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INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

The human resources of an organization consist of all people who perform its activities.HRM is concerned with the personal policies and managerial practices and systems that influence the workforce. HRM is the employing people, developing their resources, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services with the job and organizational requirements.

Definitions:
HRM is a planning, organizing, directing and controlling the procurement, development, compensation, integration, production to achieve the individual goals. -Edwin B.Flippo HRM is a systematic planning and controlling of fundamental process affecting involving all organizations, which involves all the employees._ -Wendell French.

Functions of HRM:
The functions of HRM can be broadly classified into two categories, viz. ;(1) managerial functions and(2)operative functions. 1. Managerial functions Managerial functions of personal management involve planning, organizing, directing and controlling. All these functions influence the operative functions

Functions of HRM

i.

Planning: It is predetermined of action. Planning pertains to formulating strategies of personal programmes and changes in advance that will contribute to the organizational goals.

ii.

Organizing: An organization is a means to end. It is essential to carry out the determined course of action.

iii.

Directing: The next logical function after completing planning and organizing is the execution of the plan. The basic function of personal management at any level is motivating, commanding, leading and activating people.

iv.

Controlling: After planning, organizing and directing various activities of personal activities of personal management, the performance is to be verified in

order to know that personal functions are performed in conformity with the plans and directions of an organization.

Operative Functions

The operative functions of personnel management are related to specific activities of personnel management viz., employment, development, compensation and relations. All these functions are interacted by managerial functions. Further these functions are to be performed in conjunction with management functions. Employment It is the first operative function of HRM. Employment is concerned with securing and employing the people possessing required kind and level of human resources necessary to achieve the

organizational objectives. It covers the functions such as job analysis, human resources planning, recruitment, selection, placement, induction and internal mobility. Job Analysis: It is the process of study and collection of information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. It includes: 1.Collection of data, information, facts and ideas relating to various aspects of jobs including men, machines and materials. 2.Preparation of job description, job specification, job requirements and employee specification which help in identifying the nature, levels and quantum of human resources. 3.Providing the guides, plans and basis for job design and for all operative functions of HRM. Human Resources Planning: It is a process for determination and assuring that the organization will have an adequate number of qualified persons, available at proper times, performing jobs which would meet the needs of the organization and which would provide satisfaction for the individuals involved. It involves Estimation of present and future requirement and supply of human resources basing on objectives and long range plans of the organization. Calculation of net human resources requirement based on present inventory of human resources. Taking steps to mould, change, and develop the strength of existing employees in the organization so as to meet the future human resources requirements. Preparation of action programs to get the rest of human resources from outside the organization and to develop the human resources of existing employees. Recruitment: It is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organization. It deals with:
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(a) Identification of existing sources of applicants and developing them. (b) Creation / Identification of new sources of applicants. (c) Stimulating the candidates to apply for jobs in the organization. (d) Striking a balance between internal and external sources. Selection: It is the process of ascertaining the qualifications, experience, skill, knowledge etc., of an applicant with a view to appraising his / her suitability to a job appraising. This function includes: (a) Framing and developing application blanks. (b) Creating and developing valid and reliable testing techniques. (c) Formulating interviewing techniques. (d) Checking of references. (e) Setting up medical examination policy and procedure. (f) Line managers decision. (g) Sending letters of appointment and rejection. (h) Employing the selected candidates who report for duty. Placement: It is the process of assigning the selected candidate with the most suitable job in terms of job requirements. It is matching of employees specifications with job requirements. This function includes: (a) Counseling the functional managers regarding placement.

(b) Conducting follow-up study, appraising employee performance in order to determine employees adjustment with the job. (c) Correcting misplacements, if any. Induction and Orientation: Induction and orientation are the techniques by which a new employee is rehabilitated in the changed surroundings and introduced to the practices, policies, purposes and people etc., of the organization. (a)Acquaint the employee with the company philosophy, objectives, policies, career planning and development, opportunities, product, market share, social and community standing, company history, culture etc. (b)Introduce the employee to the people with whom he has to work such as peers, supervisors and subordinates. (c)Mould the employee attitude by orienting him to the new working and social environment. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMNET:- Process of training and developing employee to improve and update their knowledge and skills, attitudes and values of employees so that they can perform the present and future jobs more effectively. 1. Performance & Potential Appraisal- It implies the systematic evaluation of employees

with respect to their performance on the job and their potential for development. 2. Training- It is the process by which employees learn knowledge skills & attitudes to

further organizational & personal goals. 3. Executive Development- It is the process of developing managerial talent through

appropriable programs. 4. Career Planning & Development- It involves planning the career of employees and

implementing career plans so as to fulfill the career aspirations of people.

NEED OF THE STUDY


Workers are the resources of the organization. Workers participation in management is very existing need of the organization. Workers involvement is very much essential as if workers are been involved in management. They will be motivated to give good performance. Hence workers must be involved in the management.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY The scope of study is limited to the CIVIMEC and confined to the practices of workers participation in management of this organization at the different levels. The various factors, incentives of the organization, which are motivating the employees to stay with the organization to find out what aspects, are satisfied and dissatisfied by the employee of the organization and the difference in the satisfaction level of executives or non-executives.

Scope of HRM
The scope of HRM Management in the modern days is vast .In face , the scope of HRM was limited to employment and maintenance of and payment of wage and salary. The scope of HRM includes: Objectives of HRM Organization of HRM Strategic HRM Employment Wage and salary administration/compensation Maintenance Motivation Industrial relations Participative management and Recent developments in HRM.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY


To study the workers participation in management practices of the organization at different level. To know the mind-set of the employees of the organization about the practices. To know the stand of the management about its commitment in the practice of workers participation at different levels. To know the legal compliance of the management in practicing the workers participation in management. To find the perception of managers on workers participation in management

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OBJECTIVES OF HRM
Objectives are pre-determined goals to which individual or group or activity in an organization is directed. Objectives of HRM are influenced by social objectives, organizational objectives, functional is objectives and individual. Social objectives Organizational objectives Functional objectives Individual objectives The objectives of HRM may be as follows: 1. To create and utilize an able and motivated workforce, to accomplish the basic organizational goals. 2. To establish and maintain sound organizational structure and desirable working relationships among all the members of the organization.

