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archive.Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2007 with funding from IVIicrosoft Corporation http://www.org/details/chaptersinhistorOOtrigrich .

CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF THE ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT .

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COrVRIOMT 19e2-THE BOHEMIA OUILO OF THE INDUSTRIAL .

^ ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT- HAPTERS IN THE fflSTOBY OF THE ByOscarLcvell TfiggsTHD- TublishedJfV WeBohemia Chuitd^the Tndusfrial ArtLeague _^ CHICAGO -MDCCCCn .

COPYRIGHT. 1909 BY THE BOHEMIA GUILD OF THE INDUSTRIAL ART LEAGUE .

Dedicated to ofIndustrial Art .

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CONTENTS. ASHBEE AND THE RECONSTRUCTED WORKSHOP 42 V. in Political Economy 28 Morris and his Plea for an Industrial Commonwealth Statement of Principles of the Hammersmith Socialist Society 59 129 1 IV. VI. PACK I. Rookwood: An Ideal Workshop The Development of Industrial - - 157 Con162 sciousness Appendix I. Ruskin's Contribution to the Doctrine ii OF Work Economy - Twentieth -Century 25 The Omitted Elements III. 189 195 The Industrial Art League - . Carlyle's Relationship to the dustrialism New InI II. A Proposal for a - Guild and - School of Handicraft Appendix II.

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New Carlyle's relationship to the as I will call it. /. I count i860 as the approximate year of Morris skirts built his its beginning. when William famous Red House on the out- of London. as the name implies. remote. development an idea being measured by the lives of Carlyle. as much older than forty years. and Morris. is new industrialism. the association of art and labor.CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF THE ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT. Ruskin. The primary motive movement it of the arts and crafts is. though its differentiation into a distinct phase of industrialism belongs to the last ten years. has been slowly emerging from the general infield for dustrial about forty years. Initially an English movement. Carlyle' s Relationship to the Industrialism. and in his own mind . On its movement its is. of course. and served his apprenticeship to the industrial arts by designing the decoration and furniture of his theoretical side the and executing home.

" However. here we are. 2 The Arts and Crafts Movement. and that the immediate function of labor. by whatever means of steam and machinery. but its alas. arrived and it is by no means the land flowing at last . thing more than . and could not. my friends. a voice crying out in an age of transition an age whose tendencies he did not understand.. namely. therefore. when New the age in satire had appeared with some definiteness. he summoned at length a ." And later. the in New the ap- pears not in travail stead . that these would not serve the present. in any direct . heroes of the past —the hero statesman — and knowing Having named the ideal as prophet. he wrote of " You perceive. we : have actually got into the 'New Era' there has been such prophesyings of. with milk and honey we were new led to expect. the Time is still pangs of with the New. poet. it man's. But Carlyle was never any- quite unconscious. there was one thing that Carlyle perera was industrial. was to subdue the earth vital and make soldier. way an age about which he knew but one cer- tainty. ceived clearly: that the that the organization of labor was the universal problem of the world . that its conditions were subject to 1 change. He wrote as early as 83 1 : " The doom of the Old has been pronounced and irrevocable the Old has passed away.

" Look around you. All human social interest. begin reducing them. and Work. who should lay his might upon the chaos. and growths in this world. "your world-hosts are on the all in mutiny. doubtless. have. the industrial hero. ! He called them to order. an aristocracy rude." to persons To the arts of the leisure classes Carlyle never refers except with scorn. — " is very fine sitting at and ornamental. of strong hand and iron will and strict conscience. and inartistic in the old sense of art." . He had short patience with the art of a nobility. destitution Ye shall reduce eve of fiery wreck and madness Industry. civilize whose work was out of its utter savagery the world of for an industrial Cromwell or Frederick. 3 new " to ideal. referring to the fine arts. combining human endeavors. but from the new point of view " Art.Carlyle's Relationship." stitute a In his view such leaders would con- new aristocracy an aristocracy denoted by something other than fine manners and accompanied by something else than fine arts." he said to the leaders of industry he had evoked. but only their ease." he finely cultured and artists in deed. at a certain stage of their development. in confusion. and rule it into order and harmony. human interests. who were . once said. required organization the grandest of . does now require it.

and wrote in his bitterest mood of its satire a description of the modern opera and devotees. the triumph of man it." industrial world. lies hidden in that a and yet no dream. . the naked in Cotton-spinning its . beautiful as magic dreams. looking at cotton Switzerland. with sound ears. the clothing of or more so. its far Yet from is his it. : world was not devoid of beauty " Manchester. sublime as a Niagara. ! the beauty free and visible there Hast thou heard. only concerned about their game preserves. with its cotton fuzz. but noisome wrappage and leave wrappage struggling to cast itself oiF. ? ous to thee I think not so : a precious substance. it : Soot and despair are not the essence of they are divisible from The in great Goethe. the awakening of a chester. its smoke and hide- tumult and contentious squalor. at half-past five its the clock like the the rushing off of thousand there boom of an if Atlantic tide. a reality. on Monday morning. Manby mills.— 4 The Arts and Crafts Movement. thou knew result well. over matter in its means. ten thousand spools and spindles all set it humming is — it is perhaps. dust. Carlyle then had certain notions respecting the meaning of the These mean- ings bring us very close to his central doctrine . declared this it to be of all things that he had seen world the most poetical.

is Work its first and chief duty of man. but may go and look elsewhere if there be any Idle Planet discoverable." Again he would assert: "Work is alone noble. the first of Nature. the idle man." he wrote in his essay on Chartism." In shorter phrase: "Labor is Life. Let the honest working-man rejoice that such law. will not find it good to show himself in our quarter of the Solar System. and Sincerity. its thought he had to in summed Duty. In Silence.Carlyle's Relationship." he explains. "is the grand cure of the maladies and miseries that ever beset mankind honest work which you intend getting done. "A day is — ever struggling forward." In a deeper sense work appears to be the mission of man on the earth. as a vague term of obligation. "a day will arrive in some approximate degree when he who has no work to do. and hope that by — . 5 of Duty. finds application three secondary doctrines: the those of Work. the doctrine of the work stands on of all Carlyle's pages thus: "It first prob- lems for a is man do to find out what kind of work he or in negative is able to in this universe". in which word offer is all of constructive up. statement: "One monster all there in this world." "For work. is simplest form. has been made good on him. by whatever name he may be named.

or else Nowhere. Thus understood. all else will all. or any of the most improved establishment of banking and money-changing. "Silence the eternal duty of a man. Not in Bank-of-England bills. faithfulness of method. whatsoever of Strength the man had in him ligence. " is a born king ." The brave man has to give his life away. of something of Nature so is in communion with Nature. insight. and for his all return. heroic soul. energy: in a word. in Owen's Labor bank. ingenuity." "He that can work. will lie written in the Work he does. the ." be made good. It is the beginning of And so in "Past and Present" intel- "Whatsoever of morality and of what of patience. withal." he explains further. thou." In silence thoughts shape is themselves and emerge in action. present thy account of earnings." a priest and king own it reward." Carlyle said. and becomes perverted the a wage. "God's entire creation" is given in So Carlyle quotes with approval the words of the old monks of : Laborare est Orare. is is master of a thing or things. " do yet lie in Heaven.6 and by he said: The Arts and Crafts Movement. far. work is its moment and falls under bondage to ''The wages of every noble Work. needest demands Mammon. Closely connected with the doctrine of his principle silence. perseverence. work is is " Silence.

But from Wilhelm Meister he derived the notion of "mute-education" an education. gaged for generations with abstractions. up and be doing! If thy knowledge be real. a boundless significance in work. full- element in which great things fashion themselves together. but ." is "The grand result of schooling master a mind with just vision to discern. y emerge. Do one thing.Law " he explained more elaborately his edu- cation of silence: "He that has has known nothing. which they are henceforth to rule. into the daylight of Life. — "a training in practicality at every turn. and see how they hold out. or." On this ground Carlyle had much to say on the topic of The schools about him had been eneducation. that at length they may formed and majestic. and the usage of words.Carlyles 'Relationship. for the first done nothing sit scheming time in thy life do a thing. put it forth from thee. of the deed. as he describes it. a all new light will rise to thee on the doing of things whatlies soever. Truly. the grand Schoolis Rhymes Practice. with free force to do. ities. grapple with real Nature. and not of the word. artificial- manners. that is. whereby the humblest craftsman comes to attain much which is of indispensable use." In his paper on "Corn. Vain is it to and plausibly discoursing. try thy theories there.

transfix everywhere the heart of the matter. and there a low grunt or growl. with here : outer skin. center. or Practicality. The cloudy-browed." theory and practice is The contrast between drawn still further in " Past and Present": "How one loves to see the burly of him. adroit Man Man of of Theory. has in him what transcends all logic utterance a Congruity with the Unuttered. pitted against some light. so light of movement.8 The Arts and Crafts Movement. with his of arrow-arguments — bow full-bent and quiver full surely he will strike down the game. is which reaches down to the World's find him there. triumph everywhere as he proves that he shall and must do? opaque To your astonishment. were he never so high. where all equipt with clear logic. thick- no logic utterance. but a transcendentalism . is his or is not his . with silence mainly. this figure thick-skinned. perhaps sulky. which lies atop. but the Doable. as a superficial film. No. and able any- to give you Why for Wherefore! The adroit Man of Theory. seemingly opaque. runs the risk of missing. The Speakable. clear of utterance." There is much that dental in all this you transcen- — a philosophy it is gone quite gen- erally out of fashion. is which he who of no craft. almost stupid Practice. it turns out oftenest soled.

g that pertains to the deed rather than the word. let it be genuine. unequipped with it for the present I shall not have equipped myself with hypocrisy. always infidelity. at any rate. price — This. giant. They are . human problem. The is test of manhood all its truth how to attain truth in things and be true at all places and times the great no less. vital is modern Literary education passing from the schools. we agree. embodied. the great industrial problem "Cheap and nasty" with these words — Carlyle characterized most of the manufactured goods of spirit his day. is all primarily the rule of purchasing and producing men. with a soul his place must become " a seeing. at whatever price if the is too high for me. I will go without it. and so links tendencies in fast itself with some of the most life. and take throne of things. Against the ideal of cheap" No good man did. encourage cheapness at the ruin- ous expense of unfitness. rational in the body of him. which is and is dishonorable to a man." on the In sincerity. If want an . tainted as they were with the of Mammon. arti- cle. the third of these principles. Labor.Carlyle's Relationship. all if you will reflect. Carlyle's economic doctrine is is . ness he placed that of fitness. I or ever should.

the pathos of genius for vivid description. silence volumes upon work and to write other volumes upon It is and never be silent one's self doubt- ful if the literary man can even be sincere." answered "It is first of all necessary to gird up thyself for actual doing once rightly girded up : — many things lyle's present themselves as doable." In the mere statement of these three principles. not permitted to encourage.. or of a life he had the gift more than life all. or acting of Hypocrisy in this world. the inmost facts and was able to discern of a scene. faculty of vision. and historian. for life not having experienced he must be haunted by . As a man of letters he had the supreme and. life — as he observed of Schiller —was emphatically His own a literary one . and say what can be done. a biog- rapher. an event. or in any form countenance the working. without any very definite suggestions as to their application. did not stimulate much actual doing. of the word. weaving. The practical man of his day cried out to him : " Descend from speculation and the safe pulpit down into the rough marketBut Carlyle place. I o The Arts and Crafts Movement." Car- function was to arouse to action. it is true. patronize. he was primarily a recorder. at least to stimulate thought on social questions. the literary to write It is the to remain inactive. Carlyle.

//. is doubt- any genuine word. namely. then idling in Italy and Switzerland. doubts and self-questionings. a socialist in both word upon the — . and employing an astonishing literary skill in describing objects of nature and art but presently to become something quite other than a literary dilettante. even though lost. Carlyle's mission as a futurist was to arouse It it thought on current ful if social questions. real- —the complete democratizing of Ruskin's Contribution to the which Carlyle actually feared. And lacking clairvoyancy. Mistaken in nearly all points relating to political democracy. he was prevented from uttering the creative word that might have inaugurated a new epoch. can ever be And Carlyle*s word ear of a young man. something more even than Carlyle. being reserved for a distant future. he was always right in discussing questionsiof industry. be but a fell word. Doctrine of Work.1 KuskirCs Contribution. undoing as a sociologist for he was wont to prophesy without data in experience. faculty was his 1 Carlyle's literary. unable to see any other outcome for a society rapidly democratizing save anarchy and chaos. and his dream of " some chivalry of labor " ized is even now being labor.

of an amazingly vital. with almost the scope. and not for his poetry. ject of There is is practically no sub- human interest that he did not discuss. that he might the better determine the chief. and not in some degree there is no discussion that illuminative. his passage significant life histories of the nineteenth century. and it seems impossible for the world to understand that Ruskin was not primarily an artist or an art critic.1 2 The Arts and Crafts Movement. all the most intimate and essentially human modes of expression. economy of life. We forget that Dante was a scholar and desired to be known for his learning. and preferred to synthesize knowledge rather than specialize in narrow fields. ests. of Spencer and Fiske. He reminds one also of those great mediaeval scholars who took knowledge for their province. Art was but by no means the only. all is review of of Ruskin*s writings in the order of publication. after a The impress left upon the mind. field . who simply examined the phenomena of of the art. though not with the manner. versatile. generally con- sistent. His works constitute a kind of syn- thetic philosophy. and — to quote Carlyle on Goethe —"pano- ramic'* intelligence. The age. story of John Ruskin's pilgrimfrom naturalism to artistic interand thence to socialism. is one of the most and deed. but a all sociologist.

overcrowd JohnBut manner does son. Carlyle. The social motive was undoubtedly the central and controlling impulse in all he did yet so great was his mental energy. sity of self-expression. humorous letter addressed to Mrs. the simple neces. is and fruit An abundant life-energy turned now upon this subject and now upon the mere that. . : the direct. wreaking itself also upon style manner of saying styles things. pro- duced as spontaneously and naturally as flowers in the physical world. not measure him he led as laborious a life an any In a the busy nineteenth century can show. and got fairly ready for the press. that his work might fairly be said to have been without special motive. ^^^ ^^ ^^^ climacteric years. in which he always took supreme delight. good proceeds : hundred pages. a boyant. the letter " I have written. invective. and outscold Carlyle. since May. instruc- persuasive. Also I have prepared above thirty drawings for six . . had these rewritten. : transcript of his occupations is made for a portion of 1855. cut up. he could on occasion outpreach Hooker. i 3 wherefrom he gathered data for the understanding of life. Rhetorically he was the master of many tive. corrected.— Ruskiris Contribution. and flam- Showing the influence of Hooker and Johnson and Carlyle upon him. suggestive.

on interleaved foolscap. and this takes time. cookery.1 4 The Arts and Crafts Movement. and have been studying Spanish proverbs with ner. and everybody-elseian arrangement of plants. engravings engravers this year. geology. political economy. and unbound my book and rebound the pages it in brighter green. . — so as to cut off the old paging numer- and am now my new arrangement I in a legible manner. the six hundred pages I have had to make various remarks on German metaphysics. and have accordingly ranged a system of botanic ar- my own . all of which subjects I have had to ^ read up' accordingly. have also designed and drawn a window for the museum at Oxford. Jussicuan. agriculture. studies of horticulture I became dissatisfied with the Linnaean. music. and navigation . and In the course of etched some on steel myself. with all throughother and backside printing foremost als . and have every now and then had to look over a parcel of five or six new designs for fronts and backs to During my above-mentioned the said museum. on poetry. horticulture. my father's part- who came over from Spain I to see the great Exhibition. dress. retouching the (generally the most part of the business). Morever I have had my class of workmen out sketching every week in the fields during the summer.

about the Finite realization of Infinity. in the art of illumination. and a Yorkshire young lady to direct in the purchase of Turners and various little bye things besides. rent and taxes. — By the jest side of this letter may be placed another written twenty years later. I found wanting it). which sometimes keeps me My studies of German meta- physics have also induced me to think that the Germans don't know anything about them. which. an American young lady to direct in the study of landscape painting. consider this arrangement one of 15 my great achieveof political ments of the year. all in an awake night. in an investigation. telling. abstract form. trouble." boats . The course of necessitated my which has given me some my studies of navigation going to Deal to look at the Deal and those of geology to rearrange all my minerals (and wash a good many. My studies economy have induced me to think also that nobody knows anything about that. several pupils. and I am engaged ciples. in a mood of and earnest. of designs for which he had been . on independent prin- of the nature of money. I am I have also sorry to say. far and near. and to engage in a serious inquiry into the meaning of Bunsen's great sentence in the beginning of the second volume of Hippolytus.Ruskin's Contribution.

in nine volumes. collecting materials for fifty "Of for a these materials I have interesting (in now enough by me art. art. his origi- dogmatic and self-confident assertive- ness. with analysis of the general principles of education. the harmony of the theoretical and practical faculties. a life Walter Scott. in three C. in commentary on Hesiod. with final economy. of volumes. his many-sidedness.1 6 The Arts and Crafts Movement. his gained. we notice the range of his attainments. an exhaustive history of northern art. we learn from the for the dedication of of 1855 of his intimacy with the Carlyles. in thirteenth-century Sir ten volumes. with analysis of . years. the impatience of his spirit." From these recitals a notion of the prodigality is of Ruskin's genius nality. and particularly the happy union of what is thinking and doing. a analysis of the principles of political volumes. the oscillation of his temper. And quite as important as any. and are prepared letter to " "Munera Pulveris" in 1863 Thomas Carlyle. and a general description of the geology and botany of the Alps. in twenty-four ten volumes. in seven volumes a life modern epic of Xenophon. an analysis of the Attic art of the fifth century B. in six most my opinion) history of fifteenth- century Florentine octavo volumes. who has urged me to all .

life history not difficult to " My life. of a large but irregular intelligence. " has in the things chanced to be one of gradual progress which found I began in childish choice. From the age of seven to his twenty-second year he . \j chief labor/* also for Ruskin's praise of Carlyle in " The Crown of Wild Olive " as " the greatest of historians since Tacitus. furthermore." for the many references to his "master" elsewhere in his writings." Knowing Ruskin's relationship with Carlyle. we "^^7 assume will it likely that Ruskin*s published volumes not contain any compact and systematized rather the easy discourse body of instruction. the general is However much given unity of Ruskin's trace. and for his writing of Ruskin in 1869: "The one soul now in the world who seems to feel as I do in the highest matters. without letter going farther than the of 1855.Ruskiiis Contribution. somewhat perhaps. prepared social also for Carlyle's enthusiastic reception of Ruskin's later treatises. we can understand more clearly the sociological bearings of his teachings." he declared himself. to divagation. but willful. yet struck through with genius. as the scolding essay on the state of England in the "Ariadne Florentina" volume." This unity is in the thread of his social thought. and for the occasional imitation of his manner. Then.

"it cannot be learned at spare moments. much of his energy quite seriously to Poetry gave outlet to his adolescent en- thusiasms. their hearts. It is no handiwork for drawing-room tables. public pause. "Art still no recreation. might have occasioned suspicion. and verse-making trained him to the use of words. To advance it men's lives must be given. and to receive it. and avarice. and essential seriousness is more the with which he wrote. and indicative that the — interests he early passed to a study of painting so that and architecture. devoted poetry. His it is first love was for mountains and nom de plume he attached to his early writings was "Kata Phusin" according to nature." he declared. and should have made the English . But from these seas. There was at first in his writings of a social motive. nor pursued when we have nothing better to do. restlessness.1 8 The Arts and Crafts Movement." This surely is unusual language for a mere aesthete and stylist. in though "Modern Painters" against the railroad as signifying violence. no relief for the ennui of boudoirs it must be understood and undertaken seriously or not at all. early writings We see clearly now that in all his on nature and art it was the relation . the first volume of no token a protest "Modern to nature Painters" revealed an equal devotion and to art.

Ruskiris Contribution. (2) " Keen analysis of the principles and methods of art". without exception. following upon " Modern Paint- ers. his art studies. Norton points to the distinguishing features of the first volume of "Modern Painters" in these words: faculties (i) "The display of intimate acquaint- ance with the aspects of nature and of unique of observation and interpretation of them"." which read the laws of nature and of art by the light of Now. it was the possession of this third differentiated element. the moral. We are fortunate also to have Ruskin's own statement of the purpose of their beauty only. moral sentiment manifest throughout virtue. that Ruskin declared from other for the art teachers and marked him thus early mission of social reform. (3) "The strong and devoted it. of these to 19 Professor man for which he cared. He is himself that the beginning of his political economy to be found in the assertion in " Modern Painters " that beautiful things are useful to men because they are beautiful. or in any way turn into money. or pawn." He I told an audience at Bradford: " The 'The Seven Lamps' was to show that certain right states of temper and moral feeling were the magic powers by which all good architecture. had been pro- book called . and for the sake of and not to sell.

and kings philosophers. of vapid working-drawings architect's office. by art. by uninworkmen. suggested by pre-Raphaelitism. the great doctrine that art cannot be produced except artists . . Concerning the "Stones of W.' and connected with a wider range of thought. and in its all features indicated. Out of that idea the whole of his doctrine could be evolved. in so far as it is an does not telligent mean the mechanical execution. just as Socrates from an postponed the day of justice until philosophers should be kings. so Ruskin artists. with . Collingwood makes the following comment: "The kernel of the work was the Venice. a state of pure and of domestic virtue. a state of concealed national infidelity and of domestic corruption. Gothic architecture of Venice had arisen out and indicated national faith in all its features. The Arts and Crafts Movement. in which he showed. postponed the reign of art until workmen should be and artists workmen. that. more distinctly than in 'The Seven Lamps.20 duced. . ning to 'The Stones of Venice' had. and that its Renaissance architecture had arisen out of. . that architecture." chapter on the nature of the Gothic. from beginend. G. no other aim than to show that the of." The these recognition of the relations between art and national character signifies the social bearing of volumes.

he must artist. Now for the first time. Ruskin came to examine into the subject prache found that mere drawing-schools and charitable efforts could not make an artist out of a mechanic or country bumpkin. political economy of art — the title is significant marks definitely the parting of the ways. or upon art. and more about economy than any After 1857. as . for wider ques- tions were complicated with this of art —nothing in- short of the fundamental principles of tercourse and social human economy. Upon this topic he had an indisputable right to be heard." in 1865. practically artist. and his intention thereafter to speak out openly on social themes. all its 21 safe-guardlngs and widening vistas. as the "Ethics of the Dust." being the substance of lectures delivered in 1857 on the . since he knew more about art than any political economist. he had reached the true ore of thought." The volume entitled "A Joy Forever. for his truest well-being. everything he wrote. as have the experience. in the deep-lying strata and the working of the mine was begun. artist. whether upon nature.— Ruskin's Contribution. the well as the skill. And when Mr. after much sinking of trial-shafts. of an and that involves every circumstance of education and opportunity which may make tically. For if the workman must be made an feelings.

on the happy life of the workman. and insisted in the face of the public that was ever praising his style." social point of view. the Inaugural . and most service- things " he had written. am ing what I then began. volume of " Fors Clavigera. was conceived from the He would never admit that any sentence upon a social topic written after i860 was erroneous in principle. in all that I now I bid you fulfill' do.22 The Arts and Crafts Movement. to dress the earth and keep it. Even during the time he was professor of art at Oxford he was publishing the monthly series of studies called " Fors Clavigera. as a part of their all . that his volume called " Unto This Last. in 1873. Company of George. ' The Stones of Venice art." the purpose of which was to give a logical definition of wealth as a basis of economic science." Ruskin announced definitely the teachings of his five In the last greatest claim of books: "* Modern Painters' taught the lower nature in the hearts of men of the rock and wave and herb. rightest-worded. taught the laws of constructive and the deits ' pendence of all human work or edifice. contained the "best. the able truest. Unto This Last* taught the laws of life itself. " Val d*Arno. necessary spirit life . and its dependence on the Sun of Justice." and forming the St. for beauty.

from which. and in keeping which service of all in perfect freedom. * Fors Clavigera . for low and high. rich and poor together. is kept. I do not propose in this paper to wound his vanity by calling him a fine writer. that a sentence of Carlyle's contains more than some of his essays." The essential seriousness of Ruskin's thought being recognized. the necessity that it should be led. and am disposed to agree with him in saying that four lines of description by Tennyson are worth as much as many of his tures. 23 Oxford Lectures. whoso falls. but here in visible horror of chains under darkness to the judgment of the great day. pages. not mythically nor disputably. has declared the relation of these to each other. under the only Despot. . and the gracious laws of beauty and labor recognized by the upper no less than the lower classes of England and lastly. in the holding of that first Estate. which would mean that nobody need mind what he said indeed. and inheritance that a loving Creator can give to His crea- and an Immortal Father to His children. and that Browning suc- ceeded in putting into a few poems all that he had striven to say in as many volumes on the . I am almost sure that he was not always a fine writer. angel or man. and the only possible conditions of peace and honor.' Ruskins Contribution. God.

because he alone considered life in its integrity and wholeness . Renaissance. commonly called the all which had hitherto been ignored by writers upon economy. in short. and the third to the doctrine of work. As an economist Ruskin inaugurated three defirst partures from current teachings. that he alone among economists was acquainted with the value of the products of the highest industrialism. The true question is " How can society consciously order the lives of phase of wealth. — — its members so as to maintain the largest number of noble and happy human beings?" Ruskin's mission was on the one hand to correct a system .: 24 The Arts and Crafts Movement. but and unscientific. and he claimed to have made the first contribution to scientific economy. does not me. greatly interest His manner. since dealt with only a A mercantile economy is an "the science of avarice" economy of means Ruskin called it whereas political economy is an economy of essential life. but his thinking docs. His primary issue was with the political economy of the time. the second to the theory of beauty. itself The economy that con- cerned with merely objective wealth. the statistics of trade and production. the to general political relating economy. Ruskin denom- inated mercantile partial economy — right in it its place. fine arts.

