REPORT ON POWER SUPPLY

...2...... REGULATION..........................................................................................4 4.................................................................................................3 3.......................1.......... CIRCUIT FOR A POWER SUPPLY USING IC 723.....5 7................................................................................ PROTECTION............................................................................................ Switch Mode Power Supplies.....................................1................................................9 10................. Active Load......................5 6...........................2 Load Regulation and Cross Regulation................................. FILTERING.................................................................................................................................................................................8 10...... ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................................................................Linear Power Supplies.................1 Line Regulation.......2......12 12.......13 13........................................Positive Regulation..............................................10 11.....9 10.......................14 ABSTRACT ....................5 7..............................8 8....2 2...................................................... Overload Protection ................................................ INPUT......................................9 10........................ TESTING A POWER SUPPLY.....4 5............................................................... INTRODUCTION................................................................1............................................................................................... SOURCES...............................................................................................................................8 9................................................ OUTPUT PROTECTION ...1 2......7 8................. SUMMARY............................................................3.................2 2..............Negative Regulation............................... OUTPUT....................CONTENTS 1.................................... RECTIFIER...........................7 7........

1 INTRODUCTION . It is not an ideal one as its terminal voltage changes in accordance with load due to its internal resistance. A regulated power supply is one that controls the output voltage or current to a specific value. solar) to electrical energy. mechanical. Simplest supply is a dc battery.A power supply is a device that supplies electrical energy to one or more electric loads.Such output supplies are in universal use and can be constructed using voltage regulator IC`s..g. chemical. All electronic circuits from simple transistor and op amp circuits to elaborate digital and microprocessor systems require one or more sources of DC voltage. the controlled value is held nearly constant despite variations in either load current or the voltage supplied by the power supply's energy source. The term is most commonly applied to devices that convert one form of electrical energy to another. though it may also refer to devices that convert another form of energy (e. has low noise characteristics and provides a fast response to load changes.In this report we will see how to use such special purpose voltage regulator IC`s to construct stable power supplies . Fortunately it is easy to construct a stable power supply using negative feedback . Electronic components require a DC supply that is well regulated.

cost criteria and performance levels as discussed below:- • Linear Power Supplies Linear power supplies are typically only used in specific applications requiring extremely low noise. unit cost has fallen as volumes have increased. As electronic equipment has become smaller. There are a number of basic topologies used in power supplies . the market has demanded that power converters do the same. also provide isolation from the input to the output for safety. suitable for electronic components. power supply systems operate from wide input ranges to cover worldwide AC mains supply variations.Virtually every piece of electronic equipment is powered from a low voltage DC supply. which are suited to various power levels. Conversion efficiency has increased. This source will be a battery. 2 . noise reduction and transient protection. With the global market for electronics becoming a reality. At the same time. Examples are audio applications (low noise) and low power consumer applications such as alarm panels (low cost). this has been an evolutionary rather than a revolutionary process. and most DC/DC converters. a combination of battery and DC/DC converter or a power supply converting AC mains into one or more low voltage DC supplies. or in very low power applications where a simple transformer rectifier solution is adequate and provides the lowest cost. Since the introduction of switch mode techniques. materials and components allowing higher switching frequencies have become available and packaging techniques have advanced. AC power supplies.

these units are Large. most applications utilize a Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS). The introduction of low voltage semiconductors and the consequent high output current demands have driven the development of synchronous output rectifier schemes.  Switch Mode Power Supplies The use of switch mode topologies has reduced the size and improved the efficiency of power Supplies by increasing the frequency of operation. heavy and inefficient with a limited input voltage range. 3 . where the output diodes are replaced by power MOSFETs to reduce power dissipation in the secondary and achieve high efficiency solutions for these applications. reducing the physical size of transformers. Inductors and capacitors. The benefits of this solution are low noise. and utilizing an ‘on or off’ switching element to increase efficiency. so do switching losses. The compromises in adopting this technique are increased ripple and noise on the output DC supply As switching frequency increases.The 50/60Hz mains transformer reduces the voltage to a usable low level. In order to significantly reduce the size and increase efficiency. reliability and low cost. the secondary AC voltage is rectified using a rectifier circuit and some form of circuit is employed to provide the necessary regulation usually containing a voltage regulator IC’s. On the downside.