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3. To secure the integration of individual or groups within the organization by co-ordination of the individual and group goals with those of the organization. 4. To create facilities and opportunities for individual or group development so as to match it with the growth of the organization. 5. To attain an effective utilization of human resources in the achievement of organizational goals. 6. To identify and satisfy individual and group needs by providing adequate and equitable wages, incentives, employee benefits and social security and measures for challenging work, prestige, recognition, security, status.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Methodology Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them. Research methods can be classified in to two types. They are quantitative research methods and qualitative research methods. Quantitative research methods were originally developed in the natural sciences to study natural phenomena. Examples of quantitative methods now well accepted in the social sciences include survey methods, laboratory experiments, formal methods and numerical methods. Qualitative research methods were developed in the social sciences to enable researchers to study social and cultural phenomena. Qualitative data sources include observation and participant
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observation (field work), interviews and questionnaires, documents and texts, and the researcher's impressions and reactions. Here the research is done through questionnaires. The data used for analysis and interpretation is from the responses of the employees for the questionnaire. Comparison of responses is used for interpreting the data. The project is presented by using tables, bar charts with their interpretation. A survey is undertaken in evaluating the effectiveness of Workers participation in management in Civi mech organization.

Sources of the data

Primary data
Primary data is the data which is been collected from the employees or managers through questionnaire or interviews for a specific purpose. It is fresh data which is not their before anywhere.

Secondary data
Secondary data is the already existed data. This can be gathered from books, company records, magazines, and websites.

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LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The study was conducted for a limited time period of 45 days.. The study pertains to only employees of the CIVIMEC Limited samples size taken for the study i.e. 60 Due to heavy work schedule of managers, I was not able to speak to them

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INDUSTRY PROFILE
WEBER CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT PVT LTD Gajanan Tiles Mould Industry is a distinguished name in the market of construction machinery. Set up in the year 2009, we have forged to manufacture and export machinery that confirm to the defined international standards. Taking each challenge seriously we have managed to progress considerably. Set up in Gujarat, our company was founded by Mr. L D Tank. It is the result of his vision and guidance that today we have established ourselves as prominent manufacturers of construction machinery. Our range of product is known for its high performance and consistent quality. To meet the exact demands of the customers we offer tailormade products that satisfactorily serves the customers needs. We manufacture machinery as per

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ISI and international standards that passes all the defined quality parameters. Incepted in the year 2009, we are flourishing under the efficient leadership of Mr. L.D.Tank. Engaged in delivering construction machineries, We are inculcating necessary innovations, dedication to face techno-commercial challenges of the current & future trends

To meet the varied construction needs of our customers we are manufacturing and supplying an extensive range of construction machinery and equipment. Keeping with the pace of growing demands we are striving hard to offer technically advanced and innovative machinery. Our products have always rendered quality service to the customer thus it is known for its reliability and functional utility. Our range includes concrete mixer machinery and concrete batching machinery Mini reversible mixer Concrete batching plant Hydraulic mixer machine Manual 10/7 concrete mixer machinery Without hopper machine Half bag concrete mixer Hand operated half bag concrete mixer

The escalating demand of construction machinery requires us to execute bulk orders on time. The robust and well-equipped manufacturing unit has enabled us to meet our orders with convenience without compromising on the quality quotient. The required tools and equipments are upgraded and revamped at regular intervals. We also induct modern and innovative techniques and methodologies that facilitates our entire production process. With the support of sound infrastructure facilities each division responsible for different processes, is able to make productive contribution to the making of high

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performance construction machines. Warehousing Appropriate handling of the finished product before it is finally dispatched to its destination is very important. We maintain a spacious and well-kept warehouse to store our machines in bulk. We ensure each piece is placed in a pertinent manner so as to avoid any damage or wear and tear before it is delivered to the prospective buyer. Apt storage of the finished construction machines in the warehouse helps us to keep-up or preserve the quality of our manufactured machines for a longer duration of time. Clientle The ultimate goal of customer satisfaction, leading to larger share in the market can be achieved by offering quality products and services at affordable rates. Working on this objective we are striving hard to make available supreme quality construction machines that successfully meet the requirements of the customers. Serving the domestic and overseas customers for more than a decade, pays testimony to our quality service offered to the clients. To enhance the satisfaction level of the customers we are also offering after sales service to the customers. Manpower Goal of expansion and progress cannot be achieved without proper cooperation and coordination of the workforce. We are fortunate to have a pool of highly skilled and experienced team members who make a significant contribution towards achieving our mission of smooth growth in the market. With sound knowledge of the product and long experience in this field they have acquired greater efficiency resulting in the optimal output. It is with their constant dedicated efforts and quality oriented approach that we are able to offer quality machines to our respective clients.

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KARAN ENGINEERING WORKS Offering an outstanding range of inter locking machines, fly ash brick making machines, paver blocks, dies, clay brick machines, pan mixers, color mixers, etc..... An Overview Skilful usage of machinery makes a product perfect in design, accurate in outlay and excellent in application. Karan Engineering Works is a well known manufacturer and supplier of different types of machines such as Inter Locking Machines, Fly Ash Brick Making Machines, Paving Blocks, Die Making Machines, Vibro Forming Machines, Clay Brick Machines and lots more. We are also a reliable service provider offering a wide range of services like market surveying, site selection, raw material testing, project engineering, etc. Our select range of brick making machines and allied tools is available in multiple designs and models conforming to the international quality standards. Avail our products and services at prices extremely competitive in the market and get them delivered at the earliest. Product Range The products that we manufacture and supply include:

Fly Ash Brick Making Machine (automatic) Fly Ash Brick Making Machine (semi automatic) Clay Brick Making Machine (automatic)
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Clay Brick Making Machine (normal bricks) Inter Locking Machine (manual) Inter Locking Machine (push button operated) Inter Locking Machine (automatic D-Mould) Hydraulic Power Pack 1.5 liters to 240 liters per minute (any application) Brick & Block Testing Machine Pallet Trucks Pan Mixer Color Mixer Tiles Mixer Paver Block Machine Electric Panel Concrete Mixer Hydraulic Cylinder (single action and double action) Conveyor Belt.

Standard Quality Every machine and tool that we manufacture is duly tested on various parameters of quality before it is sent to the end users. Our world class quality examining cell is outfitted with latest testing machines and equipments. We have a group of well qualified quality professionals who not only check every product minutely but also take prompt initiatives to weed out the flaws found during the process of quality examination itself. Karan Engineering Works maintains international norms of
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quality at every stage of the production. Infrastructure Our deep understanding of the industry means that we exactly understand our clients' specific requirements. Our rugged infrastructure, huge manpower, latest production techniques and unlimited resources are some key strength that we always boast of. Karan Engineering Works thrives in tandem with the changing market dynamics and therefore, keeps on producing products based on latest techniques to attract more clients far and wide.