COfVmOMT 1902-THE BOHEUU QUILD uf TMi INDUSIRIAL A»T LtAOUt .

.

I As write this there comes ". declares that one-half initiative is of the power of human suppressed by the present social order.Ruskin's Contribution. the problem of the is economy to develop individual originality. and it is not difficult to accept the statement. and to illustrate the better thinking of our own day : 'Twentieth-Century Economy. The happy instances where individuals manipulate circumstances so as to bring out striking results are rendered the more conspicuous by the number . it to my an hand an " Twenadmirable will serve editorial in the Chicago 'Tribune. however. that 25 had abstracted an " economic man " and set him to producing things. and give scope to the benefits of whose exerwell cise are registered in individual character as as in objective results. "The English economist. and on the other hand expand the area of economy by including activities that do not lead directly to marketable to production. "In world's its broadest statement. Marshall. entitled is tieth-Century Economy modern summary of the situation. He as is recognized by progressive the first economists having been English thinker to socialize tific economy in a strictly scien- manner.

26 The Arts and Crafts Movement. however. Yet it is enacted unobtrusively and with little dramatic effect. not the lot the great majority. but of anything comparable in capacity. It been has launched an entire series of world's free public schools fairs. who entirely fail not only of such achievement. both of . who at 14 years passes from the influence of the 'graded' system of education to ' tend a machine for ten hours a ' day. the century of wealth-making.' Among the latter there no inconsiderable proportion whose power of individual initiative is but meagerly developed and whose potential contribution to the world's enterprise is never realized. It is typified by the circumscribed career physical and moral world this tragic in character of the working-class boy. And all yet it is known that these others first grade only somewhat below the "Of the stupendous waste exhibited in the is perhaps the most and consequences. of other individuals thereto. Theirs. The lot of the few who enjoy more opportunities is elastic and extended educational field and a more adequate of is ' of action thereafter is more in the public eye. that the "There can be no doubt dominant aim It has of the century which has just closed has been commercial rather that humanistic. It has established and abolished slavery.

and that there could be no better way. people and upon insuring scope to their capacities will realize a and profusion of productive ex- "That spirit the spirit of a higher social is economy — an which partially a revolt and partially . mean the retarding of material the contrary. shall And a century all whose conscious its be to make existing progress converge upon the development of peculiar quality pression. but in which the emphasis shall be shifted from the material product to the human agent in which social advance rather than the instinct of profit-making or even of vast organization shall more effectually dictate action. It has gone haltingly forward with It its newly de- manded factory laws. 27 which acts mean accelerated material development.— a Ruskin^s Contribution. some twinges of conscience that the current waste of flesh and brain was inevitable. This does not progress. has neglected persons has — perhaps with —assured men It all as conscious objects. It has trusted for salvation to the instinct of gain. It has built great cities with their lack of art. Quite the better his eflFort The better the man product. "The problem of this century is to work out that higher economy in which there shall not only be a still better directed effort to eflfect material sav- ing.

but that has some limitations.28 The Arts and Crafts Movement. is shown by the increasing use of such terms as ^social economics' and 'sociology. It looks for a twentieth-century economy which." An editorial in Unity y as the preceding piece. as one of its far-sighted aims.* terms which starts at least include political it. capacities. not tend to supplant Political economy if they do economy still out with the assumption that wealth resolves . its chief thought is centered upon persons. in industrial conflict." asks some sound tinent questions that of Ruskin's writings. even in academic circles. shall seek to set free that fund of individual initiative which to-day is so often sacrificed. The Omitted Elements "Political in Political Economy. place in the it economy still holds its curriculum of our universities. instance of constructive self-assertion — is moving is with great force in Europe and America not to be denied. felt if not proven. and especially in dwarfed It finds the trust when kept within just bounds a labor-saving device. It protests against waste in militar- ism. without abating its demands for efficiency in methods. and of about the same date called " The Omitted perfamiliar to the reader I Elements in Political Economy. but.

wages. legitimate or otherall wise. itself 29 into three elements and three only. viz. Is the discovery bounty of nature which no man of an unexpected force title ? or resource in nature sufficient to private ownership of that force or resource Can the coal-beds of the world legitimately pass into the hands of the most sagacious manipulator of surface titles ? Can the Standard Oil Company by any manipulation of gas that their capital.Kuskiris Contribution. saving.. commu- more than race. and which are somehow legitimate law of factors in the con- siderations of the law of the land as well as the God ? The railroad did not create but was created by the general intelligence of the nity. and are there no economic elements in capital other than saving and the higher skill of management? Did the man who had the foresight to run the railroad into the undeveloped country create the wealth of which he received so large a share ? Are there not other elements of wealth which not only the moralist but the economist must take note of. claim first title to the petroleum or natural to cover ? man-made deeds may seem that Does the skill succeeds in harnessing the . the progress of the created. the that by the general advancement of science. represent all the elements in But do these wealth. interest or profit. the triumphs of invention.

30 The Arts and Crafts Movement. that fair proportion of the profits that will not represent the grim mini- mum of life but a plus element to this for the elevation of the life ? minimum workman. all time to this the greatest of water powers' And then do the wages fixed by the law of competition meet all the legal and economic obligations of the more competent to the less competent ? "Must sume only economics. the principle of noblesse the law that increases moral responsibility with the increase of power be always outside forces seeking to ameliorate the otherwise grim and iron elements of political economy ? science of political will there Is there no reality that answers for the unearned increment which the economy must take note of. as- egoistic elements as calculable. Niagara give to the private rights for nature's * man ? or men thus harnessing. by virtue that will make the increasing of his joy in Is the success of the successful man who gets to the top of expert selfishness. and conclusive? Is there no place for altruistic forces in the political economy that is scientific ? Must oblige^ the golden rule. and scientific recognition never be any of the principle that establishes the wage element in production not by the laws of competition but by the laws of a living wage. the suppression of altruism . in order to be scientific. perma- nent.

no wealth but life. a success 31 which it political economy has no remedy for." Such thinking Ruskin anticipated by Let some of his fifty years. depends on the final intrinsic worth of the things you make. political economy will eventually be based on the golden and not the iron rule. but we believe we have named some of religion teach the disturbing elements in the discussion of the class-room as well as in the adjustment of the industrial problems of to-day. including all its powers of love. and of admiration. consists in substance not in ciphers and the real good of all work. of joy. as of men. which must respect and has nothing to do about except to turn the mean over into the hands of the evangelist after sanctioned his methods. and of all commerce. now let the minister of him how to spend it ? "We do not presume to answer any of these questions. These are questions which we believe science and the scientific man will somehow find an answer that will be satisfacto tory to the moralist as well as to the financier." "The wealth of nations.Kuskiris Contribution. his ' man has it He ' has made money legitimately." " That country is the richest which nourishes the greatest . and say. . in short. or get by it. pregnant sentences be noted and " There is their significance be reflected upon. in his nature.

" "The economist is work of the political to de- termine what are in reality useful or life-giving things and they are by what degree and kinds of labor attainable and distributable. number of noble and happy human beings that man is richest who. having perfected the functions to the utmost. but in things serviceably consumable not life it . has also the widest helpful influence. the contest of man with an opposite. "Production" does not consist and the question labor it things laboriously made. " Cost " is the quantity " of labor required to produce anything. " Labor " is spending of life. ." Having this idea determined upon nitions of of wealth all other defi- economy were tested by their truth to or by their " vitality. over the lives of others. but how is much " Getting a living " getting "admiration.32 The Arts and Crafts Movement. and love" as Wordsworth affirmed. take in exchange for " Wages " should be denecessary to sustain life termined by what is at . both personal and by means of his possessions. " Price is — the quantity of labor which the possessor will it." be wealth except to a essential "A noble thing cannot noble person. hope. employs. " Value " is the life-giving power in of anything. for the nation is how much produces." The true end of work consists in making "wealth " and not in human life earning profits.

and cheerful. There view is are three tests of " honest.Ruskin's Contribution. life. well work " it must be His general social : summarized in a passage : taken from the inaugural lecture at Oxford "It has been too long boasted as the pride of England that out of a vast multitude of men. when. though possible to all men. allowing for recreation rest. when advance from rank to rank." It will be necessary to follow Ruskin . to aim at an ideal of national employments of Englishmen. its 33 and fullest and best. occasionally to emerge into the light. when mechanical operations. shall be deputed to less fortunate and more covetous races. and the chief object in the extrication graceful. acknowledged to be debasing in their tendency. mind of every citizen may not be from a condition admitted to be disbut fulfilment of a duty which shall be not also a birthright. none shall be un- Ought we not rather happy or ignoble. and the circumstances of their infancy. of the though each shall be distinct. by strenu- effort and rare good fortune. confessed to be in evil case. and look back with self- ous gratulatory scorn upon the occupations of the parents. may be shunned rather than desired by the best. useful. it was possible for individuals.

than to the modern. that in respect to It must be confessed government Ruskin seems to incline to the mediaeval view of governance rather all. but kingship of " an inevitable and eternal kind. proposed to effect be remembered he society advised the fullest regulation of division into classes according to function — and kings. and workers. namely. which consists in a stronger moral state." He advocated warfare. crowned or not. of his system or to debate the It will through the details advisability of the measures he a better social order. He '' posed to democracy the as Carlyle was as strongly opand always used word "independence with contempt. and a truer thoughtful state." Hence he desired to see all all chil- dren taught obedience and into life persons entering the power of unselfish admiration. soldiers. by as many inferior as it can reach. teachers. but a warfare that was hardly more than pleasant jousting with shield and lance for the development of hardihood. after there would not be much disagreement as to his state- . saying: " The true strength of every human soul is to be dependent on as many nobler as it can discern. bishops. than that of others. judges. but perhaps. and to be depended upon. the kingship.34 T^f^^ -^r/^ and Crafts Movement. administrative officers. Like Carlyle he believed in leadership and kingship.

but more like Plato's republic. affirming that the impressions of beauty were not of sense." had so far withdrawn from life that had become merely a means of amusing and entertaining the upper and leisure classes. beautiful as distin- made was its guished from the interior. good and true. These distinctions prevailed in philosophy up to the middle of the nineteenth century. aesthetic in the eighteenth century to designate the science of the meaning by the term that the primary appeal to sensation. anarchy and competition the laws of death. with the result of fashioning a school of art that laid stress only upon sense art's effects. merit in the last 35 volume of " Modern Painters" in all things " Government and co-operation are the laws of life. organism with justice as Ruskin's divergence from the economical teaching of his day was not wider than his difference from contemporary aesthetic. advocating " art for sake." the demarked plainly from that of logic and ethic. Against art this aesthetic Ruskin set his face. and. where perception of aesthetic was In making beauty "the perfection field of sensuous knowledge. The term had been first used by Baumgarten beautiful.: Ruskin's Contribution." The state he contemplated was not a political or an industrial one. or . a moral its essential life.

The art of any country its is seen to be an exact exponent of ethical life: "You can have noble art only from noble persons. The test he applied to art was its degree He would never even use of social usefulness. His exposition of the art of engraving. " aesthetic" except to refute its implicathe term tions. in the course of these lectures." structure with reference to When writ- ing the " Stones of Venice. but more essentially moral or social. it is obedient. he said Its proper subject is the spiritual power seen in the form of any living thing. for instance.: 36 The Arts and Crafts Movement." speaking of sculpture." he examined each its capacity for fulfilling expressional purposes. it is " " It is athletic. was." The laws which he deduced for sculpture are wholly untechnical That the work is to be with tools of men. tures In his more technical lec- on art at Oxford it was noticed that he touched constantly upon the problems of life. (2) That it is to be in natural materials. (3) That it is to exhibit the virtues of those materials. and . a treatise on line in art His char: acterization of the art of engraving. is quite typical of his attitude resolute. as Mr. wholly of mind. not more than on line in conduct." In "Aratra Pentilici. and so represented as to give evidence that the sculptor has loved the good of it and hated the (i) evil. Norton observed.

and in consent to intelligence. and so that marked by moral or of art is characteristics it may be termed its social. its follows that its the chief test inclusiveness. satisfying serviceability. As allied art. and commonly them a base and blind one. service in the and that the beginning . too. social degree of genuine proposition underlying needs. purity of taste tested by is its universality. false sense for art is known by its refinement. in (4) harmony with common needs. its lowly origin. Hence Ruskin spirit told his students to beware of the of choice. its preciosity. not an entity distinguished by a quality called beauty." A sense for the noble something quite different from the " taste for The its is beauty" developed by the opposite aesthetic. but a to all mode of expression." " Stones of Venice. " It an insolent spirit. is common definition From such discussion the soon reached that is art is expression. say- ing. fastidiousness.Ruskins aim Contribution. 37 no quality inconsistent with them. its universality. The general "Modern Painters." and his other art studies is " Great art is nothing else than the type this : of strong and noble in life is life. then. at That its temper is to be quiet and gentle. other forms of expression." He told its also that the main business of art was actual uses of daily life.

losing its vitality." In the " Crown of Wild Olive " we meet the startling statement that the builders of the great mediaeval cathedrals cor- rupted Gothic architecture forgetting the people —they corrupted it it by and devoting to priestly and be. that all He pointed then to the fact good it architecture rose out of domestic work. From these and other instances. and the spire of the belfry are art forms resulting from the mere require- ment that a certain space should be strongly cov- ered from heat and rain. the canopy of the tomb. he yet saw that dation nothing but the pride of life —the had for foun- the so-called superior classes. was in getting the country clean and the people beautiful. the vaults and arches of their aisles.38 of art The Arts and Crafts Movement. a glorified roof. until. that before great churches and palaces could be built was necessary to build good doors and garret windows. it de- clined in expressiveness and ultimately ceased to Ruskin deplored the tendency of art to narrow its appeal and to become the object of the educated classes. the porches of Rheims or Chartres. However attractive much of the art of the it Renaispride of state: sance was to him. The best architecture was simply runs: " His own statement The dome of the Vatican. His strongest ment on this point occurs in " The Two Paths " . aesthetic needs.

that of . and thus matured. in any kingdom. but for us there is the loftier and lovelier privilege of bringing the power and charm of art within the reach of the humble and the poor . for the decoration of pride or the provoking of sensuality.Ruskin's Contribution. great painters are like passing bells : in the fall name of Velasquez. that of Milan. profound justice Rome. And its is in this for in proportion to the nobleness of the power is the guilt of use for and hitherto the greater the art the more surely has it been used. thus practiced. and as the purposes vain or vile . for us no more the vault of gold. in the name of Raphael. have only accelerated the ruin of the states they adorned and at the moment when. that the fine selfish arts hitherto. you hear sounded the in the of Spain. you point also to the determined hour of the kingdom's decline. you point to the triumph of its greatest artists. We may abandon the hope or if you like the words better we may disdain the temptation of the pomp and grace of Italy in her youth. and used solely. The names of power of the — . For us there can be no more the throne of marble. — — . having been supported by the noblesse^ and never having extended their range to the comfort or the relief of the mass of the people the arts. I say. there name of Leonardo. " 39 all The great lesson of history is.

Whether upon its labor was dignified character . . The problem was to universalize art and to ennoble labor. He now reversed the proposition. Some work is degrading by its physical conditions. those sentimentalists of who upheld or the essential dignity labor Ruskin had little sympathy. not depended whether rough and exhaust. The artists had become effeminate because they were not used to handle rough materials workmen had become debased because they could not exercise their faculties in designing. that He had proclaimed that art must spring from the people. The separation that had occurred between the artist and the artisan had worked injury to both kinds of products. Wit'h . and announced the necessity of ennobling the people through association with art —an association to be attained by means of their labor. its test was its lowliness and its universality. by and its lowliness. its magnificence of past ages failed by its narrowness pride. ing or with elements of recreation whether done under conditions of slavery or freedom.40 and its The Arts and Crafts Movement." The beauty to be "a joy forever*' must be a joy is may prevail and continue The ground now cleared for understanding Ruskin's teachings respecting industry. ours universality is which for all.

To produce a not — free workman education and science should strive for surely these are made for man and man . tilty. that ized is. He observed and commended in the free workman the hand's muscular firmness and sublarge degree of freedom. Labor can be dignified only as has the character of dignity. against His defense of Gothic architecture as the Greek is based upon the nature of the and execution." visibly been emBut fullness of life involves a The sight of a degraded workman caused Ruskin the deepest gloom. and the whole being's joyful play and exertion — a joy such as the eagle seems to take in the wave of his wings. it is In the the Seven Lamps written that "objects are noble or ignoble in proportion to the amount of energy of that mind which has ployed upon them. still work destroys moral character. while that of a free workman aroused his highest enthusiasm. the brain's instantaneously selective and ordiwill's nant energy. other 41 other work it is dangerous to health . and he went so far as Gothic as involving the liberty of the workman in its design to assert that. work —must be of ordered and deindividualannihilated.— Ruskin*s Contribution. the whole system of Greek architecture as now practiced the system. in order to raise up the workman of the present day into a living soul. the unceasing governance.

and we can agree with the twenty-fifth aphorism of the Seven Lamps. that runs as follows hand-work. Another fundamental proposition in Ruskin's theory of industry is that all good work must be free hand-work. for them. and to raise the character of others by allowing the utmost possible freedom to the workmen. Probably Ruskin would admit to himself that his antagonism to the machine was too extreme but to cry out against the machine is one way of insisting upon the value of human life. little could be said against it. that "All good work must be free In fuller statement this aphorism " I said. But in the service of mammon and greed. and to Ruskin's eyes it appeared in the guise of a monster and not of a minister. that as soon as the principles of art are applied to industry the chine ceases to mahave much importance. The modern industrial problem is to decrease the number of employments involving degradation. compelling men to be its slave and lackey. it is anything but a lovely spectacle. If the machine was always employed in the service of man.42 The Arts and Crafts Movement. to relieve him of drudgery and of all work debasing in its nature. early in this essay. if it always did work for him. ." : . and produce the things he needed. And there is this to be said.

places have been delighted in more than others and a care about them and then there will come careless bits. the life and accent of the hand are everything. will be like that that there have been a pause . as compared with the same design cut by a machine or a lifeless hand. and here lightly. all this will be in the right places. 43 hand-work might always be known from machinework . however. is There are many to whom the difference imperceptible. They had rather not have ornament at all than see it ill . and anon timidly and if the man's mind as well as his heart went with the work. and to reduce their labor to the machine level but so long as men work as men. . putting their heart into what they do. and the effect of the whole. of poetry well read and deeply the same verses jangled felt to that of by rote. it matters not how bad workmen they may be. at all than hear and to those who love architecture.— Ruskin's Contribution. . and each part will set off the other . there will be that in the handling which is above all price it will be plainly seen that some . but to those read who love poetry it it is everything it ill they had rather not hear . and doing their best. at the same time. . observing. that it was possible for men to turn their lives into machines. and fast bits and here the chisel will have struck hard.

we may the work is to the engine lathe at once. cause it It is a social tends to wrong to the workman bedegrade him to a mechanism. full But right finish simply the . ciates and dissohim from the completed product. diffused tranquillity of heartless pains the regularity of a plough in a level chill field. — deadly it. finished tire more likely. rendering of the intended and high finish is the rendering of a well-intended and vivid impression.— 44 cut repeat T^he Arts and Crafts Movement. a knowl- . indeed. and if completeness thought to be vested able in polish. it I cannot too it is it is often not coarse cutting." The social wrong wrought by division of labor impression is another phase of Ruskin's arraignment of cur- rent industrialism. exercises but a single set of faculties. that ting —the look is bad . that is is is. and to be attainas well give by help of sand-paper. to show work than in any other men itself in — cool and is as they complete. and it is oftener got by rough than fine handling. considered as mere quantity. A profitable device from the point of view of production. but of equal trouble everywhere —the The smooth. division of labor. necessarily not blunt cold cut- cutting. especially in association with machinery and forced by competition. does injury to the producer and eventually to the con- sumer. cut.

Other aspects of sented in his doctrine of work are prepre-Raphaelitism an early essay on and though this special passage it was written with all reference to the artist. edge of which alone makes his labor is 45 " It but the rational. " It comes this. that only good work can pro. mand plains why artists and those associated in art pro- duction are the first to protest against an industrial system that enforces bad workmanship. and the true utility of the goods is correspondingly lowered." says J. real utilities excessive division of labor." It is a social wrong to the consumer because production. In other words. the mercantile value of machinery and division of labor does social not coincide with their value. men mere segments and crumbs of life. Hobson. And this excess. a rational proand a valuable result. degrades the quality of commodities. remarking " point. in degrading the character of labor. —divided not the labor that into is divided. though increased in quantity. is lessened in quality. Its expression is qualitative and not quantitative.Ruskiris Contribution. which to this is the true economy. upon duce A." The de- of art is for a whole man. applies to workers : . and a progress estimated quantitatively in increase of low-class material is forms of wealth not true progress.

and motion various springs of mischief in matters in which they should have had no concern. "It may be proved. whatever the world may say or . these three things they must be fit for it they must are needed not do too much of it and they must have a divine law. in the dark views which they necessarily take up themselves. It is written. and sign of their : . or rather knowl- edge. . that so faithfully much work has been done well. no small misery is caused by overworked and unhappy people. thou shalt eat bread and is I find that. who both them in doing what was appointed for set in to do.' . I believe the fact of their being unhappy is in itself a violation of in some kind of folly or sin way of life.' but it was never written one hand. as on the misery caused by idle people. but it seems to me no less evident that he intends every man to be happy in his work. that God intends no man to live in this world without working. Were it not so. infinite fail in the breaking of thine heart. but a sure sense. with much certainty. so on the other hand. and force upon others.46 The Arts and Crafts Movement. of work itself. and done. such for its some testimony of other people confirmation. Now in order that people may be happy in their work. ' in ' the sweat of thy brow. sense of success in as needs it —not a doubtful sense.

amount of certain leisure. but a good judge of his work. 47 man may- So that in order that a be happy. The wage system is simply one stage better than the slave system it superseded. The " is distinguishing sign of to have a price slavery. for there is in it no expense of life. it is necessary that he should not only be capable of his work. and wages high or low is still a token of elicited industrial bondage. By the recognition of the is human values of labor the question of wages rendered of secondary moment. are requisite for the best Given. Ruskin said. then. The real demand of workmen who have not been degraded or corrupted by the mammonism that a of the day is not for higher wages but for better conditions of labor. some exercise. think about it. ideal conditions for work. involving the skill Labor that is wholeand intelligence and character of the individual. intelligence. a certain amount of and a amount of work. and to . The assumption energy to be man is a repository of by wages alone is unworthy any observer of men. what profits should a reward man have lies for his labor? The essential naturally in the happiness which the work engenders." In other words a certain skill.Ruskin's Contribution. is not really labor in the Ruskinian sense.

