You are on page 1of 11

ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

AL Methods Comparison Table
Characteristic Production rate Specific Less than 1000 B/D Gas Lift The full range of production rates can be handled. An AOF production rate cannot be achieved with gas lift because as much drawdown as for an ESP cannot be achieved. ESP The full range of production rates can be handled. When unconstrained an ESP can be designed to produce the full well potential to the surface (AOF), thus achieving higher flow rates than with gas lift. PCP Rate is dependent on setting depth, the deeper the setting depth the lesser rates. Generally PCP is suitable for low rate wells. Up to 4000 b/d at 3000 feet Rod Pump Rate is dependent on setting depth. Feasible for low rates (<100 B/D) and low GOR (<250). Typically are used with 1.5-in nominal tubing. Up to 2000 b/d at 4000 feet. Restricted to shallow depths using large plungers. In general, due to efficiency, rod pump is not recommended as a lift mechanism of choice on high producing wells. Not available. Pump must be landed below dynamic fluid level. Optimal to have intake below perforations, which will allow natural gas separation and vent to annulus. Depth is tied to dynamic fluid level. Maximum 14,000 ft TVD. Due to excessive polished rod load, depth is limited. Rods or structure may limit rate at depth. H2 S limits depth at which a large volume pump can be set. Effectively, about 500 B/D at 7,500 ft TVD and 150 B/D at 14,000 ft TVD. Problems only if high-rate wells requiring large plunger pumps. Small casing sizes (4.5 in and 5.5 in) may limit free gas separation. There is a limitation of downhole pump design in Jet Pump The full range of production rates can be handled. Less than 50 B/D up to 15000 B/D with adequate flowing bottom hole pressure, tubular size, and horsepower. Guideline as below:

1000 to 10,000 B/D

Piston Hydraulic lift: 50 to 4000 BFPD.
Jet Hydraulic lift: >15,000 BFPD of total fluid. AOF production rate cannot be achieved.

Well depth

Greater than 10,000 B/D Less than 2500 ft

Not available. Not restricted by well depth. The benefit of gas lift will be larger with greater depth, as there is more fluid to ‘lighten’ to enable increased well productivity. Not restricted by well depth. The benefit of ESP will be larger with greater depth as there is more fluid head to overcome to enable increased well productivity. Pump must be landed below dynamic fluid level. Optimal to have intake below perforations, which will allow natural gas separation and vent to annulus. Depth is tied to dynamic fluid level. Maximum 8000 feet.

Not restricted by well depth. However, limited by powerfluid pressure or horsepower as depth increases. A practical depth of 20,000 ft is possible. Guideline as below: Piston Hydraulic lift: up to 17,000 ft TVD. Jet Hydraulic lift: up to 20,000 ft TVD.

2500 to 7500 ft Greater than 7500 ft

Casing size

4 ½ in.

Production tubing restricted to 2-3/8” tubing when installing side pocket mandrels. Packoff mandrels internal to the tubing can allow larger tubing size.

ESP restricted to a maximum diameter of 3.75” with a maximum flow rate of 2000 BPD (320 m3 /D).

Most slim hole models with OD= 3.75” can fit in this size. Up to approx. 3000 b/d at 3000 feet.

Small casing size often limits producing rate owing to high friction losses. Coiled Tubing Jet can be run inside 1-1/4” Coiled Tubing and, therefore, small casing size.

