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Violence against women
Fom Wikipedia, he fee encclopedia
The phae violence against women i a echnical em ed o colleciel efe o iolen ac ha ae
pimail o ecliel commied again omen. Simila o a hae cime, hich i i omeime
conideed,
[1][2][3]
hi pe of iolence age a pecific gop ih he icim' gende a a pima
moie.
The Unied Naion Geneal Aembl define "iolence again omen" a "an ac of gende-baed
iolence ha el in, o i likel o el in, phical, eal o menal ham o ffeing o omen,
inclding hea of ch ac, coecion o abia depiaion of libe, hehe occing in
pblic o in piae life." The 1993 Declaaion on he Eliminaion of Violence Again Women noed
ha hi iolence cold be pepeaed b aailan of eihe gende, famil membe and een he
"Sae" ielf.
[4]
Woldide goenmen and oganiaion aciel ok o comba iolence again omen hogh a
aie of pogam. A UN eolion deignaed 25 Noembe a Inenaional Da fo he Eliminaion
of Violence again Women.
[5]
Contents
1 Hio of iolence again omen
2 Impac on ocie
3 Tpe of iolence
3.1 Rape
3.2 Domeic iolence
3.2.1 Diagnoi planning
3.3 Mob iolence
3.4 Sae iolence
3.4.1 Wa and miliaim
3.4.2 Violence in empoemen em
3.5 Gende-baed iolence b male college ahlee
3.5.1 Conoe oe conibing faco
3.5.2 Repone o iolence b male college ahlee
4 Aciim
5 See alo
6 Refeence
7 Fhe eading
8 Eenal link
Histor of violence against women
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A world map showing countries by women's physical security, 2011.
Some historians believe that the history of violence against women is tied to the history of women being
viewed as property and a gender role
assigned to be subservient to men and
also other women.
[6]
The UN Declaration on the
Elimination of Violence against
Women (1993) states that "violence
against women is a manifestation of
historically unequal power relations
between men and women, which
have led to domination over and
discrimination against women by men
and to the prevention of the full
advancement of women, and that
violence against women is one of the
crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with
men.
[7][8]
In the 1870s courts in the United States stopped recognizing the common-law principle that a husband had
the right to "physically chastise an errant wife".
[9]
In the UK the traditional right of a husband to inflict
moderate corporal punishment on his wife in order to keep her "within the bounds of duty" was removed
in 1891.
[10][11]
Impact on societ
The World Health Organization reports that violence against women puts an undue burden on health care
services with women who have suffered violence being more likely to need health services and at higher
cost, compared to women who have not suffered violence.
[12]
Several studies have shown a link between
poor treatment of women and international violence. These studies show that one of the best predictors of
inter- and intranational violence is the maltreatment of women in the society.
[13][14]
Tpes of violence
Rape
Main aricle: Rape
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse, which is initiated by one or more
persons against another person without that person's consent. The act may be carried out by physical
force, coercion, abuse of authority or with a person who is incapable of valid consent, such as one who is
unconscious, incapacitated, or below the legal age of consent.
[15][16][17][18]
Internationally, the incidence of rapes recorded by the police during 2008 varied between 0.1 in Egypt
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per 100,000 people and 91.6 per 100,000 people in Lesotho with 4.9 per 100,000 people in Lithuania as
the median.
[19]
According to the American Medical Association (1995), sexual violence, and rape in
particular, is considered the most underreported violent crime.
[20][21]
The rate of reporting, prosecution
and convictions for rape varies considerably in different jurisdictions. Rape by strangers is usually less
common than rape by persons the victim knows.
[22][23][24][25][26]
Victims of rape can be severely traumatized and may suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder;
[27]
in
addition to psychological harm resulting from the act, rape may cause physical injury, or have additional
effects on the victim, such as acquiring of a sexually transmitted infection or becoming pregnant.
Furthermore, following a rape, a victim may face violence or threats of thereof from the rapist, and, in
some cultures, from the victim's own family and relatives.
[28][29][30]
Domestic iolence
Main aicle: Domeic iolence
Women are more likely to be victimized by someone that they are intimate with, commonly called
"Intimate Partner Violence" or (IPV). The impact of domestic violence in the sphere of total violence
against women can be understood through the example that 4070% of murders of women are committed
by their husband or boyfriend.
[31]
Studies have shown that violence is not always perpetrated as a form of
physical violence but can also be psychological and verbal.
[32][33]
In unmarried relationships this is
commonly called dating violence, whereas in the context of marriage it is called domestic violence.
