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雲深不知處– 雲深不知處–走入雲端 Cloud Computing Overview

王國禎 國立交通大學資訊工程系 網路工程研究所 行動計算與寬頻網路實驗室
Copyright © 2011, MBL@CS.NCTU

• • • • • • • • Introduction Cloud Computing Issues Dynamic Resource Allocation and QoS Cloud Security Cloud Networking Mobile Cloud Computing Future of Cloud Computing Conclusions

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Introduction – 雲

松下問童子 言師採藥去 只在此山中 雲深不知處
唐詩 賈島《 賈島《尋隱者不遇》 尋隱者不遇》
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Introduction – Clouds I questioned a boy under the pine trees. So deep in the clouds I can’t tell where.NCTU .” Tang Poems Jia Dao Translated by Innes Herdan 《On Looking for a Hermit and Not Finding Him》 4 Copyright © 2011. MBL@CS. “My Master went herb-gathering” he says: “He is still somewhere on the mountain-side.

Introduction – 雲 中歲頗好道 興來每獨往 行到水窮處 偶然值林叟 晚家南山垂 勝事空自知 坐看雲起時 談笑無還期 唐詩王維 《終南別業》 終南別業》 5 Copyright © 2011.NCTU . MBL@CS.

Introduction – Clouds I walk to where the stream dwindles And sit watching the clouds rise up and up … Tang Poems Wang Wei Translated by Innes Herdan 《My Country Retreat on South Mountain》 6 Copyright © 2011.NCTU . MBL@CS.

Morgan Kaufmann.S. Peterson and B.Introduction .NCTU . 2007 7 Copyright © 2011. Davie.Clouds Source: L. Computer Networks: A System Approach. MBL@CS..L. 4th Ed.

g. 5th Ed. 2010 8 Copyright © 2011. Addison-Wesley. MBL@CS.Introduction .NCTU .. AOL) Source: J.F.W..Clouds central office telephone network Internet home PC home dial-up modem ISP modem (e. Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach. Kurose and K. Ross. 9 Copyright © 2011.Introduction – Cloud Computing Origin • In August 2006. Eric Schmidt of Google CEO coined their approach to SaaS as cloud computing at a Search Engine Strategies Conference • The U.NCTU . MBL@CS. Patent and Trademark Office has reversed course on its earlier move to grant Dell trademark rights to the term "cloud computing" – “Incapable of functioning as a source-identifier for applicant’s service” • Dell owns the domain cloudcomputing.

8. Servers .The Network is the Computer • 1993 Sun Microsystems CTO Eric Schmidt: When the network becomes as fast as the processor.Introduction – Cloud Computing History • 1943 IBM T.84 million • 1983 Sun Microsystems founded: Theme . MBL@CS.J. Watson: I think there is a world market for about five computers – Gartner: 2007 – PCs 264 million.NCTU . the computer hollows out and spreads across the network 10 Copyright © 2011.

Facebook has more than 600 million active users • October 2004: Google offered Gmail service • March 2006: Amazon offered Amazon S3 (Simple Storage Service) service • • • • • 11 Copyright © 2011. Microsoft MSN established 1998 Google founded 1999 Saleforce.NCTU .Introduction – Cloud Computing History 1994 Amazon. As of January 2011. founded 2004: Facebook is a social network service and website launched in February founded 1995 Yahoo! Founded.

com service • April 2008: Google offered Google App Engine service • October 2008: Microsoft offered Window Azure 12 Copyright © 2011. MBL@CS.Introduction – Cloud Computing History • June 2006 Microsoft’s Ray Ozzie: Software + Service • August 2006: Eric Schmidt coined “Cloud Computing” for server clusters • December 2006: Amazon offered Amazon EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud) service • January 2008: Saleforce offered Force.NCTU .

gas. from Edison to Google. The big switch: rewiring the world.NCTU . and telephone) • The shift is already remaking the computer industry.Introduction – Fifth Utility: Computing • It has been suggested that the shift to the cloud model could make computing the fifth utility (along with water. MBL@CS. bringing new competitors like Google to the fore and threatening traditional stalwarts like Microsoft and Dell Source: Nicholas G. electricity. 2008 13 Copyright © 2011. Carr.

NCTU . whereby shared resources. MBL@CS. software and information are provided to computers and other devices on-demand. like electricity • Cloud computing characteristics: involves the provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources as a service over the Internet 14 Copyright © 2011.Introduction – Cloud Computing Definition • Clouds: Resources or services over internet • Cloud computing: Internet-based computing.

