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HAJJ

Definition of Hajj: Literally: Legally: The word "Hajj" means heading for an honorable person or place. Hajj means worshipping Allah by performing the Hajj rituals, which are defined as specific acts performed at a specific time and place in a specific way.

There is agreement among Juristic schools over the Hajj definition. Rule and Evidence: Performing Hajj is an obligation once in a lifetime upon every individual, male or female. Evidence from the Holy Qur'an: Allah, the Almighty, says, "Pilgrimage thereto is a duty men owe to Allah, - those who can afford the journey; but if any deny faith, Allah stands not in need of any of His creatures." [97] In it are Signs manifest; (for example), the Station of Ibrahim; whoever enters it attains security; pilgrimage thereto is a duty men owe to Allah, those who can afford the journey; but if any deny faith, Allah stands not in need of any of His creatures. [98] Say: "O People of the Book! why reject ye the Signs of Allah, when Allah is Himself witness to all ye do?" [99] Say: "O ye People of the Book! why obstruct ye those who believe, from the path of Allah, seeking to make it crooked, while ye were yourselves witnesses (to Allah's Covenant)? But Allah is not unmindful of all that ye do." Allah made Hajj an obligation to Muslims in the ninth year after Hijrah. The Prophet (peace be upon him) performed Evidence from the Prophetic Tradition: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said,

only

the

Farewell

Hajj.

" (The superstructure of) Islam is founded on five (pillars): .... etc. " Al-Bukhari : Ch. Faith : 7 Muslim : Ch. Faith : 19, 20, 21, 22 Al-Tirmidhi : Ch. Faith : 2534 Al-Nasa'i : Ch. Faith and Creeds : 4915 Ahmed : Musnad of Oft-Narrating Companions Musnad : 4567, 5743, 6019 Among these pillars the Prophet mentioned the Hajj. The Prophet (may peace be upon him) said, " The Hajj which is accepted will receive no other reward than Paradise. " Al-Bukhari : Ch. Hajj : 1424, 1690, 1691 Al-Nasa'i : Ch. Rituals : 2580 Ibn Majah : Ch. Rituals : 2880 Ahmed : The Rest of Oft-Narrating Companions Musnad : 6839, 8943, 8945, 9885, 10006 Al-Darimi : Ch. Rituals : 1728 The Prophet (may peace be upon him) said, " He who performs Hajj and neither spoke indecently not did he act wickedly would return free of sin as on the (very first) day his mother born him. " Al-Bukhari : Ch. Hajj : 1650 Muslim : Ch. Hajj : 2403 Al-Tirmidhi : Ch. Hajj : 855 Al-Nasa'i : Ch. Hajj Rituals : 2575, 2582 Ibn Majah : Ch. Rituals : 2879 Ahmed : The Rest of Oft-Narrating Companions Musnad : 7050, 9562, 9569, 13958 Ahmed : Musnad of Meccans : 15146 Malik : Ch. Hajj : 675 The Prophet (may peace be upon him) said, "O people, Allah made Hajj obligatory for you; so perform Hajj. Thereupon a person said, `Messenger of Allah, (is it to be performed) every year?' He (the Holy Prophet) kept quiet, and the man repeated (these words) thrice, whereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said, `If I were to say: yes, it would become obligatory (for you to perform it every year) and you would not be able to do it." Muslim : Ch. Hajj : 2380 Al-Nasa'i : Ch. Hajj Rituals : 2572 Ahmed : The Rest of Oft-Narrating Companions Musnad : 10199

Scholars' Unanimous Agreement: All scholars have unanimously agreed that Hajj is obligatory and that it represents the fifth pillar of Islam. It is an obligation that should be performed as soon as possible. Obligations: It means any obligatory act on which the validity of Hajj depends and which is redeemed by offering a sacrifice. According to this school: the obligatory act may be represented as the Essential [AlRukn], and it includes the Requisite [Al-Shart]. The Four Obligatory Acts of Hajj: 1. Ihram 2. Standing by `Arafah 3. Ifadah Circumambulation 4. Sa`i between Safa and Marwah There is agreement among Juristic Schools on the obligatory and necessary rituals of Hajj. The Hajj Requisites according to the Hanafi Juristic School 1. Being a Muslim: Performing Hajj is not required from a non-Muslim. If a non-Muslim performs Hajj, it will not be accepted. 2. Sanity: Performing Hajj is not required from an insane person. If an insane person performs Hajj, it will not be accepted. 3. Adulthood: Performing Hajj is not required from a child. If a child performs Hajj, his Hajj will be accepted if he has reached the age of discretion. Moreover, a child's performance of Hajj does not exempt him from performing the obligatory Hajj after reaching adulthood. 4. Freedom: Performing Hajj is not obligatory to a slave. 5. Physical ability. 6. A means of transport should be available along with the financial ability to afford for the journey. 7. The journey should be safe. As for a female pilgrim: 1. She should be accompanied by her husband or an unmarriageable person. 2. She should not be in the waiting period of irrevocable divorce or in mourning for her husband.

The Hajj Requisites according to the Maliki Juristic School 1. Being a Muslim: Performing Hajj is not required from a non-Muslim. If a non-Muslim performs Hajj, it will not be accepted. 2. Sanity: Performing Hajj is not required from an insane person. If an insane person performs Hajj, it will not be accepted. 3. Adulthood: Performing Hajj is not required from a child. If a child performs Hajj, his Hajj will be accepted if he has reached the age of discretion. Moreover, a child's performance of Hajj does not exempt him from performing the obligatory Hajj after reaching adulthood. 4. Freedom: Performing Hajj is not required from a slave. 5. Physical and financial ability. As for a female pilgrim: It is not necessary for her to be accompanied by her husband or an unmarriageable person. Young or old, she is allowed to perform Hajj if she finds a trustworthy company to go with. The Hajj Requisites according to the Shafi`i Juristic School 1. Being a Muslim: Performing Hajj is not required from a non-Muslim. If a non-Muslim performs Hajj, it will not be accepted. 2. Freedom: Performing Hajj is not obligatory to a slave. 3. Eligibility. 4. Physical and financial ability. This ability is subject to the following conditions: a. Having food and other provisions sufficient for the journey to and from Hajj. b. A means of transport should be available. c. Provisions and the cost of transport means should not affect repaying one's debts nor providing for one's family. d. Having enough strength to endure the journey. e. The journey should be secure. As for a female pilgrim: A free, female Muslim pilgrim should be with a secure, trustworthy company. The Hajj Requisites according to the Hanbali Juristic School 1. Being a Muslim: Performing Hajj is not obligatory to a non-Muslim. If a non-Muslim performs Hajj, it will not be accepted. 2. Sanity: Performing Hajj is not obligatory to an insane person. If an insane person performs Hajj, it will not be accepted. 3. Adulthood: Performing Hajj is not obligatory to a child. If a child performs Hajj, his Hajj will be accepted if he has reached the age of discretion. Moreover, a child's