COMPANY PROFILE
CIVIMEC ENGINEERING PVT LTD has emerged in the year 2003, with the objective of fulfilling the need of technical support which can eliminate the pressure of maintenance and the operations of plant and machinery in this fast growing construction industry. Started by a team of experienced engineers and the managerial staff who have more than 15 years of experience in the specialized areas of manufacturing, marketing, construction service and earth moving machineries and having vast experience in handling some of the milestone projects to Infrastructure companies, Construction companies. The company is specialized in the technical specifications of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Transmission Lines and Diesel engines. Our key team members have also worked for an Italian based company Ajax Fiori which is a multinational group of companies specialized in the construction equipment manufacturers. The company has started the operation and maintenance contract of the equipments such as Selfloading mobile concrete mixers, concrete batching plants from various customers from southern India. We have also entered in the leasing of the equipment and have brought some machinery and have initiated the project and satisfied the customers.
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Some of the machines have been deployed for the canal lining across Andhra Pradesh. We do complete overhauling of mobile concrete mixer machines, concrete batching plants and transit mixers etc and supply of spares for the equipments. The company has an in-house workshop which facilitates the storage of the spare parts. About company Civimec Engineering Pvt.Ltd. has achieved success in canal and structural work of RMC towards the production, The Company has a in-house of team of talented professionals and highly experienced engineers who have been specifically trained abroad at Italy FIORI & ORU which specializes in the operation, maintenance and repair of the self loading mobile concrete mixers and concrete batching plants.

We also manufacture the components and spares for the concrete equipment and in the process we have initiated to make small size transit mixer with the capacity of 2 cum. In the span of 20 years we have achieved a national wide customer contacts in the industry. Projections We are aiming to acquire land of about 4 acres in an Industrial Area here in Hyderabad wherein we intend setting up a Unit of about 10000 sq.ft with a view to develop the construction machinery with an expected turnover of 10 machines in the ensuing year We do have the projection target to reach 50 machines a year. Vision The vision we have is to be a leadership in the technology in terms of offering the excellent technology and service offerings through sustained growth and strong customer focus.

MISSION
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The mission of the organization was ultimately the customer to satisfy the customer and have a potential customer bases this is what they have earned in these year.

A potential and prospective customer bases that are satisfied with kinds of products they are Dealing with and the kind of service they are giving to the customer.

Company Civimec Engineering Pvt.Ltd. has a professional and vast experienced staff, who are trained in abroad specialized in operating, maintenance and repair of self loading mobile concrete mixers & concrete batching plants. The company aims at supporting the customers in the construction industry by

Leasing equipment (protecting capital investment to the customers) Technical support (spares sales and service) Undertaking sub-contract works Manufacturing construction equipment

Civimec Engineering has some of the following departments

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Civimec leasing division Civimec Leasing Division has nation wide customers in India who lease out the following machinery:

Self loading mobile concrete mixer Transit mixers Batching plants With Skilled Operators and Technicians

Civimec Technical support Division


Indigenized spares supplied with Indian price Maintaining all fast moving spares to reduce the downtime Service setup with under roof and non under roof area in Hyderabad. Suitable for complete dismantle, inspection, assemble and testing of equipment.

Service provided with skilled technicians.

Civimec Manufacturing Division


Mobile Concrete Mixer Transit Mixer Mini Concrete Batching Plant

Support for a Potential collaborator Civimec Engineering Pvt.Ltd. Invites the potential collaborator or organizations to engage in the sharing of the common goal.

We provide the product backup


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We introduce the market Providing the space for the factory setup Steel fabrications at Indian cost which includes (chassis, drum, loading mechanism, hydraulic cylinders and hoses) tyres, fittings and fasteners etc.

Assembling, paint and testing Manpower at Indian cost

Support from Collaborator


Supply of axles, two speed transmission gear box Hydrostatic transmission pump and motor Drum hydraulics and reduction gear box Technical support. Services More than the product sales, every customer expects good quality service, minimum down time, repairing facility and continual technical support from the service providers. Even if the investment level on the particular product line is lower, the customer expects better technology construction equipment. Civimec Engineering Pvt. Ltd. puts its emphasis and also strives hard to provide excellent after sales service and the spare parts support by providing the spares at the door-step of the customer.

We make sure that our customers get quality spare parts and outstanding post sales service through our experienced engineers who have more than 15 years of experience. We also ensure that our customers get the required spare parts in the shortest possible time. Annual Maintenance Contract

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The annual maintenance contract safeguards the customer from any unexpected expenditure in the case when the product under the breakdown. The AMC takes care of the preventive maintenance and in the course of time the parts replacement too.

We have different options in AMC and the customer has an option to choose the type of AMC for his products at his convenience as they are completely categorized based on the product class and its specific need.

The AMC could even involve a resident service technician at the job sites to take care of the equipment maintenance and the repair and have a contingency plan to attend to the problematic situation occurring due to the equipment and to enhance the equipment productivity. The service technician would be completely equipped with the appropriate tools and has the capacity to tackle the equipment maintenance and repair; the contract could even involve the replacement of the spare parts, lubricants and the technical service.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS
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NAME P. Purushotham Selva Raj


Haribabu .D

K.Santhosh Diyakar M karnakar

DESIGNATION Managing Director Director Director International Trade Director Purchase Head Production Manager

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WORKERS PARTICIPATION IN MANAGEMENT Introduction Three groups of managerial decisions affect the workers of any industrial establishment and hence the workers must have a say in it. Economic decisions methods of manufacturing, automation, shutdown, lay-offs, and mergers. Personnel decisions recruitment and selection, promotions, demotions, transfers, grievance settlement, work distribution. Social decisions hours of work, welfare measures, questions affecting work rules and conduct of individual workers safety, health, and sanitation and noise control. Participation basically means sharing the decision-making power with the lower ranks of the organization in an appropriate manner. Definition The concept of WPM is a broad and complex one. Depending on the socio-political environment and cultural conditions, the scope and contents of participation change. Leon C. Megginson Forms of workers participation management 1. Suggestion schemes: Participation of workers can take place through suggestion scheme. Under this method workers are invited and encouraged to offer suggestions for improving the working of the enterprise. A suggestion box is installed and any worker can write his suggestions and drop them in the box. Periodically all the suggestions are scrutinized by the suggestion committee or suggestion screening committee. The committee is constituted by equal representation from the management and the workers. The committee screens various suggestions received from the workers. Good suggestions are accepted for implementation and suitable awards are given to the concerned workers. Suggestion schemes encourage workers interest in the functioning of an enterprise.

