitely many solutions. Let A be a matrix of the form ⎫ ⎧ β⎪ ⎭ ⎩ α A=⎪ 2α 2β where α and β are ﬁxed scalars not both equal to 0. Let ⎫ ⎫ ⎧ ⎧ 2 1 3⎪ 2 1 3⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪1 3 5⎪ ⎪ 4 2 7⎪ A=⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ B=⎪ ⎩ ⎩ 4 2 7 1 3 5 ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 1 3⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 2 7⎪ C =⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ −5 3 5 (a) Find an elementary matrix E such that E A = B. 3. Let Ax = b be a system of n linear equations in n unknowns. (a) A linear equation in two unknowns corresponds to a line in the plane. 6. 6. then A can be factored into a product of elementary matrices. 8. then B A = O . (a) How many solutions will the system have? Explain. 4. Let A be a 4 × 3 matrix with a2 = a3 . 5. (b) Find an elementary matrix F such that AF = C . then the row echelon form of A will have exactly one nonzero row. Let A be a 3 × 3 matrix and let b = 3a1 + a2 + 4a3 Will the system Ax = b be consistent? Explain. 14. 13. (b) Given a linear system consisting of two equations in three unknowns.

Show that if c = x Ax H . (a) The eigenvalues of AB are all real. u2 z. 17. 11. Let {u1 . Prove that (a) U is normal. . 7. is its own inverse.4 Hermitian Matrices 335 2. Show that B is skew Hermitian. Show that z. and (a) What are the values of u1 H z u2 ? (b) Determine the value of z . Let A be a Hermitian matrix and let B = i A. 18. Let A be a 2 × 2 matrix with Schur decomposition U T U H and suppose that t12 = 0. then |λ| = 1. (c) if λ is an eigenvalue of U . then c is real. 4. Show that U is both unitary and Hermitian and. Let {u1 . (b) U x = x for all x ∈ Cn . Show that z. Let ⎧ 1+i ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 z1 = ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪1−i ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ⎫ i ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ √ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ z2 = ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩−√ ⎪ ⎭ 2 and (a) Show that {z1 . explain or prove your answer. ﬁnd a matrix B such that B H B = A. Let A and B be Hermitian matrices. y 13. Let u be a unit vector in Cn and deﬁne U = I − 2uu H . . consequently. Let x.6. α x + β y = α z. y. Show that if a matrix U is both unitary and Hermitian. Which of the matrices that follow are Hermitian? Normal? ⎫ ⎫ ⎧ ⎧ 2−i⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ 1 ⎩1 − i 2⎪ (b) ⎪ (a) ⎪ 2+i −1 2 3 ⎧ 1 1 ⎫ ⎪ −√ ⎪ √ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (c) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 1 ⎪ ⎩√ ⎭ √ ⎪ 2 2 ⎧ ⎫ 1 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ i √ √ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 2⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (d) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ √ ⎭ −√ i ⎪ 2 2 ⎫ ⎧ i 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 −2 + i ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ i ⎭ ⎩ −1 2 + i 0 ⎫ ⎧ 3 1+i i ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1−i 1 3⎪ (f) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ −i 3 1 5. x + β z. (b) The eigenvalues of AB A are all real. 9. 