performance of Hajj does not preempt him from performing the obligatory Hajj after reaching adulthood. 4. Freedom: Performing Hajj is not obligatory to a slave. 5. Physical and financial ability. As for a female pilgrim: She should be accompanied by an unmarriageable person. Obligatory: Necessary ritual means whatever ritual a pilgrim must observe and if not, he should offer a sacrificial animal. The Seven Obligations of Hajj: 1. Performing Ihram from Miqat 2. Standing by `Arafah 3. Spending one night in Muzdalifah 4. Spending one night in Mina 5. Shaving the head or cutting hair short (shaving is recommended) 6. Throwing pebbles 7. Farewell Circumambulation There is agreement among Juristic Schools on the obligatory and necessary rituals of Hajj. Supererogatory: It means whatever ritual the Lawgiver demands, without much stress, and that which if one performs, he will be rewarded; and if he chooses not to perform, he will not be punished. According to this Juristic School, the words Supererogatory [Sunnah], Preferable [Mandub], Desirable [Mustahab], and Voluntary [Tatawu`] are synonymous. Some supererogatory acts of Hajj: 1. Washing the whole body upon entering into the state of Ihram 2. Performing Talbiah 3. Performing the arrival circumambulation for a Mufrid or Qarin pilgrim 4. Spending the night of `Arafah in Muzdalifah 5. Performing Ramal and Idtibah` during the arrival circumambulation TAMATTU` It is the act of performing `Umrah in the Hajj season then performing the Hajj itself in the same year. In this type of Hajj, a pilgrim intends to perform Tamattu` before setting forth

on journey. He intends `Umrah and enters into the state of Ihram while uttering, "O Allah! I answer Your call to perform `Umrah. O Allah! I intend to perform `Umrah, so make it easy for me, and accept it from me. I intend to perform `Umrah and I put on the garb of Ihram only for You, O Allah (the Almighty)." He then starts to pronounce the Talbiah. Such a pilgrim, upon reaching Mecca and visiting the Sacred House, circumambulates the Ka`bah seven times, walks between Safa and Marwah seven times, then removes his Hajj garb and gets his hair cut or shaved. He may do everything that is permissible but was prohibited for him in the state of Ihram till the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah (the day of Tarwiah), as he states his intention and puts on the Hajj garb from his residence, while uttering "O Allah! I answer Your call to perform Hajj. O Allah! I intend to perform Hajj, so make it easy for me, and accept it from me. I intend to perform Hajj and I put on the garb of Ihram only for You, O Allah (the Almighty)." Then he starts to pronounce the Talbiah that goes: "O Allah! Here I am at Your service. I respond to Your call, O Allah! Here I am at Your service. I respond to Your call. Here I am at Your service. I respond to Your call, and I am obedient to Your orders, You have no partner. Here I am at Your service. I respond to Your call. All praises and grace are due to You and all sovereignty is (too) for You and You have no partner with You. O Allah! I forbid myself, my hair, skin and body from wearing perfume on and from touching women. This is something that You prevent the one who is in a state of Ihram from doing it, and I do this only for Your sake, O Allah! Lord of the worlds." Upon this, he must make an Offering, because he has performed `Umrah during the season of Hajj, as stated in the Holy Qur'an: "If any one wishes to continue the `Umrah on to the Hajj, he must make an Offering such as he can afford." For the pilgrim performing Tamattu` Hajj, the Circumambulation [Tawaf] of `Umrah is performed instead of the Arrival [Qudum] Circumambulation. Then, after the first act of removing the garb of Ihram, he performs the Ifadah Circumambulation and walks between Safa and Marwah for Hajj. QIRAN It is to combine both Hajj and `Umrah in only one Ihram. In this type of Hajj, the pilgrim intends to perform both of them with declaring his intention only once, saying, "O Allah! I answer Your call to perform Hajj and `Umrah." Then, he starts to pronounce the Talbiah, and remain in the state of Ihram till the morning of the `Id Al-Adha [Greater Bairam]. Then, he sets forth to throw pebbles at the greater Jamrah of Al-`Aqabah located near Mecca, gets his hair shaved or cut, and slaughters his Offering. Upon completing, he can do the first act of removing his Ihram, and enjoy everything except touching women. Also, he can perform the Ifadah Circumambulation [Tawaf] while wearing his usual clothes. As for the one who performs the Qiran, the Sa`i which he performed after the Circumambulation upon entering the Sacred House, will not have to be performed after the Ifadah Circumambulation. That is because that Sa`i was performed for both Hajj and `Umrah.