— shorter hours or of higher wages. namely. force. "will not be done by this curious engine (the Soul) for pay. It will be remembered that . so that the nature by which they are environed and the life with which they are connected might mean more to them. creatures ." Could workmen to-day direct their united energies toward self-education. then would the battle between those who have and those who have not be speedily The real labor problem is not that of ended. " The largest quantity of work.48 The Arts and Crafts Movement. it. but it is to change the character of work so that work its will be own reward." our economist declares. and scientists never paid nor can the in these fields be ever measured in terms of money. artists. or under pressure. by the affections. and so that the things they possess might be more highly valued could employers understand that work is done well only when it is done with a will and that no man has a thoroughly sound will unless he has character and is contented. the or spirit of the is brought up to the greatest strength by its own proper fuel. It will be done only when the motive will that is to say. poets." is be bought for value of toil The best work of for. knowing he is what he should be and is in his place could this higher ideal of labor be generally accepted and acted upon.

is nor. His primary thought was that knowledge must be accompanied by a habit of useful action. agreeing in his main tenets with Froebel and the new educationalists. and the sight of the peace of others. to it may out promise of that which come/' for Upon social education Ruskin depended the reforms he contemplated. untormenting and divine. As the school he ideally constructed was so largely industrial in character." From this we may know : Ruskin had some large ideal of character. but by making him what he was not. and mysteries and . and undisturbed trust.Rus kin's Contribution. the discussion of a few of his educational principles will attitude here be pertinent. gray honor and sweet rest. else was it likely to become deceitthat ful . His general may be understood by noting the foUowlowing sentence " You do not educate a man by telling him what he knew not. and the ministry of their pain these and the blue sky above you. and the sweet waters and flowers of the earth beneath . — presences. 49 Ruskin promised as the fruit of ideal labor a crown of wild olive. and graciousness. with- be your riches. and for the cultivation of the habit of action . innumerable. and requited love. serviceable for the life that now is. symbolizing by this token " Free-heartedness. of living things —may yet be.

do not mend a few where paint any more the wind comes winter time. I quote his words in " Time and Tide": "It would be a part of my scheme of downwards should learn to do something finely and thoroughly with the hand. the for bishop's work. having reduced the three R's to an insignificant position. which no man can learn but by some severely accurate discipline in doing. with an added basis in nature-study. but windows. the farmer for to require that farmer's work- —and he was careful the metal school should be presided over by gold- smiths and not by ironmasters. As to the de- velopment of such education life in the larger field of the church "the gentlemen of the embroidered robe " may be " Do not burn any more taken as typical his advice to the priests — of — : candles. he advocated the practice of manual labor.. so as to let him know what touch meant and what stout craftsmanship meant and to inform him of many things besides. school was grounded fundamentally on what called is His now manual training. but in. 50 The Arts and Crafts Movement." Above this manual training each king's son . in make some. —from the physical education that every youth in the state — class should bishop be disciplined choice of occupation — according to the the king for king's work. with substantial clear glass and .

Ruskins
putty.

Contribution.

51

Do

not vault any more high roofs, but
;

thatch

some low ones

backs which are turned to the cold, than

and embroider rather on on those

which are turned to congregations."
Ruskin's peculiar importance in the history of

thought

may now

be determined by comparing

him with
yet from

Carlyle, from

whom

he derived much,

Ruskin was impelled to undertake his social mission by reading Carlyle's " Hero Worship." Becoming personally acquainted about the year 1850, the two grew toward each other in those things which are controlled by temperament. Both were men of vigorous individuality. Both had sincerity as the mainspring of their energy. Both of them, optimistic in their youth and early manhood, graduhe diverged widely.
ally declined to the

whom

mood

of pessimism.

of

life

jangled and went out of tune.

The bells By 1863

Ruskin's

mood had

fallen

black and harsh, and

he scolded more and was more impatient.
fine earnestness that always distinguished

The

him had and pleasure seemed to have gone out of his work, while the thing to be accomplished loomed larger and more necessary than ever. In their moods of doubt both thinkers prolost its radiance,

claimed the need of a nation's governance by
superior

its

members

the aristoi by divine sanction.

52

The Arts and Crafts Movement,
leaders

who should be
tially

and

rulers in a state

of

natural feudalism.

Their

social order

was essen-

a theocracy, with a hierarchy of saints and

and extending down to classes and subjects and slaves. Both men were thus antagonistic to the democratic spirit, which tended to place every man in rule of himself, and so to overcome the sense of reverence and obedience to authority
apostles,
in the hearts of the masses.

Across the waters to

America they looked with contemptuous eyes, the one seeing too much roast goose and apple But sauce, the other too few castles and ruins. Ruskin surpassed Carlyle in constructive ability. Where the one simply called for leaders to rule the chaos of the world, the other proposed a definite plan for the social order and appointed the
leaders to their places.
criticism

With Ruskin,
instinct

destructive

was linked with the
world in Ruskin.

of repair.

A

great scientist, perhaps a great artist
lost to the

and poet, was
was, he was a

As

it

careful student of rocks

and plants and clouds, an

engraver, drawing-master, and painter of no
ability,

mean

and a writer of sincere if not great poetry. During the few years he was professor of art at Oxford he was establishing a drawing-school, making collections of paintings and drawings, issu-

ing helpful catalogs for the use of the public.

Ruskin's Contribution,
writing plain letters to
tions,

53
social ques-

workingmen on

encouraging his students to repair roads and

to give other social service,

new

social

and helping to form a organization, which he called the Soci-

ety of St. George.
Carlyle,

Then

finally

he passed beyond

and indeed beyond every other writer of knowledge of art. He knew the method, the meaning, and the impelling motive
his day, in his

of the higher industrialism.
the political
its

He sought

to correct
in

economy of his time by including

data

all

that art had furnished.

of his books
Venice,"

—" Modern

The very

titles

Painters," " Stones of

"Lamps

of Architecture"

—denote
Then

the

wide

field

over which he worked.

in all

practical matters he tried to connect art with labor,

thinking by this association to vitalize art and to
elevate labor.
arts

and

crafts

Ruskin that the modern movement had its original source.
It is in
is

To
art

him we
is

are indebted for the startling aphorism,
guilt, industry

" Life without industry
brutality."

without

The

reformatory experiments of an industrial

by Ruskin or stimulated by his teachings, form perhaps the most interesting phase of our subject. As is well known, the great bulk of Ruskin's inherited fortune and of his earnings was expended in philanthropic and
nature, undertaken directly

54

The Arts and Crafts Movement.

educational schemes of one sort or another in the

almost vain attempt to better the social condition

of England.

Brought up

in isolation

and edu-

cated as a "gentleman
self

commoner" he found him-

poorly equipped for his mission as industrial
with workingmen, he interested himself as

reformer, but desirous of coming into closer contact

early as

1854

in various educational institutions

designed for workmen, and persuaded by F. D.

Maurice, gave
first

at the

Workingman*s College
art.

his

lectures

on drawing and decorative

His

general lectures at this institution and elsewhere
at this period anticipated the
sity extension, a cause

methods of univerwhich he heartily encour-

aged

at its inception.
first

The

university-settlement
it is

idea was

discussed at his house, and

not

unlikely that his conception of the functions of

"bishops" determined the
bers

activities

of the

mem-

of the settlement houses.

property in
rent,

Having some London from which he was drawing

he sought to become the best possible land-

and enlisted the help of Miss Octavia Hill and others in improving the habitableness of tenelord,

ments.

He

practically inaugurated

the

move-

ment of ^^^Y^ per cent philanthropy," recently become prominent. In 1854, on the occasion of the opening of the Crystal Palace in Lon-

he began the sale of his books from a little Kentish Of like village. at one price. without ad- vertisement or any trick of the trade. He was not above street-cleaning or road-making. and without credit. don. . and was enabled later to turn the shop over to Miss Hill as a part of his good-tenement scheme. . and took extraordinary care with the printing. like a gigantic green- a pamphlet pleading preservation of the great buildings of the past. he shop : built up a successful business in tea. and out of this suggestion came the Society for the Preservation of Ancient Buildings. and distributer of he books. as was shown by his tain length of forming a company to keep a cerLondon street " clean as the deck . would not advertise he employed no middlemen he gave no discounts he engaged in no competitive struggle for a market he looked out for the welfare of the workmen employed in manu. the all 55 for house. As a writer. then neglected and falling to ruins. he used the best paper he could procure. facture . of glass and Ruskin wrote iron. in the work of which William Morris figured so conspicuously. manufacturer. he tried to apply the principles of commercial integrity and honor he had advocated .Ruskin's Contribution. nature was his experiment with a London teaputting a salaried servant in charge. .

of a ship " for a given season.56 The Arts and Crafts Movement. collect It was his object to from persons of means a fund of money sufficient to buy land. who should form an of perfectly just persons. ^^^ — contented co-operative labor. Like many another social dream. The most considerable of his practical schemes for reform was the St. until the whole body was shaped to its image. there was no opportunity in Ruskin's lifetime for the dream to be realized. and from whom the idea social of justice should radiate. With insufficient means for the experiment. a copy of his vision of the new feudalism. in the St. . As the idea of a perfect social order matured in Ruskin's mind he George's turned his thoughts more and more to the possibility of showing to the world. and incidentally to demonstrate two economic propositions one that agriculture formed the only genuine basis of national life. Guild. at first for a small colony ideal nucleus of Ruskinites. and the other that happiness was derived from honest and general purpose of this about 1875. and with no marked public approval. George's Company. which began to take definite shape in with company or guild was to socialize both capital and labor. and by his joining Oxford undergraduates in mending the Hinksey road.

and artistic significance. the general not all the specific ones.— Ruskin's Contribution. par- modern revival of various home and weaving. and the museum tion. scientific. As the agricultural proposition could not be proved. It was one of his opinions that workers should engage in some useful craft under wholesome and humane conditions. George*s Guild remains a paper Utopia though for the its conception is by no means unpotential future. much of his original plan be said to be realized. the consuming class. Already the industries. The finer examples of man's and nature's cre- ated forms are here placed in view with reference to their ethnic. is so conducted that the objects displayed minister at once to delight and instruc- With this museum as a nucleus. 57 the St. is due directly to Ruskin's teachings. if study of Ruskin's writings. and anticularly in spinning other that the people. George's Guild may yet be materialized. should have the opportunity of using sound and serviceable goods instead of being compelled to buy what . with the many societies organized in England and America for the ideal. of the St. and as this museum embodies may certain of the master's ideas on education. the guild funds were devoted to the establishment of the Ruskin Museum this at Sheffield.

called " cheap and nasty " ones. Home Arts and Industries Associain establishing which has succeeded many of the handicrafts upon a permanent economic basis. still He by op- thought that home industry might portunities of reviving the spinning industries presented themselves in exist the side of the machine-driven factory. Two and weaving life- Ruskin's time —one on the away. where the art had long since The successful initial revival of these local industries was the phase of a general for social economic movement that has to-day support the tion. This movement is not to be understood as a fanatical protest against machinery. passed Man. was languishing. and the other the satisfaction of its higher wants.58 Carlyle The Arts and Crafts Movement. So it is to-day that in nearly every instance of or- — ganized effort to create better industrial conditions the informing mind of Ruskin is somewhere . and not as a return to the abandoned domestic system of mediaeval days. where the industry and another among the WestIsle of moreland cottages. but rather as a modern conscious effort to advance a step beyond the factory stage of industry. and to inaugurate a new industrialism wherein the interests of both the producing and consuming classes are guarded the one class demanding the opportunity of individual expression.

and whose chapter " first On the Nature of its first the Gothic" he reprinted forty years after publication as one of the products of the Kelmscott Press. and were receiving the unbounded admiration of young men of" of fervent and poetic temperament. strangely . by the splendid rhetoric " Past and Present " and " Modern Painters social impli- without examining very closely their cations. Morris and His Plea for an Industrial Commonwealth. indeed." the book that first kindled in Morris his social first beliefs. of Ruskin by fifteen years. the middle of the century Carlyle and Rus- By kin had created a certain discipleship. who were drawn probably. at first. apparent. Morris was just entering Oxford as Ruskin was the admirers his junior Chief among publishing the " Stones of Venice. to which he always referred as the doctrine that art in is statement of the the expression of man's pleasure labor.Morris and His Plea. The development of the two men was. is 59 it In whatever direction one advances discovered that this pioneer mind has gone on before and as the world advances but slowly it — will be long before he can be passed by. to stand abiding influence in testimony of the of the master-thinker. ///. was William Morris.

Ruskin was born. as a "gentleman commoner.6o parallel. which was even then in the midst of a mediaeval revival. The Arts and Crafts Movement. supported by Newman and the pre-Raphaelite brotherhood. The boys were brought art. both possessing thus a mystic Celt." in 1837. of Welsh parentage. of Scotch ancestry. in 1853. ness of the emotional and men of London Their fathers were successful busithe one a wine merchant. Oxford any special attachment to scholarship. being intended by their parents for the Ruskin matriculated at Christ Church. with certain differences of direction shortly to be noted. Oxford. although signs of change were beginning to be noticed by the younger generation. Morris at Exeter College. though their reading extended much beyond the requirement of the schools. in surroundings that fostered a love of nature. an Oxford from which the " last enchantments of the Middle Ages " had not yet vanished. — —and up the other a discount broker and general speculator both left their sons such considerable for- tune as to relieve them from the necessity of competing for a livelihood. strain in 1 8 1 9. devotion to poetry and and a regard for piety —both church. and both won distinction for their Neither exhibited at . in 1834. entered essentially the same Oxford that Ruskin had left eleven years before. Morris.

" " Modern oceans of eloquence as they have never been given before or since. and chanted rather than read those weltering the Painters " Red Cliff. The year that Morris went up to Oxford Ruskin was delivering at Edinburgh his lectures on Architecture and Painting. poetic achievement 6 the — Ruskin by winning New- digate prize with his " Salsette and Elephanta.1 Morris and His Plea." . he testified that when he first read it. and Canon Dixon tells in his reminiscences of Oxford how Morris would read Ruskin aloud: "He had a mighty. introduced his Oxford adherents to Rossetti and the pre-Raphaelites. it is most certain. " it seemed to point out a new It is road on which the world should travel." Though per- haps attracted by the eloquence Morris perceived also something of the social bearings of " Stones of Venice. "Modern " " " Painters Stones of Venice were already and well known to them. singing voice. which on publication. But the prose of the one and the verse of the other are equally distinctive." and Morris by winning the applause of his friends in a less conspicuous way with his " Willow and write Ruskin abandoned verse to in more successful For thirty years verse was the one form prose." and speaking of its chapter " On the " Nature of the Gothic long after. employed by Morris for pure literature.

by his in his "Unto This own practical he gave his Last. Of narrower range than Ruskin. . It is significant that Morris took ancient his first step in socialism in seconding Ruskin's proposition for buildings the preservation of against the so-called restorer. 62 The Arts and Crafts Movement. the Brotherhood tended toward a doctrine. but more intensive own direction. the chief exponent of the idea of the arts and crafts. though artistic features literary by the and social exceeded the social. in sociaHsm though Morris did not engage militantly till long after. therefore. And in all respects of social and political economy origi- Morris was but the pupil of Ruskin. the social- ism with which he identified himself being but the socialism of Ruskin's of course. life to the deter- mination of the relation between art and labor." as proved. however. Ruskin theorized Morris demonstrated: henceforth the problem of other workers is that of extension and inclusion. for he nated almost nothing in point of theory. experience.. and made himself." It was in the interest " that the Oxford issued its of some idea of " the higher life and Cambridge Magazine was Brotherhood in 1856. Gradually. Ruskin initiated in the minds of the Oxford group their thought of brotherhood and their attempt to inaugurate " a crusade and holy likely that warfare against the age.

Morris and His Plea.. and without material craft his art would have been attenuated to the merest symbolism of dream. "Poet. craft. I of artist. In the order of his development poetry preceded and then coincided with his ness. and is not dependent upon what he wrought in other fields yet if we had only the data of his poetry. his great work of democratizing art would not have been undertaken except as a new ideal seized and bound him to its service. or more filled with notable . The history of handicraft shows no life more eventful than Morris's. and we should know only his less positive side. and With his strictly literary writings am not now concerned. his craft preceded and then coincided with his socialism. 63 manufacturer. our measure of Morris would fall far short of his real greatness. their devotion to pure beauty. But I think it may be proved that without a definite socialism his craftsmanship would have been wanting its motive. and socialist" — these terms describe the life-work of Morris in in its three-fold aspect social reformer. craftsman. save to observe their abstraction. Some would call his socialism a divagation in the wilderness. and their note of weari- His poetic fame rests secure. their lack of contemporaneity. Exclusive and aristocratic by nature. artist.

which sustain man*s world and make human life what it is. although he was matriculated college at Ox- ford for holy orders. the comeliness. and —the other an architect. As a boy his hands were always It net-making being a favorite diversion. the To architecture forthwith Mor- ris turned his attention. Burne- of giving up the church and devoting their lives to art one aspiring to be a painter. his studies at this time were of immense service in clarifying his thought and concentrating his energies. achievements. and architecture bore one might Connected almost say a transcendental. all was itself the tangible expression of the order. the sweetness. " Then and always. Jones also intended for the church. active. but even then practicing the art by which he was to become the two artists were soon considering the advisability — famous — taught him drawing and engraving. Mackail. and while he never worked professionally as an architect. To him the house beautiful represented the visible form . was foreseen that he would take up the pencil and the engraver^s tool at the earliest opportunity of instruction. at a thousand points with it all the other specific arts which ministered to it out of a thousand sources.** remarks Mr. even the mystery and the law. nay. "the word an immense. meaning.64 The Arts and Crafts Movement. His chum.

While in the office of Mr. G. began the practice of more than one handicraft clay-modeling. throughout the whole range of first he was from to last the architect. a worker pattern dyed and life. and these occupations were soon to setti days even to the exclusion of painting. rivaling the best Ruskin on architecture. divisions of art. of life glass." The paper he con- tributed to the Oxford and Cambridge Magazine tributes on Amiens Cathedral. manufill script illumination. and but a designer and decorator. he Street. himself secure in the center. wood and stone carving. indeed. rules of professional custom. whose range of work was so phenomenal. one of the noblest writings of ever paid to the great building. the mastercraftsman. E. which Roshad taught him. and pursuing his studies in architecture. window-designing and embroihis dery. . he struck outwards to any point of the circumference with equal direct unperplexed by artificial and untrammeled by any limiting ness. and of poetry. is a witness to the place the subject was holding in his thought and affections.— Morris and His Plea. and his sudden transitions from one to another form of productive energy so swift and perplexing because. itself 65 and manutextiles Not only in as a craftsman stuffs facturer. which was his native expression. His hands were. with equal precision.

For the moment. when furniture had actually to be bought. years later. had engaged for lodging and in need of repair. to the formation of the firm of Morris and Company. that was beautiful. that was not actually Nor was it possible even to get so simstill ple a thing as a table or chair. short. The beginning of Morris's work as a decorator and manufacturer was due to the trifling circumstance that certain rooms in Red Lion Square. it became at once clear that nothing could be had hideous. a few . was easy to accept things as they were but now. it While he lived in furnished rooms . It was of things which drove Morris and Webb to take up the designing and mon use on their making of objects of comaccount and which led.66 The Arts and Crafts Movement. and probably his truest personality was realized in motor activity. MackaiFs : account sufficiently elaborate The arts cabinet-making and upholstery had at this time reached the lowest point to which they had ever sunk. or indeed. Ugliness and vulgarity reigned in them unchecked. is Mr. at this in 1857. however. those of a fine workman —broad. It is were unfurnished to worth while " look of incident quite closely. which he and finely disciplined. all that . elaborate piece of furniture less any more this state made at the furnish- ing shops from a better design. muscular.

:orvmoHT i»02-rHe Bohemia uuilo nf tm» inou»t«ial a«i haquj .

.

but set up it was finally. I think the measurements had perhaps been given a little wrongly. round table 'as firm and as heavy as a rock*. and above three cupboards with great swing doors. He laughed but approved.* Sir Edward Burne-Jones says 'especially I remember the night when the settle came home. then some large chairs.Morris and His Plea. 'such as Barbarossa might have sat in/ Afterwards a large settle was designed. 'There were many scenes with the carpenters. out when reached the but when we came in all the passages and the staircase were choked with vast blocks of timber.* Not at only so. and that it was bigger altogether than he had ever meant. and not lightly to be moved. and our studio was one-third less in size. with a long seat below. equally firm. We were it house. ' gradually provided with 'intensely mediaeval furniture/ as Rossetti described tables and chairs like incubi and succubi/ First came a large. and there was a scene. to the very last. but he once made designs for oil paint- ings to be executed on the panels of the cupboard . Thus Red Lion Square were it. RosThis was always a terrifying moment setti came. and then get a carpenter in the neighborhood to construct them from those drawings the rooms in the in plain deal. 67 was possible was that Morris should make rough drawings of the things he most wanted. .

and the Prince below kissing her long.' are also extant. in the spring of 1857. and the other the arming of a knight. with paintings from 'The Prioress's Tale' in Chaucer. The design the for Love between . are now known as the Meeting of Dante and Beatrice in Florence. covered by Burne-Jones. one representing Guendolen in the witch-tower. the central panel. as his older This year 1857 was indeed a climacteric year with Morris. . experimenting in mural decoration on . 68 The Arts and Crafts Movement. The theory that furniture should exist to provide spaces for pictorial decoration was carried in these chairs to an extreme limit." in London. golden hair. heavy chairs he also painted subjects from Morris's own poems these panels. and their MeetOn the backs of two of the ing in Paradise. Practicing painting under Rossetti's direction. afterwards removed from the cupboard. and the sides of the settle. Sun and the Moon. was only executed later but the painting of the two others was completed during this winter and these panels. doors. remained to the last the principal ornament of Morris's drawing-room and is familiar to all his later as well friends. furniture required for the But the next piece of rooms was a wardrobe and this. from the Christmas Mystery of ' Sir Galahad.. large.

In 1859 and i860 Morris and Webb. in various arts way which. with a steep. feeling and handicrafts. and depended for its efl^ect on its solidity and fine proportion. conical. so rooms on both limbs of the house faced outward onto the garden. The beautiful case filled a bold projection in the angle. inclosing a square inner court. tiled roof. two-storied.Morris and His Plea. ridors ran oak stairand cor- that the from it along both the inner walls. preparing " The Defence of Guinevere " for publication. These first steps are so important that MackaiFs account of the house may be quoted in full : "It was planned with a as an L-shaped building. The decorative features it possessed . famous Red House in an orchard and meadow plot near London. high- pitched roof of red tile. when specialized. carrying out in pracbuilt the tice for the first time their theories of domestic building and decoration. Externally the house was plain almost to severity. this half-quadrangle The two other sides of were masked by rose-trellises. just out of the architect's office. was destined to accomplish grand Philip results. a well-house of brickwork and oak timber. in the middle of which rose the most striking architectural feature of the building. also here was evidence of a splendid general culture. the walls of the Oxford his 69 Union Society.

The decoration of the room. pleted. and he boldly announced that he meant to make it the most beautiful room in England. window northwards toward the open country. its most remarkable feature was the large drawingroom. road and the oriel on the westunder the ern side overlooked the long bowling-green. which filled the external angle of the L on It looked by its main end the upper floor. — — . inside and out. staircase by which it was reached. so far as possible. the same standard was. to be kept and of the to be the up. everything to furnish or decorate it had to be likewise designs.JO The Arts and Crafts Movement. and a projecting ran. the deep cornice molding. It was at this point that the problem of decorabricklaying and carpentering tion began. not of the nature of applied ornament the frankly emphasized relieving arches over the windows. which encircled with apple-trees. close length of that wing. : and the two spacious recessed porches. But through the whole house. was work of several years for Morris and his friends. the louvre in the high. were constructional. The could be executed directly from the architect's de- But when the shell of the house was comand stood clean and bare among the appleor nearly everything that was trees. Inside. open roof over the staircase.

ji Only in a few isolated cases. the walls nor tiles to line fireplaces or passages . delft for such as Persian carpets and blue china or to be vessels of household use. not a cloth or paper-hanging for . and table glass of extreme beauty. or own house. nor a curtain or a candlestick. ugliness of the These had article. and and main living-rooms a richer and more elaborate scheme of decoration was designed and gradually began to be executed. for the hall The plastered walls and ceilings were treated with simple designs in tempera. Not a chair. never sank into mere antiquarianism or imitation of obsolete forms. to be reinvented. the top of be- ing railed in so as to form a small music gallery. The garden was planned with the same care and originality as the house in both alike the study of older models . or bed. signed and made. was there anything then bought ready-made that Morris could be content with in his table. chairs.Morris and His Plea. one might almost say. fire-dogs. Morris's knowledge of archi- tecture was so entirely a part of himself that he . other tables. massive cop- per candlesticks. to escape the flat current The great painted settle from Red Lion Square was taken it and set up in the drawing-room. cupboards. Much of the furniture was designed by Webb and executed under his eye: the great oak diningtable.

as anything pe- did —and But in his knowledge of gardening he did with reason — pride himself. upon various parts of which work went on intermittently for several . and fruit-trees But of flowers and vegehe knew all the ways and garden. and drawing-room." autumn the Into this house the Morrises moved during summer of i860. The . flowers. building had tree in been planned with such care that hardly a the orchard had to be cut down apples fell in at the windows as they stood open on hot nights. and the adornment of the house kept growing into greater and greater elaboration. and after two years of residence the house was practically completed.72 The Arts and Crafts Movement. skilfully laid out amid the old orchard. its Red House its midsummer its long and autumn sun- wattled rose-trellises inclosing richly flowered square garden plots. it never seemed to think about culiar. A scheme had been designed for the mural decoration of the hall. had developed its full beauty. grass walks. in later years at Kelmscott his manual work clipping tables in the garden was almost limited to yew hedges. with lilies capabilities. staircase. It is very doubtful whether he was ever seen with a spade in his hands . " The garden. was then as unique as the house it surrounded.

to be designed and executed by BurneJones. series of the Troy were also to have been.' magnificent embroidered hangings. in a frankly mediae. as the rest heroes. For the dining-room embroidered hangings of a much more elaborate and splendid nature were designed and partly executed.Morris and His Plea. belt of flowers running below their feet. pal The princi- bedroom was hung with indigo-dyed blue serge with a pattern of flowers worked on it in brightcolored wools. and remain on the walls now. of twelve figures with trees between and above them. Round feet the drawing-room. hall Below them on It a large wall space in the was to be a great ship carrying the Greek was designed. the subjects of which were scenes from the fifteenth-century English romance Three of them were executed by Burne-Jones. 73 finely pro- The walls of the spacious and portioned staircase were to be completely covered with paintings in tempera of scenes from the War of Troy. in a scheme of design like those of his later tapestries when he revived and a the art of tapestry-weaving. . at a height floor. with the shields of the kings hung over the bulwarks. Below them the wall was to have been covered with of * Sir Degrevaunt. of about ^YQ from the was to be a con- tinuous belt of pictures. years. val spirit a warship indeed of the fourteenth cen- tury.