Instances of IPV tend not to be reported to police and thus many experts believe that the true magnitude of
the problem is hard to estimate.
[34]
Women are much more likely than men to be murdered by an intimate
partner. In the United States, in 2005, 1181 women, in comparison with 329 men, were killed by their
intimate partners.
[35][36]
In England and Wales about 100 women are killed by partners or former
partners each year while 21 men were killed in 2010.
[37]
In 2008, in France, 156 women in comparison
with 27 men were killed by their intimate partner.
[38]
Though this form of violence is often portrayed as an issue within the context of heterosexual
relationships, it also occurs in lesbian relationships,
[39]
daughter-mother relationships, roommate
relationships and other domestic relationships involving two women. Violence against women in lesbian
relationships is about as common as violence against women in heterosexual relationships.
[40]
Diagnosis planning
The American Psychiatric Association planning and research committees for the forthcoming DSM-5
(2013) have canvassed a series of new Relational disorders which include Maial Conflic Diode
Wiho Violence or Maial Abe Diode (Maial Conflic Diode Wih Violence).
[41]
Couples
with marital disorders sometimes come to clinical attention because the couple recognize long-standing
dissatisfaction with their marriage and come to the clinician on their own initiative or are referred by an
astute health care professional. Secondly, there is serious violence in the marriage which is -"usually the
husband battering the wife".
[42]
In these cases the emergency room or a legal authority often is the first to
notify the clinician. Most importantly, marital violence "is a major risk factor for serious injury and even
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death and women in violent marriages are at much greater risk oI being seriously injured or killed
(National Advisory Council on Violence Against Women 2000)."
|43|
The authors oI this study add that
"There is current considerable controversy over whether male-to-Iemale marital violence is best
regarded as a reIlection oI male psychopathology and control or whether there is an empirical base and
clinical utility Ior conceptualizing these patterns as relational."
|43|
Recommendations Ior clinicians making a diagnosis oI Maial Relaional Diode should include the
assessment oI actual or "potential" male violence as regularly as they assess the potential Ior suicide in
depressed patients. Further, "clinicians should not relax their vigilance aIter a battered wiIe leaves her
husband, because some data suggest that the period immediately Iollowing a marital separation is the
period oI greatest risk Ior the women. Many men will stalk and batter their wives in an eIIort to get them
to return or punish them Ior leaving. Initial assessments oI the potential Ior violence in a marriage can be
supplemented by standardized interviews and questionnaires, which have been reliable and valid aids in
exploring marital violence more systematically."
|43|
The authors conclude with what they call "very recent inIormation"
|44|
on the course oI violent marriages
which suggests that "over time a husband's battering may abate somewhat, but perhaps because he has
successIully intimidated his wiIe. The risk oI violence remains strong in a marriage in which it has been a
Ieature in the past. Thus, treatment is essential here; the clinician cannot just wait and watch."
|44|
The
most urgent clinical priority is the protection oI the wiIe because she is the one most Irequently at risk,
and clinicians must be aware that supporting assertiveness by a battered wiIe may lead to more beatings
or even death.
|44|
Mob iolence
In 2010 Amnesty International reported that mob attacks against single women were taking place in Hassi
Messaoud, Algeria.
|45|
According to Amnesty International, "some women have been sexually abused"
and were targeted "not just because they are women, but because they are living alone and are
economically independent."
|45|
State iolence
War and militarism
Militarism produces special environments that allow Ior increased violence against women. War rapes
have accompanied warIare in virtually every known historical era.
|46|
Rape in the course oI war is
mentioned multiple times in the Bible: "For I will gather all the nations against Jerusalem to battle, and
the city shall be taken and the houses plundered and the women raped..." Zechariah 14:2
(http://bibreI.hebtools.com/?book÷°20Zechariah&verse÷14:2&src÷ESV) "Their little children will be
dashed to death beIore their eyes. Their homes will be sacked, and their wives will be raped."Isaiah
13:16 (http://bibreI.hebtools.com/?book÷°20Isaiah&verse÷13:16&src÷NLT)
War rapes are rapes committed by soldiers, other combatants or civilians during armed conIlict or war,
or during military occupation, distinguished Irom sexual assaults and rape committed amongst troops in
military service. It also covers the situation where women are Iorced into prostitution or sexual slavery
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"Benn and Hi Shae of he
Spoil", by Paul Jamin, 1893.
by an occupying power. During World War II the Japanese
military established brothels Iilled with "comIort women", girls
and women who were Iorced into sexual slavery Ior soldiers,
exploiting women Ior the purpose oI creating access and
entitlement Ior men.