Finally, he must make an Offering because he has joined the rituals of Hajj and `Umrah together. IFRAD It is the intention to perform Hajj only. In this type of Hajj, a pilgrim declares that intention while still at his own home and wears the garb of Ihram for the Hajj only. Upon reaching the Sacred House, he starts to circumambulate the Ka`bah and to walk between Safa and Marwah for Hajj only. He must keep wearing the garb of Ihram till the morning of `Id Al-Adha [Greater Bairam]. Then, he sets forth to throw the pebbles at the greater Jamrah of Al-`Aqabah near Mecca, then gets his hair shaved or cut, and slaughters his sacrificial animal. Then, he can remove his Ihram, and no Offering has he to make. Hajj by Proxy Whoever is able to perform Hajj and then something detains him from performing it, whether illness or old age, should charge someone to perform Hajj on his behalf. Al-Fadl bin `Abbas reported that a woman from Khath`am said to the Prophet (peace be upon him), "O Messenger of Allah! The rite of Hajj which Allah ordained upon His servants has become obligatory upon my father, but he is too old to ride a camel. May I perform Hajj on his behalf?" He answered, "Yes." Al-Bukhari : Ch. Hajj : 1417, 1721, 1722 Muslim : Ch. Hajj : 2375, 2376 Al-Tirmidhi : Ch. Hajj : 850, 811 Al-Nasa'i : Ch. Hajj Rituals : 2593, 2594 Abu Dawud : Ch. Rituals : 1544 Ibn Majah : Ch. Rituals : 2898 Ahmad : Musnad of Banu hashim : 1792, 2153, 2884, 3203 Musnad of Ten Companions Given Tidings of Entering Paradise : 530, 1277 Malik : Ch. Hajj : 703Al-Bukhari : Ch. Hajj : 1417, 1721, 1722 Muslim : Ch. Hajj : 2375, 2376 Al-Tirmidhi : Ch. Hajj : 850, 811 Al-Nasa'i : Ch. Hajj Rituals : 2593, 2594 Abu Dawud : Ch. Rituals : 1544 Ibn Majah : Ch. Rituals : 2898 Ahmad : Musnad of Banu hashim : 1792, 2153, 2884, 3203 Musnad of Ten Companions Given Tidings of Entering Paradise : 530, 1277 Malik : Ch. Hajj : 703 This view was held by Al-Shafi`i, Ahmad and Abu Hanifah, whereas Malik maintained that such a man is not obliged to charge anyone to perform Hajj on his behalf.

If a person is ill and charges someone else to perform Hajj on his behalf, he is not relieved of his obligation, rather he is required to perform it after recovery. However, Ahmad held that he is not required to perform it himself, even after recovery. As for the one who has performed Hajj in fulfillment of a vow and has not yet performed Hajj as an Islamic obligation, his Hajj is considered as a fulfillment of the command and should fulfill his vow by another Hajj. If a person died without performing Hajj as an Islamic obligation or as a vow, it is then obligatory upon his successor to charge someone to perform Hajj on his behalf and to finance his journey from the deceased person's money. This is the view held by the Shafi`is and the Hanbalis, whereas the Hanafis and the Malikis maintained that it is not obligatory upon the successor to perform Hajj on behalf of the deceased person unless he willed it, and the costs of the journey should be taken from one-third of the estate. Before performing Hajj on behalf of someone else, a person must have performed Hajj for himself whether having the ability or not. This is based on Ibn `Abbas's hadith: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) heard a man saying, "O Allah! Here I am in response to Your call on behalf of Shabrumah." The Prophet (peace be upon him) asked him, "Have you performed your own Hajj? " He replied, "No", whereupon the Prophet (peace be upon him ) said to him, "You must perform Hajj for yourself first, then for Shabrumah." Abu Dawud : Ch. Rituals : 1544 Ibn Majah : Ch. Rituals : 2898 Women's Hajj A female pilgrim should be accompanied by her husband or a person unmarriageable to her, for Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with the son and his father) said: I heard Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) saying, "A female pilgrim should not travel except in the company of her husband or a person unmarriageable to her." A man stood and said, "O Messenger of Allah! My wife is going to perform Hajj while I have listed myself among those who will participate in a battle." He replied, "Go and perform Hajj with your wife." Al-Bukhari : Ch. Hajj : 1729 Muslim : Ch. Hajj : 2391 Ibn Majah : Ch. Rituals : 2891 Ahmad : Musnad of Banu Hashim : 1833, 3062 The Hanafis and Hanbalis have held that a female pilgrim should be accompanied by her husband or a person unmarriageable to her. The Shafi`is have held that she may be

accompanied by her husband, a person unmarriageable to her or by pious and upright women; and some said that only one pious and upright woman is enough. The Malikis maintained that she can go in the company of a trustworthy group if she could reach Mecca in no more than full day. If a woman does not fulfill this condition and goes to perform Hajj alone without her husband or a relative unmarriageable to her, her Hajj is valid but she shall bear the sin of not abiding by the commands of Hajj. These conditions are only required in the obligatory Hajj or `Umrah. Seeking the husband's permission to perform Hajj: A husband has no right to forbid his wife from performing the obligatory Hajj or a votive Hajj, but he can forbid her from going on a voluntary Hajj. In this case, she is to bear the costs of the necessary companion, but neither her husband nor the relative unmarriageable to her is obliged to travel with her. As for the women giving birth to a child or having monthly period, they should complete the Hajj rituals except circumambulating the Sacred House. This is based on the hadith of `A'shah (Allah may be pleased with her) said: I came to Mecca while having my monthly period and performed neither circumambulation around the Sacred House nor Sa`i between Safa and Marwah. I narrated this to the Prophet (peace be upon him) who said: "Act as a pilgrim should act but avoid circumambulation until you get pure." In case she gets impure due to menstruation or childbirth before performing the Arrival Circumambulation, she is not obliged to perform it and nothing is required from her. In case she gets impure due to menstruation or childbirth before performing the Ifadah Circumambulation, she should maintain her state of Ihram until she gets pure and then circumambulate. Malikis, Shafi`is and Hanbalis held that her Circumambulation would not be accepted so long as she is in the state of menstruation. Hanafis maintained that her Circumambulation is valid, yet undesirable and sinful. In case she gets impure due to menstruation or childbirth after performing the Ifadah Circumambulation, she is not obliged to perform the Farewell Circumambulation. Children's Hajj Hajj is not obligatory on children. However, if they perform Hajj, it will be valid but does not exempt them from performing the obligatory Hajj. Once, a woman brought a boy to Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) and asked, "Would the Hajj of this boy be valid?" He said, "Yes, and you will have a reward for doing so." Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) said,