" blazoned with his motto in English. 1862. the in 'and is slowly making Red House beautifullest place on earth. simple patterns design being pricked into the in distemper. though bandy. and in a running scroll I emcan.' writes Burne-Jones. In the hall a second great cupboard began to be painted with The same motto There were no paper hangings in the house. and he now understood the need by the public of artistic furnishing. and on the tiles which lined the deep porches. he had been made aware of his wonderful faculty of designing.* Out of the had felt building and furnishing of this house Morris's work as a manufacturer sprang. Early in the year 1861 the . was of green trees with gayly colored among them. ' Top thrives February. Even the scenes from the Niebelungenlied. He the joy of workmanship. Morris and other needlewomen. the plaster so as to admit of the ceiling being re-white- washed and the decoration renewed. " If French reappeared in the painted glass with which a number of windows of the house were gradually filled. his Yet another hanging. The rooms that had not painted walls were hung with flowerembroidered cloth worked from his designs by Mrs." 74 own birds The Arts and Crafts Movement. executed by Morris with hands. ceilings were decorated with bold.

Company The circular sent out to the public is announcing the work of the company one of the most important documents in the history of the modern follows revival of handicraft. with the purpose of designing and manufacturing fine art fabrics. no doubt. Faulkner and 75 —made up of seven members—was formed. properly so-called. mural or otherwise. Up to time the want of that artistic supervision which can alone bring about harmony between the parts of a successful work has been ive outlay. firm of Morris. down to the consideration of . from pictures. number men of varied quali- they will be able to undertake any species of decoration. still it must be generally this felt that attempts of this kind hitherto have been crude and fragmentary. particular instances of success may be cited. artist by the necessarily excessconsequent on taking one individual increased from his pictorial labors. efforts of English architects. " The artists by association whose names appear above hope to do away with this difficulty. their Having among fications. It reads in part as " The growth of decorative art in this country. Marshall. owing to the artists it. has it now reached a point at which seems desirable that of reputation should devote their time to Although.: Morris and His Plea.

while the plete order than if done must necessarily be of a any single artist were incidentally employed in the usual manner. "These artists having for many years been deeply attached to the study of the decorative arts of all work much more com- times and countries. Metal work in all its branches. It is that by such co-operation. "II. by themselves and under their supervision. " IV. especially with reference to its harmony with mural decoration. along with his constant supervision. Carving generally as applied to architecture. Mural as decoration. either depending for its jewelry. will be secured at the smallest possible expense. including " V. or public buildings. "III. either in pictures or in pattern work. the smallest anticipated work susceptible of art beauty. fore They have there- now established themselves as a firm for the production. the largest is amount of what essentially the artist's work. of: " I. beauty . applied to dwelling-houses.76 The Arts and Crafts Movement. Stained glass. have felt more than most people the want of some one place where they could either obtain or get produced work of a genuine and beautiful character. or merely in the arrangement of colors. Furniture. churches.

and tile as the " firm's poet " wrote verses for decoration. and exit is ecuted in a business-like manner . was equipped for every He craft. gives a pleasant picture of the indicates also inner company of workers. involving rather the luxury will of taste than the luxury of costliness. letters. and ornamental work sides every article in other such materials. even to the stitching of embroidery.'* Into the work of this manufactory Morris entered with his accustomed energy and sagacity. The business rapidly developed. being considerable. owing to the revival of ritualism and Catholicism. all conjunction with this Under head is included embroidery of kinds. be- necessary for domestic use. He was the practical manager of the firm's busi- ness and did more work himself than all the other " artists " together. the demand for stained glass windows and embroidered textiles. to be be found much less expensive than is generally sup- posed. and that good decoration. on Its jj own design. "It all is only requisite to state further that work of believed the above classes will be estimated for. and someyear: thing of the progress of the business the first . written in One of Faulkner's 1862.Morris and His Plea. or on and pattern painting. on the application of materials its hitherto figure overlooked. stamped leather.

Beginning at 8 or 9 p. Topsy will give himself more work while I shall be the I don't know whether you business manager. not to say impudence. I may just as well you that it composed of Brown. what between the business of engineering.78 The Arts and Crafts Movement. m. Morris. "Since Christmas. "I have certainlybeen busy enough. Faulkner that it Webb. Marshall. gave me a wood block to engrave. commenced with a capital that might be considered an infinitesimal of the second order. that it has meetings once or twice a fortnight which have rather the character of a meeting of the ' Jolly Masons ' or the jolly something elses than of a meeting to discuss business. or rather after a to the artistic part of the week or two. and by jingo ! I have done it. which I." he wrote. with marvelous boldness. Rossetti. they open with the relation of anecdotes which have been culled by members of the firm since the last . and our business in Red Lion Square. Rossetti. is me tell or any one If not. under- took to do. Moreover. with remarkable confidence. and flattering friends say it is not so bad a beginning. . so henceforth. and it is published. Jones. glass Our business in the stained and general decoration line flourishes so successfully that I have decided to give up engineering and take part in it . have heard of our firm before from else.

the premises Queen Square being his headquarters for seventeen years thereafter. Morris as as assistants. and then perhaps after a few more anecdotes business matters will come up about 10 or 11 o^clock and be furiously discussed till 12. Morris live in at gave up the Red House and came to London. and shall shortly send some furniture. Bloomsbury. i.Morris and His Plea. he pursued his labors with His restless fingers were unremitting diligence. with Webb manager and Burne-Jones and Morris invested all his means in the business. In 1875 ^^^ ^^"^ ^^^ dissolved." to Topsy than three exhibitions So rapidly indeed did in their affairs increase that quarters in 1865 the work of the firm was carried to larger Queen Square. where we have al- ready sent some stained glass. meeting. " Our firm has arrived at the dignity of exhibition at the great exhibition. which ready of our things tion will will doubtless cause the majority of spectators to admire. . and reconstituted. first The more getting tribula- has caused and swearing be worth. spired with success. 79 This store being exhausted. and inhis income. or 2. and depended upon it for With greater opportunities. Topsy and perhaps discuss the relative merits of Brown will the art of the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries.

is figures. In 1870 he took up the of illumination. alongside pages the margins are completely ated designs beautifully filled with flori- among them. after being a year and a half in hand. including the : its elaborate beauty. as one of his chief masterIt pieces. In that central and between verses. After 1870 his history- may art fairly be divided into periods.8o The Arts and Crafts Movement. for fairly itching work. according to his interest in new crafts. which are minute but lower drawn and colored scroll." . by Mackail books. was finished on the 1 6th of October." and his own "Cupid and Psyche." The Rubaiyat is thus described by " This manuscript may take rank. On inches eighteen of the pages the illumination confined to a central space less than three inches by two. is a running ornament of flowers and fruits. On the other ^y^ space." the "Odes of Horace. with a title in gold above each. and executed several painted "Rubaiyat of Omar. 1872. measuring — is On six by three and a half it is a volume of immense labor and exquisite workmanship. the half of the last page being also filled by a design of two figures holding a the fruit and flower The treatment ot work an admirable adapta- tion of an almost pre-Raphaelite naturalism to the methods and limits of ornamental design. its tiny scale —twenty-three pages.

by the way. he restored old and long-lost methods of dyeing. We will have set a blue-vat for cotton. which certain. all which I hope turn out feet deep. and yesterday last evening we set our blue-vat the thing before coming here. For a great heap of skein-wool has come for me. scale Working over the dye-vat in the Queen Square. I have found the out and practiced the art of weld-dyeing. and more is coming . you it must call it her. hard for the body and easy for the mind. and the fastest.1 Morris and His Plea. delightful work. right to-morrow morning. so all will be ready for dyeing to-morrow in though. George Wardle. 8 Work cellar at in dyeing and weaving soon put a stop to illuminating. and left the liquor a clear primrose color. we dyed a lock of wool bright blue in it. it . if you are a dyer. Meantime I trust I am taking in dyeing at every pore otherwise than by the . of his notes give an idea of A few excerpts his occupations in 1875 dye-house : "I s^^l^ at ^^ g^^^ enough to get back to the I . writing is daresay you will notice how bad my my hand is so shaky with doing journeyman's work the last few days. ancientest of yellow dyes. — is skin of my hands. Leek to-morrow. I should have liked you to see the charm work on it. it is nine and holds one thousand gallons. and at Leek on a larger with Mr.

and the new house was hung with By 1880 the carpet and rug his own tapestries." Having got his dyes right.82 The Arts and Crafts Movement. that he might work at the first dawn. On moving to Hammersmith." "We believe. would be a week's talk to tell you all the anxieties and possibilities connected with this indigo subject. just are when we of the West beginning to understand and admire the art of the East. . "that the time has come for some one to make that attempt. and weaving in silk and wool went on with great energy. that art is fading away. the circular announcing that this was " an attempt to make England independent of the East for carpets which may claim to be considered works of art. of carpet-making at best for it is a lamentable fact that. unless the to civilized art world is prepared its do without the ." the announcement read. a tapestry-room was built into his bedroom. weaving had progressed so successfully that a public exhibition was held at the salesroom in Oxford street. but you must at least imagine that all this is going on very nearly the same conditions as those of the shepherd boy that made a watch all by himself. looms were set up in the top story of the workshop. nor in any branch has the deterioration been more marked than in carpet-making.in 1 878.

the dead or dying that.— Morris and His Plea. "All beauty of color has now (and 83 for long) dis- appeared from the manufactures of the Levant the once harmonious and lovely Turkey carpets. given to the South Kensington Museum by last his majesty the Shah. that for the future. is either and it is clear to every one whatever in store for those countries will. to us. where once flourished. while the already inferior in mass of the goods are respects to what can be turned out mechanically from the looms of Glas- many gow or Kidderminster. The traditions of excellence of the Indian carpets are only kept up by a few tasteful and energetic providers in England with infinite trouble and at a great expense. doubt- picked for excellence of manufacture. " In short. this beautiful art. fast. it art common is with the other special arts of the East. rather than give any West. receive to. in near them. done within the hundred which the directors of the museum have judiciously hung of carpet-making. "It seems . " As for Persia. the influence from. they all in time to come. the mother of nothing could mark the contrast between the past and the present less clearer than the carpets. compared with the rough tribes work of the years. therefore.

but that his pur- pose was to discover the principles of a a study of its by best examples. It there Morris directed his studies. but from is sitting at the feet of these teachers also. while they should equal the Eastern ones as nearly as may be in materials and durability. but show them- selves obviously to be the outcome of modern and Western underlie all ideas. . or Persia. too. but that he sought out the lost threads of the various crafts. that happened many of the it crafts were at their best estate in Europe in the early Middle Turkey. could furnish a better practical example of any craft. It clear. should by imitate no means them in design. we people of the West must make our own handmade carpets. or India. guided by those principles that architectural art in is common." by an un- This document especially important as indi- cating that Morris was not controlled reasoning mediaevalism. if we are to have any worth the labor and money such things cost and that these. that he was not a mere copyist of craft ancient or foreign excellencies. work there- from in the modern In 1881 occurred the removal of the manufac- .84 The Arts and Crafts Movement. and to spirit. and wher- ever an art had reached its highest development. Morris's " mediaevalism " did not prevent him certain countries of Ages.

Under these work of the firm rapidly developed. fect himself in the art of printing. velvets and cloths. and was now instrumental in forming a school of And he was still to perdesigners and makers. figured furniture woven stuflFs. The capacious sheds of dis- used print-works. which in was started London in 1888. arras tapestry. The Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society. may be taken as . tory to 85 the Merton Abbey. and cloth-printing. gave room for designing. general house decoration. and upholstery. windows. A living stream furnished water for dyeing. embroidery. The ad- superior to any they had enjoyed. Aside from the continual expansion of the work already undertaken there is little more to record on the side of Morris's practical craftsmanship. carpets. the most important new line undertaken being Their new circulars the printing of " chintzes. some seven miles from Charing vantages at this location were Cross. was space for gardens. paper hangings. He had initiated a genuine revival of art industry. were There were full sunshine.Morris and His Plea. with some modification. furniture. weaving. printed cotton goods. a village near far Thames. from noise and dust and birds' There free The grounds distraction." advertised twelve different kinds of work painted songs and the conditions the : glass tiles.

Cobden-Sanderson. T. C. for which the society stood. and was now carried into effect by the new group of craftsmen. R. The exhibitions of the society have increased yearly in value and importance. the type of result springing from the economic teaching of Ruskin and the example of Morris. umes of essays upon the crafts which The vol- the society has published contain the most advanced technical instruction in the applied arts to be found in lish. but later. Engfinal The papers by Morris represent his crafts thought upon the his last protest life he practiced. Such an exhibition had been suggested by Ruskin as early as 1 87 8. and they have now become the most conspicuous evidence of the modern revival of handicraft. working in the decorative and applied fields had been pressing for recognition at the doors of the Royal Academy.86 The Arts and Crafts Movement. the most prominent of whom were Walter Crane. but when their claims were refused they organized for separate exhibition. Artists known as The Combined Arts. as signifying more cally the specifi- union of and industry. and the Morrises. at the suggestion of Mr. but numbering altoThe association was first gether over a hundred. and contain against the "reckless waste of in the pursuit of the means of life. CobdenSanderson. adopted art the name of Arts and Crafts." which the . J. Ashbee.

time his work in connection with the Kelmscott in Press. as Walter Crane. there great danger that they will vanish from the arts also. he '* wanted to issue " The House of the Wolfings and " The Roots of the Mountain " in attractive typography and took up once more the study of For a type and book-making in all its modes. expresses his belief that the true root and basis of the handicrafts. dates back to essayed to master His interest in printing he attempted to issue when 1867. and his zest for socialism being on the wane." he argues. acting all art lies in spokesman of the society. of getting satisfactory printing " The Earthly Paradise " in costly form and failed difficulty from the and illustration. " for really artistic ship — power and if art is feeling in design and craftsman- not recognized in the humblest felt to object and material. current 87 system of economy had countenanced." The last art which Morris was that of printing. and become manufacturers and sales- men instead. Now that he was writing again. took him .. "If there is no room or chance of recognition. Morris and His Plea. which was established 1891. and its be as valuable in own way as the skill — the arts more highly rewarded pictorial cannot be in a sound condition and if artists is cease to be found among the crafts.

Certainly of labor. as later type has grown to be. binder. us." He found the per- fected Roman type in the printing of Nicholas century. in his book-makvolumes and craft The Press continued for seven years. Chaucer. owing commercial exigencies. was " pure . Two presses were at work upon the Chaucer. the letters. He was designing on new paper . world. letter he wanted.one of the Venetian printers of the fifteenth upon this type he based his own. and publisher — Morris advanced the his great In every respect — as printer. stops. and in fifty-two that time works in sixty-six were issued. after is more than three years one of the most notable books of the "At the beginning of 1895.88 The Arts and Crafts Movement. and all Jenson. art of the book. and ornaments which were used ing. in severe. In he constructed three new types. and which it makes to difficult all to read . " Morris was carrying on all his multifarious occupations with unimpaired activity. and not compressed laterally. initials. finished just before his death." Mackail says. He drew practically all borders. without needless excrescences solid. The form . without the thickenis ing and thinning of the line which fault the essential of the ordinary modern type. all away from he tells other crafts. and a third smaller books.

through the press for the Saga library and he was busily increasing the collection of illuminated manuscripts. he was going on daily with the writing of new romances laboration with ." which they had begun some it three and twenty years before. and seeing . there was ever the larger sense for unity. the heart of his Exclusive and aristocratic though he was lar in his early youth. with Carlyle and as their During the year 1856 the Brotherhood published the Oxford and Cambridge Magaziney which was inRuskin accepted leaders. in colthe translation Mr. devoted higher to the social but gradually changing to a crusade against the age. . he yearned for social contact. of the "Heimskringla. and like Ruskin in simi- circumstances. he was completing.Morris and His Plea. beginning as a semi-monastic order.** The socialism that lay at the base of Morris's handicraft socialism may now be set forth. An implicit may be understood as always abiding at life. which toward the end of his life became his chief treasures and gave him extraor- dinary delight. 89 hangings. conceived life. first The manifestation of a at the formation by the at community spirit was young men of Morris's group in the Oxford of the Brotherhood. chiefly of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Magnusson.

certainly tendency. make money. and a design he could not would not himself make know. or with reference to materials he did not his lectures he drew the pichis ture of an ideal craftsman who should put individual intelligence and enthusiasm into the . tended to be the organ of the new thought. He would take pleasure in his work. to others. When Morris Ox- ford for the architect's office the magazine lan- guished. Marshall. not because he wanted to methods of the Morris made goods. and make goods that were serviceable Above he stood for the integrity of work.90 The Arts and Crafts Movement. place. but there was grasp of the realities left of the social problem. for its columns. Ruskin promised something support. Faulkin a rather ner and Company. The work of the manufac- tory was carried on in protest against the current economic and business In the first day. but be- cause he wanted to do the thing he was doing. In one of execute. which was in its vague ideal way in its socialistic motive. The Oxford Brotherhood came in the business firm to its real fulfilment of Morris. He for would not waste life in getting the means living. and was not issued a second year. all. but its Morris was the chief contributor and financial The essays were of a literary and social little nature.

circumstances of at anybody's bidding. He must refuse. and encouragement enough to make him feel good friends with his . 9 goods he fashions. work enough and praise of it. but even an indifferent. He must be forever striving to make the piece he is at work at better than the last. there could be no permanency For himself. piece of work. whatever the public want. to keep him from fear of want or degradation for him and his. or think they want. " So far from his labor being divided.1 Morris and His Plea. to turn out. He whole must have affair. leisure enough from bread-earning work to give him time to read and think and connect his own life with the life of the great world. he must know all about the ware he is — making and that its relation to other wares ." a voice worth listening to in the Until a state of society existed such that the privilege of artistic in the social a workman could enjoy work. he must so strong have a natural aptitude for his work no education can force him away from his special bent. and to vary his work as the it vary and his own moods. he wanted "money enough order. I won't say a bad. which is the technical phrase for his al- ways doing one minute piece of work and never being allowed to think of any other so far from that. He must be allowed to think of what he is doing.

in own way. the chief part of which will be a dwelling that does not lack the beauty which Nature would freely allow it. Morris wrote to letter Athenaeum the following "My eye just now caught the word 'restoration' in the morning paper. was content to own field." Inevitably the work he was doing forced or from him to think of the conditions of labor in the capitalistic regime. and his own due share of art. The Arts and Crafts Movement. yet for twenty years about i860 to 1880 labor in his — —he saw no way of He his politics effecting revolution save by example. In he would be described but passive in his attitude. 1877. a and the other the Eastern Question Associadevotion to which led to his militant the fifth socialism. But in 1877 Morris was listening to the call to larger That year he was instrumental in social service. out of his active instruction in which grew tion. and on looking closer. it is I saw that this time nothing less than the Minster of Tewksbury that is to be destroyed by Sir Gilbert . one the Society for the Protection of his interest in art. if our own perversity did not turn Nature out of doors. choosing poetry as one means of expression and craftsmanship as another. Ancient Buildings. as a Liberal.: 92 fellows. On the of March. forming two social organizations.

it modern restoration.' that . bind them . money. and with the least possible delay. habit. with very few exceptions. Morris and His Plea. though I admit that the architects are. and squire call would be waste of words to enlarge here on the ruin that has been wrought by their hands but for the saving of what is left. scanty as they are all now become. comfort in defense of those ancient monuments besides. still there must be many people whose . Scott. Is it it it 93 to save — altogether too late to and whatever else do something of beautiful and of the ancient historical is still left us on the sites we were once so famous for? Would it not be of some use once for all. still which. because their order. hopeless. and architect. and say that you by no means stand alone in the matter.. I think I may write a word of encouragement. more are wonderful treasures. and an ignorance yet grosser. to set on foot an association for the buildings purpose of watching over and protecting these relics. the priceless in this study of living history when the newly invented is the chief joy of so many of our lives? " Your paper has so steadily and courageously opposed the ' itself to these acts of barbarism which parson. and that there are many thoughtful people who would be glad to sacrifice time. age of the world.

and by all means. religious. would one day fervently long for. their sons and sons* sons. "What I wish for. is that an association should be set on foot to keep a watch on old mon- uments. therefore. 94 ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ Crafts Movement. which is one of the undoubted gains of our time yet we think that if the present treatment of them be continued. or. "Within almost ancient like the last fifty years a new interest. and which no wealth or energy could ever buy again for them. but sacred monuments of the nation's growth and hope. We . monuments of art and they have become the subject of one of the most interesting of studies. to protest against all ' restoration * that means more than keeping out wind and weather. literary and other. artistic.. is ignorance accidental rather than inveterate. has arisen in these . our descendants will find them useless for study and chilling for enthusiasm. more surely still. another sense." its On the organization of the society Morris was chosen secretary and so called upon to write statement of principles. historical. whose good sense could surely be touched if it were clearly put to them that they were destroying what they. and of an enthusiasm. to awaken a feeling that our ancient buildings are not mere ecclesiastical toys.

