You are on page 1of 16


Sathy road,Kovilpalayam,Coimbatore-641107




: S.A.SIVAKUMAR Assistant professor Info Institute of engineering


ABSTRACT This project presents design and implementation of a mobile embedded system to monitor and record key operation indicators of a distribution transformer like load currents, transformer oil temperatures. The proposed online monitoring systems integrates a Global Service Mobile (GSM) modem, withstand alone single chip microcontroller and sensor packages. It is installed at the transformer site and the above mentioned parameters are recorded using the built-in 8-channelanalog to digital converter (ADC) of the embedded system. The acquired parameters are processed and recorded in the system memory. If there is any abnormality or an emergency situation the system sends SMS (Short Message Service) messages to designated mobile telephones containing information about the abnormality according to some predefined instructions and policies that are stored on the embedded system EEPROM. This mobile system will help the utilities to optimally utilize transformers and identify problems before any catastrophic failure. The electrical equipment in the continuous process industries such as sugar, cement, and textile and also in the electricity distribution, the transformers are used. These are operating continuously. Therefore, a reliable monitoring system is necessary to protect the transformers against any major faults. In olden transformers, these facilities are not provided to effectively monitor them throughout the operating period. The concerned authorities attended the faulty transformer, once it is out of service. Hence, an automatic monitoring system is

necessary to protect the transformers from faults. This project presents the design and development of an automatic real time monitoring system consisting of PIC micro controller, sensors and GSM modem. INTRODUCTION: 1.1 OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this project is to design an automatic real time monitoring system in the following steps: To design the overall system To design the hardware To develop the embedded software using embedded-C To test the system The proposed project Effective remote monitoring system for a single phase 1 KVA energy efficient switchable transformer aims in monitoring the transformer from remote place using GSM. To maintain uninterrupted power supply and also to protect the transformer from faults, an automatic monitoring system is needed.

1.2 PRESENT SCENARIO OF TRANSFORMER MONITORING: At present the manual method of monitoring is adopted that is using analog meters the engineer will manually monitor the operating condition of the transformer. 1.3 NEED OF THE WORK: Transformers are a vital part of the transmission and distribution system. Monitoring transformers for problems before they occur can prevent faults that are costly to repair and result in a loss of

service. Current systems can provide information about the state of a transformer, but are either offline or very expensive to implement. This report outlines a new approach that is based on using remote monitoring system of the transformer using pic microcontroller with help of GSM technology. Remote condition monitoring of transformers has already been widely known and implemented with various techniques The monitoring is mostly carried out to reveal significant parameters that reflect conditions of transformers, such as voltages, currents, and temperatures. The existence of the Internet provides further flexible remote monitoring in many areas, including power transformers. Thus, many approaches are developed to perform remote monitoring throughout the world by using a network that is connected to the Internet. 1.4 PROPOSED SYSTEM: The system hardware has four hardware modules as embedded system, GSM modem, mobile users and GSM networks and pc based server. The embedded module is located at the transformer site. It is utilized to acquire, process, display, transmit and receive the parameters to/from the GSM modem. The second is the GSM module. It is the link between the embedded system and the public GSM network.

The third is utility module that has a pc based-server located at the utility control center. The server is attached to GSM modem that receives and transmits SMS from the transformer site via the GSM module.

1.4.1 DEMERITS OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM: Time consuming. Expensive The monitoring system must be designed for long-time operation.

The monitoring system should provide information for a more reliable estimation of the transformers remaining lifetime.

It should support the introduction of condition-based maintenance

and help to avoid unexpected outages.


The remote monitoring system for the switchable transformer is however quite unique because it includes measurements of the key

operating parameters temperature.



bytes of Data Memory (RAM) Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM data memory. Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources) Eight level deep hardware stack Direct, indirect and relative addressing modes. Power-on Reset (POR). Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST). Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for

Moreover, the system is useful not only in monitoring the parameters of the transformer (such as voltages and currents) but also in controlling the switching devices and performing switching at appropriate timings It requires less power and space and it is portable Maintains supply. uninterrupted power

Protect the transformer from faults. Automatically monitors the transformer no manual work is needed. Remote monitoring is possible

reliable operation. Programmable code-protection. Power saving SLEEP mode. Selectable oscillator options. In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP) . Single 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming capability. In-Circuit Debugging via two pins. Processor read/write access to program memory. Wide operating voltage range: 2.0V to 5.5V. High Sink/Source Current: 25 mA. Low-power consumption.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE: PIC MICROCONTROLLER [16F877A] FEATURES: High-performance RISC CPU. Only 35 single word instructions to learn. Operating speed: DC - 20 MHz clock input DC - 200 ns instruction cycle. Up to 8K x 14 words of FLASH Program Memory, Up to 368 x 8

