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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING VOCABULARY USING

HYPHONYMY GAMES
(A Quasi Experimental Study at the First Grade of MTs Daarul Hikmah Pamulang
Academic Year 2009/2010)
A skripsi
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training in a Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of S. Pd. in English Education






By:
Lilis Sulistyowati
205014000367





ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHER TRAINING
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
JAKARTA
1431 H/ 2010 M
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING VOCABULARY USING
HYPHONYMY GAMES
(A Quasi Experimental Study at the First Grade of MTs Daarul Hikmah Pamulang
Academic Year 2009/2010)
A skripsi
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training in a Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of S. Pd. in English Education






By:
Lilis Sulistyowati
205014000367





ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHER TRAINING
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
JAKARTA
1431 H/ 2010 M

THE LEGALIZATION OF EXAMINATION COMMITTEE
This Skripsi titled THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING VOCABULARY
USING HYPONYMY GAMES (A Quasi Experimental Study at the First Grade of MTs.
Daarul Hikmah Academic year 2009-2010) was examined on session the Faculty of Tarbiya
and Teachers Training State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah J akarta on Thursday,
December 8
th
, 2010. This skripsi fulfilled the requirement for the Degree of Strata (SI) at the
English Department.

J akarta, December 8
th
, 2010

EXAMINATION COMMITTEE
CHAIRMAN : Drs. Syauki , M.Pd ( )
NIP. 196412121991031002

SECRETARY : Neneng Sunengsih, S. Pd. ( )
NIP. 197306251999032001

EXAMINER : 1. Dr. M. Farhan, M. Pd ( )
NIP. 196509192000031002

2. Dr. Fahriany. M. Pd ( )
NIP. 197006111991012001



Acknowledged by:
Dean of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training Faculty





Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada, MA
NIP. 195710051987031003


ii

ABSTRACT

Lilis Sulistyowati. 2010. The Effectiveness of Teaching Vocabulary Using
Hyponymy (A Quasi Experimental Study at the First Grade of Mts. Daarul
Hikmah Pamulang Academic Year 2009/2010). A skripsi Presented to the
Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training in a Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of S. Pd. in English Education Syarif
Hidayatullah State Islamic University J akarta. Advisor: Drs. A. M Zaenuri
M.Pd.

Key words: Vocabulary, Hyponymy, Games

The purpose of this study is to find the effectiveness of hyponymy games
in teaching English vocabulary at first grade at MTs. Daarul Hikmah, Pamulang.
This technique can improve and increase students ability to learn the target
language and make them enjoy in the teaching learning process. It supposes to
motivate students to learn English actively by using hyponymy games. Students
also are encouraged to get long memorizing of the words and their meaning.

The method that is used in this research is the quasi experimental method
by using t-test, to find out the significant difference between recent technique and
hyponymy games technique through the score pre-test and post-test.

The result of analysis in the research showed that teaching vocabulary by
using hyponymy games adequate success. Hyponymy games is effective, so it can
be used as an alternative method in teaching vocabulary based on the result of
gained post-test students achievement at the First Grade of MTs. Daarul Hikmah
Pamulang Academic year 2009-2010.


















iii

ABSTRAK

Lilis Sulistyowati. 2010. Mengajarkan kosakata dengan menggunakan metode
Hyponymy Games (Percobaan di kelas satu Mts. Daarul Hikmah tahun
ajaran 2009/2010). Skripsi, Fakultas Tarbiyah dan Keguruan memenuhi
untuk Melengkapi Sebagian Persyaratan Memperoleh gelar Sarjana
Pedidikan. Pembimbing Drs. A. M Zaenuri M.Pd.

Kata kunci : Kosakata, Hyponymy, Permainan

Tujuan penulisan skripsi untuk menemukan efektivitas game hyponymy
dalam mengajar kosa kata dalam bahasa Inggris di kelas satu MTs. Daarul
Hikmah, Pamulang. Teknik ini dapat meningkatkan kemampuan siswa untuk
belajar bahasa target dan membuat mereka menikmati proses belajar mengajar.
Teknik ini diharapkan dapat memotivasi siswa untuk lebih aktif. Siswa juga
didorong untuk lebih mampu mengingat lebih lama kosakata dan artinya.

Metoda yang digunakan dalam riset ini adalah metode experimen semu
dengan menggunakan test-t, untuk menemukan perbedaan yang penting antara
tehnik yang terdahulu dengan tehnik hyponymy game melalui skor pre-test dan
post-test.

Hasil dari analisa dalam penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa mengajar kosa
kata dengan menggunakan hyponymy game cukup sukses. Hyponymy game
cukup efektif, sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai suatu metode alternatif dalam
mengajar kosa kata berdasarkan pada hasil prestasi tes pada siswa kelas satu di
MTs. Daarul Hikmah Pamulang tahun ajaran 2009-2010.











iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the name of ALLAH, the beneficent, the merciful.

All praises be to Allah, the lord of the world, who always gives His mercy
and blessing upon the writer in completing this skripsi. Praying and greeting
always be upon His messenger, our prophet Muhammad SAW, his family and his
followers, who have spread Islam all over the world.
This skripsi is presented to English Department Faculty of Tarbiyah and
Teacher Training State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah J akarta as a partial
fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of strata-1 (S1).
This work could not be completed without a great deal of help from many
people, especially Drs. A. M Zaenuri, M.Pd, her advisor who always guides and
suggest the writer for making a skripsi, from the beginning until the end.
In this occasion, the writer would like to express the great honor, to her
beloved parents, who always give support and motivation to finish the skripsi.
The writer also would like to convey her sincerest gratitude and
acknowledgement to:
1. All lecturers at English Department, who have guided and given her
valuable knowledge and chances in finishing her study.
2. Drs. Syauki, M.Pd as the head of English Department.
3. Neneng Sunengsih, the Secretary of English Department
4. Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada, M.A, as the Dean of the Faculty of Tarbiya and
Teachers Training.
5. Hj. Sri Uswati as the Headmaster of, who has allowed her, doing research
of this skripsi at the institution she leads.
6. English teacher who had given the occupation and support to do the
research, the big family of Mts. Daarul Hikmah who have assisted in
collecting the data during the research.
7. Her beloved husband A. Wardiono, S.E and her son Gilang Adi Pramana
you are my motivators to finishing this skripsi I love you so much.
v

8. She also would like to express her thanks, great gratitude and appreciation
to her beloved parents Narto Wiyono and Siti, her beloved brother
(Suratno), beloved sisters (Almh. Dewi Setyorini) for their continuous
supports and encouragement to finish her study.
9. Her best friends Dwi, J uhay, Yongky, Nurul, Eza, Melly and for all of her
friends in A-B class thanks always accompanied her when her sadness and
happiness. Thanks for our togetherness, lovely time and deplorable
moment. I Miss you,
10. All her friends in English Department 05 who can not mentioned one by
one. Who gives nice experience and togetherness you are so amazing my
friend.
May Allah bless them for all of what they have done, because only Him
who knows how much contributions and motivations received by the writer, and
finally the writer hopes the constructive critics to make this skripsi better.


J akarta, 20 November 2010


The Writer











vi

TABLE OF CONTENT
ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................... ii
ACKNOWLEDGMENT .................................................................................... iv
TABLE OF CONTENT ..................................................................................... vi
LIST OF TABLE .............................................................................................. vii
LIST OF FIGURE.............................................................................................. viii
LIST OF APPENDIXES .................................................................................... ix
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. Background of theStudy ....................................................................... 1
B. Objective of the Study ........................................................................... 5
C. Scope of the Study ................................................................................. 5
D. Statement of the Problem ...................................................................... 5
E. The purpose of the study ........................................................................ 6

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
A. Theoretical Description .......................................................................... 7
A. Vocabulary ............................................................................. 7
1. General concept of vocabulary .......................................... 7
2. Definition of vocabulary.................................................... 7
3. Types of vocabulary .......................................................... 8
4. How to teach vocabulary ................................................... 10
B. Hyponymy .............................................................................. 17
1. Definition of hyponymy ................................................ 17
2. Games ........................................................................... 20
3. How to teach vocabulary using hyponymy games ......... 21
B. Conceptual Framework ............................................................. 26
C. Research Hypothesis ................................................................ 27
vii

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH
1. Place and Time of Research .................................................... 28
2. Research method .................................................................... 28
3. Technique of Data Collecting ................................................. 29
4. Technique of Data analysis ..................................................... 33

CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING
Research Findings ........................................................................ 35
1. Data Description .................................................................... 35
2. Hypothesis Testing ................................................................ 41
3. Data Interpretation ............................................................ . . 41

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion ................................................................................... 42
B. Suggestion .................................................................................... 43

BIBLIOGRAPHY













viii




LIST OF TABLE

Table 3.1 : The result of students pre-test ... 34
Table 3.2 : The result of the students post-test. 36
Table 3.3 : The result of the students English pre-test and post-test 37
















ix

LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 2.1: Knowing a word ...................................................................12
Figure 2.2 : Example of hyponymy .........................................................18
Figure 2.3: Hyponyms and super ordinates ............................................. 19
Figure 2.4: Example of hyponymy ..........................................................20
Figure 2.5: Example of hyponymy ..........................................................21
Figure 2.6: Sun ray effect ........................................................................22
Figure 2.7: Example of hyponymy test ....................................................24
Figure 2.8: Games for language learning.. 26












x

LIST OF APPENDIXES
1. Lesson Planning : Hyponymy Games ........................................... 46
2. The instrument of the test ........................................................ 50
3. Answer Key ............................................................................ 54
4. Kisi-kisi soal ............................................................................... 50
5. Validity test ............................................................................. .. 56
6. Reliability test ......................................................................... .. 59














xi












1








CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study
Language which is a means of human communication consists of words
that have structure which is used together by a particular community or country in
conventional way. As the system of communication, it is used to express thought
by one person to another person. Gonzalez said that, Language are more than
skills; they are the medium through which communities of people engage with,
make sense of and shape the world.
1
Accordingly, language is an effective tool to
get communication, interaction, and information about other people, society and
other groups.
Language helps us to understand ourselves and the world around us.
Zaenuri says that Language helps you to understand yourself and the world
around you.
2
Without language, people will be easy getting confused with
another. Therefore, language is the most important for human live.

