Contents

Introduction ...................................................................

vii

1. A Problem Solving Technique ...............................

1

Observations from Distribution Terminal Tank Records ........

3

Cause of the Problem ...........................................................

4

2. Refining Processes Used in Fuel Production ......

5

A. Distillation ........................................................................

5

B. Thermal Cracking .............................................................

9

C. Visbreaking ......................................................................

10

D. Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) .........................................

10

E. Hydrotreating or Hydroprocessing ....................................

17

F. Catalytic Hydrocracking ...................................................

18

G. Isomerization ...................................................................

19

H. Catalytic Polymerization ...................................................

19

I. Catalytic Reforming ..........................................................

20

J. Alkylatlon .........................................................................

22

K. Coking .............................................................................

23

L. Finishing Processes .........................................................

25

3. Critical Properties of Crude Oil and Common
Hydrocarbon Fuels .................................................

31

A. Crude Oil .........................................................................

31

B. Automotive Gasoline ........................................................

39

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Contents

C. Aviation Gasoline .............................................................

47

D. Jet Fuel or Aviation Turbine Fuel .....................................

50

E. Diesel Fuel and Fuel Oil ...................................................

54

F. Marine Fuels ....................................................................

61

G. Burner Fuels ....................................................................

64

H. Residual Fuel Oil ..............................................................

66

4. Common Sources of Fuel Performance
Problems .................................................................

71

A. Environmental Sources ....................................................

71

B. Wax in Petroleum Products ..............................................

85

C. Low Volatility ....................................................................

94

D. Diesel Fuel Cetane Number and Cetane Index
Determinations .................................................................

96

E. Hydroperoxides and Olefins ............................................. 101
F. Microorganisms, Sediment, and Water ............................ 105

5. Utilizing Physical and Chemical Property
Measurements to Identify Sources of Fuel
Problems ................................................................. 111
A. High Viscosity .................................................................. 111
B. Low Viscosity ................................................................... 114
C. High Sulfur Content .......................................................... 116
D. High Aromatic Content ..................................................... 120
E. High Paraffin Content ....................................................... 125
F. Low Flash Point ............................................................... 130
G. High Carbon Values for Micro Method, Conradson,
and Ramsbottom Carbon Number Determinations ........... 131
H. Distillation Profile ............................................................. 133

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Contents

vii

6. Solving Fuel Problems by Using Chemical
Additives ................................................................. 137
A. Antioxidants ..................................................................... 137
B. Distillate Fuel Stabilizers .................................................. 140
C. Demulsifiers and Dehazers .............................................. 143
D. Microbiocides ................................................................... 146
E. Wax Crystal Modifiers ...................................................... 149
F. Corrosion Inhibitors .......................................................... 152
G. Fuel Sweetening Additives ............................................... 160
H. Cetane Improver .............................................................. 160
I. Detergents and Dispersants ............................................. 161
J. Lubricity Improver ............................................................ 165
K. Problems Related to Fuel Additives ................................. 168

7. Test Methods Used to Identify and Solve Fuel
Problems ................................................................. 175
A. Common Test Methods Used to Determine the
Oxidative Stability of Fuel ................................................. 175
B. Testing the Copper Corrosion Properties of Fuel ............. 181
C. Common Test Methods Used to Determine the
Ferrous Metal Corrosion Properties of Fuel ...................... 182
D. Common Test Methods Used to Determine the
Emulsion Tendencies of Fuel ........................................... 183
E. Common Test Methods Used to Determine the LowTemperature Performance of Fuel ................................... 188
F. Fuel Cetane Engine Number Testing ............................... 195
G. Hydrogen Sulfide Determination in Fuel ........................... 196
H. Additional Analytical Tests Used to Solve Fuel
Problems ......................................................................... 198

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Contents

8. Identifying and Solving Specific Fuel
Problems ................................................................. 201
Problem: Difficulty in Pumping Diesel Fuel at Low
Temperatures / Fuel Filter Plugging ...................... 201
Problem: Increase in Pour Point of Residual Fuel Oil or
Crude Oil After Heating or Shearing ..................... 203
Problem: Reversion and Actual Increase in the Pour
Point of a Crude Oil or Residual Fuel Oil .............. 204
Problem: Poor Combustion Quality / Fuel Economy /
Power of Diesel Fuel ............................................. 205
Problem: Poor Flame Quality of Kerosene ........................... 206
Problem: Diesel Fuel Darkens in Color and Sediment
Forms ................................................................... 207
Problem: Rusting Is Identified on Metal Components ........... 209
Problem: Ferrous Metal Corrosion Inhibitor Fails to
Prevent Rusting of Metal Components ................. 210
Problem: Haze or Emulsion Is Found in Fuel ....................... 212
Problem: Jet Fuel Fails “WSIM” Test ................................... 213
Problem: Jet Fuel Fails “JFTOT” .......................................... 214
Problem: Jet Fuel Fails Particulate Contamination Test ....... 215
Problem: Fuel Corrodes Copper, Bronze, or Brass
Components ......................................................... 216
Problem: Hydrogen Sulfide in Fuel ...................................... 217

9. Components of Fuel and Fuel Additive
Storage and Injection Systems ............................. 219
A. Metals .............................................................................. 219
B. Plastics and Elastomers ................................................... 229
C. Chemical Storage and Injection Equipment ...................... 230
D. Vehicle Fuel Tanks .......................................................... 237
E. Diesel Fuel Filters ............................................................ 237
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Contents

ix

F. Diesel Fuel Injection Pumps ............................................. 238

10. Safe Shipping and Hazard Information for
Common Fuels, Oils, and Solvents ....................... 241
A. Hazardous Material Shipping Guidelines ......................... 241
B. Hazard Information for Common Fuels and Refined
Products .......................................................................... 246
C. Hazard Class Descriptions ............................................... 250

11. Fuel Performance Property and Problem
Solving Guide ......................................................... 253
1. High Viscosity .................................................................. 253
2. Deposit Analysis .............................................................. 262

12. Synthetic and Alternative Fuels ............................ 271
A. Coal ................................................................................. 271
B. Biomass ........................................................................... 277
C. Synthesis Gas to Methanol .............................................. 287
D. Oil Shale .......................................................................... 289
E. Tar Sands or Oil Sands .................................................... 291
F. Properties and Performance of Alternative Fuels ............. 295

References .................................................................... 309
Appendices ................................................................... 321
Appendix 1. Heat of Combustion of Fuels Approximate BTU-Gravity Relation .................. 321
Appendix 2. Factors for Converting Volumes to 60°F ........... 322
Appendix 3. Reduction of Observed API Gravity to API
Gravity at 60°F ................................................. 327
Appendix 4. Galvanic Series of Metals and Metal
Alloys ............................................................... 333
Appendix 5. Composition of Synthetic Sea Water
Utilized in ASTM D-665-B ................................ 334
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Contents
Appendix 6. Factors and Metal Densities Needed to
Obtain ipy and mdd Corrosion Rates ............... 335
Appendix 7. Compatibility of Various Materials with
Common Fuels and Solvents ........................... 336
Appendix 8. Nomograph for Calculation of Cetane
Improver Treatment from CI-0801
Additions .......................................................... 337
Appendix 9. Estimated Number of Alternative-Fueled
Vehicles in Use in the United States, by
Fuel, 1992-2001 ............................................... 338

Useful Terms and Definitions ...................................... 339
Useful Calculations, Conversions, and
Equations ................................................................ 359
Index .............................................................................. 361

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