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Prewriting Exercise 1: Meeting your classmates Write three sentences about how you are feeling now beginning with I. 1. I feel empty. 2. I had a great vacation. 3. I have started my new semester. Write three sentences about yourself using my. 1. My friend told me that she had a problem. 2. My books are gone. 3. My money is enough to travel to Hong Kong. Write three sentences about yourself using me that tell someone has said or done to you recently. 1. She gave me a letter. 2. He asked me to eat out. 3. He told me that he was in love with me. Exercise 2: Like me list 1. What is special about your hometown? 2. What is difficult about the language you speak? 3. Who are you close to in your family? 4. Why are you studying English? 5. When did you start studying English? 6. What is your biggest problem with English?
What are your plans for the future? 8. 2. What is the worst game you’ve ever attended in your country? 6. What is the best gift you’ve ever received? 3. What was the best accomplishment when you were in high school? Exercise 4: Cooking with Mattie 1. Synonym: code Sentence: I use a code to open my file. What is the best wish for a best friend? 10. 5. What frustrates you? Exercise 3: Peak experiences 1. 4.7. What makes you happy? 10. 3. What is the most recent thing you learned from your roommate? 5. What is your most feared of? 8. What do you do in your free time? 9. Synonym: poked Sentence: My brother poked his head into the window. When was your worst day ever? 2. Synonym: genuinely . Synonym: Fittingly Sentence: The girl fittingly sang her favorite song on the stage. What is the best concert you’ve ever been to? 7. What is the worst thing you’ve ever done to a friend? 4. Synonym: tickles Sentence: The man tickled his wife using the feather. What is the best advice you’ve ever received from your parents? 9.
She has a really big appetite. Mattie was happy to see C. What is one thing you don’t like about C. She could really cook well.? 3.B. B. Charlie was Mattie’s daughter. What was the worst food you’ve ever prepared for C. If Mattie isn’t around. 1.? 2. how will you handle your problem? 3.B.? To C. Her best friend was C.B. What is the best lesson you’ve ever learned from Mattie? Exercise 6: What makes a person good? Mattie treats her as if she were her real daughter. were sisters.Sentence: We share our friendship genuinely.B. Structure Exercise 1: Recognizing adjective clauses. Synonym: revealed Sentence: I revealed my darkest secret to every student. How do you compare Mattie to your real mom? 2. 3.B. reduced adjective clauses. . To Mattie 1. 6. What do you like about C. 4. Exercise 5: Mattie and C. Charlie and C.B. and prepositional phrases 1. walk in. Mattie was a woman. She was preparing chicken parmigiana in her kitchen.B. 2. is a person for home cooking. Person – Rachel Quality – Kindness Example – I can see that she always cares for her friend’s feelings. Mattie is always there when she needs someone to talk to.B. C.B. They had different skin colors. Mattie guides her as she grows up. 5.
B. 7. 12. Sante. 9. often asked Mattie. Mattie.B. The chicken was chicken parmigiana and mashed potatoes. Mattie. Mattie prepared chicken parmigiana. Mattie’s reputation as a wise person was well known. loves to create fancy dishes. Mattie was not too busy to chat with C.’s favorite food. loves. New Jersey is the state. Luc. is a diminutive African-American woman. is the language of his soul. which is his first language. The kitchen is a place. Luc cries out in French at times.B. Sante spent his early childhood in another country.B. learned English in school. when he spoke French with his parents. where Luc lives. 10. Luc. Luc. 8. The families often have serious talks there. 8. where she cooks. 3. lives in New Jersey. C. Exercise 3: Combining sentences with adjective clauses 1. She was busy with preparing C. mostly speaks English now. when he is in great pain. warmth. who spoke French as a child. whom C. 9. Sante’s parents live in the United States. whose bilingualism makes him a richer person.B. has insight into two cultures. It is an Italian dish.6. Mattie taught C. who earns his living as an artist. whose parents taught him French at home. French. where people spoke French. Mattie spends a lot of time in the kitchen. which is deeply part of Sante. Luc. She has wisdom. 3.B. 5. She saw Mattie. who cooks on a huge old gas stove. and patience. 10. 11. a lot about life. He has an emotional attachment to French. was poking her head into the kitchen. . 4. 7. 6. Exercise 4: Building adjective clauses 1. liked to eat them. 6. who curses even better in French. 2. which is an English speaking country. C.B. C. 4. Sante remembers the language of his childhood. curses in English. 2. 5. Bilinguals are interesting people whose feet are in two worlds.