" When we performed Hajj with Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him), we had our women and children with us. We pronounced Talbiah and threw pebbles on behalf of our children." Muslim : Ch. Hajj : 2377 Al-Nasa'i : Ch. Hajj Rituals : 2597, 2598, 2599, 2600, 2601 Abu Dawud: Ch. Rituals : 1475 Ibn Majah : Ch. Rituals : 2898 Ahmad : Musnad Banu Hashim : 1800, 2078, 2479, 3027, 3033 Malik : Ch. Hajj : 839 If children perform Hajj, it will be obligatory for them to perform Hajj again when they attain puberty. Likewise, if a slave performs Hajj and then gains his freedom, he will have to perform Hajj again if he is able to finance the journey. Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with the son and his father) reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "If a boy performs Hajj and then attains puberty, he should perform Hajj again. And if a slave performs Hajj and then gains his freedom, he should perform Hajj again." If the child reaches the age of discretion, he can enter the state of Ihram and perform the rituals of Hajj alone. Otherwise, his guardian can perform the rites on his behalf, pronounce Talbiah, circumambulate with him, run between Safa and Marwah, stand at `Arafah, and throw the pebbles on his behalf. If he attains puberty before standing at `Arafah or during it, he will not have to perform Hajj again Malik maintained that this Hajj will not suffice the child, while the Hanafis held that it does suffice him if he renews his Ihram after attaining puberty. Medina Saturday 26-11-10 A.H. 22-2-632 A.C. 1.-The Prophet (peace be upon him) stayed in Medina for ten years, offering sacrifice every year, but did not perform Hajj. In Dhul-Qa`dah, 10 A.H., he determined to set off for Hajj, and made a public announcement that he was about to perform Hajj. Thus, when the people living around Medina knew about that, everyone who could afford to come whether riding or walking did come. Therefore, a large number of people came to Medina. On his way to Mecca, the Prophet was accompanied by innumerable people surrounding him on every side, in front and behind him, and both on his right and left sides. All of them were eager to imitate Allah's Messenger and follow his example. Al-Tirmidhi : Ch. Sacrificial Animals: 1427 Ahmad : Oft-Narrating Companions : 4715 Ibn Majah : Ch. Rituals : 3065

Muslim : Ch. Hajj : 2137 Al-Nasa'i : Ch. Hajj Rituals : 2690 Abu Dawud : Ch. Rituals : 1628 Ahmad : The Rest of Oft-Narrating Companions : 13918 Al-Darimi : Ch. Rituals : 1778 2.-When the Prophet (peace be upon him) determined to set out, he appointed Abu Dujanah Sammak bin Kharshah Al-Sa`idi as the ruler of Medina. It is said that the appointed ruler was Sabba` bin `Arfatah. Allah, Exalted and Almighty, knows best. 3.-Having performed the Noon Prayer, the Prophet (peace be upon him) delivered a sermon in which he taught people the rituals they were to perform.

4.-Then he called for his she-camel and marked it on the right side of its hump, removed the blood from it and tied two sandals around its neck; and the rest of the she-camels was then marked and tied around their necks by other people. He put his she-camel in the charge of Najiah bin Jundub Al-Aslami. Muslim : Ch. Hajj : 2184 Al-Tirmidhi : Ch. Hajj : 830 Al-Nasa'i : Ch. Hajj Rituals : 2723, 2724 Abu Dawud : Ch. Rituals : 1490 Ibn Majah : Ch. Rituals : 3088 Ahmad : Musnad of Banu Hashim : 1758, 2397 Al-Darimi : Ch. Rituals : 1832

5.-The Prophet (peace be upon him) bathed, applied perfume, put on a gown and wrapper and said, "O Allah, let my Hajj be accepted, free of hypocrisy and showing off." Ibn Majah : Ch. Rituals : 2881 6.-The Prophet (peace be upon him) left Medina on Saturday, the 25th of Dhul-Qa`dah on Al- Shajarah [The Tree] route, which he used to take. He prayed in the mosque therein. Visiting Medina

Declaring The Sacredness Of Medina Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) declared Medina to be as sacred as Abraham (peace be upon him) had declared Mecca to be. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "What lies between its (Medina's) two lava plains is sacred." Borders of the Sanctuary of Medina 1. What lies between its two lava plains: The Eastern one, previously known as "Hirrat Waqim", and the Western one, known as "Hirrat Al-Wabrah." 2. Its three small mountains (Tudaru, Umm Khalid and Al-`Aqil or Al-`Aqir) are declared sacred. These mountains overlook Al-`Aqiq Valley on the western side of `Urwah Well (near the Islamic University). 3. Declaring the sacredness of what lies between Thaur and `Air: * Thaur is a small, red mountain located behind Uhud. Nowadays, the airport road passes behind it.

`Air is a huge, black mountain located to the southern east of Dhul-Hulaifah (Abyar `Ali). On its western pass runs the Hijrah Highway.

1. V erily, Medina is one of the most beloved places to Allah, the Exalted, because of the following merits: It is the land of His Prophet's migration (peace be upon him), it is his couch, and its people are his neighbors and supporters. Moreover, it is the abode of Faith, for to it returns Faith at the end of time. At its entrances, there are Guardian Angels. Neither Antichrist nor the Plague will be admitted to it. It will be the last city in the world to be ruined. It is the land of receiving Revelation [Wahi]. There is no place in Medina that has not had Qur'anic verses or Prophetic hadith revealed or said therein. It is the Sanctuary of Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him). 2. Whoever intends evil actions against Medina, Allah will wipe him out just as water dissolves salt. It expels its impious inhabitants. For it Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) made these supplications: * O Allah! Make Medina as dear to us as You made Mecca dear or more.

Ibn Majah : Ch. Scaraficial Animals : 3149 * O Allah! Increase in Medina twice the blessing (Thou showered) upon Mecca.

Al-Bukhari : Ch. Hajj : 1752 Muslim : Ch. Hajj : 2432 Ahmad : The Rest of Oft-narrating Companions : 11999 * O Allah! Bless our Medina, bless us in our Sa` and Mudd, and make twice Thy blessing.

Tabarani in Al-Ausat with an Authentic Chain * Let him die in Medina who can do so.