|47|

|48||49|
Another example oI violence against women incited by militarism
during war took place in the Kovno Ghetto. Jewish male
prisoners had access to (and used) Jewish women Iorced into
camp brothels by the Nazis, who also used them.
|50|
Rape was committed during the Bangladesh Liberation War by
members oI the Pakistani military and the militias that supported
them. Over a period oI nine months, hundreds oI thousands oI
women were raped. Susan Brownmiller, in her report on the
atrocities, said that girls Irom the age oI eight to grandmothers oI
seventy-Iive suIIered attacks. (See also: Rape during the
Bangladesh Liberation War)
Rape used as a weapon oI war was practiced during the Bosnian
War where rape was used as a highly systematized instrument oI war by Serb armed Iorces predominantly
targeting women and girls oI the Bosniak ethnic group Ior physical and moral destruction. Estimates oI the
number oI women raped during the war range Irom 50,000 to 60,000; as oI 2010 only 12 cases have been
prosecuted.
|51|
(See also Rape during the Bosnian War).
The 1998 International Criminal Tribunal Ior Rwanda recognized rape as a war crime. Presiding judge
Navanethem Pillay said in a statement aIter the verdict: "From time immemorial, rape has been regarded
as spoils oI war. Now it will be considered a war crime. We want to send out a strong message that rape
is no longer a trophy oI war."
|52|
(See also: Rwandan Genocide)
In 2006, Iive U.S. troops Irom a six-man unit gang raped and killed a 14-year-old girl in a village near the
town oI Al-Mahmudiyah, Iraq. AIter the rape the girl was shot in her head and the lower part oI her body,
Irom her stomach down to her Ieet, was set on Iire.
|53||54|
(See also: Mahmudiyah killings)
A 1995 study oI Iemale war veterans Iound that 90 percent had been sexually harassed. A 2003 survey
Iound that 30 percent oI Iemale vets said they were raped in the military and a 2004 study oI veterans who
were seeking help Ior post-traumatic stress disorder Iound that 71 percent oI the women said they were
sexually assaulted or raped while serving.
|55|
Violence in empowerment sstems
When police oIIicers misuse their power as agents oI the state to physically and sexually harass and
assault victims, the survivors, including women, Ieel much less able to report the violence.
|56|
It is
standard procedure Ior police to Iorce entry into the victim's home even aIter the victim's numerous
requests Ior them to go away.
|57|
Government agencies oIten disregard the victim's right to Ireedom oI
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association with their perpetrator.
[58]
Shelter workers are often reduced themselves to contributing to
violence against women by exploiting their vulnerability in exchange for a paying job.
[59]
Human rights violations perpetrated by police and military personnel in many countries are correlated
with decreased access to public health services and increased practices of risky behavior among
members of vulnerable groups, such as women and female sex workers.
[60]
These practices are
especially wide-spread in settings with a weak rule of law and low levels of police and military
management and professionalism. Police abuse in this context has been linked to a wide range of risky
behaviors and health outcomes, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and substance
abuse.
[60][61][62][63][64][65][66]
Extortion of sexual services and police sexual abuse have been linked to
a decrease in condom use and a elevated risk of STI and HIV infections among vulnerable groups.
[60][67]
Gender-based violence b male college athletes
Violence against women is a topic of concern in the United States' collegiate athletic community. From
the 2010 UVA lacrosse murder, in which a male athlete was charged guilty with second degree murder of
his girlfriend, to the 2004 University of Colorado Football Scandal when players were charged with nine
alleged sexual assaults,
[68]
studies suggest that athletes are at higher risk for committing sexual assault
against women than the average student.
[69][70]
It is reported that one in three college assaults are
committed by athletes.
[71]
Surveys suggest that male student athletes who represent 3.3% of the college
population, commit 19% of reported sexual assaults and 35% of domestic violence.
[72]
The theories that
surround these statistics range from misrepresentation of the student-athlete to an unhealthy mentality
towards women within the team itself.
[71]
Controvers over contributing factors
Sociologist Timothy Curry, after conducting an observational analysis of two big time sports locker
room conversations, deduced that the high risk of male student athletes for gender abuse is a result of the
teams subculture.
[73]
He states, "Their locker room talk generally treated women as objects, encouraged
sexist attitudes toward women and, in its extreme, promoted rape culture."