6. 8. when I always feel excited. The cat. teenage years – I received a love letter from a student from a secret admirer.B.Exercise 5: Writing adjective clauses about yourself 1. 3. The car in front of our house belongs to Luc. 5. Writing and Editing Exercise 1: Time line for an autobiography 1. 2. is named Sam. The language being spoken is Italian. The dog barking at the mailman is still a puppy. don’t speak English well. I am a person who spends her free time surfing the net. 2. . is the one talking to Mattie. The teacher whose bag is blue is my best friend. 3. December is the month. I usually go to a café where I can read my favorite novels. Luc’s parents. fluent in French. 3. C. early childhood – I used to play Barbie dolls. which was very close. strict and religious family. 4. Luc is the person sitting in that chair. I like the Christmas tree that I saw in Gateway. Paragraph 2 – His family brought a farm for two reasons: his father wanted it to be a hobby and to be removed from the temptations of suburban life. C. Mattie has a recipe book containing hundreds of recipes. Exercise 3: Writing summary statements Paragraph 1 – Rogers grew up in a large. 4. 2. Exercise 6: Reducing adjective clauses 1. young adulthood – The man whom I really love broke my heart. 7. on the window sill. elementary school days – I won the first prize in the spelling contest. 5. 4.
Paragraph 3 – He became interested in moths. Paragraph 6 – His professional goal changed because of a religious thing. Paragraph 5 – He started in college at Wisconsin and met the agronomy professor. Paragraph 8 – He fell in love. Paragraph 4 – He became a student of scientific agriculture. Paragraph 7 – He was selected to go to China for an International world Student Christian Federation Conference. Exercise 4: Interviewing Carl Rogers Paragraph 1 – How was it like to grow up in a strict family? Paragraph 2 – How did your life change when you moved out of suburban life? Paragraph 3 – How did your interest in moths begin? Paragraph 4 – What were your difficulties studying agriculture? Paragraph 5 – How did the agronomy professor influence you? Paragraph 6 – Why did you think changing agriculture to history was better? Paragraph 7 – What were the things you learned from the conference? Paragraph 8 – How do you balance your beliefs and your relationship with your wife? Exercise 6: Writing your thesis statement Thesis statement – tells the reader what the essay is about. .
3. I’m not sure whose grandson he is. I wonder whose sister-in-law she is. Whoever wants to have children have to undergo counseling. 9. 2. 6. They don’t know if they should invite their in-laws. 2. 7. Tell me why your aunt can’t come to the wedding. Exercise 2: Creating sentences with noun clauses 1. My mother is wondering if the whole family is invited. 5. 4. My great uncle learned how to ski. I know what your brother does for a living. What his wife was singing was a Beatles’ song. 10. Structure Exercise 1: Recognizing noun clauses 1. No one knows where my uncle lives. . 5. Whoever wants to meet lots of new people should come to our family reunion. Whether you come to the wedding is not important to him. 6. 4. Their children asked whether they were buying a new car. 8. Kim says that almost all Koreans have extended families. I know why the family doesn’t get together more. Mom shouted to us that it was time for dinner. 3.Unit 2 FAMILY AND RELATIONSHIP A. Prewriting Exercise 1: Family trees Answer – cousin B.