1
Alison Philips and Mike Gonzalez, Modern Language- Learning and Teaching in an
Intercultural Field, (London: Sage Publications, 2004), p. 2

2
A.M Zaenuri, English Vocabulary I, Revised Edition ,( Jakarta : unpublished, 2001), p.
9

2
Whenever we think about language, we usually think of mastering
vocabulary. It means whenever we use language otomactly we use the words of
the language. So, it is crucial for us to have large of vocabulary. By having large
vocabulary, we can precisely open our ideas in communication. It also helps us
travel in the past, present, and future.
It is important to master all of vocabularies in language. Mastering
vocabulary means that we know all the words in the language which we use.
Although, in fact, there is nobody can master all of words in language either
native or foreign language. Yet someone who creates dictionaries can not do it
either.
Schmitt and Mc. Carthey say that Vocabulary is one of important skills in
language.
3
We use words and arrange them together to make sentence,
conversations, and discourse all things. We cannot express our ideas if we do not
master it. Then, Harmer said An ability to manipulate grammatical structure does
not have any potential for expressing meaning unless words are used.
4

Furthermore, Rivers in Nunan has also argued that The acquisition of an
adequate vocabulary is essential for successful second language use because,
without an extensive vocabulary, we will be unable to use the structures and the
functions we may have learned for comprehensible communication.
5
So, no
matter how well we master grammar, no matter how successfully the sounds of a
foreign language is mastered, without words to express, communication cant
happen in meaningful ways.
There are many reasons for people to study language. Harmer concluded
there are six reasons, such as target language community, ESP, school
curriculum, culture, advancement, miscellaneous.
6


3
Nobert Schmitt and Michael Mc. Carthey, Vocabulary in Language Teaching, (New
York: Cambrigde University Press, 1997), p.40

4
Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching (London : Longman
Group, 2001) , p. 153

5
David Nunan, Language Teaching Methodology (London: Prentice Hall International,
1991) , p. 117
6
Jeremy Harmer, ibid, pp. 1-2
3
For Indonesian students, they have to study English language besides
Indonesian language as the foreign language. Thus, English is the main
subject in curriculum which should be learnt from secondary level up to
university. Although in general, English is still considered as a difficult
subject for the students because it is completely different from Indonesian
language in the system of structure, pronunciation and vocabulary. The
Indonesian government has also shown its attention in the 2004 English
curriculum.
Mata pelajaran bahasa Inggris bertujuan mengembangkan kemampuan
berkomunikasi dalam bahasa tersebut, dalam bentuk lisan dan tulis.
Kemampuan berkomunikasi meliputi menyimak (listening), berbicara
(speaking), membaca (reading), dan menulis (writing).
7


According to the statement above, the aims of teaching English in
Indonesia are to develop the ability using English in many skills for example
listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Therefore, the English teachers are supposed to be able to organize
teaching learning activities. They may develop their students ability by using
English as a target language in the classroom. They may give practice in pattern
which contains the vocabulary items for everyday situations such as listening,
speaking, reading and writing. The best practice in any situation will depend on
the type of student, the words that are targeted, the school system and curriculum,
and many others factor.
8
The curriculum in Indonesia for example, said that
students in first grade of junior high school have to have 500 vocabularies.
9
So,
the teachers have to encourage students to master 500 vocabularies in first grade


7
Depdiknas, Kurikulum 2004 Standar Kompetensi SMP dan MTS (J akarta: Departemen
Pendidikan Nasional, 2003), p.14.

8
Nobert Schmitt, Vocabulary in Language Teaching, (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2000), p. 142

9
Depdiknas, Ibid, p. 5
4
of junior high school. But in fact, most of the students in Indonesia having
problems in lackness of vocabularies. Because of that, the students fell difficult to
follow the English classroom activities. Likewise, Nation said Learners feel that
many of their difficulties on both receptive and productive language use result
from an inadequate vocabulary.
10

Based on the fact above, it is necessary and important for anyone who
concerns in teaching English to find out the effective technique to make learning
vocabulary easier and more pleasant for the students. So, they will enjoy
following English class.
In the learning vocabulary process, students usually have problems in
absorbing the new vocabulary and their meaning. Michael J . Wallace argued
Another teaching problem arises with words which are in the same rough area of
meaning or semantic field.
11

To solve this problem, the writer gives an alternative technique for the
teachers to enrich students vocabulary that has connection with the area of
semantic field. Why? Channel in Hedge argued that Semantic links play an
important role in production. This suggests the use of semantic field based on
presentation method
12
So, the writer uses one of parts of semantic field to
teach vocabulary by using hyponymy. It likes synonymy (a word similar in
meaning) and antonym (a word opposite in meaning) using words relation to
explain the meaning of the target word. Murcia said A common way for teacher
to elucidate the meaning of a target word is to relate it to another word that the
students already know.
13
Hyponymy is one way to make a hierarchy link by
giving a word as a superordinate or general and some words as subordinate or


10
I.S.P. Nation, Teaching and Learning Vocabulary (Massachusetts: Heinle & Heinle
Publisers, 1990), p.2

11
Michael J. Wallace, Teaching Vocabulary (London: Biddles Ltd, Guilford and Kings
Lynn, 1989), p. 21

12
Tricia Hedge, Teaching and Learning in the Classroom (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2000), p. 122

13
Marianne Celce Murcia,Teaching English as a Second Language or Foreign
Language, Second Edition (Massachusetts: Heinle Publisher, 1991), p. 301
5
specific, such as, flower as a superordinate and rose, jasmine, orchid, etc.
as the subordinate. It is hoped to help the teachers to explain vocabulary items
easier by giving examples in the relation of a word with the other words. What a
word means is often defined by its relationship to other words.
14
Then, the
students will have description about the vocabulary items which are explained by
their teacher.
Finally, based on the background above, the writer would like to carry out
the research under title The Effectiveness of Teaching Vocabulary Using
Hyponymy Games.

B. Objective of the Study
The general objective of the study is to find out the effectiveness of using
hyponymy games in teaching vocabulary.

C. Scope of the Study
The scope of this writing is about the use of hyponymy games in order to
get understanding to the students about words and their meaning. Is the score of
the hyponymy games better for students to learn vocabulary?
The writer uses one class. Then, the writer compares the results of the pre-
test and post-tests that giving before and the last meeting.
To support the study, the writer used field research. In the field research
the writer conducted and an interview to the English teacher of the school. The
research is done at the first grade of MTs Daarul Hikmah Pamulang.

D. Statement of the Problem
In this time, the writer wants to state the problem of the research in the
result of the test that is given both of experiment class and the controlled class.
Does the effectiveness of using hyponymy games in teaching vocabulary increase
students ability to master vocabulary?


14
J eremy Harmer, Ibid, p. 17
6
E. Significance of the Study
Vocabulary is very important to improve our knowledge. It can be easier
to understand what the other people say, to find all of information in whatever we
read, and express our thought in speaking or writing by mastering large of
vocabularies.
As the English teachers, we are supposed to smart to select and use more
than one technique in order to make the lesson effective and enjoyable. Teaching
vocabulary is clearly more than presenting new words.
15
There are some ways to
make this process easier, funnier, and more interactive.
The result of the study is hoped to give input for the teacher that using
hyponymy games can be chosen as a technique in presenting new vocabulary.









15
J eremy Harmer, ibid, p. 159
7








CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A. THEORiTICAL DESCRIPTION
I. Vocabulary
1. General Concept of Vocabulary
In everyday situation, we say something, express our feelings and tell what
we want to say. All the things need the words, and these words are called
vocabulary.
Vocabulary plays an important role in improving our skills in English. It
becomes one of aspects for improving communication skill. Without having
enough vocabularies, communication will end up in unpleasant situation and
make the students difficult to continue their sentences or ideas.
Therefore it is highly essential for English teacher to help their students in
mastering vocabulary.

2. Definition of Vocabulary
We can find many definitions of vocabulary from some experts. But, the
writer only chooses several of them which are important to talk about.


8
In the Websters Dictionary, vocabulary is defined as follow:
1. A list of words and often phrases, abbreviation, inflectional form, etc.
usually arranged in alphabetical order and defined or otherwise
identified as in a dictionary of glossary.
2. An interrelated group of non verbal symbols, sign, a particular art,
skill, etc.
1


Murcia said that Vocabulary can be defined, roughly, as the words we
teach in the foreign language.
2

Read argued that Vocabulary has been defined in separated meaning such
as word.
3

Moreover, in another definition, Schmitt said We must consider what we
mean by vocabulary. The first idea that probably springs to mind is words, a
formulation that is admirably adequate for the layperson.
4
From the statements
above, it shows that vocabulary is English words that are related to the meaning of
the word and the way to use them in communication.

3. Types of Vocabulary
Many experts say that there are several types of vocabulary.
Nation has divided vocabulary in the specific reference such as word:
1. Receptive knowledge, involves knowing how to recognize the word when
it is heard or when it is seen, being able to distinguish it from word with a
similar form, being able to judge if the word form sounds right or looks
right, being able to recall its meaning when it is met, being able to see
which shade of meaning which most suitable for the context that it occurs
in, and being able to make a various associations with other related words.


1
Philip Babcov Gove, Websters Fourth Edition New International Dictionary
(Massachusetts: Massachusetts. G and C MeriamCompany, 1999), p.3060

2
Marianne Celce Murcia, Teaching English as a Second Language or Foreign Language,
Second Edition (Massachusetts: Heinle Publisher, 1991), p. 60

3
John Read, Assessing Vocabulary, (Cambrigde: Cambridge University Press, 2000),
p.25

4
Norbert Schimtt, Vocabulary in Language Teaching (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2000), p.1
9
2. Productive knowledge, involves knowing how to pronounce the word,
how to write and spell it, how to use it in correct grammatical patterns, and
using word to stand for the meaning it represents and being able to think of
suitable substitutes for the word if there are any.
5


Meanwhile Read stated vocabulary divided into two kinds, namely:
Function words and content words.
6


According to Cameron said that The words of a language split into two
groups according to how they are used to construct sentences. Content words are
those that carry a lexical meaning, even out of the context, whereas function
words seem to be mainly used to carry grammatical meaning.
7


Moreover, Harmer distinct vocabulary becomes two types. A distinction
is frequently made between active and passive vocabulary. The former refers
to vocabulary that students have been taught or learnt- and which they are
expected to be able to use whilst the latter refers to words which the students
will recognize when they meet them but which they will probably not be able to
produce.