So that the civilized world of the nineteenth century has no styles of its own amidst its wide knowledge of the styles of other centuries. long decaying. From this lack and this gain arose in men's minds the strange idea of the restoration of ancient buildings . and the other part of its history of its life. fourteenth. and leave it still historical. which by its is possible to strip from a building this. as a popular art at least.Morris and His Plea. died out. that is and then to stay the hand at some arbitrary point. or even the seventeenth and . and a strange and very name implies most that that. pairs were needed. think that those attention have all 95 last fifty years of knowledge and for their destruction than done more the foregoing centuries of revolution. just as the knowledge of mediaeval art was born. of the eleventh century might be added to or altered in the twelfth. and contempt. fifteenth. living. or If re- perhaps because instinct held them back. if ambition or piety pricked on to change. that change in the unmistakable fashion of the time was of necessity wrought a church . sixteenth. violence. and even — — as it once was. early times this kind of forgery was impos- "In sible. because knowledge failed the builders. " For architecture. fatal it idea. thirteenth.

a feeble and is . and was amidst its alive with the spirit of the deeds done fashioning. history in the gap. .96 The Arts and Crafts Movement. in the course of this double process of destruction and whole surface of the is building is tampered with. while professing to bring back a building to the best time of its history. whatever left destroyed. addition. of antiquity of the fabric as are no laying to rest in the spectator the suspicion of what may have been lost and in short. the necessarily Moreover. admirable and what con- while the very nature of their task compels them to destroy something. have no guide trast interesting and but each out to temptible his own individual is whim to point them what . so that the appearance taken away from such old parts left. harsh and visible enough. and to supply the gap by imagining what the earlier builders should or might have done. and there lifeless forgery is the final result of all the wasted labor. eighteenth centuries the history it but every change. often a building in The result of all this was which many changes. " Of all the restorations yet undertaken the worst . though instructive. and could by no But those who make the changes wrought in our day under the name of restoration. were by their very conpossibility mislead.

we answer: as artistic. therefore. to with them. pic- Anything which can be looked on work. historical. Morris and His Plea. think in short. of all times and styles. for the rest. to put protection in the place of restoration. any over which educated people would it worth while to argue at all. or other interest in make worth protecting. to treat our ancient buildings as monuments of a bygone art.. and call upon those who have to deal care. where the partly ancient craftsmaster perished work of the has been made neat and smooth by the tricky hand of some unoriginal and thoughtless hack of to-day. If. "It is for all these buildings. turesque. created . while the best have their exact analogy in the restoration of an old picture. that we plead. in fine. antique. it us to specify what kind or amount of a building. to stave off decay by daily prop a perilous wall or as are mend a leaky roof by such means or covering. 97 have meant the reckless stripping a building of some of its most interesting material features. and otherwise to resist all tampering with either the fabric or ornament of the building as it stands and if it has become inconvenient for its present use to raise another building rather than alter or enlarge the old one. style. and obviously meant for support show no pretense of other art. or substantial. it may be asked art.

is a grievous puzzle to some of us in who are lacking sympathy for those aspirations and triumphs. when it this society was was learned that sweep- ing restorations were in progress at Venice." carried His most on in active 1 propaganda for 880. and its reasonable opinions be ac- . that by bygone manners. St. unencumBut such bered with either history or hope despair is. a treason to the cause of civilization and the arts.98 The Arts and Crafts Movement. and to strengthen ourselves in the artists ' ." " That the outward aspect of the world. modern art cannot med- dle with without destroying. partly — because of its triumphs. Morris wrote and spoke unceasingly in protest against the proposed demolition. He felt real heart sor- row at the loss that seemed eminent the loss " of a work of art. and we do our best to overcome it. and craftsmen as we are. we all know. Marks. So grievous it is that sometimes we are tempted to say. and muddle on as best we may. a monument of history. "should grow uglier day by day in spite of the aspirations of civilization." he reflected sadly. ! ' belief that even a small minority will at last be listened to. Let them make a clean sweep of it all then let us forget it all. the cause taking him to Oxford to appear there for the first time in a public capacity. and a piece of nature. nay.

as would be likely. all and our foes are too many. and true lead the world at present.' it is is obvious suffering. people must be both the enemies of beauty and the slaves of necessity. so a won't Certainly to take that trouble in any degree needful that man should be touched with a it. educated and uneducated.: Morris and His Plea. it when such come to think of to stir in stir. maybe and I —or certainly. he A describes the cause as little better than hopeless " We have begun too videlicet. and history has become the pictures have been torn. but I I can bear it. the destruction not far from being complete already." 99 little later. No. that no less. dimly enough. a worship of as things go. real I love of the earth. it. both those of the old religions and those of the new. vague ones. and by them. . *t is almost people. cepted. and till all it is that they I believe will do. when he was getting little comfort out of the " Anti-Scrape " endeavor. late. is a lost cause in fact. have a sort of Manichean hatred of the world (I use the word Such in its proper sense. to themselves is What people say this : * I don't like the thing being done. and think that is seldom felt except by very simple people. that is old is gone. You know the most refined and cultured people. a book from which . as to the buildings themselves. the home of man).

and insolence. because I am encouraged by a sort of faith that something will come of it. and toward the earth and man*s historic find the monuments we may his socialism. ask Now if you me why I kick against the pricks is. first. ground of much ot The object of the second organization Morris was interested in at the beginning of his active socialism was to prevent the war in the East. I oo The Arts and Crafts Movement. Morris persisted in preaching this lesson of the beauty ot man to the end of his days.: . and secondly." used these words " Workingmen of England. and addressing " the workingmen of England. veil it in a kind of decent lan- guage but do but I hear them talking I themselves. Morris was again chosen to write the manifesto for the society. as have often done. among know not whether scorn or anger would prevail their folly and in you at These men cannot . in this matter. all I can say because I can- not help it. one word of warning yet doubt if you know the bitterness of hatred against freedom and progress that lies at : I the heart of the richer classes in this country their newspapers ." Notwithstanding the earth and of in his feelings his discouragements. some kind of culture ot which we know nothing as present.

he withdrew from party lines and worked for the actual reconstruction of society." Before an Exeter Hall audience gathered to protest against the government. of its i oi aims. with a ballad. would silence you. would it. entitled " Wake. !). if you long to lessen these inequalities which have been our stum- bling block since the beginning of the world. speak of your order. and urge us of the middle classes to do no less. they had the power (may England perish rather would thwart your just aspirations. London Lads. its leaders. if you cherish your most worthy hope of raising your whole order peacefully and solidly. and Morris saw that hope rested in neither Tory nor Whig.** anticipating there the later " Chants for Socialists. look to and if you have any wrongs to be redressed. of . but when a later election placed the Liberal party in power.*' first In 1877 Morris became treasurer of the National Liberal League. citizens.Morris and His Plea. deliver you bound hand and Fellow foot forever to irresponsible capital. if without a sneer or an insult these men. Morris made his cast aside sloth appearance as a writer of political verse. then and cry out against an unjust war. if you thirst for leisure and knowledge. . an organization made up of workingmen in opposition to the Eastern policy of the government.

upon the craftsman than upon the artist he has been forced into the field of competition. he himself was left without classes the help of intelligent sympathy. of use. 1877 the year marks the beginning of Morris's widening — social interests —he delivered his first lecture on the decorative arts before the Trades Guild of Learning. had come about through the withartist drawal of the fine craft from the field of handi- and his attachment to the leisure classes. lamenting the decay of but hoping that for its revival again under better social arts. He was here speaking and he addressed them familiarly and art." under the head of " The Lesser Arts ") contains social some pregnant sentences relative to his hopes and motives. the essay became his to socialistic literature.I02 The Arts and Crafts Movement. first prose contribution This essay (afterward reprinted in the volume entitled " Hopes and Fears tor Art. but the workman more than the artist. The artist left the craftsman with- out hope of elevation . As the arts sundered into the greater and the lesser. Commerce also has fallen more heavily . The decay of the lesser the arts. contempt was begotten on one side and ignorance on the other. and published immediately in pamphlet form. conditions. Both have suffered. to craftsmen. with deep feeling. is. a com- . that In December of the same year.

Morris and His Plea. I do not want terms I do not wish her to live. and the things he makes are veritably "cheap and nasty. open-heartedness. petition 103 not of excellence. that she will not live thus isolated and I will go further and say that on such exclusive. so they give no pleasure to the user.** and " to give people pleasure in the things they must perforce make. I believe that art has such in this address necessary. rather than art should live this poor.** That his mind was turning to the deeper social problem and becoming convinced that nothing less than a revolution in the modes of life was evidenced by an impassioned passage " Sirs. is : sympathy with cheerful freedom. " Decoration. art for a few. despising those beneath them for an ignorance for which they themselves are responsible. so much she sickens under selfishness and luxury. but of cheapness. or freedom for a few.** Morris said. any more than education for a few." and as they were without pleasure to the maker. as I said before I . thin life among a few exceptional men." two-fold " To give people pleasure : Its office is in the things they must perforce use. " is the expression of man's pleasure in successful labor. and reality. No. for a brutality that they will not struggle with — rather than this. I would that the world should indeed all sweep away art for a while.

he distinart guished between the times that cultivated it. he : detected the trend of popular art longer. he was deemed good Art was free. was it any longer as in the Greece of Pericles. lest the majesty of the beautiful symbols might be clouded and the memory of the awfiil mysteries they symNor bolized become dim in the hearts of men. wherein no thought might be expressed that could not be expressed in perfect form. kept rigidly within certain prescribed bounds that no fancy might play with. that it that the earth had I would might yet have a chance to quicken in the dark. and skill in him of any kind to express it. on "Art and the Beauty of the Earth. " Art was no midst of much confusion and barbarism." is well said to be the "sum of all his earlier and the germ of all his later doctrines." Another address. it thought possible she might in the it. in 1 881. to light.1 04 The Arts and Crafts Movement. rather than the wheat should rot miser's granary. that he might bring . and In the early Middle Ages. Whatever a man thought of. to be praised and wondered at by his fellows. as in Egypt of olden time. do . Whatever man had thought in him of any kind." With that complete historic knowledge which characterizes those that neglected in the all his writings. no imagination overpass. by the labor of his hands.

It is necessary. and left art sterile and life pleasureless. to impress on the work Nor will itself the tokens of his manly pleasure. down-hearted kind of way. in this art nothing and nobody was wasted. And . don't wonder at the I know by experience that making of design after design. without one's self executing them." Morris went on.. gies to the severance of art who lent their enerlife from the daily men. mere diagrams. mind you. " that all the work we do now is done without any pleasure." The decay of art began with the artists of the Renaissance. do not mean to say. but I of " I mean to say that the pleasure is rather that of conquering a good spell of work — a courageous and good feeling. very seldom. unless all workmen of all mind grades are to be permanently rest I degraded into machines. is a great strain upon the mind. certainly or of bearing up well under the burden. comes to the pitch of compelling the workman. our system of organizing the work allow of it. Morris and His Plea. enough to be 105 used for his own pleasure and the pleasure of his fellows. and it. and seldom. In most cases there is no sympathy between the designer and the — man who carries is out the design driven to work I not unseldom the designer also in a mechanical. out of the fullness of his heart. that the hand should the as well as the mind the hand.

is up with you Though I don't much love the iron and brass machines. the cleaning of England . in the machine. any dependency for solace. cannot produce art. supplying its place with the work which is the result of the division of labor." lasts. Morris's advice to the potters he is was addressing as eminently sane: ''Set yourself all much let as possible against machine work." Morris "have boundless faith in their capacity. say that this the kind of whatever tirely else it can do. That work. is work which the world has lost. be en- confined to such works as are the work from the same system belongs the machine. then. made by machinery. or it Don't all yourselves be as artists. as long as the present system beginning to end of one man. I believe machines can do everything except make works of art. " I by man myself. To is It possible that nearly everything needed can be said.." There is not. the flesh and blood ones are more terrible and hopeless to me is no man not fit is so clumsy or base a workman that he for something better than that." in The " second clause Morris's indictment of his times referred to the ugliness of the environment: Of all the things that are likely to give us back art in popular England. the curse will still cling to labor. 1 06 The Arts and Crafts Movement. made machines. which must.

cannot believe It seems to artists me that at the but stimulates the feverish and dreamy qualities that eral throw some I out of the genstatement that things must no square mile its sympathy. life the art of to-day. he offered the solution of popular art. Those who to make beautiful things must live in a beautiful Some people may be inclined to say. There is of the earth*s surface that not beautiful in own way if we men will only abstain from willit is fully destroying that beauty . Examining now the volume entitled . and the turmoil and squalor of city stimulates a great modern I the invention of artists. I of art. abide by my is those who are to make beautiful live in beautiful places. that the very opposition between the serenity and purity place." He felt the discords of his . and have heard the argument put forward. and this reasonI able share in the beauty of the earth that as claim the right of every man who will earn it by due labor." By 1 88 1 Morris had fully conceived the nature of the "Cause. in and produces best it special it. a decent house with decent surroundings for every honest and industrious family that is the claim I make of you in the name of art. time. is 1 07 are the first and most necessary. and desired that all men should feel the beauty of the earth.Morris and His Plea.

I o8 The Arts and Crafts Movement. which people ness. is." thus unless we are content to be less His main maxim concerning labor is worded " No work which cannot be done with: out pleasure in the doing is worth doing. and in so doing are wronging both themselves and those that are to come after them. Fears for Art. but a positive necessity of life. I contend. no mere accident to human life. " I suppose few people would venture to assert." " Making the Best of It. for that beauty." "The Prospects of Architecture in Civilization." " The Art of the People. delivered probably with a note of sad- His first insistence was that art is a serious and not to be dissociated from the weighty matters that occupy the thoughts of men. that than men. and yet most civilized people act as if it were of none. "Hopes and in aid of the fund for the Society for the Prowill tection of Ancient Buildings." he said. we find the half-dozen maxims that pertain to ideal conduct. if is. can take or leave as they choose." They were earnest addresses. The titles of the essays are " The Lesser Arts." " The Beauty of Life. " That the beauty of life is a thing of no moment. which is what is meant by art. we are to live as nature meant us to." published in 1882." And . thing. using that word in its widest sense.

us say — and dog does like it — well enough. but part of it also I spend in work. I should my leisure hope in political agitation. not in the least in the world for the sake of earning leisure by it. but partly driven by the fear love the of starvation or disgrace. unless I could straightway take to something else which I could make my daily work and it was clear to me that I worked . the truth of this was the experience of his life." Then again referring to ." he thought the hope of leisure a poor bribe to labor. which work gives me just as much pleasure as — and my spend but I my bread-earning work — neither more nor hope less therefore could be no bribe or for work-a-day hours. " I tried to think what would happen to me if I were forbidden my ordinary daily work and I knew I should die of despair and weariness. and in as for it my I leisure. and even a very great deal. well I had as to confess that a part of do indeed spend let contemplation.Morris and His Plea. . if labor was understood to be a curse. and partly. 109 own Turning over the opposite maxim that " No man would work unless he hoped by working to earn leisure. fear in drinking. because I work itself.'* " If I I And in another address he cried out: a day at were to work ten hours I work despised and hated.

but so natural does the idea seem to us. and I suppose they worked most days." Another statement of his position is found in " The Art I of the People": stand "That art is thing which expression I under- by real the of his pleasure in labor. and the bird in flying. at least. the wonderful wares at the Kensington Museum. A hunting.no The Arts and Crafts Movement. Do you think the labor of the makers was irksome? " And then answered: " While he asked : " these men were at work. since all men. so that not only does the dog take pleasure in he is at excels. and Imagifirst The kind done under compul- . spring fire. by man do not believe he expressing is labor without especially and this so when work at anything in which he specially most kind gift is this of nature." analytic statement of the His in more theme occurs divides the into essay on "Architecture. of the exultation of the of the countless laughter of the sea. : He is work Mechanical. that we imagine to ourselves that the earth and the very elements rejoice in doing their appointed work and the poets have told us of the . must labor. meadows smiling. as we do. they were not unhappy. can be happy in his that happiness. nay. and the most part of the day. too. Intelligent." three classes native. and the horse in running. it seems all things.

would fain lead men to aspire towards perfection. is is not too The third kind rises it done with some degree of pleasabove the second in is degree only. Mechanical bred of the hurry civilization. and it requires the impress of his individuality. and toil is is pleasure. sion. hopeits progressive civilization. and thoughtlessness of a commercial Intelligent ful.Morris and His Plea. toilsome. The second kind work that can be if done better or worse. and to hate nothing. all altogether individual. and which well done claims attention from the workman. to fear nothing. machinery. work is the child of struggling. without thought. to soothe discon- tent with innocent pleasure — a pleasure fertile of deeds gainful to mankind. office is to add fresh interest to simple lives. it it fulfils gives bears in its bosom the worth and the meaning of life. is Imaginative work the very blossom of civilization triumphant it and hopeful. 1 1 i and without any inherent is reward. . and ure. it is the symbol and sacrament of the Courage of the World. and the counsel to strive to understand everything. in a word. each hope that birth to yet another hope. and in the light of this problem the questions of commerce. The problem of the world is then to change the lower form of labor into the higher. and division of labor must be considered.

own development along with if he disin his to carry others him march towards all perfection. obliged to set ourselves to seek whereas the other things are the ordinary companions of our every-day life . In this transformation of work and the eleva- must be universal. works of ing. " under pain of being stunted in his " and enfeebled obeys. to be continually doing he can to enlarge and increase the volume of the human stream sweeping thitherward." Trans- and stated negatively. that the expansion of humanity must tion of life the effect be a general expansion. and those things that . so that if those intellectually were inclined never so gifts who cultivate art much to wrap and their themselves in their special high . vided into two kinds. unwittingly or not. or ugly and degrading ." said Arnold. The individual is required.112 The Arts and Crafts Movement. are without art are so aggressively it in wound by their existence. Morris saw concretely what Matthew Arnold stated intellectually. Now nothing made by man's hand can be it must be either beautiful and elevatindifferent . they are art now di- and non-works of art. and they are now so much the majority that the works of art we are they for. Arnold's proposition reads in Morris in this wise " For whereas all works of craftsmanship were once lated into art terms. : beautiful.

For this is the essence it. it will be a part of every life. a thing which everybody can understand. it will esoteric by a little band will of be superior beings it will be no more hierarchical it it than the art of past time was. and a hindrance else to none. of ignorance. In this and in many other ways thing it it may differ from the past like it. love. and the thing that is eternal to may be passing and accidental. and despising them. since ignorance now no longer hopeful. art." whatever . 113 — and so live happily. which hopeful is to learn and strives to see. cultivation. Morris and His Plea. apart from other men." Stated positively and . prophetically. and every one sur- round with of art. but in one not be an must needs be mystery shared .. but like a gift of the people to the people. they could not do so they are as it were living on an enemy's country. at every turn there is something lying in wait to offend and vex their nicer sense and educated eyes they must share in the general discomfort and I am glad of it. the theory that of universality is reads thus : " Of the art to come who may in prophesy? But this at least seems to follow from which comparing that past with the confusion we an are now of struggling and the light that glimit. mers through art that that art will no longer be is instinct.

" And then. : It will be with us wherever we go. but not to despise any man who not pretend to be what he is not. re- turning as ever to his fundamental thought. but be shared be no by gentle and not hinder simple. In the earlier lecture on "Art and the Beauty of the Earth" this thought receives even fuller state- ment "If you accept art. no have it place shall be without it. It shall respecter of persons. It will teach you to respect the highest intellect with a manly does reverence. ris Mor- concluded the passage it : "And that which shall be the instrument that shall work with and the . all enervating luxury. learned and unlearned. and man and man. and be as a lan- guage that all can understand. confidence between fair dealing. but will destroy all all degrading toil. it must be part of your daily lives. and tyranny. in the quiet country-side as in the busy town. and will foster good-will. You will with you in your sorrow as in your joy. and the daily life of every man. where no man has dwelt for traditions to gather round him . dishonesty. in the newly city full cleared farm in America or the colonies. foppish frivolity.114 ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ Crafts Movement. in your work- a-day hours as in your leisure. in the ancient of traditions of past time. is It will life any work that it necessary to the of man at the best. It will be the deadly foe of ignorance.

and the greater the But able was its simplicity. and for the owner a chain of pompous circumstance which checks and annoys him at every step. the kindest and best gift that the world has ever had. and the hatred of injustice. " that civilization meant the attainment of peace and order and freedom. of good-will between man and man. His golden rule of house-furnishing was. Luxury is an outgrowth of and is accompanied by slavery it means the piling up ." For an and art which is to be made by the people for the people two virtues are honesty and simplicity injustice." He claimed that art started from this simplicity." Morris said. the spoil of the earth. On both of these topics Morris has many pregnant — necessary passages. honesty as opposed to and simplicity as opposed to luxury. " I had thought. a life free from craven fear. food that shall nourish it 115 shall be man's pleasure in his daily labor. .: Morris and His Plea. " Have nothing in your houses which you to be useful or believe to be beautiall do not know ful. of possessions. of the love of truth. and by consequence the attainment of the good life which these things breed. to art the more notice- this virtue appealed him not merely because simple art was more beautiful than sumptuous art but because it was more social.

how can we bear ? to use. how can we enjoy something which has the expression of been a pain and a grief for the maker to make In deeper definition reverence for nature. and starve a third ? Or. art is is Art satisfying. to ruin another. " For those of us that are employers of labor. less leisure than his education and demand ? Or those of us who are workmen. all new springtime of give any the arts. how can we bear to fail in the contract we have undertaken. how can we bear to pay respect a price for a piece of goods which will help to trouble one man. the public. how can we bear to man less money than he can decently self- live on. and gives ." Then he thought simplicity of life. I think. of incident . that besides attaining to the world attained also to the things would be ready for the love of justice." 1 1 6 full The Arts and Crafts Movement. class. can we endure to lie about our wares. that was what I thought it meant. but ions. or to make it necessary for a foreman to go up and down spying out our mean tricks and evasions ? Or we. and more dainty meat and drink and therewithal more and sharper — differences between class and if. the housekeepers. still more. that we may shuffle off our losses on to some one else's shoulders ? Or we. not more stuffed chairs and more cush- and more carpets and gas.

. if It is anywhere." this point. is is skilfully planned and well proportioned its . poetry. pleasure to the artist because its i 1 activity is a part of the larger creative activity of the universe. stand- ing by the roadside on one of the western slopes "And there stands the little house that was new once." refer- Morris expresses the same sentiment with ence to certain old-time English cottages that seem to be a part of the familiar nature amid . . that Morris's . linked with his socialism for his describe the delights of a perfect physical poems life upon the earth. though it was creamy white in its earliest day. Morris and His Plea. His own impulses. whether as artist Perhaps Whitor man. there a little sharp and delicate carving about it arched doorway. the truest sense a nature. In work of art is a work also of Emerson truly said of the Gothic catheas " These temples grew grows the grass. a work of art and a piece of nature —no at is less. and every part of 'tis is well cared for in fact. which they stand of the Cotswold: to one in particular. beautiful. were drawn from nature. walls and roof. and grown now. a laborer's cottage built of the Cotswold limestone. drals.7 . no line of it could ever have marred the Cotswold beauty everything about it is solid and well wrought it . a lovely warm gray.

On the sixth of March he gave . which which move a-going. unless they make up their minds that they will do their best to give us . and until ness ." will one day put hope and pleasure in the place of fear and pain.1 1 8 The Arts and Crafts Movement. and green grass beneath our feet until the great drama of the seasons can touch our workmen with other feelings than the misery of winter and the weariness of summer. of nature. sanities man's phrase. back the fairness of the earth. . " our streets are decent gardens break and there. we and orderly. the ennobling of daily and common work." he said. till all this happens our museums and art schools will be but the amusements of the rich and they will soon cease to be of any use to them also. and are meadows even sweet. and our town the bricks and mortar every here are open to all people until our near our towns become fair and unspoiled by patches of hideoushave clear sky above our heads ." best " Until. as the forces men to labor and keep the world After the publication of this volume Morris's socialism became more and more political and actively militant." i Finally he states definitely in this volume what the " Cause " is for which he strives " That cause : is the democracy of art. " the primal denotes the spirit of his work.

that it betokens that fatal division of men into the cultivated and the degraded which competitive commerce has bred and fostered. involving the happiness and misery of the greater part of the community. whatever else lies there. I to raise one of specially wished to point out that the question of popular art was a social question. an address at 1 1 Riches. indeed. though cautiously. till we are on the way to fill up this terrible gulf between riches and povthings will go to filling it erty. or. the ground and structure of modern life. all What share it? business have I must be one of those things. let it we with art at all unless am not afraid but that art will rise from the dead. The absence of popular art from modern times is more disquieting and grievous to bear for this reason than for any other. and which he attacked.** in Manchester on " Art. And "Does when art ?** the Manchester Guardian asked: letter not that raise another question than one of mere Morris answered by "It was the purpose of another question than my lecture art. For after all. Wealth. what is the true end and aim of all politics and all commerce ? Is all it not to bring about a state of live at things in which men may peace and free . of a life at all. Doubtless if art many up.: 9 Morris and His Plea. popular art has no chance of a healthy classes life. and go.

nor that the least pleasant. all could never forget that in spite of is little drawbacks my work else than pleasure to me. which has urged speak of popular I art in Manchester and elsewhere. which in looking at itself as an end. provided with is from work which pleasant to them and produces results useful to their neighbors? "It may well be a burden to the conscience of an honest toil man who lives a more manlike life to think of the innumerable lives which are spent in unrelieved by hope and uncheered by praise as well. 1 20 The Arts and Crafts Movement. "It has been this burden on my conscience. Indeed I have been ashamed when contrast between I have thought of the my happy working hours and . My work is simple work enough much of it. that under no conceivable circumstances would I give Over and over again have it up even if I could. and not as a means. to care about the he could but get work and its results. I asked myself why should not my lot be the common lot. I me on do to in all sincerity believe. if any man of decent intelligence could do. competitive commerce. ever-burdensome anxiety.. be turning a crank with nothing at the end of the fate of those but this is who are working at the still bidding persists of blind. for all the men who might good they it . are doing to their neighbors by their work.

and the leaders and " Chants for Socialists *' he was writing did not compensate that his for the poetry he as a socialist was neglecting. contributing time and money to its organ. Morris gave up his half-hearted political radicalism and joined the Democratic Federation. And when his friends expostulated that the lec- tures he was delivering. he an- swered. " cannot help acting in this matter. particularly during 1883 and 1884. he gave most socialistic of his time and energy to propaganda.1 Morris and His Plea. thing practical might be done to relieve the social situation." How is seriously the times were pressing upon him ^^^^ ^^"g at indicated by a letter dated 1883 : " ^ felt sure that commercialism must be attacked we can be on the road for those improvements in life which I so much desire. i 2 which shall most men are convince me that monotonous drudgery condemned to. and less effective work I was and valuable than his designing and weaving. Justice. unrewarded." With his conscience touched. A society which is founded on the system of compelling all well-to-do people to live on making the root before . He conceived that by state socialism something of change could be effected. the unpraised. Nothing such labor as this is good and hoping some- or necessary to civilization. and for several years.

The Commonweal." At this time Morris was firm in the belief that the reorganization of society was practicable. and declared: " Socialism will end this war by abolishing classes rid of bad housing.. Filled with loathing at the "cannibalism" of society. declared for a complete revolution in the basis of society. and that if it could be effected the misery of the world to an end. 122 The Arts and Crafts Movement. Morris . would speedily come manifesto for the In writing the the Hammersmith branch of Democratic Federation. I For far it means the per- petuating the division of society into civilized and uncivilized classes. underand ignorance. this is no hope of conquering — let us eat and drink. the greatest possible profit out of the labor of others must be wrong." He believed this so thoroughly that when the Democratic Federation was disrupted owing to the bickerings of members Morris was prominent in organizing at once the Socialist League and in conducting this will get change feeding. dismissing as useless tempor- ary and partial changes. The manifesto all of the new league. archist. — — its paper. he referred again to the war between capital and labor. for to-morrow we die. in fact anarchy and despotism mixed. overwork. is am is from being an anwhich If there but even anarchy better than this.