(c) Being a widow is hard in the United States. A good relationship is not easy to achieve. (c) Remarrying is a solution for widowers. (b) It is a miracle to drop the birth rate in several countries. (c) Dropping the birth rate is a miracle in several countries. . 5. (a) It is my belief that divorce is common in many countries. 3. (b) It is not easy to achieve a good relationship. Divorce is common in many countries. There are many widows in the United States. (c) Having a good relationship is not easy to achieve. 4.Exercise 3: Creating sentences with noun clauses introduced by that and noun phrases 1. (b) It is common to divorce in many countries. (a) It has been said that there are many widows in the United States. (c) Filing divorce is common in many countries. (a) It is a miracle that the birth rate has actually dropped in several countries. (b) It seems easy for widowers to remarry. The birth rate has actually dropped in several countries. Remarriage is a solution for widowers. Living in blended families is undeniable to many children. (a) It seems that remarriage is a solution for widowers. (b) It is hard to be widow in the United States. 2. (a) It is widely believed that a good relationship is not easy to achieve.
A single parent works and raises children. (b) It is undeniable to many children to live in blended families. The student inquired where he could find the answer to that question. 7. 5. She asked me if I knew what I really wanted. Sociologists ask themselves how they could accurately define the American family. (a) It is thought that many children live in blended families. (a) It is common that a single parent works and raises children alone. (b) It is common for a single parent to work and raise children alone. Exercise 4: More practice with reported speech 1. 8. 2. (c) Working and raising children alone for a single parent is common. Lots of babies go to day care at less than a year old. 4. His parents asked him if he would come home for the holidays. My sister-in-law asked why I did that.6. Her mother asked her when she was going to get married. 6. 7. They wanted to know why I said that. (b) It is undeniable for lots of babies to go to day care at less than a year old. 3. (c) Going to day care at less than a year old is undeniable for lots of babies. 8. (c) Living in blended families is undeniable to many children. Many children live in blended families. . My cousin emailed me to ask if I would come and visit him. (a) It is undeniable that lots of babies go to day care at less than a year old.
The Pledge of Alliance Allegiance To the flag And to the wee puppet for witches’ hands One nation Indivisible With liberty And justice for all . he felt better all day. he feels better all day. If he eats breakfast. if the simple present tense is used in the ifclause. When he ate breakfast. Generalizations include facts that are always true and never change. These generalizations can also be expressed by using when or whenever instead of if: When water boils. it will turn to steam. he felt better all day. he will feel better all day. Real conditionals expressing generalizations usually have the same tense (usually simple present or simple past) in both clauses. However. If water boils. will + verb can be used in the main clause without changing the meaning. When he eats breakfast. If he ate breakfast. Examples of real conditional sentences expressing facts: If water boils. Prewriting Exercise 3: Shirley’s Pledge Shirley’s words A lesson To the frog And to the republic for which it stands One Asian In the vestibule With little tea And just rice for all B. Examples of real conditional sentences expressing habitual activities: If he eats breakfast. he feels better all day. Real conditional sentences can express generalizations and inferences. Structure Exercise 3: Understanding conditional sentences A. it turns to steam. and they include present or past habitual activities that are or were usually true. it turns to steam. 1.Unit 3 EDUCATION A.