Most of the early words will be constantly practiced and so can,
presumably, be considered as active. But at intermediate levels and above the
situation is rather more complicated. We can assume that students have a store of
words. But, a word that has been active through constant use may slip back into
the passive store if it is not use.
8







5
I.S.P. Nation, Teaching and Learning Vocabulary (New York: Heinle & Heinle
Publisers, 1990), p. 31-32 (paraphrase by the writer)

6
John Read, Assesing Vocabulary, (Cambrigde: Cambridge University Press, 2000), p.18

7
Lynne Cameron, Teaching Language to Young Learners, (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2001), p. 82

8
Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching (London : Longman
Group, 1983), p. 159

10

Furthermore, Schimtt concluded vocabulary into two parts. Being able to
understand a word is known as receptive knowledge and is normally connected
with listening and reading. If we are able to produce a word of our own accord
when speaking or writing, then that are considered productive knowledge (passive
and active are alternative term).
9

As well as the others, J o Ann Aebersold and Mary Lee field said
Vocabulary that readers recognize when they see it but do not use when they
speak or write is known as receptive vocabulary. Readers have general sense of a
words meaning but are not sure of its many meaning or nuances of meaning.
Productive vocabulary is the vocabulary that people actually use to speak or
write.
10

From the definitions above we can say that vocabulary is divided generally
into two categories, receptive and productive vocabulary. Knowing a word
includes being able to recall its meaning and see which shade of meaning is most
suitable for the context that occur in.

4. How to Teach Vocabulary
In this part, the writer will divide it into two. First, she will discuss what
students need to know about vocabulary and how to teach vocabulary.
A. What students need to know about vocabulary
Before we discuss how to teach vocabulary, first we are supposed to
understand about the concept of vocabulary known as word knowledge and what
students need to know about lexical system of English.
We know that teaching vocabulary is teaching words. It means teaching
about the form and how the words are used in the correct formation and syntax
which is used in spoken and written language.
1. Word Knowledge
We can now develop the comments that we made about vocabulary and
look at words in more detail.
11
The detail of vocabulary can be concluded
as knowing words that contains:


9
Nobert Schmitt and Michael Mc Carthey, ibid, p. 4

10
Jo Ann Aebersold and Mary Lee Field, From Reader to English Teacher (Cambrigde:
Cambrigde University Press, 1997), p.139


11
Jeremy Harmer, ibid, p. 156
11
a) Meaning
The first thing to realize about vocabulary items is that they frequently
have more than one meaning. The word book, for example, sometimes means
the kinds of thing we read but it can mean a number of other things.
And the other fact, sometimes words have meanings in relation. Thus
students need to know the meaning of vegetable as a word to describe any one
of other things- e.g. carrots, cabbages, potatoes, etc. Vegetable has a general
meaning whereas carrots is more specific.
b) Word Use
What a word means can be changed, stretched or limited by how it is used
and this is something students need to know about:
- word meaning is frequently stretched through the use of metaphor and
idiom.
- word meaning is also governed by collocation that is which words go
with each other.
- We often use words only in certain social and topical context. What we
say is governed by the style and register we are in.
c) Word Formation
Word formation, then, it means knowing how words are written and
spoken and knowing how they can change their form.
d) Word Grammar
Just as words change according to their grammatical meaning, the use of
certain words can trigger the use of certain grammatical pattern. For example, we
make a distinction between countable and uncountable nouns.







12
We can summarize Knowing a word as following way:

Meaning in context
Sense relation
Metaphor and idiom
Collocation
Style and register

Parts of speech
Prefixes and suffixes
Spelling and
pronunciation
Noun: countable and
uncountable, etc.
Verb complement
Adjectives and adverb

Figure 2.1: Knowing a word adapted from The Practice of Language
Teaching by Jeremy Harmer
12

Schmitt also said In addition, there is the practical matter of mastering
either the spoken or the written form of the word before it can be used in
communication. A person who has not thought about the matter may believe that
vocabulary knowledge consists of just these two facets- meaning and word form.
But the potential knowledge that can be known about a word is rich and complex.
Nation proposes the following list of the different kinds of knowledge that
a person must master in order to know a word:

12
Jeremy Harmer, ibid, p. 158
WORD
MEANING
WORD USE
WORD FORMATION
WORD GRAMMAR
13
The meaning(s) of the word
The written form of the word
The spoken form of the word
The grammatical behavior of the word
The collocation of the word
The register of the word
The associations of the word
The frequency of the word

These are known as word knowledge, and most of them are necessary
to be able to use a word in the wide variety of language situations one comes
across.
13
So, we have to give an understanding that knows words not only know
the form and the meaning but also many other factors that affect it.

2. What students need to know about lexical system of English
a) Denotative and connotative meaning
Denotative and connotative meanings are the first aspect of meaning that
concerns about the link between meaning and the world to which words refer. If a
word has reference to an object, action, or event in the physical world this can
describe as its referential or denotative meaning. As well as denotative meaning,
learners have to deal with the complexities of connotative meaning. This term
relates to the attitudes and emotions of a language user in choosing a word and the
influence of these on the listener or readers interpretation of the word.
Connotative meanings derive from a mix cultural, political, and historical source
and learners will be aware of this phenomenon in their own language. Notice, for
example, the effect of choosing the word smashed, similar in meaning to the
more neutral destroyed but with associations of shocking personal violence.
14





13
Nobert Schmitt and Michael Mc Carthey, Vocabulary in Language Teaching (New
York: Cambrigde University Press,1997), p. 5

14
Tricia Hedge, Teaching and Learning in the Classroom (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2000), p. 112-113 (paraphrased by the writer)
14
b) Meaning relations among words
The second aspects of the meaning involve the sense relations that exist
among words. It is divided into two parts, they are:
b.1. Syntagmatic relation
Syntagmatic relations are relations between words as they occur in
sequence for example the dog barked (not roared) or the sun shone (not
glowed). These are collocation.
b. 2. Paradigmatic relations
Words not only have sequential relationship, but exits in complex
relationship with other words in the language in a network of meaning. The most
common are synonymy, antonymy, and hyponymy.

Synonymy
A simple way of defining synonymy is to say that, in a given context, one linguist
item can be exchanged for another without changing the meaning of the sentence
or utterance. For example:
Depressed, what does this mean?...yes hes unhappy, hes sad, look at
the picturehesyesmiserable, hes depressed.

Antonymy
The term antonymy covers a number of relationships often thought of as
opposites for example, male and female, parent and child, and dead and
alive.

Hyponymy
Hyponymy is relationship whereby one word includes others within a
hierarchy, so that we have superordinate words and subordinates words for
example flower is superordinate word and carnation and rose being
subordinates hyponyms of flower and co-hyponyms of each other.
15


15
Tricia Hedge, ibid, p. 113-116 (paraphrased by the writer)
15
Another example, we can say that house is superordinate word and
kitchen, garage, dining room are subordinates hyponyms of house and living
room and bed room are co-hyponyms of each other.

2. How to teach vocabulary
There are many ways of teaching vocabulary and presenting the meaning
of the new items, such as follow:
- concise definition (as in dictionary; often superordinate with
qualifications, for example, a cat is an animal which.)
- detailed description (of appearance, qualities,)
- examples (hyponyms)
- illustration (picture, object)
- demonstration (acting, mime)
- context (story of sentences in which item occurs)
- synonyms
- opposites (antonyms)
- translation
- associated ideas, collocation
16


Meanwhile, Harmer said that There are many occasions when some
forms or presentations and/or explanation are the best way to bring new words
into the classroom. We will look some examples:
(a) Realia
One way of presenting words is to bring the things they represent into the
classroom- by bringing realia such as ruler, pen, ball, etc.
(b) Pictures
Bringing a pen into the classroom is not a problem. Bring a car in,
however, is. One solution is the use of pictures. Pictures can be drawings, wall
pictures and charts, flashcards and any other non-technical visual representation.
(c) Mime, action and gesture
It is often impossible to explain the meaning of words and grammar either
through the use of realia or in pictures. Actions, in particular, are probably better
explained by mime for example running or smoking.
(d) Contrast
We can present the meaning of empty by contrasting with full, cold
contrasting it with hot, big by small.
(d) Enumeration


16
Penny Ur, A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and Theory (New York:
Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 63
16
Another sense relation was that of general and specific words. We can use
this to present meaning. We can say clothes and explain this by enumerating or
listing various items. The same is true of vegetable or furniture, for example.
(e) Translation
Translation is a quick and easy way to present the meaning of words but it
is not without problem. In the first place it is not always easy to translate words,
and in the second place, even where translation is possible, it may make it a bit
too easy for students by discouraging them from interacting with the words.
17


As it has been mentioned above, many ways have been used to teach
vocabulary or new item of words. Furthermore, we will discuss about the
principles in vocabulary teaching. Sokmen in Schimtt said that there are several
key principles in teaching vocabulary, they are:
build a large sight vocabulary
integrate new words with old
provide a number of encounters with a word
promote a deep level of processing
facilitate imaging
make new words real by connecting them to the students new world in
some way
use a variety technique
encourage independent learning strategies.
18


Wallace also gave several principles to manage and to learn the target
vocabulary, such as:
Aims
First, the teacher has to be clear about his or her aims: how many of the
things listed does the teacher expect the learner to be able to do and with
which words are used.
Quantity
The teacher may have to decide on the quantity of the vocabulary to be
learnt. How many new words in a lesson can the learner learn?
Need
Control of the amount of vocabulary inevitably means choice as to specific
items to be taught.
Frequent exposure and repetition


17
Jeremy Harmer, ibid, p.161

18
Nobert Schmitt and Michael Mc Carthey, Vocabulary in Language Teaching (New
York: Cambrigde University Press,1997), pp. 146-147

17
There has to be amount of repetition until there is evidence that the student
has learned the target word.
Meaningful presentation
As well as the form of the word, the learners have a clear and specific
understanding of what it denotes or refers to.
Situation presentation
We saw that the choice of words can vary according to the situation in
which we are speaking, and according to how well we know the person to
whom we are speaking.
Presentation in context
Words very seldom occur in isolation. So from very beginning the word
must appear in its natural environment as it were, among the words it
normally collocates with.
Learning vocabulary in the mother tongue and in target language
We should pause and see how the principles which we have established so
far relate to the learning of vocabulary in the L1 (or mother tongue) and
L2 (target language).
Inferencing (guessing) procedures in vocabulary learning.
19


We know that there are many ways and principles for us to teach new
items of vocabulary. But, Schimtt argued that There is no right or best way
to teach vocabulary. The best practice in any situation will depend on the type of
student, the words are targeted, the school system and curriculum, and many
others factor.
20
So, we should selective on choosing the best technique to present
new vocabulary that suitable with condition of our students and the curriculum.