" socialistic in motive. the affairs of the Social- istic League having gone from bad to worse. motived by which is pleasure co-operation in labor. publishing. before withdrawal. Morris resigned from the organization. as against Bellamy's complex chinery. incentive to in life itself." Consequently he took less and less interest in the active propaganda of the day. see it—on everything else is gone now. and ma- Finally. and turned again to literature." In Morris here proposes a simple. to be sure. its "The Dream of John tion." Yet 1886 Morris gradually withdrew from the more violent members of his party. state socialism. "News from Nowhere.: Morris and His Plea. in 1 890. and announced that the revolution must come by education "Education towards revolution seems to me to express in three words what our policy should be. a final results summing up the of his seven years of public service: . in 1886. wrote at this 123 time: "One must I turn to hope. making in The Commonweal^ however. Ball. appeal to his associates." written in opposition to Bellamy*s "Looking Backward. centralization. and the road to only in one direction do revolution after . pastoral life. but tempered by reflection and imagina- 1890 he contributed to successive numbers of The Commonweal his socialistic romance.

the quality of those who began and carried on basis less successful this business of reversing ! the of modern society A few workingmen. is now seven years since socialism came to life again in this country. To some the time will seem long. game political . a sprinkling of the intellectual whose keen pushing of socialism must one or two out- have seemed pretty certain to extinguish their limited chances of prosperity siders in the . Yet in the history of a serious movement seven years is a short time enough and few movements surely have made so much progress during this time in one way or an. 1 24 "It The Arts and Crafts Movement. life even in the wretched . over the material surroundvisible Could seven years make any impression on such a tremendous undertaking as this ? " Consider. and which has been up by centuries of conflict with older and dying systems.. a few refugees the bureaucratic tyranny of foreign from Governments . too. For what was ? it which we set out to accomplish To change the system of society on which the tremendous fabric of civilization built is founded. other as socialism has done. of labor than their fellows proletariat. so many hopes and disappointments as have been crowded into them. and crowned by the victory of modern ings of civilization life.

as We have between us made about many mistakes as any other party in a similar Quarrels more than enough we and sometimes also weak assent for fear of quarrels to what we did not agree with.Morris and His Plea. . as they were. have had . if it seemed likely to happen. When I first joined the movement I hoped that some workingman leader. or indeed I long for it enough but to speak plainly space of time. impressed the idea socialism deeply on the epoch. and become great historical figures. though not by all them. We have been what we seemed to be (to our friends I hope) —and that was no great things. contrary to that might of have " It been expected. nor any vast amount of foresight either. unexpected talent has been for administration developed amongst us. and rashness though there has been at least courage and devotion also. half-cracked artist or author. and sloth. . would turn up. 125 and here and there an unpractical. who would push aside all middle-class help. and conduct of affairs cannot be said that great. or rather leaders. Through enough to do them. they are " Yet such something. I might still hope for that. the seven years of the new movement toward freedom have. and vainglory. . There has been self-seeking amongst us.

in spite of all drawbacks the impression has been ? made. is. because of the the growing discontent. elevated now into vastly greater importance than socialism it used to be. who it are our abso- lute masters. who do not know what socialism is by men and have no idea what their next step calculation they should to be. the palliatives have to be riots clamored and the carried out. on the other futile. but which . if contrary to all to be successful. I " With both of these methods that the disagree . must needs say- because that seemingly inexpugnable fabis of modern society its verging towards is its fall has done work. or riot rather. our masters would be our . necessarily inconsequent revolt. at the best. is method of partial. happen Therefore.: . on the one hand is our old acquaintance palliation. and going to change into something else. and the obvious advance of . Yet I repeat. it does not seem so at present. and can easily put down. I 26 The Arts and Crafts Movement. and more because for." Noting then the change in their minds from dwelling upon ideals and seeking their realization practically Morris continues " There are two tendencies in this matter of methods . and why again ric it The reason has been given in I words said before. against the authorities.

deadly dull as is. to judge of combination be done. but others do not. is not definite towards the new trades* unionism and palliation. Bellamy's a straw to Utopian book. indeed. is . and the masters. state give my views about the present " are of the movement as briefly as I can. We are not ready for such a change as that I "I have mentioned the two lines on which what I should call the methods of impatience profess I to work. state socialism as desirable in nor. and that the could not rest there if it men were done. we I socialists know very well. some approach this will sure to be tried. The whole set opinion amongst those that more or less touched by socialism. 127 because there would be nothing to take their place. neither believe in itself. Before write a very few words on the line I of method on which some of us can will work.Morris and His Plea. and to my mind precede any complete enlightenment on the new order of things. who are socialists. masters still. by the recent it threats side. as a complete it scheme do I think to it is possible. The success of it Mr. Nevertheless. Men believe that they can wrest from the capitalists some portion of on their their privileged profits. believe also that this can That could only partially be done.

is say for us to make socialists I the business at present. when they take . socialism. are trades unionists. means as an end in itwhen people are excited about and when many who know nothing socialists. to their literary ability people have really less in their direc- got their heads turned more or " Now it seems to me that at such a time. " I My readers will understand that speaking for those let in saying this am who are complete socialI ists — or at us call them communists. . the Fabian and pamphleteers. and present do not think we can have any other useful business. regardless of the policy of the passing hour. disturbance- breeders. but have really conceived a hope of bettering the condition of labor. rather. while at the their same time the means towards end are doubtful or. when people are not only discontented. is not altogether due tion. the very beginning of the self —that it this time. lecturers The general attention paid to our clever friends. or what-not pelled to do do what they but we need not and cannot — are imheartily . show which way the wind blows. socialists Those who will are not really —who .12 8 The Arts and Crafts Movement. is the about all think themselves time of others to put forward the simple principles of socialism.

convincing people that socialism is for them and possible. " Statement of Principles " reads as follows : Statement of Principles of the Hammersmith Socialist Society. street-meetings. /*." Soon after withdrawing from the league.Morris and His Plea. The meetings were held weekly cations the at Morris's house on the Upper Its Mall. Therefore. must be an essential It believes . and by lectures. the Hammersmith Socialist ciety understands the realization of a condition Soof true society.. with the object of " making socialists " and spread- ing the principles of socialism. I repeat. and publi- work of the society was carried on. Morris organized the Hammersmith Socialist Society. " Our business. This change. make socialis We socialists can be nothing else that useful. when we know that their ods are beside the right way. ^. I say. effected that this great change must be by the conscious exertions of those who have learned to know what socialism is. they will find out what action ists. is the making of socialists.. 129 meth- work with them. is necessary for putting their prin- ciples in practice. all-embracing and all-sufficing. By Socialism. it believes. When good we have enough is people of that way of thinking.

As soon as any community begins to make differences in the condition and livelihood of its members. is not a member of society. change in the basis of society. whether by force or fraud. and consequent servitude for the many. the future basis will be equality of condition for all. group of its members. by no . we say that society is embodied for two purposes. which must of necessity injure some for the aggrandizement of But when a society habitually injures any others. the increase of wealth by means of the combination and co-operation of the varying powers and capacities of men. Socialists. and has lost reason for existence. according to some imagined standard of estimation of their qualities. and as each man's capacities can be used for the benefit of the community. it has become a tyranny. it finds itself driven to use a mere arbitrary system for the apportioning of responsibilities and rewards. but has been thrust out of it. of rich and poor. But the society of the present day. The present basis is privilege for the few.130 The Arts and Crafts Movement. and as the needs of all men are at least similar. we claim the right for every person born into society to a full share of the sum of benefits produced by it . its As and owes no allegiance to it. which we firmly believe to be the essence of true society. that of the capitalist and wage-earner. whosoever is kept out of this share. it has ceased to be a true society. and the equitable distribution of the wealth so produced .

therefore. are not a part of capitalist society. this privilege is sustained is the exclusive owner- ship by the privileged classes of the means of production. which consists in part of their direct employers. a combination of privileged persons united for the purpose of excluding the majority of the population from participation in the wealth which The system whereby they. The workers. are enabled to live upon the labor of the workers. the factories. but the working classes have not shared in the gains of that increase in power . ^. the esthe denial of this right and the assertion of an arbitrary inequality.1 Morris and His Plea. means admits sence of it is i 3 this claim . The productivity of labor has increased enormously within the last four hundred years.. who are thus deprived of all the advantages gained by an advanced state of civilization. and other means of transit. that is to say. namely. therefore. the workers. the land and the tools and appliances necessary to combined labor. These so-called higher classes. make. railways. The working classes are not allowed to use these means of production except on the terms of their giving up everything to the possessing classes save the bare necessities of life. all that they have done is to create a large and prosperous middle class. machinery. their masters. we repeat. and in part of those who minister to the pleasure and luxury of those masters. they are but its ma- . on the contrary. since they do not share in the wealth produced for it . It is an exclusive society. /.

and the force lying latent in them for a new order of things cannot be repressed. and it can only go on existing by the repression by force and fraud of all serious and truthful thought and all aspirations for betterment. that the tyranny of privilege is weakening. and that true society will rise out of its a tyranny . for them it has ceased to be a society. become jects are not ruins. the due membership of society. Such a society (so called) dominating populations. It is beyond a doubt that if the workers unite to claim their heritage. the tyranny of privilege must fall before them. but the useful part of the population. and has and it is a tyranny whose suban inferior race of feeble and incapable persons. and all the signs of the times bid us hope for a better fate than this for our epoch. cannot be stable. . and are not protected or sustained by it.132 The Arts and Crafts Movement. the useful part of which is outlawed. though we believe improbable. and that we are within sight of its overthrow. and made them slaves more hopeless and more hapless than the world has yet seen. chinery. It is becoming clearer day by day that the thought and the hopes of the working-classes (who are being gradually educated into a knowledge of their unworthy position). that it may still further degrade the working-classes till it has crushed all resistance out of them. it holds within itself the elements of its own dissolution. It is conceivable. But the whole evolution of society.

that is. but we would say a word about the part in this business which we believe should be the special work of the Hammersmith Socialist Society and others. is not merely impossible of realization. definitely opposed to the society of privilege. . it is a true society which we de- Of that true society the workers contain the genuine elements. and it is their business to show the privileged that it is so by constituting themselves even now. although they are outcasts from the false society of the day. the individual ownership of the means of production. 133 that it is lution of society for which we strive. As sire. of the complete indepen- dence of every individual. not the dissobut its rein- The idea put forward by some who attack present society. and developing capacity for administration in its members. but when looked into. so that when the present system is overthrown they might be able to carry on the business of the community without waste or disaster. who are neither State Socialists nor Anarchists. into a society of labor. of freedom without society. Socialists. To further this militant society of labor we believe to be the business of all Socialists. turns out to be inconceivable. while it was sapping the stronghold of privilege. under the present tyranny.Morris and His Plea. For here we must say tegration. the tyranny of privilege. Such a society would be able to ameliorate the lot of the workers by wringing concessions from the masters.

not so believing. It may be. and giving opportunities for repression to the capitalist executive. — — various crude experiments in the direction of State Socialism should be tried. On and which must of necessity be carried on by men . or have had opportunities of arguing on the subject with those who have at least begun to understand it. we deprecate spasmodic and desperate acts of violence. but we say if this be so let them be advocated by those who believe that they see in them a solution of the social question. nay. necessary that . which will only increase the miseries of the poor and the difliculties of Socialists by alarming the timid.134 ^'^^ -^r/j" and Crafts Movement. in the first place. merely wish to use the advocacy of them as a political expedient for strengthening their position as exponents of Socialism. probably will be. the other hand. which must form a part of their claims. and in the second place we are no less sure that before any definite Socialist action can be attempted it must be backed up by a great body of intelligent opinion the opinion of a great mass of people who are already Socialists people who know what they want. and are prepared to accept the responsibilities of self-government. and especially the working-classes. rather than by those who. that in spite of the stir in the ranks of labor there are comparatively few who understand what Socialism is. We believe then that it should be our special aim to make Socialists by putting before people. the elementary truths of Socialism since we feel sure.

as Socialists. must necessarily be gained at the .Morris and His Plea. be it remembered. however partial they may be. With this object steadily in view such a combination will gain ever fresh advantages for the workers. which must be the first step in the realization of Socialism. that it At the same time. Furthermore. 135 who know nothing of their position. however much they may fall short of complete and effective combination. and who. except that they are suffering. earnestly urge the workers to lose no time in constituting a general combination of labor. and that this must always be the case as long as the workers are the wageslaves of the employers. we would remind our brethren generally that. We. and which embarrasses a tyranny far more than acts of hopeless tories violence can do. will yield easily to those who may relieve their sufferings temporarily. though we cannot but sympathize with all struggles of the workers against their masters. therefore. yet we cannot fail will lead to see that of themselves these partial struggles nowhere. turning the apparent vicof the strong and unjust into real defeats for them. every one of which. which weapon of the weak and unarmed. whose object will be the abolition of privilege by means of obtaining for labor the complete control of the means of production. we know is may be necessary to incur the penalties the true attaching to passive resistance. in consequence.

by means of that general combination. December. because they know that who were once outcasts from society. though we cannot picture to ourselves its happiness. until at last they will burdened with a responsibility it no privilege.136 The Arts and Crafts Movement. capitalists. the beginnings of which we can alis You ready see. complete combination impossible. . that when we know we may be able to act. expense of the It will drive them from position which carries after position. It is the business of all Socialists to do their best to bring it about. to understand that they have no hope of bettering their condition save by general combination. 1890. that their demands must then be yielded to. and in learning teach us. In this hope. they may become irresistible. and will call upon the workers to take that responsibility on themselves. have now become society itself. But unless they know what to demand they will not be really strong. accept that responsibility. that in that day the masters will be addressing men who are willing and able to they. but that. therefore learn. without that knowledge. nay. that are not Socialists. and themselves carry on the work find themselves with of the world. and so realize the new order of things. we appeal to all workers to learn to understand their true position.

whatever else may happen to you. lecturing. and con- the chances of the in market by legislation. working. if you are able to do this." he declared. i 37 During the remaining years of was active of in his life Morris many last directions — writing. affirming that for a new art impulse the world must depend upon a love of nature and admiration for the great architecture and art of the past. the faithful memorials of man's history. " towards the new birth of art must be . I congratulate you on your position. address- ing some art students at Birmingham. equally interested in life. ^^^ first reference to the Miner's Question: step. and become a genuine handicraftsman. a definite rise in the condi- tion of the workers their livelihood must. the least of it. " The Chronicle^ November 9. and offering as his last advice this " Make yourself sure that you have in thought you the essentials of an artist before you study art as a handicraft by which to earn your bread. to say less precari.Morris and His Plea. 1894. he reviewed his familiar thoughts. : for you then belong to the only group of people . But. be less niggardly and ous." And once more. again. and their hours of labor shorter and this improvement must be firmed against a general one. life and in the arts His public utterance on a social topic T>aily appeared in the 1893.

We can only) by none of us have what we want. Rich men are to philistinism. we can so much as hope for any art." subject of socialism ican work is inseparable from His last words on the were written to an Amerhe had socialism. which very men can ever do. the natural instincts of mankind toward beauty and incident take their due . correspondent his 1 who had asked changed January. the working-class being only considered in the arrangement as so much machinery. except (partially making prodigious sacrifices. in changed my mind on (so called) at present is organized entirely for the benefit of a privileged class. ^ This involves perpetual and enorthe organization for the proutilities is mous waste and consideration. My between art "I have not view on the point of relation and socialism is as follows Society : He replied. which daily is civilization really happy — persons if whose necessary their greatest pleasure. mind on : 896 socialism. we must be free from few this artificial poverty. therefore. duction of genuine only a secondary civil- This waste lands the whole ized world in a position o^ artificial poverty^ which again debars men of poor all classes from satisfying in slavery their rational desires. Before. men to penury. When we will are thus free. in my opinion.138 in The Arts and Crafts Movement.

. stained glass. our late president." To ness." wall-paper. and since we shall be we shall be able to have what we want. log tributed a note in To the cata- of this exhibition Mr. which. Morris ever looked forward. place really . 1 896. One room of the new gallery was devoted to a collection of his more intimate and personal work. therefore. and the products of the Kelmscott Press. with the feeling as when. the ending of the day of commercial selfish- good same and to the dawning of the day of peace and will. William Morris. president of the society. The Arts Sixth Exhibition. Walter Crane con- memory of the former the great designer. 139 we shall wealthy. in 1899. in inaugurating the since. comprising over one hundred and fifty of his original drawings for fabrics. on October 3d. he pictured the gods and the rising of the sun twilight of the old of Balder. want art. "It seems fitting. of the and Crafts Exhibition Society London was made by notable by a memorial exhibition of works William Morris. in Sigurd. as one of the most adequate estimates made of may be quoted in full: " Three years have passed on the eve of the opening of our Fifth Exhibition. and printing.Morris and His Plea. died. the Beautiful.

1

40

The Arts and Crafts Movement,

Sixth Exhibition of the Society, to offer a word to
the

memory

of the great designer and craftsman,

poet and social reformer,

an influence in the of our century.

who has been so movement of revival

potent
in the

handicrafts which has characterized the later years

"Looking at the evidence of his extraordinary energy and power of concentration spent upon the
details

of so

many

different crafts,

one
his

is

struck
in

no

less

by the vigor and strength of

work

each as by the care and taste displayed.

"William Morris's unerring instinct for decoornament allowed him to be exuberant and profuse, rich and intricate, or, as in the earlier work, frank and simple. One sees an English taste and reserve united with a luxuriant and almost Oriental fancy. Yet through them all one feels the spirit of the romantic and narrative poet refining and informing every detail, as one may see the sunlight illuminating the leafy meshes of a wild wood. "In the same way, as we wander through the poet's own garden in 'The Earthly Paradise,' we feel the spirit of the artist and craftsman dwelling lovingly upon the beauty of carved pillars and inlaid floors, the wonders of the loom, the vessels of brass, and of silver and gold, which become parts
rative beauty in surface

Morris and His Plea.

141

of that rich mosaic of romance which he himself

wove

in his verse

and prose

tales,

so glowing with

color and pattern as scarcely to need the illuminator's gold

and blue and

the

literal sense,

scarlet, which again, in no one knew better how to use

than William Morris. " Strictly reserved and formalized as his drawing

and designs were,
close observer

in adaptatixDn to printing

and

weaving, his treatment of natural forms shows the

and student of

structural line

and

form, as well as the artist's delight in them. " An ardent enthusiast for the character and

beauty of mediaeval
spirit,

art,

deeply penetrated with

its

while possessing a profound knowledge of its

letter,

he wrote and designed freely in what some
it

thought the disguise of a past age, but
an
artist^

was

as

not as
all

an
his

archaeologist,

and he was

strengthened in

love of architecture,
united.

work by his knowledge and by which all the arts are

" So

that,

although we

may

trace the sources of

his inspiration

and the various influences under
impression of the work
as a whole,
is

which he
of

lived, the total

William Morris, regarded
full

that

of the

sonality;
ality

and free expression of a powerful perand it was by the force of that personthat he was able to inspire and direct others

"

142
with so

The Arts and Crafts Movement,

much

success

and to leave behind him a
it

living tradition.

''Again, in his social work,

was

his passion for
life,

beauty, and love of a simple and wholesome

however

refined,

which drove him to revolt against

the gloomy conventions, the pretenses, the meanness and shabbiness of so

much

in the aspects

of

modern

existence.

"Although, with his usual thoroughness and power of concentration, he pursued the matter to its roots in the economic system, his artistic instincts, as well as his reason and humanity, made him a socialist and beyond the din of controversy,
;

he took care to record his own conception of an
ideal state, in his Utopian

romance,

'

News from

Nowhere.'

IV,

Ashbee and the Reconstructed Workshop,
in

The Essex House
the road to

London, "

A

Guild and
the testi-

School of Handicraft,"

is

another mile-stone on

Industrial freedom
its

— on

mony

both of

work and of

its

purpose as re-

corded in the writings of C. R.

Ashbee, the

founder and director of the Essex Guild.

Mr.
workfunc-

Ashbee's special plea

is

for a reconstructed
it

shop, a workshop so constituted that

may

tion at once as the state, the school, and the factory.

The Reconstructed Workshop.

143

Membership
duction in
it

in

it

should constitute citizenship,
should afford education, pro-

apprenticeship in

it

should provide materials for use and

exchange.

In the final essay in Mr. Ashbee's volume entitled " Chapters in Workshop Reconstruction

and Citizenship " the idealist's gospel of work and the ideal of citizenship in a workshop are finely presented. In the matter of production " This what, Mr. Ashbee asks, is it all for ? mere trifle of mine, of what use or beauty may it be, will it give any one delight ? Maybe not, maybe it is useless and unlovely, and will give no

man

pleasure.

What

then ?

Why just

this,

we

are brought face to face with the ethics of pro-

duction
trifle

;

the artist producer stands forth.
is

This
itself is

of mine

a

mere symbol, the thing

empty, vain;
into
it,

its goodness consists in the spirit put and the doing it ; its creation by us reflects

a greater doing, symbolizes a creation elsewhere,
in

which we are sublimely and unconsciously taking part. We talk of a piece of machine-made

work

as soulless
!

—what

So let remembering always that they are symbols only. This, if you will, is the Idealist's Gospel of Work, and the strength of our continuance is
say that

we mean when we us continue to make our trifles,
a deal

that it seems out of place in any consideration of the action of men together for any public purpose. so it is the little human details impressed upon production that give it interest or character." destroying the productions But given individualism how individuals *' shall sovereign be united in a community ? The Workshop " gives the solution to this question also. their bond one of chance. "The intimate will reconstructed workshop must have an its human faith relationship for basis. we have Individualism has lost us in- Individuality has gone out of init dustry. tem of industry and missed sight dividuality. in our vast mechanical sysindividualism. the measure of our Artist and proit is ducer then. in As present. This. or of . of. here be the of the little citizen of the future. The system has destroyed the things created. But it is just because it is so personal that it is so important. where men is are bound together production. and in we destroy the proLower the standard of the work and ducers. have the same ethics. but must be brought back again.and Crafts Movement. and just as the individual touches of the great artist that make the work of Art. idealism.144 ^^^ ^r/j. you lower the standard of the man. So personal is this question.

because of the you in me the first in your own character and moment when in was pressed — of . The reason why I choose you what is it ? Let us call it a twofold reason. the magnetic first force which I am the vessel the in your own It making. or that inspired the friendships of Greece. — choosing . and in the citizenship new we shall need it again. and become it. Here. and they will become shopmates rather because is they are friends. and they become In the re- they are shopmates. The Reconstructed Workshop. . the individwe have got to touch. First. this. not new in itself. not politically. 145 common enmity to friends because an employer. " Somewhat in this way might we state our " That belief: the hand of my friend mine has expanded over my life. the feeling that drew Jesus to John. the unit ual. It is the unit. constructed workshop this will have to be inverted. the second. The Whitexpression. the second intrusted to is me by God. conceived the its basis. because of the you in you second.. that we come back to that. manic love of comrades is its modern — democracy — as socially. or Shakespeare to the youth of the sonnets. The thought as to how much of solidarity of labor and the modern trade-union . once again. has been with us before.

again and it. and ing . as distin- guished from the cash or other nexus^ we have to study. is generative. me I spread it. and instant decision when a I new personality comes. which is implied by it. each right we grow sensitive to right chooschoice makes the next more certain. more tionship between and more genuine relamen. till our whole surroundings grow brilliant with light .' I touch heaven "This relationship — human bond— if possible. look into your eyes. and the fire grows within and it grows again. too.' — 1 46 The Arts and Crafts Movement. no idle one. telling God grant me the power of instantly whether or not you are sent for me. to analyze. This magnetism of the human bond. basis must be the ultimate workshop. said Novalis. the philoit. to find. and we may learn in teaching We have to libility train ourselves and those we teach to lay high stakes on new personalities. again . . sophic basis of. you light me. The freer. to strive for infal- of decision. A few times wrong. to an unconscious faith is movement may be due in this principle of comradeship difect. and through us. till at last the whole air in which we move is charged with It runs into us. stranger. of thf reconstructed 'When ' I touch the ! human body. as we receive more we emit more.