In this type of conditional sentence. However. for example) can be used in the result clause to express less certainty. past tense refers to present or future time. Imaginative conditional sentences can express hypothetical or contrary-to-fact events or states. if it is raining. 2. parallel verb phrases are not used. However. past perfect tense refers to past time. anyone can do it. Inferences are often expressed in real conditional sentences. If I can do it. Be is the only English verb with two past tense forms. Imaginative conditional sentences are the most difficult for many learners of English because of the unusual relationship between form (the tenses used) and meaning. but only one of them (were) is used in imaginative conditional sentences. he saw the accident. he must have seen the accident. If he was at school. C. it is George’s birthday. B. it must be George’s birthday. many students are going to fail. Real conditionals expressing inferences usually have parallel verb phrases in both clauses. Examples of predictive conditional sentences: If the exam is hard. if it is raining. Predictive conditional sentences can express predictions and plans. for example) is used in the main clause.2. If Fred studies. she will get an A in the class. the streets must be getting wet. anyone must be able to do it. the streets are getting wet. if a modal which explicitly expresses an inference (must or should. he should pass the exam. Predictive conditional sentences usually contain simple present tense in the if-clause and will or be going to in the result clause. If today is Wednesday. If he was at school. he may get an A in the class. a weaker modal of prediction (may or should. Examples of real conditional sentences expressing inferences: If today is Wednesday. If I can do it. 1. If George does well on the final exam. . If Mary does well on the final exam. Another problem for many learners of English is that were (not was) is used with singular subjects.
she would have told us. she would tell us. I would not do that.) 1. If she studied for exams. If I had won the lottery. he would buy a new car. Hypothetical events or states are unlikely but possible in the present or future. I would have bought you a present. he would have bought a new car. (George probably does not have enough money. If she had known the answer. it isn’t raining. Some examples: If George had had enough money. Some examples: If I were you. she probably does not know the answer. I probably will not win the lottery. If it were raining. (I am not you. the streets would be wet. I would buy you a present.1. P 3. Examples of hypothetical conditional sentences (present and/or future time): If George had enough money. I did not win the lottery. Imaginative conditional sentences expressing hypothetical events or states have a past tense verb in the if-clause and would + verb (or might or could + verb) in the result clause. she did not know the answer. she doesn’t study for exams. I 2. she would get better grades. If she knew the answer. I .) Imaginative conditional sentences expressing past contrary-to-fact events or states have a past perfect verb in the if-clause and would + have + verb (or might or could + have + verb) in the result clause. Contrary-to-fact events or states are either impossible in the present time or did not happen in the past.) 2. If I won the lottery. Imaginative conditional sentences expressing present contrary-to-fact events or states have a past verb in the if-clause and would + verb (or might or could + verb) in the result clause. (George did not have enough money.
F 8. g. past continuous. went. f. d. present continuous. Had Were Served Waited . F 12. 5. F 11. Ran Kept Did Took e. past perfect) Was Crossed Used to Had Went Jumped Exercise 3: Shifting back in time Our Family Business a. present perfect) Have entered Has been put back We’re working Is continuing We’re Is Are working Are Say Seems Has Sweat out Do Past (simple past. 4. jumped downtrodden masses pager.) Present (simple present. h. c. F Unit 4 : Work Exercise 2: Vocabulary (page 91) 1. b. 2. cellphone.4. 3. and laptop gripping (Answers may vary. F 10. I 6. I 5. is continuing. P 7. F 9.
q. She used to work in her parents’ hotel through high school. m. . but now they no longer own a hotel. but now she likes her accounting class. but she is working for a large busy restaurant now. I am now working on my general education requirements to get an AS degree. She would clean tables and chairs. but she has several different part-time jobs in college. the mountain has been climbed by a 61-year-old man and a 17-year-old boy. p. She was a valedictorian when she graduated high school. 2. At this college I took all of the courses necessary for a certificate in Computer Technology. She used to learn all facets of hotel business from her parents. 8. 3. but now she doesn’t have managerial experience. 9. l. After all. but now her brother runs a bed and breakfast in town. Helped Was Was Went Exercise 5: Rewriting interview notes 1. k. 4. Today it may seem that the route which was first pioneered by Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay in 1953 has been tamed. Unit 5 – Leisure and Recreation Exercise 1 : Reviewing adjective clauses 1. o. and she will graduate summa cum laude in university this June. Her parents used to be in hotel business. In high school. It was also in high school that I fell in love with the Internet. She used to study hotel management in college. but now she wants to manage their business. 10. now I am competent and confident. 7.i. She used to be shy and reserved as a young girl. but now she’s outgoing and personable. Cooked Didnt Went Got Did n. She used to avoid math classes in high school. Exercise 6: Using verb tenses correctly – Editing I would like to apply for the position of Computer Lab Tutor. She used to work in a small hotel. j. Although I never used a computer before I entered high school. but now she’s not responsible for clean-up in present job. 6. I learned word processing and working with many different CD Roms. She used to learn to share work with her brother. 2. I feel very well qualified for this position. by complete novices and even by a one-legged Welsh-born mountaineer who was named Tom Whitaker. 5.