-1 -

Not recommended. Packoff mandrels internal to the tubing can allow larger tubing size. Production tubing restricted to 4” t ubing when installing side pocket mandrels. ESP restricted to a maximum diameter of 5. No constraint.56” with a maximum flow rate of 5200 BPD (830 m3 /D). 7” side pocket mandrels are available for large casing. No constraint. Jet Pump 7 in. Production tubing restricted to 5-1/2” tubing when installing side pocket mandrels. A straight section of casing is required at ESP depth. Deviated Well suited to deviated wells. 9 5/8 in. No constraint – typical installation with top drive and rods. Rod guides are used to reduce friction on rods. No big constraint.5”. REDA PC has application where the well is deviated and the reduced risk of failure due to rods is required. Well suited for deviated completions. A straight section of casing is required at ESP depth. Well suited to vertical wells. ESP can be deployed without problem. Pumps have been installed in horizontal section but same remarks for deviated well are applicable. Up to 3200 b/d at 5000 feet. Retrieval of gas lift valves from side pocket mandrels is straightforward. Gas lift causes no constraint. Packoff mandrels internal to the tubing can allow larger tubing size. Well suited to vertical wells. -2 - . Retrieval of gas lift valves from side pocket mandrels can be difficult when the deviation angle > 65 degrees. Typical pump length = 35 feet which is relatively short and easy to deploy through doglegs. There are increased load and wear problems in high angle deviated holes (>70 o). No constraint Pump length dependent. Well suited for vertical completions.400 m 3 /D). Not highly recommended. however size and running of ESP limited by well trajectory.40” with a maximum flow rate of 12000 BPD (1900 m 3 /D). Well suited to horizontal wells. However. ESP ESP restricted to a maximum diameter of 4. slickline work to pull nozzle could be a problem. Up to 4000 b/d at 3000 feet. ESP system may be limited as ideal system cannot be readily deployed through this dogleg. however size and running of ESP limited by well trajectory. Centralizer could be utilized.ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE Characteristic Specific 5 ½ in. Rod Pump of downhole pump design in small diameter casing. Slanted and crooked wells present a friction problem. All pumps will fit this casing. No contraint. ESP restricted by horsepower to a maximum flow rate of 90. Could suit for horizontal completions. Gas Lift Production tubing restricted to 2-7/8” tubing when installing side pocket mandrels. due to well trajectory. PCP The majority of pumps will fit into this casing with OD=4. and larger No detriment to performance with pump inside larger casing. Well suited to deviated wells. Retrieval of gas lift valves from side pocket mandrels can be difficult when the deviation angle > 65 degrees. Horizontal Dogleg severity Less than 3° per 100’ 3 to 10° per 100’ Well suited to horizontal wells unless the tubing is large preventing produced fluid mixing with lift gas. Well inclination Vertical Well suited to vertical wells. Can deal with deviation however rod wear is a reliability constraint.000 BPD (14. Some larger models available with OD=5 -3/8”.

No hydrocarbon inventory and the extra facility of shutting off produced fluid flow by stopping the pump. which have been shown to operate at 550 F. Guideline as below: Piston Hydraulic lift: <15o /100 ft build angle. 3 barriers can be achieved Standard PCP design with suitable elastomers will handle this temperature. Higher temperatures require specialised ESP designed equipment. Note that the motor temperature is significantly higher than the bottom hole temperature.ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE Characteristic Specific Greater than 10° per 100’ Gas Lift ESP Not recommended. Use of REDA PC would allow deployment of SCSSV. o Jet Pump Applicable for slanted and crooked wells. Operating temperature range from 0 to 550 o F. Surface wellhead valve – one barrier. the well needs be shut-in to bleed off. 3 barriers can be achieved. PCP Same as above Rod Pump Zero to 90 landed pump. Temperature limitation is excellent. If rupture takes place and create a major catastrophic at surface. During operation. Restricted by rod strings. Some success is accomplished in pumping 15 o /100 ft using rod guides. -3 - . No hydrocarbon inventory and the extra facility of shutting off produced fluid flow by stopping the pump. Extremely high temperatures will cause a short run life. Safety Barriers 3 barriers can be achieved Hydrocarbon inventory Gas lift entails a large inventory of hydrocarbon gas in the annulus or tubing that upon catastrophic failure of wellhead will be vented to the atmosphere. Temperature Less than 250°F 250 to 350°F Greater than 350°F Recommended for all temperatures Standard ESP design will handle this temperature. nominal tubing. Surface wellhead valve – one barrier. Zero to 90 Degrees pump placement. Restricted by rod strings. Medium range equipment required. large amount of crude is being stored in vessels and surface lines. No hydrocarbon inventory and the extra facility of shutting off produced fluid flow by stopping the pump. Jet Hydraulic lift: <24o /100 ft build angle. Short jet pumps can pass through doglegs up to 24-deg/100 ft in 2 in. Solution can be to install an annular SSV to limit the inventory. It is possible to operate from 0 to 500+o F. Above current limit Above current limit Can lift high temperature and viscous oils.