16. Show that the diagonal entries of a Hermitian matrix must be real. 3. w = w H z deﬁnes an inner product on Cn . and z be vectors in Cn and let α and β be complex scalars. Prove each of the following rules: (a) ( A H ) H = A (b) (α A + β C ) H = α A H + β C H (c) ( AB ) H = B HA H 10. Let U be a unitary matrix. and let z = (4 + 2i )u1 + (6 − 5i )u2 . In each case. and let z = a1 u1 + a2 u2 + · · · + an un w = b1 u1 + b2 u2 + · · · + bn un Show that z. H H z. z H u1 . Find an orthogonal or unitary diagonalizing matrix for each of the following: ⎫ ⎫ ⎧ ⎧ 1 3+i⎪ 2 1⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ ⎩ (b) (a) 3−i 4 1 2 ⎫ ⎫ ⎧ ⎧ 1 1⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪2 ⎪ 2 i 0⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 3 −2 ⎪ −i 2 0 ⎪ (d) ⎪ (c) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ ⎩ 1 −2 3 0 0 2 ⎧ ⎫ ⎫ ⎧ 0 0 1⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪1 1 1⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 1 1⎪ 0 1 0⎪ (f) ⎪ (e) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ ⎩ 1 1 1 1 0 0 ⎫ ⎧ 2 −2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 4 ⎪ ⎪ 2 1 −1 ⎪ (g) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ −2 −1 1 6. ⎫ ⎧ ⎭ as a linear ⎩ 2 + 4i ⎪ (b) Write the vector z = ⎪ −2i combination of z1 and z2 . u2 } be an orthonormal basis for C2 . Given that ⎧ ⎪ ⎪4 ⎪0 A=⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 0 0 1 −i 15. Answer true or false for each of the statements that follow. z2 } is an orthonormal set in C2 . Show that Leon: Linear Algebra with Applications 8/E 7/15/07 15:02 Page 54 . un } be an orthonormal basis for a complex inner product space V . w = i =1 n bi ai ⎫ 0⎪ ⎪ ⎪ i⎪ ⎪ ⎭ 1 14. then any eigenvalue of U must equal either 1 or −1. . Let A be a Hermitian matrix and let x be a vector in Cn . 8. 12. Let A and C be matrices in Cm ×n and let B ∈ Cn ×r . .

e. we complete the squares: 9(x 2 − 2x + 1) + 4( y 2 + 4 y + 4) − 11 = 9 + 16 This equation can be simpliﬁed to the form ( y + 2)2 (x − 1)2 + =1 2 2 32 If we let the equation becomes (x )2 ( y )2 + =1 22 32 which is in standard form with respect to the variables x and y . To graph a conic section that is not in standard position. in which case the new axes can be found by completing the squares. In general.e. −2)].6.6 Quadratic Forms y y y y 353 x x x x (i) Circle (ii) Ellipse (iii) Hyperbola (iv) Parabola Figure 6. which is the equation of the line y = −2 in the x y -plane.2. the y -axis coincides with the line x = 1.6. Similarly. The center of the ellipse will be at the origin of the x y -plane [i. Case 3. as shown in Figure 6.1. at the point (x .. The following example illustrates how this is done: EXAMPLE 1 Sketch the graph of the equation 9x 2 − 18x + 4 y 2 + 16 y − 11 = 0 Solution To see how to choose our new axis system. The equation of the x -axis is simply y = 0.. the graph. we may have any one or any combination of these three cases. we usually ﬁnd a new set of axes x and y such that the conic section is in standard position with respect to the new axes.6. The conic section has been rotated from the standard position by an angle θ that is not a multiple of 90. Thus. x = x −1 and y = y+2 Leon: Linear Algebra with Applications 8/E 7/15/07 15:02 Page 72 . b = 0). y ) = (1. This is not difﬁcult if the conic has only been translated horizontally or vertically. will be an ellipse that is in standard position in the x y -axis system. ◦ This occurs when the coefﬁcient of the x y term is nonzero (i.