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2. Works committee: Under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, every establishment employing 100 or more workers is required to constitute a works committee. Such a committee consists of equal number of representatives from the employer and the employees. The main purpose of this committee is to provide measures for securing and preserving amity and good relations between the employer and the employees. Evolution of the schemes of participation in management The beginning towards WPM was made with the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, which made Works Committees mandatory in industrial establishments employing 100 or more workers. The Industrial Policy Resolution adopted by the government in 1956 stated that there should be some joint consultation to ensure industrial peace, and improve employer-employee relations. The functions of both these joint bodies were to be consultative and were not binding on the management. The response to these schemes was encouraging to begin with, but gradually waned. A study team was appointed in 1962 to report on the working of joint councils and committees. The team identified some reasons for their failure. No concrete steps were taken to remove the difficulties, or change the pattern of participative management. During the emergency of 1975-77, the interest in these schemes was revived by the then Prime Minister by including Workers Participation in industry in the governments 20-point programme. The government started persuading large enterprises to set up joint consultative committees and councils at different levels. The Janata Government who came to power in 1977 carried on this initiative. It was again emphasized by the Congress government who came back in 1979. This continued in a nonstatutory vein till the late 1980s, and the response from the employers and employees stayed Luke-warm. Then, the 42nd Amendment to the Constitution was made.

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Now, Article 43-A reads: The State shall take steps, by suitable legislation, or in any other way, to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings, establishments or other organizations engaged in any industry. Thus, participative management is a constitutional commitment in India.

And then, on May 30, 1990, the government introduced the Participation of Workers in Management Bill in the Rajya Sabha. o The bill requires every industrial enterprise to constitute one or more `Shop-Floor Councils at the shop floor level, and `Establishment Council at the establishment level. These councils will have equal representation of employers and employees. Shop-Floor councils enjoy powers over a wide range of functions from production, wastage control to safety hazards. The Establishment Council enjoys similar powers. The bill provides for the constitution of a Board of Management of every corporate body owning an industrial establishment. o The bill also provides for penalties on individuals who contravene any provision of the bill.

In spite of all these efforts, only the government and the academicians have been interested in participative management. But participative management is staging a comeback. The compulsions of emerging competitive environment have made employee involvement more relevant than ever before. Managers and the managed are forced to forget their known stands, break barriers, and work in unison. Managers and workers are partners in the progress of business.

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Functions of WPM Works committee deals with matters of day-to-day functioning at the shop floor level. Works committees are concerned with: Conditions of work such as ventilation, lighting and sanitation. Amenities such as drinking water, canteens, dining rooms, medical and health services. Educational and recreational activities. Safety measures, accident prevention mechanisms etc.

Works committees function actively in some organizations like Tata Steel, HLL, etc but the progress of Works Committees in many organizations has not been very satisfactory due to the following reasons: 3. Lack of competence and interest on the part of workers representatives. Employees consider it below their dignity and status to sit alongside blue-collar workers. Lack of feedback on performance of Works Committee. Undue delay and problems in implementation due to advisory nature of recommendations. Joint Management Councils: Under this system Joint Management Councils are constituted at the plant level. These councils were setup as early as 1958. These councils consist of equal number of representatives of the employers and employees, not exceeding 12 at the plant level. The plant should employ at least 500 workers. The council discusses various matters relating to the working of the industry. This council is entrusted with the responsibility of administering welfare measures, supervision of safety and health schemes, scheduling of working hours, rewards for suggestions etc. Wages, bonus, personal problems of the workers are outside the scope of Joint management councils. The council is to take up issues related to accident prevention, management of canteens, water, meals, revision of work rules, absenteeism, indiscipline etc. the performance of Joint Management Councils have not been satisfactory due to the following reasons: Workers representatives feel dissatisfied as the councils functions are concerned with only the welfare activities.

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4.

Trade unions fear that these councils will weaken their strength as workers come under the direct influence of these councils. Work directors: Under this method, one or two representatives of workers are nominated or elected to the Board of Directors. This is the full-fledged and highest form of workers participation in management. The basic idea behind this method is that the representation of workers at the top-level would usher Industrial Democracy, congenial employee-employer relations and safeguard the workers interests. The Government of India introduced this scheme in several public sector enterprises such as Hindustan Antibiotics, Hindustan Organic Chemicals Ltd etc. However the scheme of appointment of such a director from among the employees failed miserably and the scheme was subsequently dropped.

5.

Co-partnership: Co-partnership involves employees participation in the share capital of a company in which they are employed. By virtue of their being shareholders, they have the right to participate in the management of the company. Shares of the company can be acquired by workers making cash payment or by way of stock options scheme. The basic objective of stock options is not to pass on control in the hands of employees but providing better financial incentives for industrial productivity. But in developed countries, WPM through co-partnership is limited.

6.

Joint Councils: The joint councils are constituted for the whole unit, in every Industrial Unit employing 500 or more workers; there should be a Joint Council for the whole unit. Only such persons who are actually engaged in the unit shall be the members of Joint Council. A joint council shall meet at least once in a quarter. The chief executive of the unit shall be the chairperson of the joint council. The vice-chairman of the joint council will be nominated by the worker members of the council. The decisions of the Joint Council shall be based on the consensus and not on the basis of voting. In 1977 the above scheme was extended to the PSUs like commercial and service sector organizations employing 100 or more persons. The organizations include hotels, hospitals, railway and road transport, post and telegraph offices, state electricity boards.

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7.

Shop councils: Government of India on the 30th of October 1975 announced a new scheme in WPM. In every Industrial establishment employing 500 or more workmen, the employer shall constitute a shop council. Shop council represents each department or a shop in a unit. Each shop council consists of an equal number of representatives from both employer and employees. The employers representatives will be nominated by the management and must consist of persons within the establishment. The workers representatives will be from among the workers of the department or shop concerned. The total number of employees may not exceed 12. Evolution of the schemes of workers participation in management The beginning towards WPM was made with the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, which made Works Committees mandatory in industrial establishments employing 100 or more workers. The Industrial Policy Resolution adopted by the government in 1956 stated that there should be some joint consultation to ensure industrial peace, and improve employer-employee relations. The functions of both these joint bodies were to be consultative and were not binding on the management. The response to these schemes was encouraging to begin with, but gradually waned. A study team was appointed in 1962 to report on the working of joint councils and committees. The team identified some reasons for their failure. o No concrete steps were taken to remove the difficulties, or change the pattern of participative management. During the emergency of 1975-77, the interest in these schemes was revived by the then Prime Minister by including Workers Participation in industry in the governments 20point programme The government started persuading large enterprises to set up joint consultative committees and councils at different levels. The Janata Government who came to power in 1977 carried on this initiative. It was again emphasized by the Congress government who came back in 1979. This continued in a non-statutory vein till the late 1980s, and the response from the employers and employees stayed Luke-warm. Then, the 42nd Amendment to the Constitution was made.
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Now, Article 43-A reads: The State shall take steps, by suitable legislation, or in any other way, to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings, establishments or other organizations engaged in any industry. Thus, participative management is a constitutional commitment in India.