Offering types Redemption Committing harm, wearing prohibited clothes, or applying perfume:

One is to choose from three things, as follows: * To fast three days. * To feed six indigent persons, giving six Sa`s (an amount of grains) to each one. * To slaughter a ewe, since Allah the Almighty says,

"If any of you is ill,or has an ailment in his scalp, (necessitating shaving), (he should) in compensation either fast, or feed the poor, or offer sacrifice." [196] And complete the Hajj or Umra in the service of Allah, but if ye are prevented (from completing it), send an offering for sacrifice, such as ye may find, and do not shave your heads until the offering reaches the place of sacrifice. And if any of you is ill, or has an ailment in his scalp, (necessitating shaving), (he should) in compensation either fast, or feed the poor, or offer sacrifice; and when ye are in peaceful conditions (again), if any one wishes to continue the Umra on to the Hajj, he must make an offering such as he can afford, but if he cannot afford it, he should fast three days during the Hajj and seven days on his return, making ten days in all. This is for those whose household is not in (the precincts of) the Sacred Mosque, and fear Allah, and know that Allah, is strict in punishment. Killing a Matched Wild Game: A killer of a matched wild game is offered a choice either to offer its like in a domesticated animal, or evaluate its like in dirhams for providing food for indigent persons giving a Mud to each one or to fast a day for each Mudd as an expiation for killing the game. Killing a Matchless Wild Game: A killer of a matchless wild game is offered a choice either to feed indigent persons or to fast. Having flirtatious touches with one's wife without having intercourse: In this case , the redemption is exactly as the one for committing harm. Having intercourse: * Before the first removal of Ihram: The redemption is to slaughter a she-cammel or cow. In case he can not afford it, he is to fast three days during the time of Hajj and seven on his return.

* After the first removal of Ihram: The redemption is exactly as that for committing harm. The Offering It is the animal slaughtered and dedicated to the Sacred House as a devotional act. Voluntary Offering Definition: It is an animal, free of defects, offered at the Sacred House as a devotion to the Almighty Allah. Evidence: The Prophet (peace be upon him) offered one hundred she-camels during his Hajj.On another occasion, he offered sheep. Al-Bukhari : ch.Hajj : 1603 Ahmed : Musnad of Banu Hashim : 2241 , 2302 , 2732 The Rest Oft-Narrating Comparions : 1391 , 14022 , 14416 Al-Darimi : Ch. Rituals : 1778 Muslim : Ch. Hajj : 2137 Ibn Majah : Ch. Rituals : 3067 Rule: Voluntary Offering is preferable for the one who performs Ifrad Hajj and the performer of `Umrah. It is also preferable for them to eat from the offering. This is based on the hadith: The Prophet (peace be upon him) ordered that a piece from each slaughered camel be cooked and he ate from it and drank of its broth. Ibn Majah : Ch. Sacrifical Animals : 3149 It is permitted for one not on Hajj to send an offering to Mecca in order to be slaughtered as an act of devotion to the Almighty Allah. Place of Sacrifice: The Sanctuary.

Kinds: A five-year-old she-camel, a two-year-old cow or a six-month-old sheep. Tamattu` Offering Definition: It is an animal, free of defects, offered at the Sacred House as a devotion to the Almighty Allah. Evidence: The Almighty Allah says, "If anyone wishes to continue the `Umrah on to the Hajj, he must make an offering, such as he can afford." If one couldn't afford to make an offering, he should fast three days during Hajj and seven days on his return, in accordance with the Almighty Allah's order, "But if he can not afford it, he should fast three days during the Hajj and seven days on his return." Place of Sacrifice: There is no place other than the Sanctuary. The offering is to be distributed among the poor and penniless therein. Also, it is permissible to distribute the offering among the poor Muslims in general. Ihsar [Prevention] Offering Definition: It is an animal, free of defects, offered at the Sacred House as a devotion to the Almighty Allah. Evidence: Its legal evidence is the Qura'nic verse, "But if ye are prevented (from completing it), send an offering for sacrifice, such as ye may find." Rule: It is obligatory for the one who has been prevented from completing his Hajj and was forced to remove his Ihram before fulfilling his rituals. Place of Sacrifice:

Sacrifice should be offered in the place where one has been prevented from going to the Sacred Mosque. Kinds: One -seventh of a she-camel or cow, or a full sheep. The Sacrificial Animal Definition: It is the animal, whether a camel, cow, or sheep, being slaughtered as a devotional act. Slaughtering Time: It begins immediately after performing the Feast Prayer on the Day of Sacrifice the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah Rule: It is a stressed Sunnah, since Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "No devotional act performed on the Day of Sacrifice is dearer to Allah than letting (the animals') blood flow. On the Day of Judgment, their horns, hoofs and hair certainly will be brought (as witnesses). Allah accepts the blood even before it drops on the ground. Thus, purify yourselves thereof." Ibn Majah : Ch. Sacrifical Animals : 3117 Al-Tirmidhi : Ch. Sacrifical Animals : 1413 It was ordained by Islam in the second year of Hijrah. "Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) sacrificed with his own hands two horned rams which were white with black markings reciting the name of Allah and glorifying Him (saying Allah-u-akbar). He placed his foot on their sides (while sacrificing)." Al-Bukhari : Ch. Sacrifical Animals : 5132 , 5139 Muslim : Ch. Sacrifical Animals : 3635 , 3636 Al-Tirmidhi : Ch. Sacrifical Animals : 1414 Al-Nasa'i : Ch. Victims : 4311 , 4339 , 4340 , 4342 Ibn Majah : Ch. Sacrifical Animals : 3111 Ahmed : Musnad of Oft-Narrating Companions : 11522 , 11704 , 12275 , 12427 12500 , 12725 , 13461 , 12757 , 11845 , 13186 Kinds: A five-year-old camel, a two-year-old cow, or a six-month-old sheep. Seven people may share sacrificing a camel or a cow.