B. Hyponymy
1. Definition of Hyponymy
As we discuss in previous part, hyponymy is included in semantic
relations besides synonymy and antonym that can be used to present meaning.
When the meaning of one form is included in the meaning of another, the
relationship is described as hyponymy. When we consider hyponomous
connections, we are essentially looking at the meaning of words in some type of
hierarchical relationship.

19
Michael J. Wallace, Teaching Vocabulary (London: Biddles Ltd, Guilford and Kings
Lynn, 1989), pp. 31-32

20
Nobert Schmitt and Michael Mc Carthey, ibid, p. 142
18
For example:
living thing

creature plant


animal insect vegetable flower tree




dog horse snake ant cockroach carrot rose banyan pine


poodle asp

Figure 2.2 : (adapted from The Study of Language by Yule)
21


Looking at diagram, we can say that horse is a hyponym of animal or
cockroach is a hyponym of insect. In these two examples, animal and insect
are called the superordinate ( =higher level ) terms. We can also say that two or
more words that share the same superordinate term are co-hyponyms. So, dog and
horse are co-hyponyms and the superordinate term is animal.
22

Another linguist said that Hyponymy is a relationship whereby one word
includes others a hierarchy, so we have superordinate words and subordinate
words. So, flower, carnation, and rose are in hyponymous relationship,
carnation and rose being subordinate hyponyms of flower and co-hyponyms
of each other.
23


21
George Yule, The Study of Language Third Edition, ( New York: Cambrigde
University Press, 2006), p.105

22
George Yule, ibid, p.106

23
Tricia Hedge, ibid, p. 116

19
Barret gave another opinion about hyponymy. Hyponymy is the relation
between a subordinate term (e.g. cow) and a superordinate term (e.g. mammal ).
24

Harmer said that, Another relationship which defines the meaning of
words to each other is that of hyponymy, where words like banana, apple,
orange, lemon, etc. are all hyponyms of the superordinate fruit. And fruit itself is
a hyponym of other items which are members of the food family. We can express
this relationship in the following diagram:
25


Food



Meat fish fruit cereals



Banana apple orange lemon

Figure 2.3: Hyponyms and superordinates (adapted from The Practice of
English Language Teaching By Harmer)
26

Nation argued that The relationship between items in a hierarchy is called
hyponymy (tree is the hypernym, beech is the hyponym). Hypo- means under as
in hypodermic an injection under the skin.
27

Thornbury gave his opinion that Hyponym is another nym word that is
useful when talking about the way word meanings are related. A hyponymous
relationship is a kind of relationship, as in A hammer is a kind of tool or A kiwi is a

24
Martyn Barret, The Development of Language, (London: Psychology Press, 1999),
p.138

25
Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching (London : Longman
Group, 1983), p. 18
26
Jeremy Harmer, Ibid, p.25

27
I.S.P. Nation, Learning Vocabulary in Another Language, (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2001), p.53
20
kind of bird (and a kind of fruit). Thus, hammer is hyponym of tool; kiwi a
hyponym of bird (and fruit). Co-hyponyms share the same ranking in a hierarchy:
hammer, saw, screwdriver are all co- hyponyms; tool is the superordinate term.
But saw also has a superordinate relation to different kinds of saw: fretsaw,
chainsaw, jigsaw, etc.

We can illustrate these relations like these:

Tool

hammer screwdriver saw

fretsaw chainsaw jigsaw

Figure 2.4: (adapted from How to Teach Vocabulary by Thorbury)
28


From the explanation above, we know that the teachers job in this stage is
to present the students with the clear information about the language they are
learning. We can give the new ideas about new word by relating or connecting
those with the others word that make it happily and easily.

2.Games
Games are effective ways to encourage students to more active in the
teaching learning process. Beside that, games make the students to more creative
and make them interest in learning English.
Allen said that Games are helpful because they can make students feel
that certain words are important and necessary.
29
So, the aim of recommending
games for vocabulary learning is to create conditions which encourage vocabulary
expansion, and a well- chosen game can help the students acquire English words.



28
Scott Thorbury, How to Teach Vocabulary, (London: Longman, 2002), p. 10

29
Virginia French Allen, Techniques in Teaching Vocabulary,(Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1983), p. 52
21
3. How to Teach Vocabulary Using Hyponymy Games
The experiment suggests that in teaching new vocabulary, we begin with
giving example or connecting one word with other words that has relation. It is
suitable with Marianne Celce Murcia that said A common way for a teacher to
elucidate the meaning of a target word is to relate it to another word that the
students already know. Another useful word relation is that of lexical set. One can
facilitate the identification of an item by showing to what superordinate class of
items belongs.
30

Then, she gave an example; a rose belongs to the class of items
flower. Additionally, one can place the items against other items that are in the
same set; for example, gray belongs with black, blue, green, since it is
also a color.
We can conclude it in sketch below:
flower



rose orchid jasmine


or

gray



black blue green

Figure 2.5 : (is concluded by the writer that is taken from Teaching English as a
Second or Foreign by Murcia)
31

Tricia Hegde gave another way how to teach vocabulary using hyponymy.
She called it Building word network. She argued that Native speakers are


30
Marianne Celce Murcia, ibid, p. 301

31
Marianne Celce Murcia,ibid, p. 301

22
certainly able to cross-refer to synonyms, antonyms, and hyponyms and are able
to retrieve, very quickly, word with similar spelling or similar prefixes and
suffixes. It also seems to be the case (as word-association games attest), that we
organize words by meaning and that a particular word will gradually become part
of a semantic cluster or lexical set: for example, egg, bacon, cereal, toast,
and jam as the typical constituents of an English breakfast; apple, pear,
peach, nectarine, and plum as edible fruits, or father, mother, son, and
daughter as members of nuclear family. In fact, a good deal of language
teaching material is based on the assumption that learners categorize words
systematically, building careful networks of meaning, which include the various
relationships.
32


Penny Ur also has the same idea how to present new vocabulary that has
same concept with teaching vocabulary using hyponymy. She called it
Brainstorming round an idea that is explained in following statements:
Write a single word in the centre of the board, and ask students to
brainstorm all the words they can think of that are connected with it. Every item
that is suggested is written up on the board with a line connecting it to the original
word, so that the end result is a sun-ray effect. For example, the word tree might
produce something like the sketch below.
bird
green forest


climb leaf


branch TREE family


shade high


flowers roots trunk

Figure 2.6: Sun ray effect (adapted from A Course in Teaching by
Ur)


32
Tricia Hedge, ibid, p. 122

23
This activity is mainly for revising words the class already knows, but new
ones may be introduced, by the teacher or by the student. Although there are no
sentences or paragraphs, the circle of associated items is in itself a meaningful
context for the learning of new vocabulary. The focus is on the meaning of
isolated items.
33

Woodward, 1985 in Nation gave an example of class activity of teaching
vocabulary using hyponymy. He said that The teacher provides the learners with
a list of categories like food, household objects, numbers, jobs, etc. Each learner
chooses or is given one category. The learner then has to write as many words as
possible under the category heading on a piece of paper. So, food should contain
items like bread, meat, etc. The learners should write known words, not look up
unknown words. After set time, a learner passes their paper to the next learner
who then tries to add words not already listed. Then the paper is passed on until
each learner regains their original sheet of paper. The learner has to check the
spelling with a dictionary and then these sheets become a class dictionary that is
added to as new words are met.
34


Another description is given by Carter that said Such access to word-
meanings may also be much more productive than looking up words in dictionary
since words are best defined in relation to each other, so that fine gradations and
differences of meaning can begin to be measured in as efficient and economic a
manner as possible.
35










33
Penny Ur, A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and Theory (New York:
Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 69

34
I. S. P. Nation, ibid, p. 107

35
Ronald Carter, Vocabulary- Applied Linguistic Perspective- Second

Edition (New
York: Routledge, 2000), p. 219
24
He also gave an example as students activities in the class.
a. Here is vocabulary network. Can you complete it with words from the box?
(Then add one more object for each room.)




























Figure 2.7: Example of hyponymy test adapted from Vocabulary Applied
Language Perspective by Ronald Carter
36

b. In which room do you normally:
Listen to music? Waste time?
Daydream? Think about your problems?
Have arguments? Feel most relaxed?
Now compare your answer with a partner!

36
Ronald Carter, ibid, p. 219

HOUSE
LOUNGE
saucepans shower sofa towels alarm clock kettle video

sheets sink washbasin chest of drawers coffee table
25
Buckby creates two games connected with hyponymy games:
Variation 1:
Preparation
Prepare (mentally or on paper) a list of topics which you
would like to practice, e.g. work, school, holidays, food,
college or school, home, sports, hobbies, animals, seasons

1. Write several topics on the board, for example: school, holidays, food,
hobbies.
2. Ask learners to copy the words from the board and to write at least three
words they associate with each topic. The teacher can say whether the
three words should be general associations or personal associations. For
example, we might all agree that school can be associate school with
worry, bullying, noise, friends and games.
3. Each learner shows their collection of associated words to at least one
other person who must try to guess which topic is referred to. Or, instead
of showing their three words to other individuals, learners can display their
words on a notice board so that others can read them and decide which
topic or story they describe.
37


Variation 2: Words webs
1. Demonstrate, on the board, how to make a word web centering on a topic,
shown by word or short phrase. The web of associated words can be
general associations or personal associations.
2. Brainstorming with the learners, make a list of about 20 topics on the
board.
3. Ask each learner to choose three topics from the list and make webs of
words they associate with each one, being careful not to identify the topic
on their word webs. In other words, the central circle should be left empty.