[73]
He proposes that this
objectification is a way for the male to reaffirm his heterosexual status and hyper-masculinity. Claims
have been made that the atmosphere changes when an outsider (especially women) intrude in the locker
room. In the wake of the reporter Lisa Olson being harassed by a Patriots player in the locker room in
1990, she reflected, "We are taught to think we must have done something wrong and it took me a while to
realize I hadn't done anything wrong."
[74]
Other female sports reporters (college and professional) have
claimed that they often brush off the players' comments which leads to further objectification.
[74]
Other
sociologists challenge this claim. Steve Chandler notes that because of their celebrity status on campus,
“athletes are more likely to be scrutinized or falsely accused than non-athletes.”
[70]
Another contender,
Stephanie Mak, notes that, “if one considers the 1998 estimates that about three million women were
battered and almost one million raped, the proportion of incidences that involve athletes in comparison to
the regular population is relatively small."
[71]
Response to violence b male college athletes
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In response to the proposed link between college athletes and gender-based violence, and media
coverage holding Universities as responsible Ior these scandals more universities are requiring athletes
to attend workshops that promote awareness. For example, St. John's University holds sexual assault
awareness classes in the Iall Ior its incoming student athletes.
|75|
Other groups, such as the National
Coalition Against Violent Athletes, have Iormed to provide support Ior the victims as their mission
statement reads, "The NCAVA works to eliminate oII the Iield violence by athletes through the
implementation oI prevention methods that recognize and promote the positive leadership potential oI
athletes within their communities. In order to eliminate violence, the NCAVA is dedicated to empowering
individuals aIIected by athlete violence through comprehensive services including advocacy, education
and counseling."
|76|
Actiism
Many activists believe that working towards the elimination oI domestic violence means working to
eliminate a societal hierarchy enIorced through sexism. INCITE! Women oI Color Against Violence cited
racism within the anti-violence movement and suggest that violence against women will not end until the
anti-violence movement re-directs its goal Irom "ending violence against women" to "ending violence
against women oI color."
|77|
The same conclusion can be drawn Ior other systems oI oppression. Shows
red card to abuser (Spanish: Saca arjea roja al malraador) is a campaign against domestic violence
launched by the Spanish Ministry oI Equality that has the support oI many Iamous artists, journalists and
athletes.
|78|
It is considered very eIIective in helping "to abandon complicity and take a step in Iavour oI
justice."
|79|
See also
Acid attack
Bride burning
Domestic violence
Eve teasing
Female genital mutilation
Human traIIicking
InIibulation
Military sexual trauma
Murder oI pregnant women
Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence
Sexual assault in the U.S. military
Sexual slavery
Violence Against Women Act
Violence against men
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First, M.B., Bell, C.C., Cuthbert, B., Krystal, J.H., Malison, R., Offord, D.R., Riess, D., Shea, T.,
Widiger, T., Wisner, K.L., Personality Disorders and Relational Disorders, p.166, Chapter 4 of Kupfer,
D.J., First, M.B., & Regier, D.A. A Research Agenda For DSM-V (http://appi.org/book.cfm?id=2292).
Published by American Psychiatric Association (2002)
44. ^

First, M.B., Bell, C.C., Cuthbert, B., Krystal, J.H., Malison, R., Offord, D.R., Riess, D., Shea, T.,
Widiger, T., Wisner, K.L., Personality Disorders and Relational Disorders, p.167,168 Chapter 4 of Kupfer,
D.J., First, M.B., & Regier, D.A. A Research Agenda For DSM-V (http://appi.org/book.cfm?id=2292).
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Further reading
Durham, Meenakshi G. (February 2013). ""Vicious assault shakes Teas ton": the politics of
gender violence in The New York Times' coverage of a schoolgirl's gang rape"
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2012.657907). Journalism Studies (Taylor & Francis
Online) 14 (1): 112. doi:10.1080/1461670X.2012.657907
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F1461670X.2012.657907).
Eternal links
Violence against women
(http://www.dmoz.org/Society/People/Women/Issues/Violence_and_Abuse/) at the Open
Directory Project
Violence against women (http://www.echr.coe.int/NR/rdonlyres/39C38938-2E29-4151-9280-
D5AC063DD02E/0/FICHES_Violence_femmes_EN.pdf), a factsheet on ECtHR case law
Virtual Knowledge Centre to End Violence against Women and Girls
(http://www.endvawnow.org/) (in English, French, and Spanish)
UN Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences
(http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Women/SRWomen/Pages/SRWomenIndex.aspx)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?
title=Violence_against_women&oldid=572261965"
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