And then, on May 30, 1990, the government introduced the Participation of Workers in Management Bill in the Rajya Sabha. o The bill requires every industrial enterprise to constitute one or more `Shop-Floor Councils at the shop floor level, and `Establishment Council at the establishment level. These councils will have equal representation of employers and employees. Shop-Floor councils enjoy powers over a wide range of functions from production, wastage control to safety hazards. The Establishment Council enjoys similar powers. The bill provides for the constitution of a Board of Management of every corporate body owning an industrial establishment. o The bill also provides for penalties on individuals who contravene any provision of the bill.

In spite of all these efforts, only the government and the academicians have been interested in participative management. But participative management is staging a comeback. The compulsions of emerging competitive environment have made employee involvement more relevant than ever before. Managers and the managed are forced to forget their known stands, break barriers, and work in unison. Managers and workers are partners in the progress of business.

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There can be 5 levels of Management Participation or WPM: a. b. Information participation: It ensures that employees are able to receive information and express their views pertaining to the matter of general economic importance. Consultative importance: Here workers are consulted on the matters of employee welfare such as work, safety and health. However, final decision always rests with the top-level management, as employees views are only advisory in nature. c. Associative participation: It is an extension of consultative participation as management here is under the moral obligation to accept and implement the unanimous decisions of the employees. Under this method the managers and workers jointly take decisions. d. Administrative participation: It ensures greater share of workers participation in discharge of managerial functions. Here, decisions already taken by the management come to employees, preferably with alternatives for administration and employees have to select the best from those for implementation. e. Decisive participation: Highest level of participation where decisions are jointly taken on the matters relating to production, welfare etc. Importance Unique motivational power and a great psychological value. Peace and harmony between workers and management. Workers get to see how their actions would contribute to the overall growth of the company. They tend to view the decisions as `their own and are more enthusiastic in their implementation. Participation makes them more responsible. They become more willing to take initiative and come out with cost-saving suggestions and growth-oriented ideas.

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Reason for Limited workers participation in management Firstly, the fundamental difficulties in the way lie in the concept itself. There is a basic conflict of interests between the workers and the owners of the business enterprise. Participation involves parting with power. Managements have been reluctant to part with their authority and prerogative to manage the enterprises. Similarly trade unions have not been prepared to divest themselves of their power manifested in bargaining and pressure. Secondly, multiplicity of trade unions and factionalism has been a serious obstacle in the way of workers participation in management. In view of the claims and counter claims, apathy and willingness, hostility and cooperation displayed by rival unions or their factions, designation of workers representatives on the participative forums often becomes a very difficult task. The government with its anxiety of maintaining cordial relations between labour and management, increasing production and productivity, achieving planned targets and accelerating the pace of economic and industrial development, came forward with different schemes of workers participation in management. Many employers and trade unions still considers them as imposition from outside. Its enforcement by law or compulsion would thwart the very purpose of scheme and would act as serious constraint on its successful implementation. Fourthly, both managements and trade unions have often complained of a plethora of joint bodies in Indian industries for example, works committees, joint management councils, shop councils, unit councils, plant councils, establishment councils, canteen committees, production committees, safety committees, welfare committees, grievance committees , and so on. Thus, it is natural for them to become bewildered by this multiplicity of joint bodies. Another hurdle has been lack of specific arrangements for sharing the gains of participation. Workers are assured in a vague manner, that they would gain if production increases and
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quality of products improves as a result of participation, but vague and remote expectations cannot be expected to enthuse the workers. A prior arrangement for sharing the fruits of participation is a necessary condition for the success of the scheme on a lasting basis. It is the government in India which is more anxious for the establishment of the schemes of participation than the parties which have to work them out. However, displaying an attitude of cooperation with the government in maintaining industrial harmony, most national organizations of employers and trade unions supported the schemes at the national forums, but they have generally failed to enthuse their affiliates about the usefulness of the schemes. Lastly, it has also been realized that lack of education and training with regard to the content, process, utility and other relevant aspects of participation have also proved an impediment to the growth of workers participation in the country. Suggestions for the success of workers participation in management For the successful initiation and functioning of the institutions of workers participation in management, serious attention has to be given to the removal of the hurdles (as above). Efforts should be made to stir up the management and workers at the local or enterprise level to understand the schemes and to derive concrete benefits from them. The government efforts should be confined to giving guidelines and to remove the impediments in the way, for example, reducing trade union rivalry by amending trade union laws, regulating procedural aspects of collective bargaining, expanding workers education programme and evolving a system of sharing the fruits of participation. Essential condition for WPM The success of workers portion in management depends upon the following conditions. The attitude and outlook of the parties should be enlightened and impartial so that a free and frank exchange of thoughts and opinions could be possible. Where a right kind of

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attitude exists and proper atmosphere prevails the process of participation is greatly stimulated.

Both parties should have a genuine faith in the system and in each other and be willing to work together. The management must give the participating institution its right place in the managerial organization of the undertaking and implementing the policies of the undertaking. The labor, on the other hand, must also whole heartedly co-operate with the management through its trade unions. The foremen and supervisory cadre must also lend their full support so that the accepted policies could be implemented without any resentment on either side.

Participation should be real. The issues related to increase in production and productivity, evaluation of costs, development of personnel, and expansion of markets should also be brought under the jurisdiction of the participating bodies. These bodies should meet frequently and their decisions should be timely implemented and strictly adhered to. Further, o Participation must work as complementary body to help collective bargaining, which creates conditions of work and also creates legal relations. o There should be a strong trade union, which has learnt the virtues of unit and selfreliance so that they may effectively take part in collective bargaining or participation. o A peaceful atmosphere should be there wherein there are no strikes and lock-outs, for their presence ruins the employees, harms the interest of the society, and puts the employees to financial losses. o Authority should be centralized through democratic management process. The participation should be at the two or at the most three levels.

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o Programs for training and education should be developed comprehensively. For this purpose, Labor is to be given education not to the head alone, not to the heart alone, not to the hands alone, but it is dedicated to the three; to make the workers think, feel and act. Labor is to be educated to enable him to think clearly, rationally and logically; to enable him to feel deeply and emotionally; and to enable him to act in a responsible way.
METHODS OF PARTICIPATION