147 that incomprehensible blue light in the vision of Heinrich von Ofterdingen. too remote from life. up with the future of those who labor in it. Then art instruction must be transferred from the studio to the workshop. subjective and non- . therefore. education takes on meaning. It is seen that every craft has its social. too abstract.*' From on the this ideal of citizenship basis of comradeship — — individuality the problem of Throughout his writings Mr.The Reconstructed Workshop. Starting from the manipulation. and scientific aspect. " Our ideal is to create a school whose life shall depend upon what is the only living thing the life of workmanship a school whose future shall be bound — . historical. literary. in its nature. a school. the lines of interest run out in every direction and scientific involve and humanistic studies in their most vital bearings. that shall be self-dependent and supported from within. to graft the humanistic onto the industrial. technical. not from without school of a movement. say of metals in the workshop. Teaching outside the workshop is too artificial." It is first — the necessary to co-ordinate the abstract and the concrete. The studio is. artistic. Ashbee insists upon connecting the teaching function with the workshop function.

a part of which. lamp. therea building. fore. or book. abstractly as an It is idle to teach design end in itself " Design. The workshop.148 social. In the workshop questions of organization and division of labor are solved on democratic grounds. and by the workwithin conducted be . forced by public opinion." says Mr. It fosters selfishness and a kind of refined in its nature is objec- sensuality. A craftsman is learns design by applying thought to materials. constructed on such grounds. The Arts and Crafts Movement. returns to the public in the form of endowed technical schools. the query arises why cannot technical instruction the system. teachers In polytechnic institutes instruction outside the again given little workshop by who know or nothing of practical craftsmanship. " structively is that element in any art and craft by which the whole hangs together. tive The workshop and social. Ashbee. first conand then aesthetically. In the workshop those magnetic affinities that engender creative impulses spring up between men. must have reference to something — a table. It cultivates the higher socialism. renders schools of design and polytechnic institutions unnecessary. Based on comradeship production is humanized. jewel." Design. Instead of maintaining an industrial system whereby a few men become holders of great wealth.

but master some of the theory of your trade. not for the purpose of swelling big polytechnics. not its entrepreneurs. suppose he taught in his school the small Pennyin worths and the small Trudges the use of the tool and the use of the pencil their try . of Suppose he the employes of Sky Sign & Co. "We must convert Mr. but of teaching in the workshop. Ashbee fur- ther. ers themselves ? Ashbee reaches is forced upon us.The Reconstructed Workshop. Pushington's great house into a sort of industrial partnership whose future is invested in its producers. Trudge. Suppose he were to spend the interest of it upon the educational development. and . and we must utilize the sum which public opinion extorts from his munificence.000. and got them boyhood them to feel this relation of art to indusa well-lit." says Mr. and appliances. useful and illustrative of the trade of Sky Sign & Co. now come and improve not your technical skill. " Mr. Pennyworth: Now complete your knowledge by a more careful application to the tools and concrete facts of design and to Mr. 149 Some such conclusion as Mr. Pushington were to keep his ^20. in artistic matters. well- to see the charm of . learn how the whole hangs together. Suppose he were then to say to Mr." " Suppose. with benches. were to build a small hall. In addition. books. got alike.

" differing from " craft. and not the things produced. its commanders and will give bosses. human as By integral meant that the workman must give his entire energy. be integral as to way in time to the guild or small co-operative society. seems to me." which is technical production. which to its shall its work. There. special designers. The present factory. and from "industry." which is mechanical production. is as yet but a vision offered to the future for realization. after their pupilage in the school. and that all his faculties must touch his work at all points.150 The Arts and Crafts Movement. perhaps even insuring them a footing. moral. By human motives is meant that the producers. commercial motives. and a genuine application of art to industry. got them to feel their own little relation to Sky Sign & Co. in the historical it house itself.. its divided workers. only in the degree of per- . hung hall of art and industry. which shall be also a training school for citizenship and for occupations. By artistic ends are to be valued and conserved. is artistic as to its ends." The workshop as factory. and intellectual. its and a whole. to his work. motives. with its its monas archic organization. physical. "Art" is the "higher production. would be a veritable polytechnic. is meant that work must constantly tend towards labor imaginative production.

of artists and the artisan the other unconscious. art is 1 5 Thus the " crown and fulfilment of noble citizenship/* and the ultimate function of the workshop. the social problem has prior claim to the artistic. not to the consumer but to the producer. tinction will have to be A sharp dis- drawn between what is produced by machinery and the direct work of man*s hands.1 The 'Reconstructed Workshop.'* " The only hope sense of beauty class is development of the the one conscious." " Under modern conditions of painting is art." . Among the aphorisms offered by Mr." " The problems of machine production will have to be solved within the workshop. Ashbee to guide our thinking on workshop reconstruction life is appear the following: "The crown and fulfilment of national for the a wise understanding and enjoyment of beauty. sonal creativeness involved in the process. have as yet no right recognition among us. among the artificially cultured ." "At the present day. and the constructional and decorative arts. picture- forced into an artificial prominence. considered. and the standard of artistic excellence must depend ultimately upon the pleasure given. the real backbone.

Wisdom pronounced the experiment. plaster-casting. " led to an experiment of a practical nature. School of Handicraft. " The reading of Ruskin. and that the pupils in the school should be drafted into the workshop as it grew in strength and certainty. Ashbee. that the men in this workshop should be the teachers in the school. Ashbee notes. From this sprang the idea of the present Guild and School. some boys — and class was felt that design needed application to give the teaching fulfilment. tical A piece of prac- work. for . modeling.152 The Arts and Crafts Movement. and the outcome of their united work as dilettanti was the desire that permanence might be given to it by making it work life and bread. was founded by Mr. which involved painting. in 1880. Very undefined at first the notion was that a school should be carried on in connection with a workshop. gave a stimulus to the corporate action of the thirty students. and out of ' Fors Clavigera and the Crown of Wild Olive sprang ' ' ' a small class for the study of design. and the study of heraldic forms. gilding. from a business point of view. grew to then it thirty — some The men. where The Guild and these ideas have been demonstrated." Mr. as the result of a small Ruskin class conducted at Toynbee Hall.

" The little Guild of three members to begin with. mercial Street saw The many workship Com- vicissitudes and unex- pected developments. it when formulating charge on its constitution. started in its present form. and the larger School of some fifty members was. 1888. as 153 it entirely quixotic. to Strange be learnt. little laid its profits. A kindly pub- lic gave the funds for supporting the School for trial two while the Guild. however. the top floor of a warehouse in Commercial Street was taken for two years to serve school-room combined. and decorative painting. metal-work. it as workshop and was polychromatized by the pupils. The introduction among members of some of the leading trades -unionist work- men — an indispensable element in the solving of an industrial problem — gave to the Guild . and precedent for there was none. new conditions new things had and new experiits ences. launching as its an independent venture. and it would one by a in first day take over the School. for which purpose. and the Guild and School celebrated its inauguration on June 23. years. announced intention : of taking up three lines of practical work intimated the ambitious hope that wood- work.The Reconstructed Workshop.

The marriage uncompromising. working out original de- . This original the basis upon which all has been built up. and ask how far the original intention has been warped. We look back now with wonder to the circulars issued in the days of the beginnings. that for the nobility shall it shall be one and advance of English Art and Handicraft. and the spirit that makes between the stolid. and that the arts shall and is crafts. has so far proved a fortunate one. and twisted. that the movement be a workman's movement. be the children of the mother art of archi- tecture. but the central ideas have been always maintained." The notice as to the objects of the Guild and School was as follows: "The Guild and School of Handicraft has for plication of Art its object the ap- and Industry. in the ordinary sense. for a high standard of excellence in English Art and Handicraft. that it shall be developed not on the basis of mastership. co-operative force of trades-unionism. and a younger generation is already beginning to tell of a life and tradition of its own.154 ^'^^ ^^^^ ^^^ Crafts Movement. It is a Co-operative Society of Workmen. but co-operatively as an industrial partnership. that peculiar character which has been the principal reason of its success so far. and changed. united in the Guild.

though the instructional feature held in abeyance. that altruism. located on the edge of to Whitechapel. would have no further Mere business we could pursue its more profitably elsewhere. Its effort is to apply the Guild System of Mediaeval Italy modern industrial needs." Then when asked . and the guild idea question asked if fully is worked out. is . is a School of about one hundred working men and boys. either 1 55 of their own or such as may be sub- mitted to them with. with the original principle of co-operation still in force. and to the movement for Technical Education.The Reconstructed Workshop. after many years of experi- ment. against the trade point of view. signs. There are us in the Guild — many of were a I for one —who. from without. He " This not the case. if it mere business interest in it." The Essex House.not merely a business Mr. a flourishing industrial institution. To a the Guild of Handicraft was enterprise. is now. because of the nature of it constitution. It is just and unencumbered with seeks to produce. In connection and dependent on it. and in what the Guild is a protest against modern business if this methods. Ashbee gave an answer which characteristic of those who have said : to do with the new is industrialism. against the commercial spirit. enterprise.

because they have been built up by men that do But every now and then we catch a not talk. The point to be noted is that it was a cern. And so I fancy with many of great businesses.' lands. could their would often be found to have them some other than merely the pecuniary They are voiceless for the most part objective. and retorted " The in great businesses of England. for all the decay and taste that later and more commercial times may have brought with them. its foundthe and that the founders knew how to apply the sentiment. and which must be our primum mobile. he is on urging the partnership: 'You have the best foundation for our intended con- without that. had glimpse of the unexpected workings of these sentimental considerations. founded in the middle of the last century. appears the following. mean the mixing of sentiment with busi- answered in the affirmative. or better it did And the great house still exists in the Midso. for all would stand still. the potter. the great house In one of the letters of of Wedgwood. which old Josiah. they to would probable be found have in them some quality of Idealism however slight.: 156 did not ness. histories be written. some sense of a need towards the raising . sentimental consideration that inspired ing. he The Arts and Crafts Movement. written to Bently whom taste.

" said Mr. The question of art altogether a question of social reform. "The fifth social question. would stand condemned as sentiment useful purpose. a Ideal Workshop. " has prior claim to the artistic. Art must grow out it is of the life. mere increase of the margin of profit. if rightly applied. Rookwood : An Ideal Workshop. its but which.An of the standard of taste. becomes justification. if misapplied. the ^ primum mobile' in the words of that old business man and Idealist. If the its life is not so ordered that art will idle to fos- appear as ter crown and fulfilment it. the social reformers. and upbuild To give it independent devel- opment is prate to preserve the the informing and vitalizing empty form and overlook Those who spirit." these and other sayings it will appear Ashbee continues the traditions of Ruskin and Morris in attempting to humanize business that From and industry. more some further object than the in business. in his aphorism. unconscious no doubt. V. promoters so most of art are not the true much as the thinkers. which. i 57 some inspiration of a better however misdirected. its first principle. Ashbee. but none the less present." The world slowly adjusts itself to the truth of is this statement. life. who .

when the present system is outworn. So long as the factory is organized to the end an issue of production in sible." Edward Carpenter's "Angels' Wings." and the writings of Bolton Hall. the Arts and Crafts movement. and Factory. and to introduce other motives into production than the commercial and mechanical ones." Crosby's " Plain Talk in Psalm and For Parable. Art on any other terms than the contentment of a well-ordered and consistent life is undesired and undesirable. with its Hence principle of co-operative individualism." Kropotkin's " Farm. to de- stroy slavery of every kind. art. to humanize industry. are trying to reach a status of true liberty." Tolstoy's "The Slavery of Our Times. of making profits for some owner and director." and " Towards Democracy. the order for which these writers are laboring. is brought into har- mony with some of the of the times gress ." Whitman's " Leaves of Grass. deepest thought tendencies with such books as George's " Pro- and Poverty. and art the crown of industry. machine forbids competition forbids the methods of designing and executing by . industry will be the crown of life. the it.158 The Arts and Crafts Movement. art is practically impos- The wage slavery of the factory forbids it. and a more just and equal order is established. Field.

this fact all other features of the factory de- The motive that controlled the enterprise from the beginning was the desire to produce a Below this must have been the perfect product. Upon pend. Chief among the factories that undertake production from the instinct for beauty and which enjoy may be counted the also commercial success — — Rookwood Pottery at Cincinnati. it. within the present system. but with higher mo- may be referred to as indicating also the tendency toward workshop reconstruction.a An Ideal Workshop. . The aspects of its organi- zation and work that bear may be what it briefly considered. has grown in twenty years to a position of public importance and of far-reaching influence. Maria it Longworth Storer in 1880. upon our present theme Three factors evi- dently conspire to is —the make the Rookwood Pottery the founder. Instituted as a private industrial experiment by Mrs. The Rookwood soul. and went to its established upon a person. tives. and public. 159 division of labor are against The factories that are so constituted that their products rise to the plane of art may These be counted on the fingers few. the workmen. conducting business of one hand. Pottery has intelligence It is — so to speak aflFection — A woman's upbuilding.

" expecting initiation himself " the his associates. that of co-operation The of the factory and good fellowship. their absorption in a common purpose. to express their individuality. arbiter. own by is and to increase spirit their culture study and travel. intention to perform a social service in perfecting a given product. practiced sufficient to insure technical skill but not to the extent of destroying unity of design. Let .i6o The Arts and Crafts Movement. Taylor. The principle of con- struction to adjust design sympathetically to shape and material. the genial director. is itself discord enter an evidence of the unity of the workers. Though freedom is the management of the business is centered in a board of directors. The its factory consequently has as that its traditions. Its art as indigenous of the is first potter. and is products represent organic growth. calls Mr. Division of labor No printing-patterns are peris mitted. that for which This one fact. they are en- couraged to experiment. the fullest possible given to the workmen . Rookwood is especially noted. and no copying or imitation is allowed. from From the first the problems have been solved as they have arisen from the inside. secure it in a But perfection is fugitive how workshop involving many hands — and minds. unity of design.

By means of at the lectures. The problem of uniting a workshop of large membership would seem to be solved here by the cultivation of human sympathy of all — that delicate something that is is the source high endeavor. for the ideal Here are workshop — all the elements needed a self-directing shop. or the authority of the director be unduly exercised. with roof of tile decorated by scratchwork — and walls of cement it is even now a model . By the employment of apprentices the workshop could be at once transformed into a school. and the effect is recorded at once in the product. and other entertainments pottery. The craftsmen. and an associative public. Standing high on the edge of Mt. i6i or dissatisfaction be or let the pride of any worker assert itself. An Ideal Workshop. and by reaction shapes the product. felt.. — building an interesting example of Early English architecture. the an attractive building in a fair environment an incidental school of craft. and a social center. of the building is A portion now devoted to exhibition. constantly improve in skill and character. creating and initiating on their own ground. Adams. the public participates in some degree in the enterprise. But the pottery it is not merely a workshop in a sense a school of handicraft. an indus- trial art museum.

The Development of Industrial Consciousness. stress of wars which have been undertaken as a means of self-preservation. the United States of America. its of work. a workshop as the formers have dreamed of could be here and now created. Its factory. and by means of " protection " between nations. Industrial war. VI. is certainly a sublime spectacle. its its management. ciples motive. or expansion. — prinall distinguish from contemporary suc)i With re- only slight changes. regarded both politically and industrially. And when one con- . The trial Arts and Crafts movement is the indus- phase of the modern evolution of individu- ality.1 62 The Arts and Crafts Movement. by the development of forces already implicit. protection. Nations have been unified under the less artificial impulse of a more or induced largely by the patriotism. it fine artistic production factories. For several centuries the conditions of life have tended to produce a general uniformity of civilization within the bounds of large social groups. From the point of view of unity. has tended also to solidify more or less arbitrary groups of industrial agents. con- ducted by means of competition within nations.

and religious orthodoxies and educational and industrial systems. but even now the taking shape. more than sublime. Philosophic anarchy the virtual belief of leaders of the present day. is Even and while the tendency toward unity strongest the greatest also. and these lead to protest discontent with uniformity the and is reaction. in short. ceives the possibility of uniting 163 North and South America. and conditions will conduce the survival of variations. thought that will it is the signs of transition are Examine whatever field you made manifest. will. and strangely enough the more individualistic men become the more universal and genuinely united they find is. and of federating eventually the entire world. nationalism will be- come to functionless.Industrial Consciousness. some of the most conspicuous The tendency toward destroy uniformity may continue for yet a century. themselves to be. more vigorous personalities are withdrawing from political policies. The necessity for uniformity will then cease. and the Americas with a united Europe. and are thinking and acting individually. The time must come when the earth will be partitioned the vision is and equilibrium established. . At the present time the very fierceness of the struggle for uniformity compels hypocrisy and false swearing.

and the individuality of the maker and user is forthwith outdrawn and exercised. " the pleasure of life. yield but little satisfaction. and if not actively painful to the user. must hold in abeyance their own aflfections and thoughts and imaginings. must become an impersonal machine serving another impersonal machine. and or may become. let gives them pleasure. individualizes universal." Such a definition at once universalizes art it.made products of the uniform because impersonal and present day — for the " average " — are made without pleasure and produce no pleasure. or all. Let the terms be noted and their import fairly considered. do what do that which gives pleas- ure to others. least when it is uniform. but For pleasure universal is. The theologians hell have the never actual imagined factories a more painful than economists have constructed. tion also man is hopelessly engaged in the performance of one In distribuare the goods thus made dissevered .164 The Arts and Crafts Movement. they spring from pain. definitions of art are formulated by- The new Morris and Tolstoy. that is." said Morris. The workers are pained be- cause they must subdue themselves to the system. " By art I understand. Let all men share in art. The uniform machine . wherein a never-ending and abhorrent task.

. If on the other hand the article evidences the maker*s pleasure. The with the materials. their in there no pleasure to the Unless goods that are costly. serve an indi- vidual need. another*s need. and some claim in fine. When once the . but for an abstract average When the — strain some part of the body. labors who has of course no real consumer finds in the goods he has purchased no real fitness. it becomes to that degree a work of art. he can experience no genuine pleasin most cases the ure or rational satisfaction shoes actually pinch his feet. they are inappropriate. no response to his needs. 1 65 from personality. and to or if it is constructed with reference represents if. for no one individual. Industrial Consciousness. or with the form abstractly still — and not is — considered style fault is not in workmanship or the user. making uniform wares by wholesale. work- tasteful in their design. a part of the pleasure of men's lives. the work be individualized. perfect manship. the source of happiness. his play of memory and intelligence faith. and the clothes cona person individual — being. no real adjustment between the body and its garments. and in reality ugly and painful. of the soul for outer garment. Of necessity the consolidated factory. no appeal to memory or associations. his affection for his work.

1

66

The Arts and Crafts Movement,
labor
all
is

habit of pleasurable
it

established,

then

will

be possible for

to

take
life,

a

pleasur-

able interest in the details of
selves a part of nature,

to feel our-

and thoughtfully and

without distraction note the course of our lives amidst the events that make up the whole of humanity.

Then

art will

be synonymous with

life,

and the very
activity.

activity
life
it

of

life

will

be an

artistic

As

is
is

of uniformity,

now, under the compulsion anxious, inhuman, inartistic,
be seen that Morris's definiits

empty.
the

It will thus
is

tion of art

social in

bearing.

It implies

modern

necessity of building
life, its

up the orna-

mental part of

pleasures of every nature,
cheerfully, with

on the
fellows.

basis of

work undertaken

the consciousness of helping ourselves and our

In

his

volume

"What

is

Art

?

" Tolstoy offers

a definition that accords closely with that of
ris,

Morwhat

though perhaps with
is

a wider view of

constitutes social well-being.

Tolstoy's treatment

of the theme

consciously revolutionary.

He

abandons the current theories of beauty, the theories that make beauty something " fine," abstract,
exclusive, perceiving that so long as the world

upholds such theories

art

will
life,

tend more and

more

to separate itself

from

and lead a poor.

Industrial Consciousness,
thin existence with
cults.

1

67

the privileged and esoteric
it

As

a matter of social justice
art

is

neces-

sary to

re-establish
its

among

the people, and

restore to toil

natural solace.

The
is

definition

of art founded upon the current metaphysics of
beauty
is

a class

definition,

and

intended to

preserve the upper classes in their special privileges of culture

and "taste."

After centuries of
perverted,
is

exclusiveness art has

become
and

devoid
is

of natural and spontaneous feeling, and
erally incomprehensible,
in truth

gen-

"decadent."

To

bring art back to the people, and
its

make
art

it

universal in
entirely
as

appeal,

we

are required to start an

new

definition,

and to understand

not

a possession

for a select minority, but as a

means toward human
union of mankind.
definitions arises

perfection and the brotherly

The

inaccuracy of previous
fact that in
itself,

from the

considered as an end in

or as a

them art is means of
one of

pleasure to a specially equipped class of persons;

whereas the true view

is

to consider art as
a

the conditions of human

life,

means of intercourse
activity

between

man and man.

"The

of art,"

Tolstoy says, "is based on the

fact that a

man,

receiving through his sense of hearing or sight

another man's expression of feeling,
experiencing the emotion which

is

capable of
the

moved

man

1

68

The Arts and Crafts Movement,
expressed
it."

who
of

From
is

this fact the definition

art is

deduced: "Art

a

human

activity con-

sisting in this, that

one

man

consciously,

by means
feel-

of certain external signs, hands on to others
are infected

ings he has lived through, and that other people

them."

It follows

by these feelings, and also experience from this that the purpose of
of kinship: ''Art
is

art is to create the sense

a

means of union among men, joining them together in the same feelings, and indispensable for the life and progress towards well-being of individuals and
of humanity."
as speech itself.

The

activity

of art

is,

therefore, a

general activity, as widely diffused and as

common

Art and speech

are indeed the

two organs of human progress; by speech we convey thoughts, by art we interchange feelings.

Of course
whole of

with perverted ideas of

art,

and on the
is

supposition that the art of the upper classes
art, it

the

has

come about

that only a small

fraction of the people of

Christendom make any
it.

use of art or even understand

And

this fact

of exclusiveness

in art points to a social condition

wherein the masses of the people are in virtual
slavery to the privileged classes.

The

question of art becomes then at once a

social question,

and Tolstoy,

like Morris, requires

a complete revolution of the social system, and an

Industrial Consciousness,
entire

169

change

in the ideals

of

life.

Consequently
not increase

the art of the future will not be a development

of the art of the present;
but

it

will

by-

educating the masses to the standards of the classes,
will rise

entirely

on wholly new foundations, and require new modes of perception. The one induis

bitable indication of real art

its

infectiousness,

and the degree of infection
excellence.

is

the sole measure of

The

degree of infection depends upon

the greater or less individuality of the feelings
transmitted, on the greater or less clearness with

which the feeling

is

transmitted, and
artist

on the greater
feels the

or less force with which the

himself

The more individual the more strongly does it act on the receiver. The clearer the expression, the more readily is it received by another. And the more sincere the artist, the more his art springs out of an inner need for expression, the greater is the sympathy
emotions he transmits.
feeling, the

of the receiver excited for
feeling,

its

reception.

The

moreover, must be a

common

feeling,

which

all

can share, which must be therefore pro-

foundly human, and relate to the growing religious
perception of our time that the well-being of

manall

kind

lies in

the growth of brotherhood

among

men, in their living in harmony with one another. Freed from professionalism and criticism and the

170 The Arts and Crafts Movement. But in that time art will be produced by all members of if a community. the artist of the new day will live the common life of man. have practically the same ground. that reprethe advance in sponding to the stage reached by Morris and Tolstoy." " Education. and display life like modern working "Education. "is life. Parker. in their definitions of these the subtle forces in for democracy. : Two definitions sent of education have recently been educational theory corre- enunciated by prominent educators. as will be either a factor in their Morris desired. and reach essentially the same conclusion an art that is common to all. and daily labor. or create. and Tolstoy's in terms of infection." says John definitions or descrip- Dewey." These tions of education point to the rejection by mod- ern thinkers of those theories that. obligation to display technique startling and to produce and bizarre effects. will be in answer to an irresistible impulse to Morris's definition of art in terms of pleasure. freed." said Francis W. yet one that admits the freest play of individuality. and his work will be accessible to all. from commercialism and unseemly strife. too. grew up from the social order . "is expression. art. produced apart from a vocation. like the older definitions of art.

and by this means suppressed the disposition on the part any one to assert his own nature and live his own life. his ends to seek. are in the broad sense of the term socialists. 1 7 of feudalism. and maintained the cultural classes in their positions of privilege. In whatever school to-day the stress of education is placed upon learning and intelof lectual culture. classes imposed upon the world the tyranny of Secure in their special privileges. But wherever from teachers and is withdrawn books and examinations. these enforced on their underlings the forms of obedi- ence drawn on the model of the military. and placed upon the child. in the manner and by the discipline prescribed by authority. The priestly and noble classes alone possessed the key of knowledge. and their hands reach out not merely to educate the child in terms of . the capation its city of translating the symbols of learning. Feudalistic educa- for had learning for its motive and discipline method.1 Industrial Consciousness. and culture. Of necessity the in new educators. regarded as a living personality with a char- acter to develop. like Morris and Tolstoy their spheres. there are the evidences of the new spirit in education. and his social relations to realize. in that place the forces of an earlier the emphasis system are surviving.