37
Andrew Wright, David Betteridge, and Michael Buckby, Games for Language
Learning, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), p.102
26
4. Tell the learners to circulate, showing their webs to at least three other
learners, who must try to identify the topic of each word.
Engine

Wheel Light





Window Brake
Seat
Example of a general word web for car
Figure 2.8: Adapted from Games for Language Learning by Buckby

B. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Students at the first grade in junior high school in Indonesia depending on
curriculum are supposed to have 500 words. In fact, most of them have
vocabularies under 500 words.
As it has been mentioned in previous chapter, the problem that the
students faced in learning vocabulary was the difficulties in memorizing meaning
of the words. In other words, the students were lack of vocabulary. They often
feel bored easily in learning activities because of those problems. It also happen
because they fell bored in teaching technique in teaching vocabulary.
Because of that, the writer tries to offer new technique by teaching
vocabulary using hyponymy games. Using hyponymy games to increase the
students vocabulary is one of the alternatives in teaching vocabulary. It makes
teaching and learning process easier and funnier because the words are grouped.
So, the students will easier to remember it too.


Car
27


C. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
This research is to know whether using hyponymy in teaching vocabulary
better for the students to learn English. To find the answer of the problem, the
writer should propose alternative hypothesis (Ha) and null hypothesis (Ho) as
below:
1. Alternative Hypothesis (Ha) : There is a significant difference between
teaching vocabulary by using hyponymy games for the students at Mts.
Daarul Hikmah Pamulang.
2. Null Hypothesis (Ho) : There is no a significant difference between
teaching vocabulary by using hyponymy games for the students at Mts.
Daarul Hikmah Pamulang






28









CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH
A. Methodology of Research
1. Place and Time of Research
The writer did the research at Daarul Hikmah Islamic J unior High School
which located at J l. Surya Kencana number 25 Pamulang, Tangerang.
She conducted this research from J anuary up to May 2010. It began by
observation of Daarul Hikmah Islamic J unior High School from J anuary to
February. Then, from March to May 2010, the writer held an experiment by using
hyponymy games in teaching vocabulary. In addition, the teaching processes were
held for two meetings for each class, so the totals are six meetings included giving
pre test.

2. Method of Research
To collect data the writer uses field research by quasi experimental
method. Field research is carried out by teaching practice and test with the
teachers concerned. The population is all of the students of first grade at Daarul
Hikmah Islamic J unior High School. But, the writer just takes one class as the
sample. The objects of the study isthe first grade students of 7-A class.
29

She held the field research by taking the students scores of the vocabulary
tests (pre-test and post-test).
3. Technique of Data Collecting
The techniques of collecting data used in this research are:
a. Teaching
The writer did the teaching learning process six times, three times in
control class and three times in experimental class before giving the post test to
the students.
b. Test
The writer makes the instrument of this research that consisting of 25
questions vocabulary test. It is divided into three forms; the first part is multiple
choices, the second part is structured essay and third part is unstructured essay.
They are divided into three categories: easy (30 %), middle (60 %), and difficult
(10 %). The test was made by the teacher class.
Multiple choices consists of 15 items from number 1 to number 15. The
score per items is 1. It means if students can choose the answer of 1 item
correctly, they will get 1 score and if they can choose the answer of 15 items
correctly, they will get 15 scores.
Matching test consists of 10 items from number 16 to number 20. Its
score per item is 4. It means if students can choose the answer of 1 item correctly,
they will get 4 score and if they can choose the answer of 5 items correctly, they
will get 20 scores.
Fill in the blank test consists of 5 items from number 20 to number 25. Its
score per item is 3. It means if students can choose the answer of 1 item correctly,
they will get 3 score and if they can choose the answer of 5 items correctly, they
will get 15 scores. If the students answer all item correctly, they wil get scores 50.
To get score 100, the score cross 2. So, 50 X 2=100.
From the description of each test from above, we can see that the high
score of this test is 100 scores.


30

Test Drive of Instrument
Test drive of instrument is done to know its validity and reliability before
being used to collect data.
a. Validity
According to Scarvia B. Anderson in Suharsimi Arikunto said a test is
valid if it measures what it purpose to measure.
1
In testing of items validity is used
product moment formula from Pearson as follow:
rxy =
( )( )
( ) { } ( ) { }
2
2
2
2




Y Y N X X N
Y X XY N

rxy =Coefficient of correlation between X Variable and Y Variable
(Koefisien korelasi antara variable X dan variable Y)
X =Sum of score in X distribution (skor tiap butir soal untuk setiap uji coba)
Y =Sum of score in Y distribution (skor total tiap siswa uji coba)
X =Sum of X quadrate (jumlah kuadrat dari X)
Y =Sum of Y quadrate (jumlah kuadrat dari Y)
N =Sum of sample (jumlah siswa uji coba)
From the calculation about this test, the valid number that are 2, 4, 6, 7, 8,
10, 13, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25. It means from 25 question that was
given, there 16 numbers which are valid. And 9 questions were not valid.(see
appendix)
b. Reliability
According to Edward L. Vockell and J . W. Asher Reliability addresses
the question of whether the results of measuring processes are consistent on
occasions when they should be consistent
2
The formula to be used to find out
reliability by K-R. 20 (Kuder-Richardson 20) formula as follow:



1
Prof. Dr. Suharsimi Arikunto, Dasar-Dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan, (Jakarta: Bumi
Aksara, 2003) p. 65.

2
Edward L. Vockell and J. W. Asher, Educational Research, ( New Jersey:Prentice Hall,
1995), Second Edition, p.88.

31


r11 = n S - p.q dengan S = x - x
n-1 S n
n
r11 =Coefficient of reliability all of items test
(Koefisien reliabilitas seluruh item tes).
S =Variance of items test ( Variasi butir soal )
N =Sumof items test ( Banyak Butir Soal )
P =Propose of student which the true answer
( Proporsi siwa yang menjawab item dengan benar).
q =Propose of student which the wrong answer
(Proporsi siswa yang menjawab item dengan salah)
With interpretation coefficient of reliability as follow:
DP : 0.00 0.20 =Poor
DP : 0.21 0.40 =Satisfactory
DP : 0.41 0.70 =Good
DP : 0.71 1.00 =Excellent
DP : Negative =All of poor
From the calculation of pre-test, the reliability score that the writer get is
r11 =0.83. The conclusion is that test reliable and include in category excellent.
(see appendix )
c. Discriminating Power
According to Suharsimi Arikunto discriminating power adalah
kemampuan sesuatu soal untuk membedakan antara siswa yang pandai
(berkemampuan pandai) dengan siswa yang bodoh (berkemampuan
rendah)(Discriminating power is the capacity test to discriminate between clever
student and below student).
3
(see appendix)

The formula to be used to find out discriminating power as follow:
D =BA BB =PA PB
J A J B


3
Prof. Dr. Suharsimi Arikunto, Dasar-Dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan,.. p.211
32

Explanation:
J A =Total of upper group (Banyaknya peserta kelompok atas)
J B =Total of lower group (Banyaknya peserta kelompok bawah)
BA =Total of upper student who answer the test correctly
(Banyaknya peserta kelompok atas yang menjawab soal itu dengan
benar)
BB =Total of lower student who answer the test correctly
(Banyaknya peserta kelompok bawah yang menjawab soal itu dengan benar)
PA =Propose of upper student who answer the test correctly
( Proposi peserta kelompok atas yang menjawab benar)
PB =Propose of lower student who answer the test correctly
(Proposi peserta kelompok bawah yang menjawab benar)
Classification of discriminating power (DP):
D : 0.00 0.20 =Poor
D : 0.21 0.40 =Satisfactory
D : 0.41 0.70 =Good
D : 0.71 1.00 =Excellent
D : Negative =All of poor
d. Index of Difficulty
According to Suharsimi Arikunto Bilangan yang menunjukkan sukar dan
mudanya sesuatu soal disebut indeks kesukaran(Difficulty index is the number
which indicate difficult and easy of a test).(see appendix). The formula to be used
to find out difficulty index as follow:
4

P = B
J S
Explanation:
P =Difficulty index (Indeks kesukaran)
B =Sum of student who answer the test correctly
(Banyaknya siswa yang menjawab soal itu dengan betul)
J S =Sumof all students (Jumlah seluruh siswa peserta tes)



4
Prof. Dr. Suharsimi Arikunto, Dasar-Dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan,.. p. 208
33

Classification of difficulty index:
0.00 0.15 =Very difficult
0.15 0.30 =Difficult
0.31 0.70 =Average
0.71 0.85 =Easy
0.86 1.00 =Very easy

4.Technique of Data Analysis
The writer used a quantitative data which is related to numerals and it
is analyzed by statistics. She used t-test formula to calculate the data by
comparing students pre-test and post-test.
After collecting the data she needed in research, the data processed and
analyzed through the following steps:
5

a. Investigating students vocabulary test, giving score, and
describing score in table.
b. Determining mean of variable x with formula:
N
x
M =
c. Determining mean of variable y with formula:
N
y
My=
d. Determining deviation standard of variable x and y with formula:
SDD = D
2
- ( D)
2

N (N)
e. Determining standard error of mean of difference with formula:
SE
mD
=SD
D
N-1



5
Drs. Anas Sudjono, Pengantar Statistik Pendidikaan, (Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo
Persada, 2000), p.300
34

f. Determining mean of difference
M
D
= D

N

g. Determining test of hypothesis (t
o
)
t
o
= M
D
SE
mD
h. Determining degrees of freedom (df )
df =(N-1)
M =the average of score
X =the score of pre-test
Y =the score of poet-test
N =number of cases



















35








CHAPTER IV
RESEARCH FINDING

Research Findings
1.Data description
To know the the results of the students pre-test and post-test, the writer
makes the table of the students, score such as follows:
The test results of the experimental class are tabulated and calculated in
the following table:
Table 3.1
The result of students pre-test
Students Pre-test
1 45
2 63
3 65
4 55
5 71
6 53
7 56
8 72
9 55
10 54
11 46
12 62
13 71
14 56
36




Based on the table above, the writer calculated the result of
variable x ( x ) is 2212, and seeking the mean score of variable y, the higher
score, and the lower score of the students pre- test with formula:


- M
x
=x = 2431 =60, 52 =60,5
N 40
- The higher score =71
15 54
16 56
17 71
18 65
19 59
20 78
21 62
22 71
23 62
24 45
25 55
26 45
27 64
28 63
29 66
30 65
31 62
32 56
33 71
34 53
35 67
36 59
37 58
38 61
38 58
40 71
Total 2421
37

- The lower score =45
Table 3.2
The result of the students post-test

Students Post-Test
1 75
2 76
3 64
4 61
5 70
6 65
7 67
8 87
9 75
10 71
11 68
12 69
13 72
14 62
15 71
16 69
17 80
18 65
19 73
20 79
21 71
22 73
23 70
24 61
25 61
26 63
27 72
28 75
29 69
30 65
31 75
32 67
33 76
38



Based on the data collected in post-test, the writer calculated the
result of variable y ( y ) is 2212. Then she calculated the mean score of variable
y, and seeking the higher score, and the lower score of the students pre- test with
formula:
- M
y
=y =2787 =69.6 =69
N 40
- The higher score =87
- The lower score =61


The Comparison of Students Pre-test and Post-test

After getting the data, the writer analyzed it by using statistic calculation of
test formula.
Table 3.3
The result of the students English pre-test and post-test
34 61
35 64
36 60
37 73
38 72
38 62
40 78
Total
2787
Students Pre-test Post-Test
D=(x-y) D
2
=(x-y)
1 45 75
-30 900
2 63 76
-13 169
3 65 64
+1 1
4 55 61
-6 36
5 71 70
+1 1
6 53 65
-8 64
7 56 67
-11 121
8 72 87
-15 125
39




Notes:
N =Number of cases
9 65 75
-10 100
10 54 71
-16 196
11 46 68
-22 484
12 62 69
-7 49
13 71 72
-1 1
14 56 62
-6 36
15 54 71
-17 289
16 56 69
-13 169
17 71 80
-9 81
18 65 65
0 0
19 59 73
-14 196
20 78 79
-1 1
21 62 71
-9 81
22 71 73
-2 4
23 62 70
-8 64
24 45 61
-16 196
25 55 63
-8 64
26 45 61
-16 196
27 64 72
-8 64
28 63 75
-12 144
29 66 69
-3 9
30 65 65
0 0
31 62 75
-13 169
32 56 67
-21 441
33 71 76
-5 25
34 53 61
-8 64
35 67 64
+3 9
36 59 60
-1 1
37 58 73
-15 125
38 61 72
-11 121
38 58 62
-4 16
40 71 78
-7 49
total 2431 2787
-361 4861
40

x =the score of pre-test
y =the score of post- test
D =difference
x =the total score of x
y =the total score of y
D =the total of difference
D
2
=the total of quadrate difference

According to the data in the table above, the writer calculated the result of
the students pre-test (variable x) and post-test (variable y).
The first steps was seeking the difference between variable x and y and we
got it by using formula x-y =D, D= -721 and D
2
=15405. After that, we seek
the standard of difference between two variables (x and y) using formula as
fllows:
6

SD
D
= D
2
- (D)
2
N (N)

=4861 - (-361)
2

40 ( 40 )
=121,525- (-9,025)
2

=121,525-81,45

=40,075
=6,33

After finding the result of SD
D
, we can seek SEM
D
(Strandard Error of the
Mean difference) using formula:
SEM
D
=SD
D

6
Anas Sudijono, Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan (Jakarta: PT. Gaya Grafindo Persada,
1999) , p.306
41


N-1
=6,33
40-1
=6,33
39
=6,33
6,24
=1,014
After the result of SEM
D
was found, we seek M
D
(Mean of Difference)
using formula as follows:
7

M
D
=D
N

=-361
40

=-9,025
Finally, we seek t
o
(Test of Hypothesis), using formula as follows:
t
o
=M
D
SEM
D
=-9,025
1, 014
=- 8.9

df =( ) 2 - N N
2 1
+
=40 +40 -2
=78


There is no degree of freedomfor 78, so the writer uses the close df from 80.
At significance 5 %=2,64
1 %=1,99

7
Ibid, p.305
42



2. Hypothesis Testing
To prove the hypothesis, the data obtained from the experimental class and
the controlled classes are calculated by using the t-test formula with assumption as
follows:
If t
o
>t
t
: There is a significant diffrerence and the alternative
hypothesis (Ha) is accepted and null hypothesis (Ho) is
rejected.
If t
o
<

t
t
: There is a significant diffrerence and the alternative
hypothesis (Ha) is rejected and null hypothesis (Ho) is
accepted.

3.Data Intepretation
From the result of statistic calculation, it is obtained the value of t
o
is 8,9
and degrees of freedom (df) is 78.
To know whether it is significant or not, we have to look at the table in
appendix I. The result of significant 5% is 2,64 and 1% is 1,99. So t
0>than t
t

.
The comparison between t-score with t-table
t-score =2,64 <8,9>1,99
It means that hypothesis of the research is accepted, or there is significant
difference between the results of teaching vocabulary through hyponymy games
for the students at Mts. Daarul Hikmah Pamulang.


35












CHAPTER IV
RESEARCH FINDING


Research Findings
1. Data description
To know the the results of the students pre-test and post-test, the writer
makes the table of the students, score such as follows:
The test results of the experimental class are tabulated and calculated in
the following table:
Table 3.1
The result of students pre-test
Students Pre-test
1 45
2 63
3 65
4 55
5 71
6 53
7 56
8 72
9 55
10 54
35
36




Based on the table above, the writer calculated the result of
variable x ( x ) is 2212, and seeking the mean score of variable y, the higher
score, and the lower score of the students pre- test with formula:


11 46
12 62
13 71
14 56
15 54
16 56
17 71
18 65
19 59
20 78
21 62
22 71
23 62
24 45
25 55
26 45
27 64
28 63
29 66
30 65
31 62
32 56
33 71
34 53
35 67
36 59
37 58
38 61
38 58
40 71
Total 2421
37

M
x
=x = 2431 =60. 52 =60.5
N 40
The higher score =71
The lower score =45
Table 3.2
The result of the students post-test

Students Post-Test
1 75
2 76
3 64
4 61
5 70
6 65
7 67
8 87
9 75
10 71
11 68
12 69
13 72
14 62
15 71
16 69
17 80
18 65
19 73
20 79
21 71
22 73
23 70
24 61
25 61
26 63
27 72
28 75
29 69
38



Based on the data collected in post-test, the writer calculated the
result of variable y ( y ) is 2212. Then she calculated the mean score of variable
y, and seeking the higher score, and the lower score of the students pre- test with
formula:
M
y
=y =2787 =69.6 =69
N 40
The higher score =87
The lower score =61

2. The Comparison of Students Pre-test and Post-test

After getting the data, the writer analyzed it by using statistic calculation of
test formula.
Table 3.3
The result of the students English pre-test and post-test
30 65
31 75
32 67
33 76
34 61
35 64
36 60
37 73
38 72
38 62
40 78
Total
2787
Students Pre-test Post-Test
D=(x-y) D
2
=(x-y)
1 45 75
-30 900
2 63 76
-13 169
3 65 64
+1 1
4 55 61
-6 36
5 71 70
+1 1
6 53 65
-8 64
39




7 56 67
-11 121
8 72 87
-15 125
9 65 75
-10 100
10 54 71
-16 196
11 46 68
-22 484
12 62 69
-7 49
13 71 72
-1 1
14 56 62
-6 36
15 54 71
-17 289
16 56 69
-13 169
17 71 80
-9 81
18 65 65
0 0
19 59 73
-14 196
20 78 79
-1 1
21 62 71
-9 81
22 71 73
-2 4
23 62 70
-8 64
24 45 61
-16 196
25 55 63
-8 64
26 45 61
-16 196
27 64 72
-8 64
28 63 75
-12 144
29 66 69
-3 9
30 65 65
0 0
31 62 75
-13 169
32 56 67
-21 441
33 71 76
-5 25
34 53 61
-8 64
35 67 64
+3 9
36 59 60
-1 1
37 58 73
-15 125
38 61 72
-11 121
38 58 62
-4 16
40 71 78
-7 49
total 2431 2787
-361 4861
40

Notes:
N =Number of cases
x =the score of pre-test
y =the score of post- test
D =difference
x =the total score of x
y =the total score of y
D =the total of difference
D
2
=the total of quadrate difference

According to the data in the table above, the writer calculated the result of
the students pre-test (variable x) and post-test (variable y).
The first steps was seeking the difference between variable x and y and we
got it by using formula x-y =D, D= -721 and D
2
=15405. After that, we seek
the standard of difference between two variables (x and y) using formula as
fllows:
1

SD
D
= D
2
- (D)
2
N (N)

=4861 - (-361)
2

40 ( 40 )
=121.525- (-9.025)
2

=121.525-81.45

=40.075
=6.33


1
Anas Sudijono, Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan (Jakarta: PT. Gaya Grafindo Persada,
1999) , p.306
41

After finding the result of SD
D
, we can seek SEM
D
(Strandard Error of the
Mean difference) using formula:
SEM
D
=SD
D

N-1
=6.33
40-1
=6.33
39
=6.33
6.24
=1.014
After the result of SEM
D
was found, we seek M
D
(Mean of Difference)
using formula as follows:
2

M
D
=D
N

=-361
40

=-9.025
Finally, we seek t
o
(Test of Hypothesis), using formula as follows:
t
o
=M
D
SEM
D
=-9.025
1, 014
=- 8.9

df = 2 - N N
2 1

=40 +40 -2
=78



2
Ibid, p.305
42

There is no degree of freedomfor 78, so the writer uses the close df from 80.
At significance 5 % =2.64
1 %=1.99


2. Hypothesis Testing
To prove the hypothesis, the data obtained from the experimental class and
the controlled classes are calculated by using the t-test formula with assumption as
follows:
If t
o
>t
t
: There is a significant diffrerence and the alternative
hypothesis (Ha) is accepted and null hypothesis (Ho) is
rejected.
If t
o
<

t
t
: There is a significant diffrerence and the alternative
hypothesis (Ha) is rejected and null hypothesis (Ho) is
accepted.
3.Data Interpretation


From the result of statistic calculation, it is obtained the value of t
o
is 8,9
and degrees of freedom (df) is 78.
To know whether it is significant or not, we have to look at the table in
appendix I. The result of significant 5% is 2.64 and 1% is 1.99. So t
0
>than t
t
.
The comparison between t-score with t-table
t-score =2.64 <8.9>1.99
It means that hypothesis of the research is accepted, or there is significant
difference between the results of teaching vocabulary through hyponymy games
for the students at Mts. Daarul Hikmah Pamulang.