Financial Participation

Board Level Participation

Ownership Participation

TQM

Workers Participation

Complete Control

Empowered Teams

In Management Staff of works Council

Quality Circles

Job Enlargeme nt And Enrichment

Joint Councils And committee

Suggestion Schemes

Collective Bargaining

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Scope and ways of participation One view is that workers or the trade unions should, as equal partners, sit with the management and make joint managerial decisions. The other view is that workers should only be given an opportunity, through their representatives, to influence managerial decisions at various levels. In practice, the participation of workers can take place by one or all the methods listed below: 1. Board level participation 2. Ownership participation 3. Complete control 4. Staff or work councils 5. Joint councils and committees 6. Collective Bargaining 7. Job enlargement and enrichment 8. Suggestion schemes 9. Quality circles 10. Empowered teams 11. TQM 12. Financial participation 1. Participation at the Board level This would be the highest form of industrial democracy.
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The workers representative on the Board can play a useful role in safeguarding the interests of workers. He or she can serve as a guide and a control element. He or she can prevail upon top management not to take measures that would be unpopular with the employees. He or she can guide the Board members on matters of investment in employee benefit schemes like housing, and so forth. The Government of India took the initiative and appointed workers representatives on the Board of Hindustan Antibiotics (Pune), HMT (Bangalore), and even nationalized banks. The Tatas, DCM, and a few others have adopted this practice. Problems associated with this method Focus of workers representatives is different from the focus of the remaining members of the Board. Communication and subsequently relations between the workers representative and the workers suffers after the former assumes directorship. He or she tends to become alienated from the workers. As a result, he or she may be less effective with the other members of the Board in dealing with employee matters. Because of the differences in the cultural and educational backgrounds, and differences in behavior and manners, such an employees representative may feel inferior to the other members, and he or she may feel suffocated. Hence, his or her role as a director may not be satisfying for either the workers or the management. Such representatives of workers on the Board, places them in a minority. And the decisions of the Board are arrived at on the basis of the majority vote. 2. Participation through ownership This involves making the workers shareholders of the company by inducing them to buy equity shares. In many cases, advances and financial assistance in the form of easy repayment options are extended to enable employees to buy equity shares. Examples of this method are available in the manufacturing as well as the service sector.
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Advantage: Makes the workers committed to the job and to the organization. Drawback: Effect on participation is limited because ownership and management are two different things.

3. Participation through complete control Workers acquire complete control of the management through elected boards. The system of self-management in Yugoslavia is based on this concept. Self-management gives complete control to workers to manage directly all aspects of industries through their representatives. Advantages: Ensures identification of the workers with their organization. Industrial disputes disappear when workers develop loyalty to the organization. Trade unions welcome this type of participation.

Conclusion: Complete control by workers is not an answer to the problem of participation because the workers do not evince interest in management decisions. 4. Participation through Staff and Works Councils Staff councils or works councils are bodies on which the representation is entirely of the employees. There may be one council for the entire organization or a hierarchy of councils. The employees of the respective sections elect the members of the councils. Such councils play a varied role. Their role ranges from seeking information on the managements intentions to a full share in decision-making. Such councils have not enjoyed too much of success because trade union leaders fear the erosion of their power and prestige if such workers bodies were to prevail. 5. Participation through Joint Councils and Committees

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Joint councils are bodies comprising representatives of employers and employees. This method sees a very loose form of participation, as these councils are mostly consultative bodies. Work committees are a legal requirement in industrial establishments employing 100 or more workers. Such committees discuss a wide range of topics connected to labour welfare. Examples of such committees are welfare committee, safety committee, etc. Such committees have not proven to be too effective in promoting industrial democracy, increasing productivity and reducing labour unrest.

6. Participation through Collective Bargaining Through the process of CB, management and workers may reach collective agreement regarding rules for the formulation and termination of the contract of employment, as well as conditions of service in an establishment. Even though these agreements are not legally binding, they do have some force. For CB to work, the workers and the employers representatives need to bargain in the right spirit. But in practice, while bargaining, each party tries to take advantage of the other. This process of CB cannot be called WPM in its strongest sense as in reality; CB is based on the crude concept of exercising power for the benefit of one party. WPM, on the other hand, brings both the parties together and develops appropriate mutual understanding and brings about a mature responsible relationship. 7. Participation through Job Enlargement and Job Enrichment Excessive job specialization that is seen as a by-product of mass production in industries, leads to boredom and associated problems in employees. Two methods of job designing job enlargement and job enrichment are seen as methods of addressing the problems. Job enlargement means expanding the job content adding task elements horizontally. Job enrichment means adding `motivators to the job to make it more rewarding. This is WPM in that it offers freedom and scope to the workers to use their judgment. But this form of participation is very basic as it provides only limited freedom to a worker concerning the method of performing his/her job.

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The worker has no say in other vital issues of concern to him issues such as job and income security, welfare schemes and other policy decisions. 8. Participation through Suggestion Schemes Employees views are invited and reward is given for the best suggestion. With this scheme, the employees interest in the problems of the organization is aroused and maintained. Progressive managements increasingly use the suggestion schemes. Suggestions can come from various levels. The ideas could range from changes in inspection procedures to design changes, process simplification, paper-work reduction and the like. Out of various suggestions, those accepted could provide marginal to substantial benefits to the company. The rewards given to the employees are in line with the benefits derived from the suggestions. 9. Participation through Quality Circles Concept originated in Japan in the early 1960s and has now spread all over the world. A QC consists of seven to ten people from the same work area who meet regularly to define, analyze, and solve quality and related problems in their area. These circles require a lot of time and commitment on the part of members for regular meetings, analysis, brainstorming, etc. Most QCs have a definite life cycle one to three years. Few circles survive beyond this limit either because they loose steam or they face simple problems. QCs can be an excellent bridge between participative and non-participative approaches. For QCs to succeed in the long run, the management needs to show its commitment by implementing some of the suggestions of the groups and providing feedback on the disposition of all suggestions. Training in problem-solving techniques is provided to the members. QCs are said to provide quick, concrete, and impressive results when correctly implemented. Advantages Employees become involved in decision-making, acquire communication and analytical skills and improve efficiency of the work place. Organization gets to enjoy higher savings-to-cost ratios. Chances of QC members to get promotions are enhanced.

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10. Empowered Teams Empowerment occurs when authority and responsibility are passed on to the employees who then experience a sense of ownership and control over their jobs. Employees may feel more responsible, may take initiative in their work, may get more work done, and may enjoy the work more. For empowerment to occur, the following approach needs to be followed as compared to the traditional approach:

Element Organizational structure Job design Management role Leadership Information flow Rewards Job process

Traditional Organization Layered, individual Narrow, single task Direct, control Top-down Controlled, limited Individual, seniority based Managers plan, control, improve

Empowered Teams Flat, team Whole process, multiple tasks Coach, facilitate Shared with the team Open, shared Team-based, skill-based Teams plan, control, and improve

Features of empowered or self-directed teams Empowered to share various management and leadership functions. Plan, control and improve their work. Often create their schedules and review their performance as a group. May prepare their own budgets and co-ordinate their work with other departments. o Usually order materials, keep inventories and deal with suppliers. o Frequently responsible for acquiring any new training they might need. o May hire their own replacement to assume responsibility for the quality of their products or services

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Titan, Reliance, ABB, GE Plastics (India), Wipro Corporation and Wipro InfoTech are empowering employees both frontline as well as production staff, and are enjoying positive results. 11. Total Quality Management TQM refers to the deep commitment, almost obsession, of an organization to quality. Every step in companys processes is subjected to intense and regular scrutiny for ways to improve it.