Electrical fire risk is increased. This limit is imposed. hence safety risk is low. however well and reservoir constraints limit final drawdown. Recommended. and is principally slick line. Good drawdown but cannot completely deplete a well. however there needs to be enough reservoir energy to deliver the produced fluids to the surface. Not recommended. Risk of gas fire if using a gas driven motor. Any drawdown can be achieved with a given ESP design. AOF can never be achieved. Rod Pump Workovers to change out rod string could be required every 11/2 year. Cannot deliver fluids to surface. Water coning Gas lift can be effective in ESP can be effective in Can be used if free gas < 40% by volume. Small dynamic head will allow low FBHP to be achieved. More risk of injection and production lines rupture. The pump depth and the dynamic head limit achievable drawdown. If it is a highly deviated well. Recommended. The pump depth and the dynamic head limit achievable drawdown.ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE Characteristic Specific Intervention frequency Gas Lift For gas lift. The excellent result can obtain at intake pressure less than 25 psig providing adequate displacement and gas venting. ESP Full workovers could be required every two years (industry average) hence safety risk is higher than gas lift. Not recommended. Rod pump handling is fair to good. Typical design target is 25% submergence. > 5 years. The pump depth and the dynamic head restrict achieving a low FBHP. Recommended Can be achieved with ESP technology but a complicated system is required. Recommended Not recommended. Not recommended. PCP can be effective in For gassy reservoir. Process Completion Simple Dual or multiple zones Flowing bottom hole pressure Greater than 1000 psi 100 to 1000 psi Less than 100 psi More risk of blow out and gas fire with high-pressure gas lines required. The pump depth and the dynamic head restrict achieving a low FBHP. Typical design target is a minimum of 100 psi per 1000 feet of lift. The efficiency of the gas lift determines the achievable FBHP. A gas lifted well normally works with a FBHP in this range. Achieving any FBHP is not a constraint with ESP. AOF can be achieved if the well and reservoir properties do not constrain the ESP design. Gas lift can work in the upper end of this range for low reservoir pressure and productivity wells. PCP Full workovers could be required every 1 to 1-1/2 years typically. Intake pressure should be > 350 psig to 5. as at least 60% liquid is required for cooling of the elastomer. intervention frequency is low. As frequent as once every 6-8 months. typically about 50 to 100 psig. Recommended. Slickline deployed pump can reduce safety risk. Jet Pump As frequent as the nozzle gets plugged up with sand. etc… or simply just wear and tear of the nozzle. frequent workovers could be required to fix broken rod string. asphaltene. Cavitation in jet pump likely. Not recommended. Drawdown Gas coning Achievable drawdown is limited by ability to lighten head of fluid above gas lift point. Electrical fire risk is increased. Rod pump can be effective in Jet pump can be effective in -4 - . Cannot deliver fluids to surface. Gas lift can be effective in producing a well that cones gas. This is a big draw back since intervention frequency could be as regular as once every month.000 ft with low GLR. Historically wells are successfully completed as multi-string with gas lift. Low in electrical fire risk.