2. It cannot be damaged by overloading as the power supply will have some other form of overload protection.  INPUT Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its load. Depending on its design. The fuse will often be soldered into the PCB rather than being a replaceable cartridge type fuse. 3. Electromechanical systems such as generators and alternators. usually electronic. a power supply may obtain energy from: 1. Energy storage devices such as batteries and fuel cells.A general power supply unit has the following basic units. Common examples of this include power supplies that convert AC line voltage to DC voltage. as well as any energy it consumes while performing that task.  PROTECTION Input protection is implemented in power supplies in order to ensure safety. 4 . It is rated such that only a catastrophic failure of the power supply will cause it to fail. from an energy source. The input fuse fitted within a power supply is not intended to be field-replaceable. Electrical energy transmission systems.

It is a flexible. 5 .  REGULATION Regulation is the ability of a power supply to maintain an output voltage within a specified tolerance as referenced to changing conditions of input voltage and/or load. which periodically reverses direction. The circuit features a temperature-compensated voltage reference. By itself. resulting in lower cost and weight as compared to a rectifier with a 3-wire input from a transformer with a centre-tapped secondary winding. which flows in only one direction. easyto use regulator with excellent performance. series pass transistor. IC 723 is a voltage regulator designed primarily for series regulator applications. this means that each section reduces the ripples by a factor of at least 10.  FILTERING The R-C filter circuit as given in figure is used to reject input noise. to direct current (DC). So the ripples are dropped across series resistor R instead of across the load resistor RL. By deliberate design R is kept much larger than XC1 at the ripple frequency. RECTIFIER A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC). Typically R is kept at least 10 times greater than XC2. and current-limiting protective circuit. A bridge rectifier provides full-wave rectification from a two-wire AC input. differential amplifier. but external transistors can be added to provide any desired load current as shown in the figure below. it will supply output currents up to 150 mA.

CIRCUIT OF POWER SUPPLY USING IC 723 The external pass transistor must be mounted on a heat sink .An external pass transistor Q1 is used. 6 . Q1 is added as a Darlington pair with the internal transistor.723 does not incorporate internal shut-down circuitry to protect against excessive load current so provision is made for either linear or fold back current limiting as discussed in output protection.

7 . The input voltage must stay a few volts more positive than the output at all times. vout<vref Figure below shows how to make a negative voltage regulator with the 723. this circuit is identical with the op amp non inverting amplifier with Vref as the input to the non inverting terminal and a fraction of output voltage to the inverting terminal.It’s working is similar to the positive regulator.e. What it does is look at its input terminals and swings its output terminal around so that the external feedback network brings the input differential to zero Thus we get a required regulated output.POSITIVE REGULATOR Positive regulation means that the output voltage greater than a reference voltage i.e.The "dropout voltage'' is 3 volts (minimum) for the 723 NEGATIVE REGULATOR Negative regulation means that the output voltage less than a reference voltage i. R2 compares a fraction of the output with the voltage reference.Voltage divider R1. What it does is look at its input terminals and swings its output terminal around so that the external feedback network brings the input differential to zero Thus we get a required regulated output. vout>vref Figure below shows how to make a positive voltage regulator with the 723. R2 compares a fraction of the Vref with the output voltage the input to the non inverting terminal is the output voltage and a fraction of Vref voltage goes to the inverting terminal. including the effects of ripple on the unregulated supply . Voltage divider R1.

Power supplies are protected against overload and the end equipment against over-voltage and excessive fault current. The input voltage must stay a few volts more positive than the output at all times. Cutting off drive to the pass transistors is used to limit output currents to nondestructive levels. Obviously the choice of output is left for the requirement of user. OUTPUT PROTECTION Output protection is implemented on power supplies and DC/DC converters in order to prevent damage to the power supply and the end equipment. OVERLOAD PROTECTION In the case of an overload or short circuit being applied to the output.  OUTPUT Using the above components a regulated supply with output voltage ranging from to the maximum allowable output voltage can be made. including the effects of ripple on the unregulated supply . protecting both the power supply and the load from excessive current.Output current can be controlled by suitably choosing the values of components 8 . circuits are employed to limit the current or power that the unit will supply.

03 – 5.015V to 5. TESTING A POWER SUPPLY LINE REGULATION Line regulation is a static performance measure of how well a power supply holds the output voltageConstant in the face of a changing input.03V. % Load Regulation = VOUT (Load Max)-VOUT (Load Min) / VOUT (Normal) x 100 Where.02 x 100 = 0.6 % 9 .05 – 5.02V. which defines the ability of a power supply to remain within specified output limits for a predetermined load change.29 % LOAD REGULATION AND CROSS REGULATION Load regulation is a static performance measure.02V but when the AC input is varied from its minimum to maximum value the output varies from 5. % Line Regulation = ( 5.02 x 100 = 0. % Line Regulation = VOUT (Max)-VOUT (Min) / VOUT (Normal) x 100 Where.02 ) / 5.Line regulation defines the change in output voltage or current resulting from a change in the inputVoltage over a specified range. Expressed as a percentage. the range is dependent upon the product design and is specified in the product data sheet. VOUT (Normal) is the output voltage at nominal line input voltage VOUT (Max) is the output voltage at maximum line input voltage VOUT (Min) is the output voltage at minimum line input voltage Example: A power supply’s output is nominally 5.02V to 5. VOUT (Normal) is the nominal output voltage VOUT (Load Max) is the output voltage at maximum output current VOUT (Load Min) is the output voltage at minimum output current Example: A power supply manufacturer specifies that for a load change of 5% to 100% its power supply output changes from 5.015 ) / 5. % Load Regulation = ( 5.05V around a nominal voltage of 5.