43







CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion
According to the research of the analysis of the research, it shows
that the value of t
t
(t test) is bigger than the value of t
t
(t table). So,
the null hypothesis (H
o
) is rejected and the alternative hypothesis (H
a
) is
accepted. Or it can be said that there significant influence of using
hyponymy in teaching vocabulary.
It can be concluded that teaching vocabulary using hyponymy
games is adequate success. It can be seen from the calculation above and
from the table of the students vocabulary scores by using hyponymy
games is increase from pre test to post test. It means there is significant
influence of using hyponymy in teaching vocabulary.



44


B. Suggestion
Based on the conclusion above, the writer gives suggestions about
teaching vocabulary by using hyponymy. The suggestions are as follow:
1. The English teachers should promote active learning in English teaching
learning process so the students will easy and fun to learn new
knowledge.
2. The English teacher should have the comprehensive knowledge about
all sort teaching methods to get teaching more effective, in order to
make students easier to understand the new vocabulary they learn and
use it.
3. The English teachers are encouraged to use varies teaching method so
the students can achieve the better material understanding.
4. The English teachers should be creative in developing the teaching
learning activities in classroom to make the class alive and theirs
students do not get bored.
5. The English teachers should encourage the students to be active
participating in teaching process so the students will get long memories
easier.




45

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ann Aebersold Jo and Mary Lee Field, From Reader to English Teacher,
Cambridge : Cambrigde University Press, 1997.

Arikunto Suharsimi Prof. Dr., Dasar-Dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan, J akarta: Bumi
Aksara, 2003.

Babcov Gove Philip, Websters Third New International Dictionary,
Massachusetts: Massachusetts. G and C Meriam Company, 1999.

Barret Martyn, The Development of Language, London: Psychology Press, 1999.

Cameron Lynne, Teaching Language to Young Learners, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2001.

Carter Ronald, Vocabulary- Applied Linguistic Perspective- Second

Edition, New
York: Routledge, 2000.

Celce Murcia Marianne,Teaching English as a Second Language or Foreign
Language, Second Edition, Massachusetts: Heinle Publisher, 1991.

Depdiknas, Kurikulum 2004 Standar Kompetensi SMP dan MTS, J akarta:
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2003.

Harmer Jeremy, The Practice of English Language Teaching, London : Longman
Group, 1983.

Hedge Tricia, Teaching and Learning in the Classroom, Oxford Oxford
University Press, 2000.

J . Wallace Michael, Teaching Vocabulary, London: Biddles Ltd, Guilford and
Kings Lynn, 1989.

Larsen Diane & Freeman, Techniques & Principles in Language Teaching,
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.

L. Vockell Edward and J. W. Asher, Educational Research, ( New Jersey:Prentice
Hall, 1995)

M. Zaenuri, A, English Vocabulary I, Revised Edition, J akarta: unpublished,
2001.

Nunan David, Language Teaching Methodology, New J ersey: Prentice Hall
International, 1991.

46

Philips Alison and Mike Gonzalez, Modern Language- Learning and Teaching in
an Intercultural Field, London: Sage Publications, 2004.

Read John, Assessing Vocabulary, Cambrigde: Cambridge University Press, 2000.


S.P. Nation I, Teaching and Learning Vocabulary, Massachusets: Heinle &
Heinle Publisers, 1990.

, Learning Vocabulary in Another Language, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2001.

Schimtt Norbert, Vocabulary in Language Teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2000.

Schmitt Nobert and Michael Mc Carthey, Vocabulary in Language Teaching,
New York: Cambrigde University Press,1997.

Sudijono Anas, Pengantar Statistik Pendidikaan, J akarta: PT. Raja Grafindo
Persada, 2000.

Thorbury Scott, How to Teach Vocabulary, London: Longman, 2002.

Ur Penny, A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and Theory, New York:
Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Wright Andrew, David Betteridge, and Michael Buckby, Games for Language
Learning, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Yule George, The Study of Language Third Edition, New York: Cambrigde
University Press, 2006.
52

EVALUATION
Daarul Hikmah Islamic Junior High School Pamulang


Name :
Class :

I.Multiple choice
1. ...is a shop which sells flower.
a. stationery c. florist
b. green grocer d. butcher
2. Maya had injured. She wants buy a betadine. She must go to.
a. book store c. food court
b. shoe shop d. drug store
3. Diah : Hi, where will you go?
Santy : Hi, I will buy some grapes and water melons but where is it?
Diah : OK, please go to the.over there.
a. shop c. green grocer
b. butcher d.fruit stall
4. Ina : What do you go to the dispensary for?
Saida : I want to
a. drink some orange juice c. buy a pen
b. take my trousers d. sell some shrimp
5.

Anita wants to buy the thing in the picture. She must go to..
a. shoe shop c. accessories shop
53


b. fashion shop d. sport shop

6. Where will you pay things that you buy in department store?
a. cashier c. shopping list
b. trolley d. the change
7. Anita : Oh, it is a beautiful bracelet.
What is the synonym of the underlined word?
a. ugly c. bad
b. nice d. worst
8.

Look at the picture!
Taufik Hidayat is an Indonesian athlete. He is the best athlete in.
a. foot ball c. badminton
b. tenis d. volley
9. Ferly likes collecting stamps, he is
a. philatelist c. journalist
b. collector d. scientist
10. Look at the picture below.

Mr. Jonas is doing his hobby now. What is his hobby.
a. cooking c. climbing
b. fishing d. reading
54

11. Arifin :Do you know the cheapest sport?
Fadly : Of couse.
Arifin : What is it?
Fadly : It is.
a. running c. swimming
b. cycling d. boxing
12. J ogging is very simple and cheap sport.
The word simple means
a. hard c. dangerous
b. easy d. interesting
13. Which sport can not be done in team?
a. chess c. hockey
b. foot ball d. volley ball
14. Look at the picture!
Anita hobby is..

a. watching television c. reading book
b. shopping in the mall d. listening radio
15. Yuyun : what is your.?
Dewi : I like cycling.
a. game c. subject
b. activity d. hobby






55

II. Matching the picture with the activity in the box!


16.. 17. 18


19 20
camping shopping reading skatebording swimming

III. Fill in the blank with the suitable answer!
21.A place with sell meat is..
22..is an accessories that we use in our fingers.
23. A person who sell fish called..


24. What sport is shown in the picture? It is..
25. Anita wants to be a chef. She is doing her hobby in the kitchen now. Her hobby
is.





56

ANSWER KEY
I.
1. C 11. A
2. D 12. B
3. D 13. A
4. A 14. D
5. C 15. D
6. A
7. B
8. C
9. A
10. B

II. 16. shopping
17. skatebording
18. camping
19. swimming
20. reading

III. 21. butcher
22. ring
23.fish monger
24. archery
25. cooking


APPENDIX 1

A. The Calculation of Validity
Table of analysis item for the calculation of validity test
Std 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 17
2 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 16
3 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 14
4 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 14
5 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 16
6 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 11
7 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 10
8 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 23
9 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 15
10 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 15
11 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 11
12 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 10
13 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 16
14 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 16
15 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 17
16 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 12
17 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 9
18 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 15
19 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 15
20 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 13
21 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 14
22 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 16
23 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 16
24 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 7
25 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 7
26 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 9
27 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 17
28 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 16
29 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 9
30 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 10
31 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14
32 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 16
33 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10
34 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 9
35 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 11
36 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 9
37 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 13
38 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 9
39 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 14
40 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 17
tot 14 24 11 18 25 25 8 19 26 18 10 22 28 17 26 29 31 34 34 28 10 14 7 14 8 414



APPENDIX 2

The calculation of validity uses the formula correlation Pearsons product moment
with rude report which said by Pearson with the formula as follow:
rxy =
( )( )
( ) { } ( ) { }
2
2
2
2




Y Y N X X N
Y X XY N

For item number 1
X = 14 Y = 462 X
2
=14
Y =213444 N =40 XY= 143

rxy =
( )( )
( ) { } ( ) { }




2
2
462 213444 40 14 14 40
462 14 143 40

rxy =
87 . 17406
748

rxy =0.04297
After got score R count look for T count by formula:
thitung =
xy
n xy
r
r


1
1

=
04297 . 0 1
1 40 04297 . 0



=0.265
Than compare with ttable in significance 5% (=0.05) and grade freedom n-2, so got
ttable =1.68. if tcount >ttable, so the test is valid, for item number 1 because tcount <ttable so test
item number 1 is invalid.
Table of validity of the instrument test

Item t hitung Explanation
1 0.265 invalid
2 1.764 Valid
3 1.786 Valid
4 2.356 Valid
5 0.876 invalid


6 2.625 Valid
7 2.625 Valid
8 1.876 Valid
9 0.765 invalid
10 1.976 Valid
11 0.645 invalid
12 0.789 invalid
13 1.892 Valid
14 1.125 invalid
15 0.768 invalid
16 1.896 Valid
17 1.785 Valid
18 1.452 invalid
19 1.376 invalid
20 2.685 Valid
22 2.685 Valid
23 2.654 Valid
24 1.684 Valid
25 1.895 Valid


















APPENDIX 3

B. The Calculation of Reliability
The calculation of reliability test uses the formula K-R 20 (Kuder-Richarson 20):
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

2
2
11
1 s
pq s
n
n
r

With S =
( )
N
N
x
x
2
2


According to the data from test validity:
x =735

2
=15165 (p.q) = 7.768 n=40

So:
S =
( )
40
40
735
15165
2


=6.441
11
r =
(

2
2
441 . 6
768 . 7 441 . 6
1 40
40

=1.026 X 0.813
=0.83
With interpretation coefficient of reliability as follow:
DP : 0.00 0.20 =Poor
DP : 0.21 0.40 =Satisfactory
DP : 0.41 0.70 =Good
DP : 0.71 1.00 =Excellent
DP : Negative =All of poor
As the calculation above
11
r =0.83 so the writer can take the summary that test is reliable and
according to categories excellent.






