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Cross Section Analysis Software for Structural Engineers

Beginning Level - Example 1

Copyright 2000 ZEvent All Rights Reserved

This beginning level Example is meant for the first time user of UCFyber. This example will demonstrate some of the most basic features in UCFyber while creating a rectangular section of reinforced concrete. Key features to demonstrate are:
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Starting a new project Creating basic material models Building a section Performing a Moment Curvature analysis Use of Section and Analysis Reports Graphing Data

Getting Started
Launch UCFyber from the Start Menu. On the introduction Splash Screen, click I Accept. To begin a new project, click on the New Project button located in the main toolbar. The following form will show:

Enter the project information then click Next. The only box that must be filled out is the New Project Title. The information input here is carried thoughout the project. The information put in the Project Description box is saved with the project and is for your reference only. This information also appears later on the Header of all generated reports.

After you click Next the following will appear:

Input the Name of your Cross Section this cannot easily be changed later. Select the system units you prefer for the project. The unit system can be changed at anytime (both locally within each form, and globally for the entire project). Select the first material model to enter. UCFyber allows the input of as many material models as desired, here you are only prompted for the first one. For this example, we will use the defaults.
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Section Name: - Section1 Select Units: - kip-in Select Material Type: - Confined Concrete

Click Begin UCFyber to start the project.

After clicking Begin UCFyber, you will notice the background screen color turns gray. That is the Section Builder the space where you will build the section. In front view, the dialog window for Mander Confined Concrete is seen. This is a typical material model entry form. In the form, input the following data:

As the mouse is moved over the text boxes, further descriptions of the each input is shown below in the status bar next to the Units drop down box. The local units can be changed here by selecting the desired units form the Units drop down box. For this example the following data was selected:
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28 Day Compressive Strength: - 4 ksi Tension Strength: 0 ksi Confined Concrete Strength (fcc): - 4 * 1.3 = 5.2 ksi (typical lower bound if cross section follows current code). Crushing Strain (cu): - .015 (Again, typical lower bound for current code details). Concrete Elastic Modulus: Click the next to the concrete elastic modulus text box. This automatically caluclates the values using the ACI formula for normal weight concrete.

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After the values have been entered, click View to see if the model makes since.

You should now see the following:

As you move the mouse over the graph, the stress strain value at the location of the mouse is shown in the forms units as specified in the status bar. To see what the different input parameters do to the model, change the parameters, then click view. For this example, lets keep what we have above. When your ready, click Apply. This records the model for the project. Close the Mander Confined Concrete window with the x in the top right corner. Once you have closed the form, you will see the Project Manager box appear in the top right side of the screen.

The Project Manager is the hub for all data, analysis, sections, graphs, for the project. Click the + sign to the left of the Materials folder. You will see the concrete model you have entered called Confined1. To see the model double click the icon. The material model is shown.

Now, we need to add a couple more material models. First, lets add the unconfined concrete. Right click on the Materials folder in the Project Manager and select Mander Unconfined Concrete.

The Unconfined Concrete model form should now be showing. Enter the following data and click Apply:

Again, for automatic calculation of Elastic Modulus, click the button. Because our section will be comprised of both confined and unconfined concrete (for the cover), in the Failure Strain box enter 1. The strain entered is a condition that the programs check to terminate analysis. If you want the cover to spall off without terminating the moment curvature, then set it to 1 ( or a high enough strain). If you are running an analysis on a section with only unconfined confined concrete, set this value equal to the Crushing Strain. Click the x in the top right corner to close the model window. From the main toolbar click the model window. icon. This will show the Bilinear Steel with Strain Hardening material

In the Steel Standard and Grade drop down box select A615 Grade 70. Then click Apply to add it the projects list of materials. Click the x in the corner to close the window. Now that all the material models used in this project are in place, the cross section can be built.