Systems and Applications.NCTU . 2010 15 Copyright © 2011. “Cloud Computing: Principles.)..Introduction – Virtualization • Virtualization is the idea of partitioning or dividing the resources of a single server into multiple segregated VMs (virtual machines) • A VM is a software implementation of a machine (i. (eds. a computer) that executes programs like a physical machine Source: L. MBL@CS. Gillam et al.e.” Springer.

Systems and Applications.” Springer. MBL@CS.Introduction – Virtualization Source: L.NCTU . Gillam et al.). “Cloud Computing: Principles. 2010 16 Copyright © 2011. (eds.

000 – Android (T-mobile G1): 192 MB. USD 178 17 Copyright © 2011. MBL@CS.000.Introduction – Mobile Phones • When smartphones combine with cloud computing. USD 5. the result is the fulfillment of Bill Gates' 1990 prediction that technology would eventually put the world's information at peoples' fingertips – Cray-1: 4 MB.NCTU . 528 MHz. 80 MHz.

Cloud Computing – Conceptual Diagram Source: http://en. 18 Copyright © 2011.wikipedia.NCTU .

NCTU .Cloud Computing – Application Scenarios • Case 1: The Washington Post uses Amazon EC2 (using 200 virtual servers) to turn Hillary Clinton’s White House schedule—17. MBL@CS.481 non-searchable PDF pages—into a searchable database within 24 hours (30 min/page 1 min/page) 19 Copyright © 2011.

MBL@CS.Cloud Computing – Application Scenarios • Case 2: has announced that the Haagen-Dazs Shoppe Company has chosen Salesforce CRM (Customer Relationship Management) and the Force. as well as track staff training and ensure store quality“ 20 Copyright © platform – Haagen-Dazs can "identify opportunities and open franchises.NCTU .

Cloud Computing – Application Scenarios • Case 3: Giftag is gift registry add on for FireFox and Explorer – It lets you pick things from any site. add them to a list. MBL@CS. and share that list where ever you want – It has recently been re-platformed on Google App Engine to resolve the overloading problem 21 Copyright © 2011.NCTU .

MBL@CS.Cloud Computing – Paradigm Shift 22 Copyright © 2011.NCTU .

NCTU . MBL@CS.Cloud Computing – Trends 23 Copyright © 2011.

. applications.g. storage. servers. on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.Cloud Computing – Definition from NIST • Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient. networks. and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction 24 Copyright © 2011. MBL@CS.NCTU .

MBL@CS.NCTU Internet Business Solutions Group 25 .html Cisco Confidential Copyright Copyright © 2009 Cisco All rights reserved.Cloud Computing – Definition from NIST Visual Model of NIST’s Working Definition of Cloud Computing Measured Service On-Demand Self Service Essential Characteristics Rapid Elasticity Resource Pooling Broad Network Access Service Models Software as a Service (SaaS) Platform as a Service (PaaS) Infrastucture as a Service (IaaS) Deployment Models Public Private Hybrid Community http://www. Inc. © 2011.nist.csrc.

g. without requiring human interaction with each service’s provider • Broad network access: Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous client platforms (e.NCTU . mobile phones.. and PDAs) 26 Copyright © 2011. such as server time and network storage.Cloud Computing – Essential Characteristics • On-demand self-service: A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities. laptops. MBL@CS.

and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand – Examples of resources include storage. network bandwidth. MBL@CS.Cloud Computing – Essential Characteristics • Resource pooling: The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers. memory. and virtual machines 27 Copyright © 2011.NCTU . processing.

the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be purchased in any quantity at any time 28 Copyright © 2011. MBL@CS.Cloud Computing – Essential Characteristics • Rapid elasticity: Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned.NCTU . to quickly scale out and rapidly released to quickly scale in – To the consumer.

NCTU . MBL@CS. and reported providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service 29 Copyright © 2011.Cloud Computing – Essential Characteristics • Measured Service: Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability – Resource usage can be monitored. controlled.

servers. MBL@CS.Cloud Computing – Service Models • Software as a Service (SaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure – The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network. storage. Google Maps 30 Copyright © 2011.NCTU . or even individual application capabilities – For example. Gmail. operating systems.

Google App Engine.Cloud Computing – Service Models • Platform as a Service (PaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications – The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network.NCTU . operating systems. Window Azure 31 Copyright © 2011. MBL@CS. or storage. but has control over the deployed applications – For example. servers.

storage.Cloud Computing – Service Models • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing. hiCloud CaaS 32 Copyright © 2011. MBL@CS. Amazon EC2. storage. where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software.NCTU . which can include OSs and applications – The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over OSs. deployed applications – For example. networks.

NCTU .wikipedia.Cloud Computing – Deployment Models Source: 33 Copyright © 2011. MBL@CS.