Distribution: It is permissible for the one who offers sacrifice to eat one-third, give the second third as a present, and the rest as charity. It will do no harm if he eats more, but in case he eats it all, he will be required to offer the minimum part of it that will serve for charity. Slaughter: The prophet (peace be upon him) would glorify Allah the Almighty, saying "Allah-uakbar" [Allah is the Greatest] after pronouncing Tasmiah (saying, 'In the name Of Allah'), and offer peace and prayer for the Prophet; then say, "O, Allah! This is from You and for You, I beg You to accept this from me." Qur'an Stories > The Sacrificed When Abraham (peace be upon him) left his people's land, he asked his Lord to bless him with a pious son. Therefore, Allah gave him glad tidings that he would be the father of a gentle son, Ishmael (peace be upon him). Ishmael was born when Abraham, the Close One to Allah, was eighty-six years old. When Ishmael was old enough to walk, Abraham saw in a dream that he sacrificed his son. As prophets' dreams are revelations, Abraham's dream was a great trial with which Allah afflicted him. The Qur'an says, "He [Abraham] said; 'O my dear son, I have seen in a dream that I must sacrifice you, so look, what do you think?'" [102] Then, when (the son) reached (the age of) (serious) work with him, he said: "O my son! I see in vision that I offer thee in sacrifice: now see what is thy view!" (the son) said: "O my father! do as thou art commanded: thou will find me, if Allah so wills, one practising Patience and Constancy!" [103] So when they had both submitted their wills (to Allah), and he had laid him prostrate on his forehead (for sacrifice), [104] We called out to him, "O Ibrahim! [105] "Thou hast already fulfilled the vision!" thus indeed do We reward those who do right. [106] For this was obviously a trial, In reply, Ishmael said, "O my father! Do what you have been commanded. Allah willing, you shall find me of the steadfast."

[103] So when they had both submitted their wills (to Allah), and he had laid him prostrate on his forehead (for sacrifice), [104] We called out to him, "O Ibrahim! [105] "Thou hast already fulfilled the vision!" thus indeed do We reward those who do right. [106] For this was obviously a trial, [107] And We ransomed him with a momentous sacrifice: [108] And We left (this blessing) for him among generations (to come) in later times: [109] "Peace and salutation to Ibrahim!" [110] Thus indeed do We reward those who do right [111] For he was one of Our believing Servants. Then, they were commanded to submit themselves to Allah's Will. The Qur'an says, "When they had both submitted their wills (to Allah), and he had laid him prostrate on his forehead (for sacrifice)." As Abraham and Ishmael submitted to Allah's Will and began to carry out His commandment, Allah sent angels with glad tidings. The Qur'an says, "We called out to him, `O Abraham! Thou hast already fulfilled the vision!' Thus indeed We reward those who do right. This was obviously a trial. And We ransomed him with a momentous sacrifice. And We left (blessing) for him among generations (to come) in Later times. Peace and salutation to Abraham! Thus indeed do We reward those who do right. For he was one of Our believing servants."

[104] We called out to him, "O Ibrahim! [105] "Thou hast already fulfilled the vision!" thus indeed do We reward those who do right. [106] For this was obviously a trial, [107] And We ransomed him with a momentous sacrifice: [108] And We left (this blessing) for him among generations (to come) in later times: [109] "Peace and salutation to Ibrahim!" [110] Thus indeed do We reward those who do right [111] For he was one of Our believing Servants. [112] And We gave him the good news of Ishaq - a prophet - one of the Righteous.

When Abraham and his son Ishmael passed the trial successfully, Allah redeemed Ishmael's life with a white ram that had sound eyes and horns which Abraham found tied to a tree near Thabir Mount. So he sacrificed it at Mina. Afterwards, this act has been perpetuated by the rituals of Hajj, especially the rite of sacrifice. Qur'an Stories > Laying the Foundation When Allah gave His command to Abraham to build the Sacred House, Abraham immediately went to Mecca to carry out Allah's injunction. When he arrived there, he said to his son Ishmael, "Allah has given me a command, so what shall we do?" Ishmael replied, "Do as Allah has commanded you." "Will you," said Abraham, "support me in it?" Ishmael replied, "My support is with you." Thereupon Abraham, pointing to a hill, said, "Allah has commanded me to build a shrine here." Abraham and Ishmael set forth to lay the foundation of the Sacred House. Ishmael brought the bricks while Abraham laid them until the construction was erected. While engaged in the diligent work of constructing the Holy Shrine, they kept praying to Allah, "Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us: for Thou art the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing. Our Lord! Make of us Muslims bowing to Thy (Will); and show us our places for the celebration of (due) rites; and turn unto us (in mercy); for Thou art the Oft-Returning, most Merciful."

[128] "Our Lord! Make of us Muslims bowing to Thy (Will); and of our progeny a people Muslim, bowing to Thy (Will); and show us our places for the celebration of (due) rites; and turn unto us (in Mercy); for Thou art the Oft-Returning, Most Merciful. [129] "Our Lord! Send amongst them a Messenger of their own, who shall rehearse Thy Signs to them and instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom, and sanctify them: for Thou art the Exalted in Might, the Wise." [130] And who turns away from the religion of Ibrahim but such as debase their souls with folly? Him We chose and rendered pure in this world: and he will be in the Hereafter in the ranks of the Righteous. They went on until Allah helped them complete the building. No authentic references state that the Sacred House had been built before Abraham (peace be upon him). However, some people argue that the Sacred House was built before Abraham, supporting their argument by the Qur'anic verses, "Behold! We gave the site, to Abraham, of the (Sacred) House." [26] Behold! We gave the site, to Ibrahim, of the (Sacred) House, (saying): "Associate not anything (in worship) with Me; and sanctify My House for those who compass it round, or stand up, or bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer). [27] "And proclaim the Pilgrimage among men; they will come to thee on foot and (mounted) on every kind of camel, lean on account of journeys through deep and distant mountain highways; [28] "That they may witness the benefits (provided) for them, and celebrate the name of Allah, through the Days Appointed, over the cattle which He has provided for them (for sacrifice): then eat ye thereof and feed the distressed ones in want. These verses suggest that the foundations and the site existed before Abraham. Nevertheless, the sound view is that these verses mean that the location and site of the Sacred House had been determined in Allah's Eternal Knowledge the day He created the

heavens and the earth. Thus the location of the House had been known, but the actual process of construction was carried out first by Abraham, the Close One to Allah, and his son, Ishmael (peace be upon them both). Other stories related to the construction of the House have been attributed to the Israelites. Such stories are not to be either accepted or rejected, for the best knowledge is with Allah, the All-Knowing. When Abraham, the Close One to Allah, built the Sacred House, he made it according to the following specifications: * * * * * Height: 9 cubits. Length (from the Black Stone to the Syrian Corner): 32 cubits. Width (from the Syrian Corner to the Western Corner): 22 cubits. Length (from the Western Corner to the Syrian Corner): 31 cubits. Width (from the Yemeni Corner to the Black Stone): 20 cubits.