Some traditional beliefs are discarded High quality costs more. Quality can be improved by inspection. Defects cannot be completely eliminated. Quality in the job of the QC personnel.

New principles of TQM are Meet the customers requirement on time, the first time, and 100% of the time. Strive to do error-free work. Manage by prevention, not correction. Measure the cost of quality. TQM is called participative because it is a formal programme involving every employee in the organization; making each one responsible for improving quality everyday. 12. Financial Participation This method involves less consultations or even joint decisions. Performance of the organization is linked to the performance of the employee. The logic behind this is that if an employee has a financial stake in the organization, he/she is likely to be more positively motivated and involved.

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Some schemes of financial participation Profit-linked pay Profit sharing and Employees Stock Option schemes. Pension-fund participation

Pre-requisites for successful participation Management and operatives/employees should not work at cross-purposes i.e. they must have clearly defined and complementary objectives. Free flow of communication and information. Participation of outside trade union leaders to be avoided Strong and effective trade unionism. Workers education and training. Trade unions and government needs to work in this area. Trust between both the parties. Workers should be associated at all levels of decision-making. Employees cannot spend all their time in participation to the exclusion of all other work.

Limitations of participation: Technology and organizations today are so complex that specialized work-roles are required. This means employees will not be able to participate effectively in matters beyond their particular environment. Everybody need not want participation. The role of trade unions in promoting participative management has been far from satisfactory. Employers are unwilling to share power with the workers representatives. Managers consider participative management a fraud.

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Data analysis and Interpretation:


1. What is your opinion about workers participation in management in your company? S.No Executive views Excellent Very good Good Average poor Total No of respondents 15 27 6 7 5 60 Percentage of respondents 25 45 10 12 8 100

1 2 3 4 5

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Interpretation
We can say from the above analysis that 25% of the executives agreed that worker participation in management was excellent while 45% of the executives felt very good, 10% of the executives felt good, 12% of the executives felt average.

2. Do you feel that your company has been considering you at the different levels of decision making?

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S.No

Executive views Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree Total

No of respondents 20 13 19 6 2 60

Percentage of respondents 33 22 32 10 3 100

1 2 3 4 5

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S.No

Executive views Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree Total

No of respondents 17 25 8 6 4 60

Percentage of respondents 28 42 14 10 6 100

1 2 3 4 5 6

Interpretation
We can say from the above analysis that the consideration of their decisions at different levels, where 33% of executives strongly agreed and 3% of the executives strongly disagreed, where as 32% of executives were undecided. 3. Do you agree workers participation in management increase efficiency of the workers?

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Interpretation
We can say from the above analysis that the participation of workers in management and its affect on efficiency, where 28% of executives strongly agreed and 10% of the executives strongly disagreed, where as 42% of executives agreed.

4. The perception of executives and employees part of management in decision making.

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S.No

Executive views Large Extent Some Extent Little Extent Poor Total

No of respondents 16 20 14 10 60

Percentage of respondents 27 34 23 16 100

1 2 3 4

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Interpretation
From the above analysis it is expressed that 27% of executives felt large extent, 34%of S.No Executive views Excellent Very good Good Average Poor Total No of respondents 19 14 17 8 2 60 Percentage of respondents 32 23 28 14 3 100

1 2 3 4 5

executives felt some extent,23% of executives felt little extent and the rest felt poor about the perception of executives and employees part of management in decision making.

5. Give your opinion about the work climate provided by the organization?

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Interpretation
We can say from the above analysis that 32% of the executives felt excellent about the work environment provided to the workers, 23% of the executives felt very good,28% of the executives felt good, and remaining of them felt average with the work environment.

6. The perception of executives and employees part of management in decision making.


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S.No

Executive views Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Total

No of respondents 20 16 14 10 60

Percentage of respondents 34 27 23 16 100

1 2 3 4

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S.No 1 2 3 4

Pinions Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Total

Executives 17 21 19 3 60

Percentage 28 35 32 5 100

Interpretation
We can say from the above analysis that the perception of executives and employees part of management in decision making, where 27% of executives strongly agreed and 23% of the executives disagreed, where as 16% of executives strongly disagreed.

7. Can employees participation in management help improve their productivity and efficiency?

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Interpretation
We can say from the above analysis that the participation of employees in management improve their productivity and efficiency, where 32% of executives strongly agreed and 5% of executives strongly disagreed, where 32% of executives disagreed.

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S.No

Executive views Excellent Very good Good Average Poor Total

No of respondents 23 17 10 7 3 60

Percentage of respondents 38 28 17 12 5 100

1 2 3 4 5

8. The perception of executives and employees with respect to satisfaction of Civimec.

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Interpretation
We can say from the above analysis that 38% of the executives felt excellent and satisfied with the organization. Where 28% of the executives felt very good, 17% of the executives felt good, and remaining of them are less satisfied by their organization.

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9. Role of the union in participative management.

S.No

Executive views Excellent Very good Good Average Poor Total

No of respondents 17 19 14 6 4 60

Percentage of respondents 28 32 24 10 6 100

1 2 3 4 5

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Interpretation
We can say from the above analysis that 28% of the executives felt excellent about the Role of the union in participative management. Where 32% of the executives felt very good,24% of the executives felt good, and remaining of them felt average with union role in participative management.

10. Communication between employees and management is necessary.


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S.No

Executive views Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Total

No of respondents 25 15 15 5 60

Percentage of respondents 42 25 25 8 100

1 2 3 4

Interpretation
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It is clear from the above analysis that 42% of the executives strongly agreed that harmonious industrial relaxation exist in the company, 25% of the executives agreed, 25% of the executives disagreed about the necessity of communication between employees and management. S.No Executive views Excellent Very good Good Average Poor Total . No of respondents 18 23 9 5 5 60 Percentage of respondents 30 39 15 8 8 100

1 2 3 4 5

11. Suggestions put forth by employees given due.

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Interpretation
From the above analysis it is expressed that 30% of executives felt excellent, 28%of executives felt very good,39% of executives felt good and the rest felt poor about the suggestions put forth by employees given due in the organization.

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12. Employees satisfaction involving their participation in management.

S.No

Executive views Excellent Very good Good Average Poor Total

No of respondents 19 14 17 8 2 60

Percentage of respondents 32 23 28 14 3 100

1 2 3 4 5

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Interpretation
We can say from the above analysis about the satisfaction levels for the involvement in management process, Where 32% of executives felt excellent and 23% of executives felt very good,28% of executives felt good,14% of executives felt average, where as 3% of executives felt poor.

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13. Job security in the organization is.