. then 1≤i ≤n min |λi | ≤ Ax 2 ≤ max |λi | 1≤i ≤n x 2 Leon: Linear Algebra with Applications 8/E 7/15/07 16:25 Page 30 . 2. Show that A M = max Ax x =1 19. Let A be an m × n matrix and let · v and · w be vector norms on Rn and Rm . (a) x 2 (b) 12. . . The 1. Let Ai j be a submatrix of a sudoku matrix A (see Exercise 25). where w ∈ Rm and y ∈ Rn . then |λ| ≤ A M . Show that if λ is an eigenvalue of A. 24. . . σ2 = 3. Show that if λ is an eigenvalue of Ai j .7. . . then |λ| ≤ 1. . and each of the submatrices of A must be made up of all of the integers 1 through 9. . The rules of the puzzle are that each row.w = max x =0 x v m ×n deﬁnes a matrix norm on R . Let A be a symmetric n × n matrix with eigenvalues λ1 . . Show that A ∞ = A 1.2 ≤ A 2 22. Let A be a 5 × 4 matrix with singular values σ1 = 5. (a) Show ﬁrst that n A ∞ ≤ max 1≤i ≤m |ai j | j =1 (b) Construct a vector x whose coordinates are each ±1 such that Ax ∞ = Ax x ∞ n ∞ 21. Let A be an m × n matrix. Show that n = max 1≤i ≤m |ai j | j =1 14. so A ∞ = Ax ∞ / x ∞ . 17.4. Show that Ax 2 ≤ y 2 w 2 for all x = 0 in Rn .2 x 1 for all x in Rn . then |λ| ≤ 22. . 16. respectively. Show that A 1. each column. (Note that x ∞ = 1. Show that (a) Ax ≤ A 1. Let A 2 = y 2 w 2 20. Let A be an m × n matrix. . . (b) Find a vector x whose coordinates are each ±1 such that Ax ∞ = A ∞ . Show that A F = A T F . Let x ∈ Rn and let ci = uiT x for i = 1. Use the result from Exercise 23 to show that if λ is an eigenvalue of a stochastic matrix. . Determine the values of A 2 and A F . Prove: (a) Ax ∞ ≤ n 1/2 A 2 x ∞ (b) Ax 2 ≤ n 1/2 A ∞ x 2 (c) n −1/2 A 2 ≤ A ∞ ≤ n 1/2 A 2 28.2 ≤ A 2 B 1. 15. (b) AB 1. n . Let A = wyT . Let A be an m × n matrix. Let A be an n × n matrix and let · M be a matrix norm that is compatible with some vector norm on Rn .4 Matrix Norms and Condition Numbers 415 11. λn and orthonormal eigenvectors u1 . Show that Ax w A v. Show that if A is a sudoku matrix. a2 2 .2 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎪ −1 A=⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 4 −1 2 1 ⎫ −2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ −7 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ 4 = max ( a1 2 . an 2 ) (a) Determine A ∞ . Let A be a symmetric n × n matrix.2 states that n A ∞ = max 1≤i ≤m |ai j | j =1 Prove this in two steps.) 13.) Show that A 1. un .2 23. one is given some of the entries of a 9 × 9 matrix A and asked to ﬁll in the missing entries. (a) Ax 2 2 = i =1 (λi ci )2 (b) If x = 0. 26. . 25. In this puzzle. 27.2 = max x=0 x 1 (See Exercise 19.2-norm of A is given by Ax 2 A 1. then λ = 45 is its dominant eigenvalue. and σ3 = σ4 = 1. Let A be an m × n matrix and let B ∈ Rn×r . The matrix A has block structure ⎫ ⎧ A11 A12 A13 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ A21 A22 A23 ⎪ A=⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ A31 A32 A33 where each submatrix Ai j is 3 × 3. Sudoku is a popular puzzle involving matrices. (a) Show that A 2 ≤ A F . (b) Under what circumstances will A 2 = A F ? 18. . Let · denote the family of vector norms and let · M be a subordinate matrix norm. Let A be an n × n matrix and x ∈ Rn . Theorem 7. We will refer to such a matrix as a sudoku matrix.