He made a door frame on the ground level, but did not fix a door to it. It remained so until Tubba` of Himiar made a door for the Sacred House. Abraham (peace be upon him) founded the House on two pillars: the two Yemeni Corners. Next to the Black Stone, he did not make any pillars, but built it in a half circle as it can be found today. It has been found in some narrations that Abraham (peace be upon him) built the Sacred House when he was one-hundred years old. Best knowledge is with Allah. Qur'an Stories > The Hajj Call When Abraham (peace be upon him) completed the construction of the Ka`bah, Allah, the Exalted and Almighty, commanded him to call all people on earth to perform Hajj [Pilgrimage] to the Sacred House, "And proclaim the Pilgrimage among men; they will come to thee on foot and (mounted) on every kind of camel, lean on account of journeys through deep and distant mountain highways."

[27] "And proclaim the Pilgrimage among men; they will come to thee on foot and (mounted) on every kind of camel, lean on account of journeys through deep and distant mountain highways; [28] "That they may witness the benefits (provided) for them, and celebrate the name of Allah, through the Days Appointed, over the cattle which He has provided for them (for sacrifice): then eat ye thereof and feed the distressed ones in want. [29] "Then let them complete the rites prescribed for them, perform their vows, and (again) circumambulate the Ancient House." Abraham, the Close One to Allah, said, "O my Lord! How can the range of my voice reach all people?" Allah, the Almighty, said, "You call, and I will convey your call." Thereupon, Abraham (peace be upon him) mounted Mount Abu Qubais, covered his ears with his fingers and moved his head once towards the east and once towards the west while calling, "O people! Allah has ordained that you should perform Hajj to the Sacred House. So answer your Lord's call." Allah, the Almighty, conveyed Abraham's message to all children of Adam, and to those still in the loins of their fathers and the wombs of their mothers. So all pilgrims answered his call saying, "O Allah! Here I am, at Thy call." Qur'an Stories > Abraham's Hajj After Abraham (peace be upon him) carried out Allah's command to call all people to go on pilgrimage, Gabriel accompanied him and showed him the hills of Safa and Marwah, and defined for him the boundaries of the Sacred Mosque. Gabriel commanded Abraham to divide these boundaries by a wall. On the 7th of Dhul-Hijjah, after sunset, Abraham (peace be upon him) delivered a sermon at Mecca. He was standing while his son Ishmael sat down, listening to him. On the next day, they went on foot proclaiming Talbiah (i.e. saying, "O Allah! Here I am at Thy call). Each was carrying a staff to lean on and a waterskin to drink from. So it was called the Day of Tarwiah [Watering]. They went to Mina, and there they performed the Noon, Afternoon, Sunset, Night and Morning Prayers. Abraham and Ishmael stayed at Mina until the sun rose over Mount Thabir, then they went on foot, accompanied by Gabriel, to `Arafah. Gabriel showed them the sites at `Arafah, which Abraham had visited earlier. So Abraham said, "I know this site and I know that site. "So it was called Mount `Arafah [Knowledge].

When the sun set, Gabriel escorted them to a place which is now the site of the Holy Mosque. There Abraham stood up to deliver a short sermon, while Ishmael sat, listening to him. Then, Abraham, along with Ishmael, combined the Noon and Afternoon Prayers. Afterwards, Gabriel led them to the nearby hills, and there they kept praying and supplicating to Allah until the sun set, and its glittering light disappeared from the distant horizon of the arid desert. Then they set out from `Arafah on foot until they reached a place called Juma`. There they stopped, performed Sunset and Night Prayers, and stayed until the break of dawn. Then they went to Quzah. When the sun was about to rise, they walked along until they reached Muhassir. They hastened their pace until they crossed it, then returned to their normal pace. They threw seven pebbles, which they gathered from Juma`, at the Jamrat Al-`Aqabah. Then they left Mina at dawn to offer a sacrifice and cut their hair. Then they spent some days at Mina to throw the pebbles. There they threw the pebbles every day before noon, riding no animals in their way to or from the throwing place. They returned on the 'Day of Return', and performed Noon Prayer at Al-Abtah. Throughout all these rituals, they were accompanied by Gabriel (peace be upon him). Qur'an Stories > The Companions of The Elephant Abrahah built a unique church in San`a called Al-Qullais and wrote to Negus, "I have built a church the like of which has not been built for a king before you. Yet, I shall not find rest until I make the Arabs divert their Pilgrimage to it (instead of the Ka`bah)." When the news of Abrahah's letter to Negus reached the Arabs, a man from the Kinanah tribe became so enraged that he went to Al-Qullais, found a hiding place inside it, and defecated. Abrahah, on learning about this, became so furious that he swore he would demolish the Ka`bah. He gave the order to the Abyssinians to march towards the Ka`bah, and took an elephant with him. Meanwhile, the Arabs were greatly perturbed to learn about Abrahah's plan. Abrahah dispatched a cavalry troop to Mecca headed by Al-Aswad bin Mafsul, who captured the property of the Kinanah and other tribes. Among the spoils were two hundred camels belonging to `Abdul-Muttalib, the chief of the Quraish. At first, the Kinanah and Huzail intended to fight against the Abyssinians, yet they gave up the idea when they realized that their enemy greatly overpowered them both in number and ordnance. Then Abrahah sent a man called Hanatah Al-Himiari to Mecca with a message to `Abdul-Muttalib informing him that Abrahah had no intention to fight them, and that he was coming to Mecca for a specific purpose (to demolish the Ka`bah). He, further, told `Abdul-Muttalib that Abrahah wished to meet him if he also had no intention to fight. `Abdul-Muttalib replied, "By Allah neither have we the intention, nor enough power to fight him. The Ka`bah is Allah's House; He alone can defend His house, or else let them demolish it." `Abdul-Muttalib took some of his sons and went with the messenger to meet Abrahah. When he saw some Abyssinian soldiers, he asked them about a prisoner called Dha Nafar who was his friend. When he met his prisoned friend, he said, "O Dha Nafar, could you not find a solution for this problem?" "A prisoner like