If education then the general life must be so shaped as to be in itself educative. In short. mind. but to shape society so that the newly self-activity. If the man in his industrial activities his individuality. and will erect school-houses on an entirely new model — I think probably a building modeled on the idea of a workshop. The subject of manual training text for further discussion of this thought. the new education. is not permitted to exercise folly to educate the child in it is freedom. precisely in the way of the new art. even with teachers as they are now known. a method . so the new education will eventually dispense with school-systems. all external machinery. but its meaning rapidly growing in the public is. formed individuality may not be thwarted and destroyed by environment. wherein the will life activity of the be developed at the freest all young yet with the most will serve as a intimate relationship with other social factors.172 The Arts and Crafts Movement. and as the new art promises to destroy the professionalism and commercialism of the special artist. yards. self-activity If education be expression. Man- ual training has come into the schools but is recently. Manual training as educators It is know. but another name for self-activity. makes culture coincide with life. the child's cannot stop at the boundary of schoolis life.

presently dissolves. and methods. Morris and Tolstoy foretold the democratization of art. come also to create — has come — life. with its its strange. of education. sovereign individuality. is The movement in education one phase of a general its emancipatory movement which has for purpose the complete democratizing of the modern world.Industrial Consciousness.** traditional methods and meanings. the " class. to manual training — entering workshop disguise by way of It has a destroy. with all Though when its that done. of education and tion are life. that its recitations and exand in discipline. secretly to create self-control. Through its agency education becomes expression. and they properly coincide in the larger synthesis life. and the room itself is trans- formed into something new and this very class-room. its pupils in intellectual vassalage. self-activity. aminations. we call . which means the association of art and The new education promises the association life. and its spirit 1 73 pertains to every classis room. It is teacher in authority. In reality art and educa- modes of the same activity. and tends more and more to become A greater revolution cannot be conceived than that taking place to-day in the schools. its text-books (another form of authority). traditions.

I these no reason why the workshop will not become at once the school and the factory. all Considering the converging lines of tendencies. The French Revolution marked the end of political feudalism and the the first rise of industrial feudalism is. and be brought into contact with their fellows. But a humanized workshop has yet to be evolved. be by suffering. and not merely to make wares for sale. It the part of the twentieth century to reconstruct the workshop. see Before industrialism can join with art and education it disciplined is must pass through a long evolution. that their work was in line with It would mean that by their work their ideals. they would be attached to the past of life. It would mean that the workshop would aim to minister to the well-being of the workers. and to train for citizenship in an industrial Commonwealth. that tically all of practical political equality and stage of industrial organization.1 74 The Arts and Crafts Movement. Prac- Western peoples since the Revolution have had industrial bearing though the incidents of . is Industrialism now at the point of creating and enforcing its feudal discipline. It would mean that men and women would take pleasure in their work. — the attain- ment. But this would mean an industrial revolution. and tried by success.

laborers have formed their unions. represent- ing different phases of the establishment of the industrial regime in the new world. great 1 75 The three American wars. obscuring the real facts of in- Meanwhile the farms have been cleared. monMonarchy cirpolitical cumscribed the egotistic claims of individuals. and the acceptance of these symbols of kingship by a people. With- out the assumption of a throne by a king. chines have been invented. the second for political union. canals and railroads have been constructed. were in reality industrial incidents. the men who formulated the American governmental papers have written them in political verbiage. capital has accumulated. Feder- . In the organization of industry the model of political archy has necessarily been followed. engines and madustrial evolution. generally described in terms of politics. Either through blindness or policy. though apparently one was fought for political independence. put an end to private wars. mines have been opened.Industrial Consciousness. economized the training energy of peoples. and the third for political expansion. and afforded the necessary ground for the evolution among the people of the consciousness of government. the absorption of the functions of government by the people could never have taken place. and the great industries are in process of organization.

but nevertheless the vital interests world are not in these questions. like the Boers. have and meaning and function. as the symbol of the past. like the Chinese. The evolution of political governments lege. is practically finished. to their ancient customs. poHtically speaking. In America the stage of anarchism are merely has been reached by multitudes far less of citizens. in so as they less law-making bodies." which. like the Philippines. The next stage is that of "anarchism. means control of one's self in all matters relating to the self and to one's fellows. the rights of island peoples. but in the minds of the men and women who dwell within the bounds of the continent. is Certainly every person capable of self-rule granted that privi- There may still be questions arising respect- ing suffrage. first alism was the step in transition from mon- archy to democracy. to political independence. by the exercise of self-control state and national governments are rendered unnecessary. The Boers lose their independence.1 76 The Arts and Crafts Movement. to autonomy. and legislatures. the Philippines pass under . the of the rights of peoples. surviving real as the English throne survives. The government in America is not at Washington or in any State Capital. By federal government the king was rendered impotent. the rights of peoples.

is of men. from the point of view of a higher South American Republics. That the people who revere Washington pursued Aguinaldo is a sign : of the passing of political consciousness. as in civilization are . licanism before receiving the discipline necessary it The new of the legal civilization that is usurping the place is and political is order industrial. the and the organized.Industrial Consciousness. victims. the Chinese suffer the intervention of Western powers a century ago no one of these incidents could have happened." said its Frederic Harrison. An industrial civilization not a government of laws but a co-partnership of men." is personal and not legal. \jy American wardship. In the present all the features of feudalism are found. so to speak. "is essentially republican. "Industry. of Fate. are a sacrifice. Public opinion almost universally would have been strong in opposition. the organizers relationship exploiters and the exploited. even while society divided into the classes of the capitalists and the laborers. life is the free co-operation of intelligent masses It follows the industrial relationship. In some way these oppressed peoples are the victims of history as those who are called " social degenerates" . to republics. is And as the world only at the beginning of its . of that civilization or as the assuming repubwere.

It will be the work of the twentieth century to establish the industrial king in a commanding position. Industrial monarchy is now The word " king " is constantly used forming. and an army of workmen reduced to order. within the boundaries. too antiquated. not to his subjects. on the other. It has created " Captains of Industry " on one side. and he he can do no harm. which the factory system superseded. and accord- . A college president was quoted not long since as saying that in twenty years an emperor might Washington. for industrial uses. Competition has been the agent for the selection of the strong and the elimination of the weak. to describe the great magnates. If the function of such sits at an emperor be political. of course.178 The Arts and Crafts Movement. his function will be. and compelled to service. make laws for but to provide materials and set the task for labor. Political machinery too cumbersome. it industrial evolution will is likely that the process run parallel at all points with the develop- ment of government. Corresponding to the political era of petty war- fare was the period of competition. State socialism. The old domestic system of industry. was simply undifferentiated and unorganized industry. is be ruling in Washington. The king is necessary for the development of industrial consciousness.

The " terials are and laborers most nuthe type of organization that will prevail during the period of monarchy. where maaccessible trust " is most merous. exists for all. all. and the de- minds of all of an industrial consciousness. Then once more the . the end of the monarchical stage in the velopment will have been reached. Industry recognizes no false boundaries. without friction or opposition of any kind he will control the wheels of industry. With the perfection of this organization. eric "An is industrial world. " And republican world is one in which the state be- longs to all." said Freda republican world. is a we have its read in humorous present possibility. Already business. then will begin the ab- sorption by the workers of the function of the king. president will be at the center of a splendid organization. trusts are incorporated with charters. of which fiction. Harrison.Industrial Consciousness. and some form of republicanism will be the inaugurated. The king will stand at strategic points. ing to the fiction of a state. is 1 79 forever impossible." and good-will of and lives by the help But the final and per- manent trial stage is democracy — the stage of indus- freedom and equality. permitting the conduct of an almost universal The universal trust. One day the trust of trusts will be formed.

professions simulate the graces of the nobility." may illustrate ance of labor * * phase of the theoretical accept- Life is energy. the best minds finding their freest exercise in originating and controlling industrial enterprises. on this "Work and Leisure. One of the first signs of the development of inis dustrial consciousness was the change in the world's In an aristocracy work is attitude toward work. At the beginning of the twentieth cen- tury the legitimacy and the necessity of are fully recognized." said the Bishop . in tentedly in romantic war. " we feel . is and the instinct for condemned and work is exworkmanship overcomes In an aristocracy the learned professions lose their im- the leisuristic habit. individual will rise to his full stature. education which will directed to its securing nature. In indus- in sports. or happily in a palace of art. or in engaging in some higher form work of craft. A passage from a recent ad- dress by Bishop Spalding. a personal culture.: i8o The Arts and Crafts Movement. in industrialism the portance. condemned. and the which are now dimly perceived and vaguely practiced by artists and craftsmen will principles be fully operative. trialism idleness tolled. purely passive in enable an idle nobility to live concourtly fashion.

1

:

Industrial Consciousness,
ourselves only in doing, and

1

8

when we
is

inquire
his per-

what a man's value
formance.
test

is,

we ask what

The deed
to be

is

the proof of faith, the

of character, and the standard of worth.
is

To do
is

nothing

nobody, and to have done
fixes attention,

to

have been.
ability,

True work
;

develops

and enriches life it strengthens the mind, forms the will, and inures to patience and endurIt is what we do and suffer to overcome ance. nature's indifference and hostility to man's wellbeing and progress it is the means whereby what is not ourselves is taken hold of and made to do us service. True work, then, is furtherance of life, and it cannot be rightly understood unless it is
;

looked

at in this light."
is

Of
Work,

great significance in this connection

the

appearance of the magazine entitled The World's

Commenting upon American
first
life,

life,

the

editor in the

issue reached this generalization
as the

"In American
keynote
is

century ends, the

the note of joyful achievement; and

its faith is

an evangelical
fast as

faith in a

democracy that
invites.

broadens as

social

growth

The

republic has been extended, held together, again

extended, and

it is still

the harbor of refuge and
Its influence has

the beacon of civilization.

broadis

ened the thought of the Old World, and

now

1

82

The Arts and Crafts Movement,
the oldest world.
It
is

felt in

liberalizing kings
class dis-

toward their uncrowning, and softening
tinctions,

and
Its

it

is

making
all

all artificial

authority

obsolete.

century of action and of social exformal philosophies into
It has

periment has turned
curiosities

of

literature.

now

yielded

ma-

terial for a

new period of

constructive thought."

And
"

in defense

of the dignity and idealism of

his field the editor

made annoucement:

The

higher organization of industry has for

half a century engaged the kind of minds that

once founded colonies, built cathedrals, led armies,

and practiced
ber,

statecraft;

and
less

to

an increasing numless a

work has become

and

means of

bread-winning and more and more a form of noble
exercise.
it is

The

artist

always took joy in his work;

the glory of our time that the

man of

affairs

can find a similar pleasure in his achievements.
*'It
is

with the activities of the newly organized

world,
this

its

problems, and even
will earnestly

its

romance, that
itself,

magazine

concern

trying

to convey the cheerful spirit of

men who do

things."

The world

is

nearly ready to accept the truth

of these propositions.

But

it

seems not to be

generally understood that if the kind of

mind

that once founded colonies, built cathedrals, and

:

Industrial Consciousness.

183

practiced statecraft, enter the industrial field the

conditions of that field are destined to change

according to the standards of the new minds.
industry
is

If

to

become
All

then the essential
that industry.

form of noble exercise, nobility of life must appear in
a

ducive to pleasure.

work is not elevating or conAgain I quote from Bishop

Spalding

"To know
sider, first

the worth of

of all, what

is its eflFect

work we must conupon the worker.
it is

If

it

warp, cripple, and degrade him,

not true

work, though he should thereby amass vast wealth
or gain great reputation.
best helps to

The work make men and women
is is evil

is

best which

wise and virworst,
it

tuous, and that which breeds vice
better than idleness, which
vice.

is little

because

breeds

The Bishop

then spoke of present economic

and commercial systems as subversive of civiliza" They sacrifice men to money," he said, tion. " wisdom and virtue to cheap production and the After speaking of the amassing of capital." effects of competition on weaker concerns and
wage-workers, he continued:

"On
in

the
the

other

hand, the

capitalists, the captains

armies

of laborers,
like

under the present system, driven The necessitv of the workmen themselves.
are,

184

The Arts and Crafts Movement,
and
effort

ceaseless vigilance

keeps them under

continual strain.

Like those they employ, they

become parts of a machine, and therefore, partial and mechanical men. The sense of inner free-

dom

dies within them, the source of the purest

joy runs dry, and they are made incapable of thinking great thoughts or walking in the light

of high

ideals.

They

are the victims of their

and having great possessions, are The work, then, which we are doing, and the conditions under which we are doing it, whether we be rich or poor, are unfavorsuccess,
in

own

poor

themselves.

able to the best kind of life."

Bishop Spalding then spoke of the wise use

of

leisure,

saying the theater might be a school
it

of refinement, but

was not, and that the club

and dinner habits were wrong. Fewer hours of toil would not benefit if the leisure were spent
in saloons.

But with the absorption of the higher type of mind in industrial pursuits such conditions are Industry will be mordestined to pass away. Already those who alized and intellectualized. have acquired great wealth by means of the present system are seeking to regard to that wealth.
still

know their duty in Humanize the system
will

further,

and not only the wealth

be mor-

alized. and it will follow that the system will be purged of many of its evils. Science and invention promise the construction of machines for certain purposes so simple and eflicient that the human manip- hand may be wholly withdrawn from their .Industrial Consciousness. But the more hopeful sign of change is taking place in the workshops outside the system. In these independent workshops the elevation of work is steadily taking place." The machine tial is a device for transforming poten- or unapplied energy of the universe into practical energy with the least possible interven- tion of the is human hand. Cobden-Sanderson can find a fuller exercise of his faculties in book-binding than in law- must be some exceptional resources in work as yet quite unsuspected by the majority of mankind. and that work will practice. there change its character till it yields the highest pleasure. Two modes of economy are combining to release for the higher individual industrial agents : work vast numbers of the machine and the " trust. 1 85 but the entire system as well. Infuse these larger minds into industrialism. if a large-minded lawyer like J. If a great poet like Wil- liam Morris can find a more secure satisfaction in his workshop than in his library. The perfect machine the automatic machine.

No one desires . self-supporting system. brings into being a self-directing. The emancipation of labor is accomplished by changing the character of labor. build- men as the machinist with iron. Mr. Carnegie is quoted as saying that if all his money and materials were taken away from him. ulation. all first. the field that affords the greatest opportunity for free labor.1 86 The Arts and Crafts Movement. but this systems of production. The organization of industry and the organization of the organization effect a similar economy of persons. facts together Put these and we have. ing with The great organizer. and the machine and the trust will but increase their economy. where work is under- taken as a satisfaction to personality and as a pleasure. There is but the one outlet into the field of individual work. he could regain them all if his organization were With the further removal of friction left intact. the general tendency on the part 'of to be active in is met by the opposite tendency to eliminate persons from the organized some sphere. the work of the world is conducted with the least possible expense of energy. It is not likely that either of these tendencies will will change . by the co-ordinating of systems by the trust. men and women continue to love to work.

drudgery of the world undoubtedly an instruof industrial is ment for the furthering Voluntary co-operative individualism tending.Industrial Consciousness. the goal is toward which the whole industrial world now . but work. is to be free rective in his The machine in doing the liberty. to be free 187 and self-di- from work.

.

As its the name which given to the new industrialism implies. November 23. however. James Russell Lowell once said that the ideal school would be a place where nothing useful should be taught. art special — supporters in and " fine is to give up something of its " character and become practical. will be the ultimate result of the modern trend toward ment of the manual vitality the practical. industrial factor co-operating also to this The known end is as the Arts and Crafts movement. address delivered at the Annual Meeting of the Industrial Art League at the Auditoiium Hotel. The it tendency. but the should be taught has not yet practical view that the school would be a place where nothing useless come into full acceptance. and 189 . The ideal transcendental view of education has long been abandoned by educators. which is essentially a workshop and not simply a place of instruction. training school The is rapid develop- evidence of the of this movement. Chicago. I and to not impossible that the school have in mind describe. propose the association of art and labor association.Appendix I. 1901. A An Proposal for a Guild and School of Handicraft. to discard the useless and to is develop the useful is quite marked in recent years. of course.

it is work it is more frequently the curse popularly supposed to be than the blessing If once the moralists affirm. Might it not be possible to turn the school into an factual factory. furnishes every neces- means for the As practiced at present. entirely self-subsisting." might also be educated by the self-same work. By subduing art and rendering it useful it tends to become real and vital. By applying the principles of both art and labor to either an artist or that workman the ideal craftsman is formed a craftsman is a new kind of artist and a new kind of workSuch a craftsman satisfies all — man. in which an individual. better than any existing institution. while " earning his living. and he indeed the product of their teaching. to rise above its drudgery and become pleasurBy emancipating and individualizing labor it tends to become artistic. development of the highest human Work. a new sort of institution may not be established.190 labor able. is Appendix I. and some factories. rightly understood. able can be made pleasurfree — pleasurable because free. And now the query rises whether. and because its . and transform the ? factory into a genuine school Even now some manual could easily training schools approximate the factory in appearance. by combining the new educational tendency and the new industrial tendency. when sary life. the life conditions that economists like is Ruskin and Morris demand. with slight modification. which shall serve the ends of the industrial commonwealth now forming in this country. be made into ideal communities.

few years the prin- has the Gospel of Wealth been preached. in the construction of an ideal its workshop and the testing of I advantages ? wish to propose. if his men worked with pleasure upon the objects they desired. more philanthropy on If he the part of the proprietor would save the double expense of maintaining both a factory and a school. recognizes the opportunities of his factory as he does now of his wealth. That manner the factory will some day be transformed For only a in the suggest I do not doubt. that is. were to realize in the factory itself the full opportunities of labor. then. As and yet our civilization seems cumbersome. the factory school — I would then be a ground. and ill-regulated. prosecution life is 1 9 in — the direction of a is man's individual this question of the ages solved. And streams of wealth are returning to the people in universities and art institutes When. and put into practice by already ciple of trusteeship the world's money -holders.1 Guild and School of Handicraft. inasmuch as their work afforded them the a fullest possible satisfaction. and the world will be advanced by that degree. and libraries. the man of millions. now. the next step in the socialization of industry will be taken. costly. A philanthropic Now a little proprietor of a factory devotes a portion of his surplus wealth to building and endowing a school. con- vinced also of the Gospel of Labor. the establishment of a Guild . for individual growth and development. But meanwhile may not a beginning of such tion be socializa- made.

and the character of the products guild. clearly to do all its Arts. For the purpose of line the practical difficulties in the way of building such an institution may be ignored. and . would constitute the commercial output of the field The The would be that indicated by the term Industrial the Arts and Crafts. the more able to dispense with . or the more popular term. according to some principle of government determined guild. drudgery. and But in order that the advantages of centralization general organization sary for the may be claimed. and yet co-operatively as forming a part of a community individually or guild. is function of the machine most of the mechanical work of is the world. by the Co-operative individualism is the neces- sary working theory of a free workshop. I conceive a workshop. this out- and School of Handicraft. or series of workshops and studios under a single roof.192 Appendix I. it would be neces- members of the group to work co-operatively. and so conducted that each crafts- — man works to get individually as a unit. This one fact almost of itself determines the kind of work that to be undertaken. The ideal machine automatic the better and is it more perfect the machine. that while talent for making goods for sale he exercise his own designing and organizing materials according to the conception and order that are regnant in his own mind. In order it the best creative results from a workman is essential that he work — that is. owned and conducted by the craftsmen themselves so owned that the entire returns from the sale of products accrue to the workers.

the greater the need for skilled craftsmen to initiate and execute a given design. The up of ants j may be large or small according to the circumstances. In the field of the industrial arts the artist- craftsman will find the fullest scope for his intelligence and personality. sculptor. To his surprise Morris discovered that for expression than in him more scope and Cobden-Sanderson found bookbinding that which the lawyer's guild brief denied him. glass-worker. the crafts offered literature. central city. equipped with the best conducted by skilled artisans. wood-worker. 1 93 is For the present at least the machine calculated to do the lower kind of work. One such institution. then. etcher. and photographer. and yet working primarily for the pleasure found in the making — such might fairly effect a revolution in our conceptions and benefit methods of work. printer. fifteen An experimental guild might be made their necessary assist- master-workmen and an architect. needed to A chemist and physicist would be assist in solving the special industrial problems in a connected with the crafts. metal-worker. and incidentally the world . illustrator. the more of is intelligent design necessary for a product. leather-worker. Here. is the opportunity of the artist and crafts- man. decorator. weaver. bookbinder. an operator. modern appliances. and to render serviceable to the world the less skilful and less intelli- gent workmen. intent upon " making an institution things." to be sure.Guild and School of Handicraft. potter. embroiderer. The higher the work.

complete and is self-supporting in The capable of indefinite ramification and expansion. a school." only I should say. In general outline. this In his proposal meets that of Mr. I can foretell that such a workshop would grow its into a kind of industrial its " settlement. include trades and industries other fact." system social in motive. such the Arts and Crafts Institute that the than the new — new — newer education and industrialism demand. and may indeed than artistic. indeed. is Back to " Back to the the Workshop. con- ceive of such a working guild as being the unit of the social organization that pertains to an industrial com- monwealth. co-operative in its results. but also for their assistants and apprentices. too. would such a workshop be.194 by increasing good living. not only for the master-craftsmen engaged in actual production. . and raising the standard of But I have called the workshop also a school. Oilman in recent volume rather. and for the number of special students the shop could accommodate . Appendix taste /. A school. method. Soil. of more genuine character limited than the present schools where learning is gained I abstractly and with no definite relation to life.

February. and that the democratization nat- of art means the return of art to the people. The ultimate ground of such an art is pleasure 195 — the pleasure which . The Industrial Art League.Appendix II. crafts The and require term " arts and " has also come into general use as indicating the same association of two elements tion. but it is vitalized by use. and the establishment of life upon the basis of art. with the the industrial arts. represent special genius for their development. is refined by beauty and energized by The Industrial Art League was organized in Chicago in 1899. and " arts. art gains in — art and art and labor — come labor. their appeal. (Reprinted from The House a Beautiful. and labor gains in that pleasure. leisuristic therefore. distinguished. and was subsequently incorporated as a non- pecuniary corporation.) Industrial art is is name given " fine to a form of is art that grounded in life and industry. from the in which are status. When into these associa- each loses something of so far as it its special character. object of promoting The convictions which prompted is the organization were that art in a democracy urally industrial. 1902.

at and publication. P. Newton A. . exhibition may be on in asso- and sales rooms where products from the workshops may be sold or permanently exhibited. and that these functions require least three separate institutions: workshops carried in which manufacture and instruction ciation. After various formulations the " object " of the league came i. secretary. Rosenmanager. Partridge. be noticed that these four propositions involve that of four functions: work. publications and other appropriate arts means to pro- mote the It will and crafts. for the present year are The officers Frank O. besides the president and secretary. 2. president. 3.196 Appendix II. springs from free and skilful labor. chairman. to be stated in the articles of incorporation in the following terms: The tools league aims: To provide w^orkshops and for the use of guilds of artists and craftsmen. Herbert S. Oscar L. thal. and E. exhibition. Hirsch. The executive committee includes. Emil G. vice-president. 4. and special means of spreading and enforcing the doctrine of work so as to build up a united community of workers and patrons. Stone. the exhibition give instruction and means ducts. treasurer. for and sale of their proin To the industrial arts. considerable membership. Triggs. The with a efficient Industrial Art League is now well established. and the first steps in carry- ing out the original plans have been taken. Lowden. To By establish industrial art libraries and museums. instruction. and a popular and board of trustees.

The Industrial Art League. The directly. the old guild system will be established in workshops. artistic. William league. consisting of blankets. The Atlan Ceramic Club has a very attractive permanent exhibit. special articles on trial indus- themes contributed to magazines. Circulars and pamphlets. Marguerite W. Browne. shall also serve as a sort of industrial laboratory where new materials and processes may be experimented So and special invention encouraged. — which with. Harper. A recent accession is the Herbert A. It is the of the league to build as soon as possible a central crafts — workshop a place for the accommodation of all the where work may be conducted with and educational motives commercial. 264 Michigan Avenue. far as practicable. and the work also of indiat present at viduals. The league does not purchase goods. An exhibition and salesroom is located in Chicago. Among these are the Schreiber shop in at number of co-operating Long- wood. and more com- . baskets. and Charles F. pottery. receiving percentage of sales to cover expenses. Here in a suite of four rooms are put on sale selected products from the shops already mentioned. all of genuine native manufacture. but simply exa small hibits. CofFeen collection of Indian goods. and the " Quisisana " shop intention La Porte. ers.. and illustrating one phase of handicraft. Springer. etc. not conducting any workshop giving assistance to several groups of workassociated with a and shops. while is is R. Granger. Alfred 1 97 H. moccasins.

technically of the arts and crafts. . The lines: league is also collecting books for an Industrial Art Library. 3. up on three sociological It will include: Books of general Books treating and industrial import. is year a course of fourteen lectures given at the Fine Arts Building in association with the Illinois Chapter of the Daughters of the Revolution. This library will be built i.198 Appendix II. prehensive studies in volume form represent the activity of the league in respect to publication. Books illustrating the his- tory of printing and book-making. tures this A course of lec- on industrial and social topics is conducted yearly. 2.

CHICAGO. R. ILL.PRINTED BY R. DONNELLEY AND SONS COMPANY AT THE LAKESIDE PRESS. .

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