cheerful dog. Exercise 5: Identifying run-on sentences and comma splices “He’s a very friendly.3. which is 15.. but he’s also very meticulous. Exercise 2: Editing adjective clauses – Restrictive (R) vs non-restrictive (NR) clauses 1. why Goran. on which most climbers depend at high altitude – NR 4. culminating in K2. when most children are not yet walking – R 8. who have. It is a relevant strategy for all kinds of activity where change is needed. “ He reminds me of big. who reach the top of Everest – R 3.Army – R 9. full of enthusiasm and life... Each a little higher than the last.. Starting alone from base camp. Each a little higher than the last. where he planned to climb Everest without.” says Salkeld. I believe it is a relevant strategy for all kinds of activity where change is needed. during the terrible storm which swept across the mountain that season. Every successfully completed step enhances competence. culminating in K2.” he says. which is at 15. 2.” Kropp has. Salkeld recalls how. which reflects his individualism – NR 10. 3.” says Audrey Salkeld. 000 feet – NR 2. Was a step toward his final goal. Everything he did in the next five years was a step toward his final goal. It was the perfect preparation for Everest. thereby increasing the chances of reaching the target.. bristles with satellite dishes. is believed by many to be the hardest in the world. Believed by many to be the hardest in the world. Exercise 4: Correcting fragments 1. called Broad Peak. who use little or no technology. that showed where everyone was on the mountain – R 7. Climbed some of the toughest mountains in the world. good-natured guy. Salkeld is an Everest historian who met Kropp at base camp after his epic bike ride. 4. The following year he climbed another big mountain close to K2 in Pakistan. .guides – NR 6.000 feet below the start of the climb in the Khumbu district of Nepal.. Base camp. the world’s second highest mountain in Pakistan.own – R Exercise 3: Identifying sentence fragments Everything he did in the next five years. I believe. the world’s second highest mountain in Pakistan. – R 5. called Broad Peak starting alone from base camp... “ It is important to me to stress this step-by-step philosophy. The following year he climbed another big mountain close to K2 in Pakistan.
A lifestyle Reporter’s liefstyle Normal yogurts Regular size of refrigerators Didn’t call his boss with his first name Didn’t put his feet on the desk in his working place Unit 6: The Natural World Exercise 2: From “Millennial Mayhem” 1. but he wanted to think everything through for himself. He didn’t want to rely on what other people were telling him. 2.” C. 11 climbers had dies. “ Goran would arrive at the meetings with brilliant diagrams to show the whereabouts of everybody on the mountain. The process of changing one’s standard. The writer expresses his sarcasm. L.A. and at a rate that allows resources to replenish themselves. It means taking from the earth in response to need rather than greed.climbers from each expedition would meet every day to help coordinate the rescue of those struggling down the mountain. lifestyle Many kinds of yogurts Twice the size of regular size refrigerators Call his boss with the first name Put his feet on his desk in working place Eat lot of meat An informal lifestyle Cheeseburgers and French fries Cut-off shorts A Hawaiianshirts A baseball cap on backwards Calling people “you guys” A phone call to go out for a beer A beach blanket and a cooler Sandals and a shell necklace A tattoo Multiple piercings Purple hair A wedding in the woods . Writing and Editing Exercise 1: Formality versus informality A formal lifestyle A business suit A tie and pocket handkerchief A five course dinner Calling people “Sir” and “Madame” An invitation in the mail that says RSVP A tuxedo Linen tablecloth and napkins High heels and pearls A trimmed moustache A permanent A pedicure A wedding at a luxury hotel Exercise 2: Adjusting to the L.” he said. 4. By the time the monsoon ended. It is because those quick fixes involve technology 3. He was fully prepared to help in the rescue.
