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September | October 2013 Feeding lined seahorse juveniles with enriched Artemia nauplii
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Feeding lined seahorse juveniles with enriched Artemia nauplii
by Dong Zhang PhD and Fei Yin PhD, East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, China
eahorses are a high-value fish species in both medicinal and aquarium trades. In China, seahorses are called ‘animal ginseng’. Since 2004, all 33 recognised seahorse species (Hippocampus) in the world have been listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES 2004) due to overexploitation. There arises an urgent need for breeding seahorses to meet human demand. To meet this demand, considerable progress in breed-
ing seahorses has been made in the past ten years. To date, more than 10 seahorse species have been reared successfully in captivity. However, low survival, particularly in the early juvenile stage, is still one of the bottlenecks affecting the economic return in commercial seahorse culture. Juvenile nutrition is recognised as a major factor that can influence juvenile survival and growth. Furthermore, broodstock nutrition is recognised as a major factor that can influence fish reproduction and subsequent larval quality of many fish species. Hence, optimising both juvenile feeds to enhance growth and survival
of seahorse and to reduce production cost is crucial for successful commercial culture. Although copepods are the best food for juvenile seahorses, mass culture of copepods is still a challenge. Alternatively, newly hatched Artemia nauplii have been widely used as live food for seahorses. However, newly hatched Artemia nauplii are deficient in DHA and EPA, i.e. they do not provide adequate nutrition to improve the growth and survival of seahorse juveniles. Therefore, Artemia nauplii are usually enriched with n-3 HUFAs prior to feeding seahorse juveniles. However, excess HUFAs fortification may cause adverse effects probably due to oxidative stress.
Characteristics of Artemia nauplii
Artemia nauplii have to be enriched with highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) prior to feeding seahorse juveniles. However, information about optimized encrichment for seahorse juveniles is very limited. The enzymatic activity is a good indicator revealing the digestive and absorptive capacity of the animal and is useful in evaluating effect of feed on survival and growth performance. Dietary HUFAs are able to modify some enzymatic activities, and moderate dietary HUFAs supplementation significantly promotes lipid metabolism and reduces lipid peroxidation products by enhancing antioxidant defence in the juveniles. However, excess HUFAs may result in adverse effects on the
26 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2013
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FEATURE enzymatic activities in the juveniles, which might be related to oxidative stress. In practice, the concentration of 27.0 μl/l HUFAs is recommended for enriching Artemia nauplii for lined seahorse juveniles. The lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus (Perry), has been reared successfully for years, and is recognised as a good candidate for commercial aquaculture. There is currently very limited information about how HUFAs affect the survival and growth of the seahorse juveniles, the activities of lipid metabolism related and anti-oxidative stress enzymes. Since HUFAs are able to affect activities and gene expressions of lipid metabolism-related enzymes, the enzymatic activity is a good indicator revealing the digestive and absorptive capacity of seahorses. Studying enzymatic activity is useful in evaluating the effect of feed on survival and growth performance.
Figure: 2 μl/l, and 54.0 μl/l, of HUFAs (2/3 DHA, 1/3 EPA), respectively for 12 h with aeration at temperature of 28.0±1.0 C. Each tank (50×30×30 cm) was stocked with twenty 20 day-old juveniles. Plastic plants were used as the substrate and holdfasts for the juveniles. The juveniles were fed the Artemia nauplii enriched with four concentrations of HUFAs. Each diet was fed to three tanks of the biochemical parametres and enzymatic activities (Lipase (LPS), Lipoproteinlipase (LPL), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), alkaline
Newly hatched nauplii of Artemia sinica at approximately 200 nauplii/mL were cultured in 15 litre tanks, which were enriched with four concentrations 0.0 μl/l, 13.5 μl/l, 27.0
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September-October 2013 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 27
FEATURE nificantly higher than that in other three concentrations (Figure 1). LPL activity in the higher concentrations (i.e. 27.0 and 54.0 μl/l HUFAs) were significantly higher than that in the lower concentrations (i.e. 0.0 and 13.5 μl/l HUFAs) (Figure 1). MDH activity decreased with increasing concentration of HUFAs (Figure 1). The different concentrations of HUFAs significantly affected the contents of lactate Impact of different (LD) and malonaldehyde (MDA) of the HUFAs concentrations seahorse juveniles (Figure 2). The lowest The different concentrations of HUFAs significantly LD content of the juveniles occurred in the affected the activities of lipase concentration of 54.0 μl/l HUFAs (Figure. 2). Figure: 3 (LPS), lipoproteinlipase (LPL) MDA content decreased significantly from and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) of the the concentrations of 0.0 to 27.0 μl/l HUFAs phosphatase (AKP), pyruvic acid (PA), lactate (LD)], antioxidant defence enzymes, lined seahorse juveniles, but alkaline phos- (Figure 2). Pyruvic acid (PA) content was not significantly different among the four concensuperoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), phatase (AKP) (Figure 1). The LPS activity of the juveniles in the trations (Figure 2). glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and oxidative The different concentrations of HUFAs breakdown product, malonaldehyde (MDA)) concentration of 27.0 μl/l HUFAs was sigGRAPASisland:Layout 1 30/8/13 14:29 Page 1 significantly affected activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) of the seahorse juveniles (Figure 3). The SOD activity in the lower concentrations (i.e. 0.0 and 13.5 μl/l HUFAs) was significantly higher than in the higher concentration (i.e. 27.0 and 54.0 μl/l HUFAs) (Fig. 3). CAT activity increased . significantly from the concentra8 – 10 April 2014 Bangkok International Trade & Exhibition Centre (BITEC), Bangkok, Thailand tions of 0.0 μl/l HUFAs to 27.0 μl/l (Figure 3). GPX activity increased significantly with increasing concentration of HUFAs (Figure 3). were monitored over 30 days. The juveniles were fed twice at 0800 h and 1500 h each day at approximately 10 nauplii/mL. Before each feeding, the bottom of the tanks was siphoned to remove feces and uneaten food.
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Dietary HUFAs may be used to modify some enzyme activities and biochemical contents, and moderate dietary HUFAs supplementation significantly promotes lipid metabolism and reduces lipid peroxidation products by enhancing antioxidant defence in H. erectus juveniles. However, excess HUFAs may result in adverse effects on the enzymatic activities in the juveniles, which might be related to oxidative stress. In practice, the concentration of 27.0 μl/l HUFAs is recommended for enriching Artemia nauplii for H. erectus juveniles, which is consistent with the results of growth and survival.
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28 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2013
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