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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter detailed the procedure followed in conducting the study. It included the research method used, respondents of the study, the instruments used, the data gathering procedures and the statistical treatment of data.

Research Method Used In this study, the descriptive method of research was used to illustrate and determine the mutual relationship of Sindo Resources Incorporateds quality control practices to Demings Total Quality Management principles. The descriptive method describes the nature of a situation, as it exists at the time of study. Descriptive Research is grouping that includes many particular research methodologies procedures, such as observation, surveys, self-reports, and tests. It focuses on a particular variable or factor. Descriptive Research method describes the nature of activation as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the causes of particulars phenomena and involving collections of data in order to test by hypotheses or to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study (Estolas & Macaballug, 2002 cited in Baysa, Geronimo & Salvador, 2008). As used in this research, gathered, treated, are data on employees perspective such as age of each employee, as well as their gender, civil status, highest educational attainment, the number of their dependents and their length of service in the company.

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This method of research was appropriate for the study because it gives a clear picture of the perceptions of the employee towards the Total Quality Management (TQM).

Respondents of the Study The respondents of this research were the middle to top management of Sindo Resources Incorporated. The estimated targeted respondents of this study are about 50 management employees. Due to small populations of employees, 38 respondents were able to answer the survey questionnaire.

Research Instruments Used In this study conducted by the researchers, they used a survey questionnaire as the principal instrument in gathering the data. Primarily, the context of the study was based on the book, An Introduction to Operations Management written by Jay Heizer and Barry Render in 2006. All of Deming's Total Quality Management principles were carefully developed into seven concepts for an effective Total Quality Management Program. The questionnaire is composed of the following: Part (1) the profile of the respondents age, gender, civil status, highest educational attainment, number of economic dependents, and length of the service in the company. Part (2) the perception of the management

employee on the Deming's Total Quality Management principles and Sindo Resources Incorporated's Quality Control Practices with regards of the following Continuous improvement/Kaizen, Six sigma, Benchmarking, Just-in-time, Taguchi concepts,

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Employee empowerment and Knowledge of TQM tools was used to determine the objectives of the study. Some of the required information in the study was gathered by the researchers from reading materials, textbooks, unpublished thesis, and internet.

Validation of the Instrument The questionnaire of this research were carefully developed by the proponents based on the all the materials -- books, internet articles, theses and other publications -gathered in the course of the study. The questionnaire was submitted to the research adviser for examination. Unabruptedly, it passed through several rejections and revision until then it was finally approved for contact survey without conducting test for validity and reliability. The instrument was also sought for an intellectual criticism of Ms. Dolores S. Ocampo, English teacher, Antipolo National High School. It was duly advised to place immediate corrections for grammatical error found thereto. In determining the validity, the adviser, Dr. Baysa, forethought not to test validity and reliability, since the questionnaires were prepared on a firmly established and universally accepted principle. As a result, all the questions are deemed suitable in conducting the study and test of reliability and validity is dispensed with.

Data Gathering Procedures The researchers first undertook an extensive reading before the final topic of the research was approved. Quality management has been chosen by the proponents as the

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subject of the study after passing through a lot of constructive criticisms from the thesis adviser. After the acceptance of the proposal, the proponents started in gathering all materials relevant to the study. Mostly, foreign books are consulted to fully understand the underlying principles of Total Quality Management. Supplement materials available in the library of College of Accountancy -- PUP Sta. Mesa, from the internet, and National Library have been used in the conduct of the research.

Statistical Treatment of Data The following statistical methods were used in the presentation and interpretation of the data collected by the researchers:

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Frequency and Percentage Distribution.

This treatment was used to organize,

summarize, and present the responses of the employees on their assessment on the effectiveness of the Total Quality Management Practices and suggested measure to remedy the problems. Formula: Percentage (%) = (f/n) 100 Where: %= is the percentage of distribution f = is the frequency n = is the total number of respondents

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2. Weighted Mean. This was used to reveal the common perception of the respondents regarding the Total Quality Management Practices. Formula: x = f/N Where: x = is the mean f = is the frequency N = is the total number of frequency Mean, Frequency and Rank was used to identify the standing of the responses based on each respondent's profile and their level of perceptions regarding the Total Quality Management practices implemented in Sindo Resources Incorporated. 3. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA or F-Test) ANOVA was developed by Fisher, a famous statistician from whom the term Ftest came. It was used to test the significance of difference between means of three or more sets of data simultaneously. It is a method of dividing the variation of observes on experimental data into different parts, each part assignable to a known source, cause or factor. The formulas to compute ANOVA are: 1. Total Sums of Squares: TSS = x2 x2 N

2. Sum of Squares between Columns:

3. Total Degree of Freedom: Dft = N 1 49

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Between Columns Degree of Freedom: Dfb = k 1

5. Within Columns Degree of Freedom: Dfw = dft dfb 6. Mean Sum of Squares Between Columns:

7. Mean Sum of Squares Within Columns:

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F computed:

Where: N = number of samples Fc = computed value of F Ft = tabular value of F K = number of columns Df = degree of freedom 50

a. Hypothesis Ho= There is no significant variation between the obtained/actual and expected frequencies. b. Decision Rule Reject Ho if computed X2 >X2.05; where X2 .5 critical value with df.

4. Likert Scale. The Rensis Likert Scaling technique of summated rating was applied to indicate the extent of different items. A scale of 5 was used. The scale value, the range of the weighted and verbal interpretation of scale intervals are as follows:

Scale Value 5 4 3 2 1

Range 4.51 5.00 3.51 4.50 2.51 3.50 1.51 2.50 1.00 1.50

Verbal Interpretation Strongly Agree Agree Moderately Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree

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