UC Berkeley.Cloud Computing – System Guarantees • The CAP theorem states that it is impossible for a distributed computer system to simultaneously provide all three of the following guarantees (Eric Brewer.NCTU . 2000): – Consistency (all nodes see the same data at the same time) – Availability (node failures do not prevent survivors from continuing to operate) – Tolerance to Network Partitions (the system continues to operate during the network split ) 34 Copyright © 2011. MBL@CS.

MBL@CS. the bank transaction system that needs Consistence is not suitable to be in the cloud environment 35 Copyright © 2011. a distributed system can satisfy any two of these three guarantees at the same time.will be synchronized later) • Therefore.Cloud Computing – System Guarantees • According to the theorem.NCTU . but not all three • Cloud computing focuses on Availability and Tolerance to Network Partitions (and Eventual Consistency .

Academic Cloud Computing Initiative (ACCI). MBL@CS.NCTU .Cloud Computing – Research Activities • In October 2007. IBM and Google announced a multi-university project. the National Science Foundation joined the ACCI and awarded approximately $5 million in grants to 14 academic institutions 36 Copyright © 2011. designed to enhance students' technical knowledge to address the challenges of cloud computing • Government: In April 2009.

2010 – The TCCC is a co-operation between Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and over 60 local Taiwanese technology companies 37 Copyright © 2011.NCTU .Cloud Computing – Activities in Taiwan • Taiwan companies are always on the lookout for the next big thing and they're taking a stab at cloud computing – The Taiwan Cloud Computing Consortium (TCCC) was established back in April. MBL@CS.

Cloud Computing – Activities in Taiwan • Taiwan's government is throwing its hat into the cloud computing ring (9/9/2010) – The government recently announced plans to invest US$744 million (NT$ 24 billion) to develop cloud computing technology and services during the next five years – Taiwan's government predicts the global cloud computing sector to be worth US$31 billion by 2014 38 Copyright © 2011. MBL@CS.NCTU .

Cloud Computing – Activities in Taiwan
• “We should take advantage of Taiwan’s strong information and communications technology industry, further upgrading it in order to seize business opportunities involving cloud computing technology,” Premier Den-yih Wu said in a press conference in April, 2010

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Cloud Computing – Critics
• Larry Ellison, CEO of Oracle Corporation has stated that cloud computing has been defined as "everything that we already do" and that it will have no effect except to "change the wording on some of our ads” • Oracle Corporation has since launched a cloud computing center and worldwide tour • Forrester Research Principal Analyst John Rymer dismisses Ellison's remarks by stating that his "comments are complete nonsense and he knows it"
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Cloud Computing – Critics
• Richard Stallman said that cloud computing was simply a trap aimed at forcing more people to buy into locked, proprietary systems that would cost them more and more over time – "It's stupidity; It's worse than stupidity; it's a marketing hype campaign,“ he told The Guardian – October 1985, he founded the Free Software Foundation

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MBL@CS. a cloud employs three components: – A monitoring module that measures the workload and the performance metric of each application – A prediction module that uses the measurements from the monitoring module to estimate the future workload – An allocation module that uses these workload estimates to determine resource shares such that QoS (or SLA) of each application is met 42 Copyright © 2011.NCTU .Dynamic Resource Allocation and QoS • To perform dynamic resource allocation.

MBL@CS.Dynamic Resource Allocation and QoS • Achieve dynamic load balancing and optimal resource utilization (for cost effectiveness and energy efficiency of service providers) in the datacenter (cloud) by enabling the creation of logical resource pools that are abstracted away from the physical hardware – Virtual machines are then dynamically placed on the most optimal hardware to ensure service level agreements (SLAs) are met (for user satisfactions) (Source: VMware) 43 Copyright © 2011.NCTU .

or provide an identity management solution of their own 44 Copyright © 2011. MBL@CS.Cloud Security • Data Protection – Data from one customer must be properly segregated from that of another • Identity Management – Cloud providers either integrate the customer’s identity management system into their own infrastructure.NCTU .

Cloud Security • Physical and Personal Security – Providers ensure that physical machines are adequately secure and that access to these machines as well as all relevant customer data is not only restricted but that access is documented • Application Security – Cloud providers ensure that applications available as a service via the cloud are secure 45 Copyright © 2011.NCTU . MBL@CS.

Cloud Security • Privacy – Providers ensure that all critical data (credit card numbers.NCTU . for example) are masked and that only authorized users have access to data in its entirety 46 Copyright © 2011. MBL@CS.