APPENDIX 5

Table of Difficulty Index of Instrument test

item B J s P Explanation
1 14 40 0.35 Average
2 24 40 0.6 Average
3 11 40 0.275 Difficult
4 18 40 0.45 Average
5 25 40 0.625 Average
6 25 40 0.625 Average
7 8 40 0.2 Difficult
8 19 40 0.475 Average
9 26 40 0.65 Average
10 18 40 0.45 Average
11 10 40 0.25 Difficult
12 22 40 0.55 Average
13 28 40 0.7 Average
14 17 40 0.425 Average
15 26 40 0.25 Average
16 29 40 0.725 Easy
17 31 40 0.775 Easy
18 34 40 0.85 Easy
19 34 40 0.85 Easy
20 28 40 0.7 Average
21 10 40 0.25 Difficult
22 14 40 0.35 Average
23 7 40 0.175 Difficult
24 14 40 0.35 Average
25 8 40 0.2 Difficult


51

KISI- KISI PEMBUATAN SOAL
Nama sekolah :MTs. Daarul Hkmah Pamulang
Alokasi Waktu : 30 Menit
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Jumlah Soal : 25
Kurikulum Acuan : KTSP
Semester : Genap

Standar
Kompetensi
Kompetensi
Dasar
Indikator Jenis
Soal
Butir Soal Jumlah
Soal
Mampu
menggunakan
dan memahami
kosakata
dengan lacar
dan akurat.
Mampu
mengetahui,
memahami,
menggunakan
arti kosakata
dengan tepat
dalam bacaan
dan tulisan dan
percakapan.

Siswa mampu
menentukan kosakata
yang tepat untuk
kalimat



Siwa mampu
memahami kata dari
detail information




Siswa mampu
mengetahui sinonim
kata
MC



Fill in


MC
Fill in






MC
1, 3,4,
6,9,11,13,
15
21, 22, 23

2, 25



7, 12




15



Siswa mampu
mengidentifikasi kata
berdasarkan gambar

MC


Matching


Fill in

5,8,10, 14


16, 17, 18,
19, 20

24

10

47

LESSON PLANNING

I. Identity
School : MTs. Daarul Hikmah
Subject : English
Class : 7A
Time Alocation : 2 X 30 menit
Academic year : 2010/2011
Target word : shopping, modern, mall, trolley, cashier, bargain,
fahion shop, shoe shop, accessories shop, price,
change, shopping list, discount, big city,
hairdressers, cinema, merchandise, market, daily
need, meat, butcher, bread, bakery, fish, fish
monger, vegetables, green grocer, stationery, seller,
customer
II. Teaching aids : hand out, board makers, board
III. Teaching activity
First activity:
1. The teacher opens the class activities with Assalamualaikum. Wr. Wb. or
another greeting expression.
2. The teacher asks the students condition.
3. The teacher writes the topics on the board. It is modern market.
4. The teacher asks the students to copy the words from the board and to
write at least three words they associate with topic. The teacher can say
whether the three words should be general associations or personal
associations.
5. Each student reads their collection of associated words. Then, the teacher
displays their words on a notice board so that others can read them.
6. The teacher asks the other students to find the meaning. If the meaning
does not find, they have to look up in the dictionary, find the meaning and
the spelling.
48

7. The students have to write all of the words and their meaning in students
note book.
8. The teacher asks the students to spell and to pronounce the words
correctly.

Second activity:
1. The teacher writes the topics on the board. It is traditional market.
2. The teacher asks the students to copy the words from the board and to
write at least three words they associate with topic. The teacher can say
whether the three words should be general associations or personal
associations.
3. Each student reads their collection of associated words. Then, the teacher
displays their words on a notice board so that others can read them.
4. The teacher asks the other students to find the meaning. If the meaning
does not find, they have to look up in the dictionary, find the meaning and
the spelling.
5. The students have to write all of the words and their meaning in students
note book.
6. The teacher asks the students to spell and to pronounce the words
correctly.
7. The teacher closes the class activity with Hamdallah.










49

LESSON PLANNING


I. Identity
School : MTs. Daarul Hikmah
Subject : English
Class : 7A
Time Alocation : 2 X 30 menit
Academic year : 2010/2011
Target word : reading, magazine, news paper, cooking, frying,
boiling, stove, listening to the music, sport,
swimming, swimming suit, camping, tent, rope,
hiking, travel bag, fishing, fishing rod, ship, boat,
sailor
II. Teaching aids : hand out, board makers, board
III. Teaching activity
First activity:
1. The teacher opens the class activities with Assalamualaikum. Wr. Wb. or
another greeting expression.
2. The teacher asks the students condition.
3. The teacher writes the topics on the board. It is hobbies in indoor
activity.
4. The teacher asks the students to copy the words from the board and to
write at least three words they associate with topic. The teacher can say
whether the three words should be general associations or personal
associations.
5. Each student reads their collection of associated words. Then, the teacher
displays their words on a notice board so that others can read them.
6. The teacher asks the other students to find the meaning. If the meaning
does not find, they have to look up in the dictionary, find the meaning and
the spelling.
50

7. The students have to write all of the words and their meaning in students
note book.
8. The teacher asks the students to spell and to pronounce the words
correctly.

Second activity:
1. The teacher writes the topics on the board. It is hobbies in out door
activity.
2. The teacher asks the students to copy the words from the board and to
write at least three words they associate with topic. The teacher can say
whether the three words should be general associations or personal
associations.
3. Each student reads their collection of associated words. Then, the teacher
displays their words on a notice board so that others can read them.
4. The teacher asks the other students to find the meaning. If the meaning
does not find, they have to look up in the dictionary, find the meaning and
the spelling.
5. The students have to write all of the words and their meaning in students
note book.
6. The teacher asks the students to spell and to pronounce the words
correctly.
7. The teacher closes the class activity with Hamdallah.










PROFIL OF MTs. DAARUL HIKMAH

MTs. Daarul Hikmah is located on J l. Surya Kencana no. 25 Pamulang,
South Tangerang 15417. This school will be explained below:
A. Facilities
MTs. Daarul Hikmah is an islamic junior high school established in 1988
by H. Saidi. The building is built on 900 m
2
lands. To support the teaching
learning process, it has some facilities shown in the table below:

The Facilities of MTs. Daarul Hikmah
NO Facilities Total Condition
1 Class room 12 Good
2 Head Master room 1 Good
3 Teacher room 1 Good
4 Administration room 3 Good
5 Physic laboratory 1 Good
6 Computer laboratory 1 Good
7 Language laboratory 1 Good
8 Library 1 Good
9 Psychology room 1 Good
10 Mosque 1 Good
11 Koperasi 1 Good
12 Teachers toilet 2 Good
13 Students toilet 2 Good

B. Vision and Mision
Vision:
To materialize the students become creative, smart, religious, and have good
attitude.
Mission:
To make usual the students with polite attitude, suitable with rukun iman and
islam, creative, simple, cheerful, and tawadhu.
C. Teaching Staff

The following table shows the academic and teaching staff in this school.

Table 3.1
Data Guru dan Karyawan
MTs. Daarul Hikmah Pamulang Tangerang
Tahun 2009 2010
NO Nama L/P J abatan Pend. Terakhir Bid. Studi
1 Sri Uswati Hj. Dra P Kep. Sek IAIN J akarta Fiqih
2 M. Thoni Rz, BA L Guru IAIN J akarta B. Indonesia
3 Syarifuddin AR. L Bid. Cur IAIN J akarta Fisika
4 M. Zaini K. A. Ma. L Bid. Siswa AMIK J akarta Kertakes
5 M. Yamien Drs. L Guru A.Ma. Serpong B. Indonesia
6 Asip S. SH.MH. L Guru UNPAM
Pamulang
PPkn
7 Fauzi A. Drs L Guru UNISA Bekasi IPS
8 Hariyadi H. S.Ag L Guru IAIN J akarta IPS
9 Wawan S. S.Pd L Guru STKIP-
Arrahmaniyah
Biologi
10 Mukhlisoh S.Ag P Guru IAIN J akarta Matematika
11 Jaelani H. S.Ag L Guru STAI Bandung Akidah
12 O. Holidin S.Pd L Guru IAIN Bandung Penjaskes
13 Syamsuddin N. H L Guru MAN 3 J akarta B. Arab
14 M. Sholahudin SHI. L Guru IAIN J akarta SKI
15 Isroil M. S.Ag L Pb. IAIN J akarta B. Inggris
Pramuka
16 Badruddin S.Ag L Bendahara IAIN J akarta Staff TU
17 Yuniawati F. S.Pd. P Pemb.
OSIS
IAIN J akarta Matematika
18 Sehabudin N.
S.Th.I
L Guru IAIN Bandung Mulok
19 Nislam S.Kom L Guru IAIN J akarta Komputer
20 Nur Ali Hasan L TU SLTA/MA Kaur TU
21 Liati S.Pd. P TU STKIP-
Arrahmaniyah
Akidah/Akh/TU
22 Yusnah P TU SLTA/MA Staf TU
23 Siti Z. S. Sos. I P Guru IAIN J akarta B. Indo/ SKI
24 Budi Fujiana SE. L Bid. Mutu Budi Luhur
J akarta
B. Inggris
25 Rusli A.Ma. L Guru IPB. Bogor Fisika
26 Diana K. S.Psi P BP/BK UIN J akarta Mulok
27 Romilah SE. P Guru UMJ J akarta IPS
28 Eti Zunaeti S.Pd. P Guru UPS Tegal Matematika
29 Azis Muslim S.Ag. L Guru IAIN J akarta SKI

Based on the data above, we can conclude the school has good staffs. It is
lead by the good head master is Dra. Hj. Sri Uswati. There are 23 teachers and
five academic staffs that most of them graduated from university.

D. The Student
MTs. Darul Hikmah has 763 students divided in 19 classes. There are six
classes in first grade (A-F), seven classes in second grade (A-G) and six classes in
third grade (A-F).
All of the students of this school use moeslem uniform. Most of them
follow many kinds of extra curricular for example marawis, PMR, Pramuka,
badminton, etc.
The school also gives several lessons relating to Islam lesson for example
Fiqih, Arabic, Sejarah Kebudayaan Islam (Islamic Cultural History), Al Quran
Hadist, etc. So, the students will get Islamic values.