S.No

Executive views Excellent Very good Good Average Poor Total

No of respondents 17 25 8 6 4 60

Percentage of respondents 28 42 14 10 6 100

1 2 3 4 5

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Interpretation
We can say from the above analysis that 28% of the executives felt secured about their job in the organization, 42% of the executives felt very well, and 14% of the executives felt good, and remaining of them felt averagely secured about their job in the organization.

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14. Does establishment of the workers committee preserving amity and relations between the employers and employees? S.No Executive views Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree Total No of respondents 20 13 19 6 2 60 Percentage of respondents 33 22 32 10 3 100

1 2 3 4 5 6

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Interpretation
It is clear from the above analysis that 33% executives strongly agreed that establishment of workers committees preserved good relations between employers and employees while 22% of the executives agreed, 32% of the executives undecided and remaining disagreed with the above statement.
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15. Do you agree that the plant council plays an important role in operational areas, economic S.No Executive views Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree Total No of respondents 27 15 6 7 5 60 Percentage of respondents 45 25 10 12 8 100

1 2 3 4 5 6 areas and welfare areas?

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Interpretation
It is clear from the above analysis that 45% executives strongly agreed that the planned council plays an important role in the operational, economic & welfare areas, 25% of the executives agreed, 10% of the executives undecided with the above statement.

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16. What is your opinion about the councils working and performance?

S.No

Executive views Excellent Very good Good Average Poor Total

No of respondents 19 17 14 6 4 60

Percentage of respondents 32 28 23 10 6 100

1 2 3 4 5

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Interpretation
We can say from the above analysis about the councils working and performance, where 32% of executives felt excellent and 28% of the executives felt very good,23% of executives felt good,10% of executives felt average, where as 6% of felt poor.

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17. Is there any benefit by workers participation in management to achieve the following objectives? S.No Executive views Economic objectives Social objectives Psychological objectives All the above Total No of respondents 17 21 19 3 60 Percentage of respondents 28 35 32 5 100

1 2 3 4

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Interpretation
The above analysis shows that 28% of executives expressed benefit of workers participation in S.No Executive views Strongly agree Agree disagree Strongly disagree Total No of respondents 17 17 20 6 60 Percentage of respondents 28 28 34 10 100

1 2 3 4

management achieving economic objectives,35% of executives expressed benefit of workers participation in management achieving social objectives,32% of executives expressed benefit of workers participation in management achieving psychological objectives and the rest felt that workers participation benefits in achieving all objectives of the firm.

18. Do you agree that the plant council an important role in operational areas economic areas and welfare areas.

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Interpretation
It is clear from the above analysis that 38% of the executives strongly agreed that the plant council plays an important role in the operational, economic & welfare areas, 28% of the executives agreed, 34% of the executives disagreed and 10% of the executives strongly disagreed the above statement

FINDINGS
45% of the executives felt very good regarding the workers participation in management in an organization. 33% of the executives strongly agreed about the consideration of workers decisions at different levels. 42% of the executives agreed for the participation of workers in management and its effects on efficiency. 34% of the executives felt that there is participation of executives and employees part of management in decision making to some extent.

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32% of the executives felt excellent about the work climate provided by the organization. 35% of the executives agreed that employees participation in management help improve their productivity and efficiency.

32% of the executives felt very good about the role of union in participative management. 42% of the executives strongly agreed that communication between employees and management is necessary.

32% of the executives felt excellent regarding the involvement of employees in management. 42% of the executives felt very good regarding the job security in the organization. 32% of the executives felt excellent about councils working and performance. 35% of the executives felt good about the organizations retirement and medical benefits. 35% of the executives felt that is highly beneficial by workers participation in management to achieve organizations objectives.

38% of the executives strongly agreed that plant council plays important role in operational economic and welfare areas.

45% executives strongly agreed that the planned council plays an important role in the operational, economic & welfare areas

32% of executives felt excellent about council work and performance. 28% of executives expressed benefit of workers participation in management achieving economic objectives

Conclusions

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Most of the respondents felt very good regarding the workers participation in the organization. Most of the respondents strongly agreed that workers are considered at different levels of decision making. Most of the respondents agreed that workers participation in management increase efficiency of the workers. Most of the respondents felt excellent about the work climate provided by the organization. Most of the respondents agreed that employees participation in management help improve their productivity and efficiency.

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SUGGESTIONS
The employees involvement and participation in management should be increased to increase productivity and efficiency of organization. The working committee should preserve good relations between the employers and employees. The management should conduct quality improvement programmes. The management should provide job security to the every worker in the organization. The role of the union should be more active in participative management.

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ANNEXURE
1) What is your opinion about workers participation in management in your organization? a)Excellent b)Very good c)Good d)Average e)Poor

2) Do you feel that your organization has been considering you at the different levels of decision making?
a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Undecided d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

3) Do you agree workers participation in management increase efficiency of the workers?


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Undecided d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

4) The perception of executives and employees part of management in decision making.


a) Large extent b) Some extent c) little extent d) Poor

5) Give your opinion about the work climate provided by the organization? a) Excellent b) Very good c) Good d) Average e) Poor

6) The perception of executives and employees part of management in decision making.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree

7) Can employees participation in management help improve their productivity and efficiency?
a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree

8) The perception of executives and employees with respect to satisfaction of Civimec. a) Excellent b) Very good c) Good
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d) Average

e) Poor

9) Role of the union in participative management. a) Excellent b) Very good c) Good d) Average e) Poor

10) Communication between employees and management is necessary.


a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree

11) Suggestions put forth by employees given due. a) Excellent b) Very good c) Good d) Average e) Poor

12) Employees satisfaction involving their participation in management. a) Excellent b) Very good c) Good d) Average e) Poor

13) Job security in the organization is. a) Excellent b) Very good c) Good d) Average e) Poor

14) Does establishment of the workers committee preserving amity and relations between the employers and employees?
a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Undecided d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

15) Do you agree that the plant council plays an important role in operational areas, economic areas and welfare areas?
a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) Undecided d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

16) What is your opinion about the councils working and performance? a) Excellent b) Very good c) Good d) Average e) Poor

17) Is there any benefit by workers participation in management to achieve the following objectives? a) Economic objectives b) Social objectives c) Physiological objectives d) All

18) Do you agree that the plant council an important role in operational areas economic areas and welfare areas.
a) Strongly agree

b) Agree

c) Disagree

d) Strongly disagree

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BIBILIOGRAPHY

TEXT BOOKS

AUTHORES

Human Resource Management & Industrial Relations

P.SUBBA RAO

Human Resource & Personal Management

ASHWATHAPPA

Research Methodology, Methods & Techniques

C.R. KOTHARI

Websites www.civimec.com. www.google.com.

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