Hence the reservoir condition rate of change would define the ESP change out frequency rather than ESP mechanical run life.ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE Characteristic Specific Gas Lift producing a well that cones water. Reservoir access Flow Stability Gas lift is able to handle all types of flow regimes be they stable or unstable. the jet pump can be retrieved by wire line allowing access to reservoir. Recommended Recommended. PCP producing a well that cones water. Remedial work requires a full workover. Coil Tubing deployed ESP can solve some reservoir access problems. Recommended Recommended Not recommended for unstable flow. Use of downhole monitoring to control surface VFD could be used. Recommended as the flexibility of gas lift allows one installation to deal with falling pressure and production rates. Variable frequency drives (VFD) allow some operational flexibility on matching the production rate to the ESP design. Downhole ESP equipment restricts access. Pressure support Yes Steam flood will cause a problem. ESP producing a well that cones water. Good. Not recommended for unstable flow. Recommended Can be used with tertiary recovery methods. If there is no pressure support from the reservoir. A new jet pump design needs to be in placed to get optimum lift for the well. Continuous and smooth flow of produced fluids. If set in a sliding sleeve. as temperature will be increased. Need continuous fluid through pump. No reservoir access. Recommended as an ESP is able to move the same fluid volume no matter what water cut. Recovery Primary Secondary waterflood Tertiary Recommended Recommended. Not recommended when there is significant pressure drop in the reservoir – the range of production rates that a particular jet pump design can handle is limited. Not recommended when there is significant pressure drop – the range of production rates that a particular ESP design can handle is limited. Well suited. Recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended Can be used with tertiary recovery methods. Variable frequency drives (VFD) allow some operational flexibility on matching the production rate to the PCP design. Jet Pump producing a well that cones water. A logging bypass can be installed but this complicates the equipment and downsizes the ESP. as jet pump system is independent of water cut percentage producing from a well. Can be used with tertiary recovery methods. Rod Pump producing a well that cones water. Gas lift results in simple completions that allow ready access to the reservoir for surveillance and remedial work. Recommended Recommended Not recommended. however high water cut reduces the ability to move large fluid volumes. -5 - . production rate will decline and the well will be “pumped-off”. however increasing water cut reduces the ability to move large fluid volumes. No reservoir access. Cannot run any type of surveillance log. No Not recommended when there is significant pressure drop – the range of production rates that a particular PCP design can handle is limited. Hence the reservoir condition rate of change would define the PCP change out frequency rather than PCP mechanical run life. but pulling the ESP would still be required.

May not be able to lift well if reservoir pressure is low. Run life will be shortened in a more aggressive environment. Not recommended. Recommended Recommended. Rod fall problem for high rates. Recommended for all high viscosity crude. Reduced efficiency due to heavier column of fluid to lighten. Compatibility of metallurgy and elastomers with the total completion is only required. Recommended Recommended Moderate High Fluid viscosity Less than 100 cp gas free viscosity at reservoir temperature 100 to 500 cp gas free viscosity at reservoir temperature Greater than 500 cp gas free viscosity at reservoir temperature Reduced efficiency due to heavier column of fluid to lighten. Special metallurgy and elastomers will be required leading to more costly equipment. Oil power fluid in the range of >24 oAPI and <50 cp could be used. Recommended Recommended Has been used with success up to 1000 cp but little case history for very high viscosity. PCP Not used for oil with gravity greater than 40 degrees API due to high aromatic content (C6 to C9 should be under 20%) that will deteriorate elastomers. ESP No limitat ions. Preferable < 30 o API.000 cp. Higher rates may require diluents to lower viscosity. as pump efficiency will reduce. Recommended Good for < 200 cp fluids and low rate. o Water Cut Low Recommended. it will reduce friction losses. Production with up to 800 cp possible. The system is capable of handling high-viscosity fluid. -6 - . If waterpower fluid is used. Corrosive fluid Recommended. Recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended Up to 100% Recommended Efficiency of ESP will be reduced. Preferable > 12 o API. Recommended > 8 API. Chemicals in the power fluid can treat the tubular for corrosion.ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE Characteristic Oil Gravity Specific Gas Lift No limitations. Rod string and tubing is at risk as typically not special Using corrosion-resistant materials in the construction of subsurface pumps. motors cool poorly in the high viscous fluid. Pump efficiency is reduced. A mixture of ESP and progressive cavity pump technology is a potential alternative. Pump efficiency will increase as viscosity increases. o Rod Pump Jet Pump > 8 to 45 API. Recommended for the full range of water cut. Up to 80. more power is required to pump high viscous fluid and emulsions form. Preferable > 15 o API. Run life will be shortened in a more aggressive environment. Mixture of power and producing fluid is not a major issue in Jet pump. Design with rotor in stainless steel and matched elastomers. The ESP is largely insensitive to increasing water cut. Not recommended. Using special metallurgy and/or chemical treatment.