Building the Cross Section

UCFyber offers the versatility to build any and as many shapes the user can think of. For starters, we will build a simple rectangular cross section. From the main tool bar, click the Section Builder Tools appear: icon. You should see the following toolbar window

From the Section Builder Tools toolbar, select Enter By Coordinates . In UCFyber, points can be mouse clicked in on the drawing window (the builder) or they can be entered in by coordinates. In the following box enter 0,0 then click Apply:

Next, enter (30,0) click Apply. Then (30, 30) click Apply, (0,30) click Apply, then back to (0,0) click Apply. Once the shape has been closed, the Discretizer window will appear:

Enter the information as shown above, then click Discretize/Overlay. You will see the section you build in background discretized to your specifications. Click the x in the corner to close or the Close button. Now we again to turn off the Enter by will make a hole in section. This time with the mouse. Click the Coordinates. Then, by reading the coordinates in the bottom of the main screen, click on the following coordinates:
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(8,8) (22,8) (22,22) (8,22) (8,8)

The discretizer will reappear; enter the following information:

Here we have selected Delete as the section material, and Unconfined1 as the cover. Discretize/Overlay then Close.



The section should look as following:

Now the section is built, the reinforcing bars need to be added:


Add Reinforcing Bars

Bars can be added from the mouse, by the Enter by Coordinates method, or by Bar Generation. We will add the bars by generation. Click the dialog will show: icon from the Section Builder Tools toolbar window. The following

Select the above options. If you close the Rebar Characteristics form, you will be put back into Draw Shape mode so as long as you are adding reinforcing bars, this window needs to stay open. Now that you are in the Add Bars as seen by the added. icon on the Section Builder Tools toolbar window, the longitudinal bars can be

Click on the section at (2,2) then (28,2). You should see 5 bars generated. Continue clicking the following points:
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(28,2) (28,28) (28,28) (2,28) (2,28) (2,2)


Now we will change the Snap to .5 inches instead on 1 inch in order to click on the interior bars to add. Click the word Snap at the bottom left corner of the main window - The Options form will appear.

In the Snap to Distance box, enter .5. Click Apply, then the x in the top right corner. Now change the number of bars in the Rebar Characteristics dialog window to 3 and click the Running Generation Mode box. Then, click on the following locations:
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(7.5,7.5) (22.5,7.5) (22.5,22.5) (7.5,22.5) (7.5,7.5)

Now, close the Rebar Characteristics dialog window by clicking the x in the top left corner.


The section should look as following:


Moment Curvature Analysis

With the section built, it is ready to be analyzed. Form the title bar, click Loading|Moment Curvature. For the first analysis, we will run the section bending about the x-x axis with an axial load of 200 kips. In the Moment Curvature Loading dialog box, enter the following information, then click Apply.

Click the x in the top right corner to close this form. Then, from the title bar click Process|Run Analysis. What is showing on the screen is a color coded state of the section at every load step according to the following codes:
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Blue (Concrete) Compression White (Concrete) Unconfined Concrete Post Crushing Black (Steel) Non-yielded Reinforcing Bars Yellow (Steel) Yielded Bars before Strain Hardening Green (Steel) Yielded Bars after Strain Hardening

On the right, are the graphical results of the analysis throughout the processing plotted in the global units. After the analysis is complete. Click the x in the top right corner of the Section1 with x-x Moment Loading window.


UCFyber Output
To see the Analysis Report double click the following icon in the project manager:

To include the analysis data in the report click the Include Analysis Data check box in the Analysis Report form toolbar. In any of the UCFyber generated reports, any of the grayed text can be edited. If you have general comments to include with the loading, type them in the User Comments section of the form. If nothing is typed under User Comments, then the User Comments header is not printed in the Analysis Report. To view the Section Report, double click the Section Report icon in the Project Manager. To see the material models in detail and print them, double click the Material Report icon in the Materials folder of the Project Manager. To see individual data groups (i.e. curvature about the x axis), open the Section Output folder and double click the data icon next to Curvature about the x axis. To see more data, just click on the particular data you would like to see. To graphically view any of the data recorded by UCFyber, we will need to add a graph to the Project. Right click the Data Graphs folder in the Project Manager and click Add Graph. Then, double the graph icon next to Graph.


The following Data Graph form will show:

For the Graph Name, enter Moment Curvature. Under X-Axis Data to Add: select Curvature about the XAxis. Under Y-Axis Data to Add: select Moments about the X-Axis. Then, click Add Plot to see the data plotted. As the mouse is passed over each data point, all other significant recorded data is shown in the table to the left. Any data from any loading, of any section, can be plotted together in the Data Graph form. When your ready to print select Options|Print Graph.