me who expects his death sentence at any moment is of no avail to you," replied Dha Nafar. "Yet I can ask my friend Anis who takes care of the elephant to arrange a meeting for you with the king, so that you could convey your wishes to him." So, Dha Nafar sent for Anis saying, "I have a friend called `Abdul-Muttalib who is well-known for his generosity and high status among his people. He is also the owner of the well in Mecca. I ask you to speak well of him to the king and try to get him permission to approach the king to present his case concerning the two hundred camels which the king has seized." After Anis conveyed this message to the king, `Abdul-Muttalib was given permission to have an audience with him. When the king saw `Abdul-Muttalib, he was so impressed by his good countenance and solemn appearance that he refrained from speaking with him from a higher place. Yet he did not like to be seen sitting with him on his own divan. So he descended from his divan, and sat on the rug at the foot of the divan and permitted `Abdul-Muttalib to sit beside him.Then, he told his interpreter to ask `Abdul-Muttalib to present his plea. Thereupon `Abdul-Muttalib requested that the king give him back the two hundred camels which he had taken. Thereupon, the king said to his interpreter, "Tell him that I was very impressed when I first saw him, but I have changed my mind after listening to him. How can he discuss the case of the two hundred camels that I have taken, rather than the matter of demolishing the Ka`bah, which represents a sacrosanct site for him and for his forefathers?" `Abdul-Muttalib replied, "As for the camels, I am their lord, so I have a just cause to defend them. But with regard to the House, its Lord will protect it." "Nonsense!" replied the king, "In no way could He stand in my way or prevent me from doing that." "So be it," were the last words uttered by `Abdul-Muttalib. It was then that the king gave the camels back to him. `Abdul-Muttalib returned home and told the Quraish what had happened, and advised them to evacuate Mecca and to take the mountain top for shelter. Then, while the assemblies of people surrounded him, he grasped the ring of the Ka`bah's door, and flew into a storm of invocation to Allah, asking Him to destroy and strike down Abrahah and his soldiers. The following morning Abrahah mobilized his army and prepared his elephant which was called Mahmud. When they led the elephant in the direction of Mecca, the Meccan Nufail bin Habib drew near the elephant and whispered in its ear, "O Mahmud! Kneel down, or return with guided steps; for thou art in a land which has been declared sacred by Allah." On hearing these words, the elephant kneeled down. Enraged, the Abyssinians beat it hard to urge it to stand up, but it was useless. When they directed it in other directions such as towards Yemen and Syria, it would rise up hastily, but kneeled down when directed towards Mecca. Before long Allah sent hook-like birds coming from the direction of the sea . Each bird carried three stones; one in its beak and two in its legs. These stones were the size of lentils or chick-peas, but were so lethal that they fell upon no one without killing him, and very few survived. The Abyssinians scattered here and there falling down, seeking refuge and finding none. As for Abrahah, he was so badly injured that his fingers fell off. He continued his suffering until he reached San`a where he succumbed.

Qur'an Stories > The Begining of Revelation `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, reports: The first revelation experiences of the Prophet were in the form of visions in his sleep which later came to pass. At that stage, whenever he saw a vision, it was as true as the bright gleam of dawn. Later he became fond of going to Hira' Cave and worshipping Allah therein for many nights. Then he would go to his wife Khadijah to get provisions and return again to the cave. A divine revelation came to him while he was in Hira' Cave. An angel appeared to him and said "Read!", He replied, "I am unlettered." The angel then hugged the Prophet until he became exhausted, and after letting him go said, "Read!" The Prophet said, "I am unlettered." For the second time, the angel hugged him until he became tired, and after letting him go said, "Read!" The Prophet again replied, "I am unlettered." For the third time the angel hugged him until he became so tired and after letting him go said, "Read! In the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created - created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood: Read! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful, He who taught (The use of) the pen, taught man that which he knew not. " [2] Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood: [3] Proclaim! and thy Lord is Most Bountiful, [4] He Who taught (the use of) the Pen, [5] Taught man that which he knew not. [6] Nay, but man doth transgress all bounds, [7] In that he looketh upon himself as selfsufficient. [8] Verily, to thy Lord is the return (of all). [9] Seest thou one who forbids, [10] A votary when he (turns) to pray? [11] Seest thou if he is on (the road of) Guidance? [12] Or enjoins Righteousness? [13] Seest thou if he denies (Truth) and turns away? The Prophet (peace be upon him) returned home having committed those verses to his heart, and he was trembling. He entered the house and found Khadijah bint Khuwailid and said to her, "Cover me! Cover me!" Khadijah and her household covered him until his fears were allayed. He told Khadijah what had happened and said, "I fear for myself." Khadijah said, "Do not fear, by Allah, He will never humiliate you. By Allah, you strengthen the ties of relationship, you bear people's burdens, you help the destitute, you are a host to guests, and you help against the troubles which afflict people." Then Khadijah took him to her cousin Waraqah bin Naufal bin Asad bin`Abdul-`Uzza. He was a Christian and used to write from the Gospel in Hebrew. He was then an old, blind man, and Khadijah said to him, "O my cousin, listen to your nephew." Waraqah bin Naufal

said, "What did you see my nephew?" Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) told him what he had seen. Waraqah said to him, "This is like the message that was revealed to Moses. I wish I were young. I wish I could be alive when your people drive you out." Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) asked, "Will my people drive me out?" Waraqah said, "Yes, for no man has come with what you have brought, but was opposed. If I were to live during your era, I would give you great support." Not long after that, Waraqah died and the revelation stopped for some time.