Not recommended. Problems with gas breakout in the pump will be minimised. Power fluid to jet pump can tolerate 200 ppm of 25µ particle size. Downhole gas handling equipment may be incorporated into the completion FBHP will need to stay above the bubble point pressure to avoid gas cavitation in the pump. Similarly the constraint is 30% CO2 content. High solids and sand production is troublesome for low oil viscosity (<10 cp). the volumetric efficiency can be significantly improved. A maximum 40% free gas by volume limit is imposed to allow cooling of elastomers with liquid flow. Not recommended Recommended. The producing of free gas through the pump causes reduction in ability to handle liquids. The achievable pump rate will be limited by the amount of gas breaking out of solution in the area of the pump. Not highly recommended. Not recommended. Target design is less than 1000 GLR. Recommended. The bubble point pressure is low hence the FBHP can be low allowing more production without the affects of free gas in the pump region. Sand has little effect on ability to a gas lift well. Feasible for low rate and low GOR Gassy wells usually have lower volumetric efficiency. Solids/sand handling ability is fair to poor. Not recommended. Not recommended. Gas handling ability is rather poor if one has to pump > 50% free gas. Low Sand & abrasives Less than 10 ppm Recommended for all wells producing sand. Gas above 2000 SCF/STB substantially reduces efficiency but helps lift. Up to 6% H2S can be handled by elastomer design but H2S causes hardening. Recommended. If the gas anchor or natural separation is used and free gas is venting. PCP handles solids easily. Sand at this concentration is normal wear and tear for an ESP. Vent free gas if possible. Rod Pump Jet Pump Gas/oil ratio Less than 500 scf/STB 500 to 2000 scf/STB Recommended Recommended Greater than 2000 scf/STB Recommended. Improved performance can obtain for high viscosity (>200 cp) cases. Not recommended. Recommended. Downhole gas handling equipment may be incorporated into the completion. The achievable pump rate will be limited by the amount of gas breaking out of solution in the area of the pump. Gas lift would be only expected to be of benefit at higher GOR. Recommended. Recommended. Gas lift is not dependent on the bubble point pressure hence is suitable for any range. Fresh water treatment for salt -7 - .ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE Characteristic Specific Gas Lift ESP PCP metallurgy. May be able to handle up to 0.1% sand with special pumps. Recommended. Jet pumps are operating with 3% sand in produced fluid. as the high bubble point will limit the maximum drawdown in the well due to the detrimental effects of free gas in the pump. An ESP can be designed to a free gas volume handling criteria. Bubble point High Recommended for all bubble points. as the high bubble point will limit the maximum drawdown in the well due to the detrimental effects of free gas in the pump. The bubble point pressure is low hence the FBHP can be low allowing more production without the affects of free gas in the pump region. Recommended.