an active load is used for automatic testing of power supplies and other sources of electrical power to ensure that their output voltage and current are within their specifications over a range of load conditions. an active load converts the power supply's electrical energy to heat. e. In contrast.g. One approach to test loads uses a set of resistors of different values. and may display these measurements on numeric readouts. an active load presents to the source a resistance value varied by electronic control. 10 . in automated test setups. by a digital computer. active loads often include circuitry to measure the current and voltage delivered to the inputs. Just like a resistor. and are usually cooled by means of heatsinks. It is calculated in the same manner as load regulation and is often specified as a percentage change in output voltage for a percentage change in another output load. V1 cross regulation = 1% per 10% change in V2. either by an analogue adjusting device such as a multi-turn potentiometer or. intended to present a high small-signal impedance yet not requiring a large DC voltage drop. This is an extension of the load regulation test and determines the ability of all the power supply Outputs to remain within their specified voltage rating for a load current change on another output. In the area of electronic test equipment. and manual intervention. as would occur if a large resistor were used instead.For added convenience. such as transistors. The load resistance can often be varied rapidly in order to test the power supply's transient response. from no load to maximum load. The heatdissipating devices (usually transistors) in an active load therefore have to be designed to withstand the resulting temperature rise. ACTIVE LOAD An active load is a circuit component made up of active devices.For multiple output power supplies. another factor affecting the output voltage is cross regulation.

Above graph shows variation of output voltage of a power supply (5V) with increase in load current i. output current. 11 .e.

12 .CIRCUIT FOR A POWER SUPPLY USING IC 723 NOTE: Only one type of regulation can be used at a time.

Output protection is implemented on power supplies and DC/DC converters in order to prevent damage to the power supply and the end equipment. which periodically reverses direction. Line regulation is a static performance measure of how well a power supply holds the output voltage Constant in the face of a changing input. including the effects of ripple on the unregulated supply . Input can consist of batteries. The R-C filter circuit is used to reject input noise. Load regulation is a static performance measure. Power supplies are protected against overload and the end equipment against over-voltage and excessive fault current.g. Obviously the choice of output is left for the requirement of user.SUMMARY A power supply is a device that supplies electrical energy to one or more electric loads. The term is most commonly applied to devices that convert one form of electrical energy to another. rectifier. Linear power supplies 2 Switch Mode Power Supplies Basic unit of a power supply consists of a input. All electronic circuits from simple transistor and op amp circuits to elaborate digital and microprocessor systems require one or more sources of DC voltage Basic topologies of power supplies are: 1. to direct current (DC). protector and an output. The input voltage must stay a few volts more positive than the output at all times. mechanical. regulator. which flows in only one direction. chemical.Output current can be controlled by suitably choosing the values of components There are various types of testing involved in testing a power supply like line regulation. Line regulation defines the change in output voltage or current resulting from a change in the input Voltage over a specified range. Regulated supply with output voltage ranging from to the maximum allowable output voltage can be made. solar) to electrical energy. 13 . solar cells or mains (step downed by a transformer). An active load is used for automatic testing of power supplies and other sources of electrical power to ensure that their output voltage and current are within their specifications over a range of load conditions. load regulation and cross regulation. Regulation can either be positive regulation (vout>vref) or negative regulation (vout<vref). Rectifier converts alternating current (AC). filter.. which defines the ability of a power supply to remain within specified output limits for a predetermined load change. though it may also refer to devices that convert another form of energy (e. Regulation is the ability of a power supply to maintain an output voltage within a specified tolerance as referenced to changing conditions of input voltage and/or load. from no load to maximum load.

xppower.wikipedia.wikipedia.com/pdfs/techguide.org/wiki/Active_load 14 . by Paul Horowitz and Winfield Hill WEB http://www.pdf http://en.SOURCES BOOK The Art of Electronics.org/wiki/Diode_bridge http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_supply http://en.circuitstoday.com/rc-filters http://www.

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