(The answer may vary. 5. S – It’s from the Philadelphia Inquirer. 9. Legionnaires’ disease was discovered in a hotel.) 8. 6. S – Other infectious diseases have been discovered.) B. and even have a whole day every April called Earth Day. 3. CX – They were a new infetious bacteria that microbiologists named Legionnaires’ disease. it may not be the single cause. S – Developed countries like the United States thought that they had conquered infectious diseases. It’s easy to get tick bites unless you wear a long sleeve shirt and long pants.) 10. (The answer may vary. S – The bacteria had colonized the air-conditioning ducts of a hotel in Philadelphia. (The answer may vary. You get Lyme disease only if a certain kind of tick bites you. Although one hunch is overpopulation. Scientists don’t know why new diseases are merging even though scientists are doing a lot of research. 2. S – That was when it all began. . It is because the Native Americans never made any decision without considering the impact on future generations. Exercise 2: Creating complex sentences 1. 6. 10. 1976. Structure Exercise 1: Recognizing complex sentences 1. S – The discovery of Legionnaires’ disease sent biologists scurrying to their labs. 11. 5. 6. No one heard of toxic shock syndrome in the nineteenth century even though it is a serious infectious disease now. S – Scientists haven’t figured out why these new infectious diseases are emerging. S 2. (The answer may vary. 4. 7.) 9. build wildlife sanctuaries. CS – Whittam swivelss in his chair and he points to anold newspaper clipping on the wall inside his office. 3. We recycle.5. use non-aerosol hair spray. After Legionnaires (attending a conference) got sick. 4. 8. they unknowingly sprayed the deadly bacteria into guests’ rooms. CX – When the the hotel staff turned on the air conditioning. 7.
a lot of volcanic products can be used in every day life. On the other hand. 4. Therefore. 8. 4th paragraph 3. a few days after the story.” In addition. if you live too close to a volcano and it erupts. he has been studying Merapi since 1988. 3. Some diseases are treated with antibiotics because these diseases have mutated and become resistant. seismology is one of the main tools used to study volcanoes around the world. “But big asteroids tend to have unstable orbits. a professor of geosciences.” says Williams. Exercise 4: Punctuating sentences correctly. The gravitational pulls of the planets are constantly tugging at them.” 4. 7. 6.7. However. 6. ’98 phD Sci. But. Understanding past extinctions may influence future predictions of how warming will affect the ocean and the atmosphere over time. it is the most feared volcano in a country that has 129 volcanoes known to be active. However. “We’re not in the clear yet. Earthquake activity around volcanoes has been linked directly to volcanic activity. In summary. 1. Mount Merapi in Central Java. Then. C. 5. 2. . volcanoes provide many benefits. if not billions of asteroids barreling through our solar system every year. The soil near a volcano is fertile. is one of the most active volcanoes in the world. One could collide with us at any time. 3. an astronomer and assistant professor of physics at the behrend College. Usually either they’re too small to penetrate our atmosphere or else they miss us completely. Exercise 3: Combining sentences with transitions 1. Two theories explain how stagnation could have caused extinctions. Folks wiped their brows. according to Darren Williams. 2. Indonesia. Bacteria existed for a long time before humankind existed. it can be lethal. Barry Voight. sees “the distinct possibility for catastrophe. Writing and Editing Exercise 2: “Ocean Extinction” 1. scientists announced that they had miscalculated the asteroid’s path and it wouldn’t hit us after all. There are still millions. the thermal energy from some volcanoes can be used to generate electric power. 5. 2. let out a collective “whew” and went about their business. However. 8. Gravels and sand found in rivers can be used in building material.
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