Circulate heat to downhole pump to minimize build up. Susceptible to paraffin problems.ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE Characteristic Specific 10 to 100 ppm Gas Lift ESP ESP may be operated under these conditions but harder surface coatings are required. This will lead to pump inefficiency. Rod Pump Jet Pump build-up possible. Corrosion inhibitor Corrosion/scale ability is good and sometimes excellent. Mechanical cutting and inhibition possible. PCP Recommended. Hot water/oil treating and/or uses of scrapers possible. Materials design will need to be modified to ensure continued service of the ESP after treatment. Corrosion handling good to excellent. Batch treat down annulus feasible. Corrosion handling good to excellent. Recommended. Corrosion and scale treatments easy to perform. Does not increase deposition and will produce asphaltene to surface as a solid. Scale could build up at intake and nozzle over time but can be treated. If the well is prone to scale. Chemical treatment is required to prevent formation of these contaminants. Inhibitor with power fluid mixes with produced fluid at entry of jet pump throat. Typically not a constraint but may need to be reviewed if well has a high scaling tendency. Recommended when any treatment is required. Paraffin Asphaltene Treatment Scale inhibitor Paraffin may deposit near an operating gas lift valve due to temperature and pressure drop. but they increase operating problems and costs. Can be treated. This may lead to blockage of the gas lift valves and an inability to be able to retrieve them Introduction of lift gas into the produced fluid stream may increase the risk of asphaltene deposits. Typically can handle up to 7-8% by volume. increased wear & tear and eventually failure. Not a problem due to the nature of PCP however efficiency will be reduced. paraffin or asphaltenes deposit then it is likely to occur in the pump area (large pressure drop). Difficult to control. Good batch treating inhibitor down annulus used frequently for both corrosion and scale control. These treatments have little to no effect on a gas lifted system. Not recommended due to friction and wear on ESP equipment. Paraffin handling capability is good/excellent. Solvent -8 - . Production chemistry analysis for individual fields will determine whether this is likely to occur. Can be surfaced at a predetermined schedule. Elastomer compatibility is a constraint so needs to be reviewed in detail for design. Can be treated. Greater than 100 ppm Contaminants Scale Scale can form close to the operating gas lift valve due to the pressure drop at that location. This may lead to blockage of the gas lift valves and an inability to be able to retrieve them. Design of elastomers for abrasion is required.

Recommended. Costs of power equipment will be reduced and rationalised as the number of wells completed increases. Recommended. Recommended. ESP efficiency decreases. however an ESP is able to handle larger step outs than gas lift before zero flow occurs. Multiple wells operating from one single surface hydraulic package greatly reduces lift cost. Rod Pump Jet Pump Onshore Offshore platform Recommended Excellent and recommended. Good to excellent. Recommended. As the number of wells increases the cost of the compression facilities becomes more economic on a well-bywell basis. (Anti-pollution stuffing boxes are available. weight. However. operations are drawbacks in populated areas. The ESP can be designed to overcome the head produced by the subsea delivery system. Running a gas lift system will include a flaring system. Recommended. Recommended. Stuffing box leakage may be messy and a potential hazard. Recommended. Must design for unit size. Onshore applications are common. Poor and not recommended. The ESP when running has little potential impact on the environment. As the step out from the tie in delivery point is increased the efficiency of gas lift decreases. Rate will not achieve benefits. The gravity and friction of lengthy pipelines cannot be fully overcome by a gas lifted system. Produced water or seawater may be used as power fluid with well site type system or power fluid separation before production treating system. and pulling unit space. As step out from the tie in delivery point increases. Due to surface size. Safety barriers may be a const raint. Recommended Excellent and recommended. there is concern in sensitive areas if oil is used as power fluid . ESP can be installed for a single well with standalone power generation and control. -9 - . or sea water) is acceptable. Subsea Sensitive environment Delivery of fluids under a gas lift scenario through a long sub sea delivery system will be significantly reduced. Recommended. Not recommended due to intervention requirments and power fluid pump to remote location. Number of Wells Single 1 to 20 Typically cost of providing compression for a single well gas lift development is too high to be able to justify. Single wells are the most common. hence affecting the environment when the compressor is ‘blown down’. produced. Recommended Good and recommended. Not recommended except as REDA PC. Moderately high for urban areas. Recommended.) Fair in term of noise level. Not Recommended. Power water (fresh. Low in noise level. Well-site power-fluid units can be sound proofed. Leakage from stuffing box for rod only constraint – polished rod through wellhead. because of the high-pressure injection lines. Recommended.ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE Characteristic Acid Location Specific Gas Lift ESP PCP Ensure cleanout of well prior to re-installation. Offshore applications are common.