0)T . 16. so A is singular. 0. 4. (e). (a) and (e) are linearly independent (b). (d). 0. 8. 1)T }. and (e) are spanning sets. 0) (e) a plane through (0. Only in part (a) do they form a basis. 3.1 √ 1. 1. (b) and (c) are subspaces. 1. E 22 } (f) { E 11 .3 Chapter 3 3. (a) x1 = 5. 2. and (d) are subspaces. D O YOUR H OMEWORK . and (d) are not. (a) and (b) are spanning sets. 2. E 21 . 0. 1. x + 3} 12. E 22 } (e) { E 12 . If x + y = x + z. When α is an odd multiple of π/2. (b). 1)T ) Only the set in part (c) is a subspace of P4 . (0. 1)T }. 0)T . 0) (d) a line through (0. 0. dimension 1 (c) {(1. we obtain the graph of either sin x or − sin x . then 0 = 0 + y = y. Only in parts (a) and (e) do they form a basis.4 11. 12. (a) det( A) = 0. and (e) are not. 1. 0)T . 0. (a) linearly independent (b) linearly independent (c) linearly dependent 8. E 21 + E 12 } 13. If x + y = x for all x in the vector space. False 6. True 5. 0) in 3-space 6. then −x + (x + y) = −x + (x + z) and the conclusion follows from axioms 1. True 8. 3. (a) 3 (b) 3 (c) 2 (d) 2 15. 2. −1. dimension 2 7. 3. (c). 0) 4. 1. (a) ⎪ ⎪ ⎩−1 −1 ⎪ ⎭ −4 −5 2 2 Leon: Linear Algebra with Applications 8/E 7/2/07 06:43 Page 1 . 0)T . and (d) are linearly dependent. True 7. x2 = 3 5 √ (b) x3 = 4 5 = x1 + x2 7. (a) {(0. 1. (1. (c). E 22 . 2 14. (b) and (c) 3. 1. (0. 2. False 10. (a). Span((−5. V is not a vector space. If the graph of y = cos x is shifted to the left or right by an odd multiple of π/2. 0.474 Answers to Selected Exercises 5.2 1. (c) 2 (d) a plane through (0. 1)T . (c) 2 4. (a). 11. 1. x 2 } (b) {x − 1. 0. 0)T } (b) Span((−2. (c). False 4. x2 = 17 (b) x3 = 13 < x1 + x2 √ √ 2. 3. 0. {x 2 + 2. −3. 1. (a) ⎪ (b) ⎪ ⎩−1 1 ⎪ ⎭ −2 1 2 2 ⎫ ⎧ ⎭ ⎩0 1⎪ (c) ⎪ 1 0 ⎧ ⎫ ⎫ ⎧ 7⎪ 5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (b) ⎩ ⎪ 11 14 ⎭ ⎪ 3. (a) and (c) are subspaces. (a) and (b) are linearly dependent while (c) and (d) are linearly independent. 11. (b). (b) {(1. 1. 0. (a) and (d) are not. True 9.5 5. (a) det(adj( A)) = 8 and det( A) = 2 ⎧ ⎫ 1 0 0 0⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 4 −1 1⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ (b) A = ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 − 6 2 − 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ 0 1 0 1 14. 1)T ) (d) (−1. (a) x1 = 10. (x − 1)2 } (c) {x (x − 1)} ⎫ ⎫ ⎧ ⎧ ⎭ ⎭ (b) ⎪ ⎩1 2⎪ ⎩ 1 −1 ⎪ 1. (a) { E 11 . (a) and (b) are all of 3-space (c) a plane through (0. (d). 0. ⎫ ⎧ −1 2 −1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 −4 2⎪ and (b) adj A = ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ −1 2 −1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 0 0⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0 0 0⎪ A adj A = ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 0 0 0 9. E 22 } (c) { E 11 . 6. CHAPTER TEST A 1. 1)T } 11. True 2. 3. False 3. True 3. and 4. (a) and (e) are linearly independent (b). {(1. and (f) are subspaces. Axiom 6 does not hold. (b). 0)T ) (c) Span((1. 0. 1 5. (a). E 21 . 3. and (g) are not. (a) ⎪ 2 5 1 1 ⎫ ⎧ ⎭ ⎩0 1⎪ (c) ⎪ 1 0 ⎧ ⎫ ⎫ ⎧ 1 1⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 5 −2 ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ 2. (a) {x . (c). 2. (3.