NCTU . known as the three-tier architecture – At the bottom level. for redundancy purposes) access switch – Each access switch connects to one (or two) switches at the aggregation tier – Finally.Cloud Networking • Current data centers follow a common network architecture. each server connects to one (or two. each aggregation switch connects with multiple switches at the core tier 47 Copyright © 2011. MBL@CS. known as the access tier.

e. i.NCTU .Cloud Networking • Figure 4 shows a layer-2 topology with 16 servers and one VLAN (labeled as Tree) • Scaling the three-tier architecture is achieved by scaling up each individual switch. MBL@CS. by increasing its fan-out. rather than scaling out the topology itself – For example. the core tier can accommodate 8 switches at most 48 Copyright © 2011.

NCTU . MBL@CS.Cloud Networking [8] 49 Copyright © 2011.

Cloud Networking • VL2 is a new architecture that shares many features with the tree – It is a 3-tier architecture with main difference that the core tier and the aggregation tier form a Clos topology.NCTU . MBL@CS. i. the aggregation switches are connected with the core ones by forming a complete bipartite graph 50 Copyright © 2011.e.

a Clos graph 51 Copyright © 2011. i. though at different levels – The PortLand architecture makes use of fat-tree topologies and it is built around the concept of pods: a collection of access and aggregation switches that form a complete bipartite graph..e. MBL@CS.NCTU .Cloud Networking • PortLand (Fat-Tree) is another three-tier architecture that shares with the VL2 the same Clos topology feature.

.e.Cloud Networking • BCube is a new multi-level network architecture for the data center with the following distinguishing feature – Servers are part of the network infrastructure. i. they forward packets on behalf of other servers 52 Copyright © 2011. MBL@CS.NCTU .

much of it in the cloud 53 Copyright © 2011.NCTU .Mobile Cloud Computing • The most hype technology trend of the past year: either “cloud computing” or “smartphones and tablets” • Cloud Computing drives mobile data growth – Mobile data to increase 14-fold by 2014. MBL@CS.

NCTU .Future of Cloud Computing • Microsoft’s Cloud Computing Futures (CCF): focused on reducing the power consumption and operation cost of data centers. and increasing their adaptability and resilience to failures – An intelligent closed-loop control system can determine when to put a processor to sleep and when to awaken it to serve the workload 54 Copyright © 2011. MBL@CS.

Conclusions • Cloud computing is a powerful way to provide scalable on-demand computing resources • Virtualization technology is foundational to cloud computing because it provides a safe and flexible platform • Gartner predicts that by 2012. 80 percent of Fortune 1000 enterprises will be paying for some cloud computing services.NCTU . MBL@CS. and 30 percent will be paying for cloud computing infrastructure services 55 Copyright © 2011.

NCTU .Conclusions • Efficient dynamic resource allocation with QoSawareness and in cloud computing we trust (secure cloud computing) are keys to success and spread of cloud computing • Redesigning scalable data center networks is driven by the desire to reduce cost while simultaneously handling an ever-increasing amount of the traffic between servers 56 Copyright © 2011. MBL@CS.

productivity. social networking. equipped with gaming. is fueling the mobile phone industry growth • Mobile Cloud Computing will definitely leverage the mobile handsets to the level of Super Duper Smart 57 Copyright © 2011.Conclusions • The smartphone. MBL@CS. health. learning.NCTU . banking & payments. photography.

Conclusions Every cloud has a silver lining In every bad situation there is an element of good 山窮水盡疑無路, 山窮水盡疑無路,柳暗花明又一村 撥雲見日 苦盡甘來 58 Copyright © 2011. MBL@CS.NCTU .

org/wiki/Cloud_computing [2] http://www.. MBL@CS. “Cloud Computing: Principles.nist. 2010 [5]日經社BP出版局.html [3] Peter Mell and Tim Grance. 2010 [4] L. 2010 59 Copyright © 2011. Cloud Computing Strategy (in Chinese).csrc.” Springer. [1] http://en.).gov/groups/SNS/cloudcomputing/index. (eds. Gillam et al.doc [3] Ying Chen et al. CommonWealth. Systems and Applications. 雲端運算大解密.NCTU .nist.wikipedia.

Shenoy. MBL@CS.php/ 3922856 [10] http://shahneil. “Dynamic Resource Allocation for Shared Data Centers Using Online Measurements.References [6] 60 Copyright © 2011. Shenoy. Pappas. W. Zhang.” IEEE INFOCOM. V.NCTU . and L.wikipedia.” ACM SIGMETRICS’03. “Improving the Scalability of Data Center Networks with TrafficTraffic-aware Virtual Machine Placement. [8] X. Gong and P. Meng. 300300-301. June 2003 [7] http://en. 2010 [9] http://itmanagement. Meng.

Thank you Q&A 61 Copyright © 2011. MBL@CS.NCTU .