Average run life Workover or pulling rig. Pipeline For gas lift valve changeouts slick line intervention > 5 years. Does not impact RP solution. Prime mover flexibility is good: either engines or motors can be used easily (motors more reliable and flexible). Less voltage required than ESP hence lower operating cost. Rod Pump Recommended. Gas can be sourced from: • Produced gas from naturally flowing well or artificially lifted by non gas lift method • A flowing gas well • Importing gas from an external source e.ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE Characteristic Specific Greater than 20 Gas Lift Recommended. Gas engines could be used in locations with no electricity. a tie in to a power grid or independent power generation. Requires some fluid (water or oil) to fill the vessels as power fluid prior to start up. Does not impact ESP solution. A diesel or gas engine can be used where electricity is not available. Large amount of space is required to install a compression system. If a gas source is readily available either from produced gas. Large amount of surface spacing is required. as the cost of obtaining a gas source will be large. A source of electric power is needed. Produced gas from the well can be used to power a gas engine prime mover. For areas where space is at a premium this can be a costly issue. A “free” jet pump can be circulated to the surface without pulling the . For Once power is available to the facility ESP systems will be able to be run. Does not impact ESP solution. Prime mover can be an electric motor. PCP Recommended. Change out of total completion required for ESP failure. Not required. Run time efficiency is greater than 90% if good operating practices are followed and if corrosion. Can use electricity as power source. Small footprint. ESP Recommended.10 - . Change out of total completion required for ESP failure. Surface unit can be mounted on one skid or two skids for a dualvessel power fluid cleaning unit. Does not impact PCP solution. This can be a tie in to an existing facility. hence the addition of power for a rod pump unit does not have as large an impact as for gas compression. Run life of PCP determines intervention frequency.g. Does not impact PCP solution. rod pump systems will be able to be run. Jet Pump Electrical Power Gas source Yes No Facilities footprint Recommended. Small footprint on surface. Cost benefit for this number of wells justifies high costs for installation of compression. Once power is available to the facility. Facilities often have power generation already installed. Not recommended. Run life of ESP determines intervention frequency. For subsea wells may not be required for life of well. Start up Well intervention Gas lift is not recommended if after a shut down gas is not easily available. Gas motor can be used. import gas or a gas well then gas lift is a viable artificial lift method. Two skids for a 200 HP unit with engine prime mover may have a footprint of approximately 8 feet by 18 feet each. Does not impact JP solution. Facilities often have power generation already installed hence the addition of power for ESP does not have as large an impact as for gas compression. Once power is available to the facility PCP systems will be able to be run. Facilities often have power generation already installed hence the addition of power for PCP does not have as large an impact as for gas compression. Hydraulically removed or wirelined.

solids. Rod Pump wax. No moving parts in pump.ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE Characteristic Specific Gas Lift remedial well work as required with the ability to perform through tubing workovers. OPEX Low. Requires surface treating and high pressure pumping equipment. Units easily changed to other wells (i.11 - . Jet Pump tubing or it can be retrieved by wire line. Capital costs are competitive with sucker-rod pumps. but productivity and improved run life can offset these costs. Typical jet pump efficiency is 30% thus power fluid at 2-3 times the produced fluid rate is required. Moderate to high. Operating costs are very low for shallow to medium depth (< 7500 ft) and low production (< 400 BFPD). reuse) with minimum cost. related to pump intake pressure. Cost increase with depth and larger surface units. CAPEX High for compression and gas distribution system High for power generation and cabling Capital costs are low to moderate. Gas lift systems have a very low OPEX due to the downhole reliability. simple repair procedures.e. Moderate cost for equipment but high intervention frequency. Wellhead equipment has low profile. Moderate cost for facilities and down hole equipment. Low pump maintenance cost typical with properly sized throat and nozzle. Must avoid operating in cavitation range of jet pumps throat. Cost increases with higher horsepower. ESP Average run life approximately two years. etc… are controlled. High power cost owing to horsepower requirement to pump power fluid. . Remedial work will require completion to be removed PCP approximately one to one and a half years. asphaltenes. Total change out can be avoided by using wireline retrievable with REDA PC or put rotor and stator on rod string so doesn’t have to pull tubing. Remedial work will require completion to be removed. Costly interventions are required to change out conventional ESP completions.