3.3.1 MEMORY ORGANIZATION There are three memory blocks in each of the PIC16F877A MCUs. The Program Memory and Data Memory have separate buses so that concurrent access can occur and is detailed in this section. The EEPROM data memory block is detailed next Section. Additional



The PIC16F877A devices have a 13-bit program counter capable of

addressing an 8K x 14 program memory space. The PIC16F877/876 devices have 8K x 14 words of FLASH program memory, and the PIC16F873/874 devices have 4K x 14. Accessing a location above the physically implemented address will cause a wraparound. The RESET vector is

information on device memory may be found in the PIC micro Mid-Range Reference Manual.

at 0000h and the interrupt vector is at 0004h.

used by phones. The GSM standard was developed as a replacement for first generation (1G) analog cellular networks,

DATA MEMORY ORGANIZATION: The data memory is partitioned into multiple banks which contain the General Purpose Registers and the Special Function Registers. Bits RP1

and originally described a digital, circuit switched network optimized for full duplex voice telephony. This was

expanded over time to include data communications, first by circuit switched transport, then packet data transport via GPRS (General Packet Radio Services) and EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution or EGPRS). Further improvements were made when the 3GPP developed third generation (3G) UMTS standards followed by fourth generation (4G) LTE Advanced standards. 3.5 LCD

(STATUS<6>) and RP0 (STATUS<5>) are the bank select bits. Each bank extends up to 7Fh (128 bytes). The lower locations of each bank are reserved for the Special Function Registers GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER The register file can be accessed either directly or indirectly through the File Select Register (FSR). SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS The Special Function Registers are

registers used by the CPU and peripheral modules for controlling the desired

A Liquid crystal display is a flat panel display, electronic visual display, or video display that uses the light

operation of the device. These registers are implemented as static RAM. The Special Function Registers can be classified into two sets: core (CPU) and peripheral.

modulating properties of liquid crystals. Liquid crystals do not emit light directly. LCDs are available to display arbitrary images (as in a general-purpose computer

3.4 GSM GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, Spcial Mobile), by originally is a the Groupe set

display) or fixed images which can be displayed or hidden, such as preset words, digits, and 7-segment displays as in


a digital clock. They use the same basic technology, except that arbitrary images are made up of a large number of small pixels, while other displays have larger elements.



Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe protocols for second generation (2G) digital cellular networks


start of subroutine

start of thread

start priority of thread

print requested address to UART

scan keypad

NutTcpSend(Sock,SMB,LSMB); NutTcpSend(sock,TCPT,xreq,lreq); NutTcpSend(Sock,TCPTEMB,LEMB); NutTcpRecieve(sock,buff,sizeof(buff));

A Key is Pressed ?

print recieved data to UART
process based on pressed key

parse Data of parameters&Display to LCD




A transformer is a converter energy from that



a ferromagnetic

core, air-core

transfers electrical another

transformers being a notable exception.

one circuit to

through inductively coupled conductors the transformer's coils. the creates A first a


varying current in or primary winding

5.1 HITECH C HI-TECH C PRO compilers can also be operated in Lite mode with no memory restrictions or time limits. It supports all devices, however OCG optimizations Are not available. HI-TECH Software has provided this freeware compiler, HI-TECH C PRO compilers in Lite mode, as a lowcost tool for hobbyists and students, however the license allows its use for commercial purposes as well. It is ideal as a teaching tool for an introduction to the C language and embedded Programming.

varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic

field through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a

varying electromotive force (EMF), or "voltage", in the secondary winding. This effect is called inductive coupling. If a load is connected to the secondary winding, current will flow in this winding, and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary winding (Vs) is in proportion to the primary voltage (Vp) and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (Ns) to the number of turns in the primary (Np) as follows:

5.2 MPLAB SIMULATOR: MPLAB SIM is a discrete-event simulator for the PIC microcontroller (MCU) families. It is integrated into MPLAB IDE integrated development

environment. The MPLAB SIM debugging tool is designed to model operation of By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus enables Microchip microcontrollers Technology's to assist users PIC in

an alternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making Ns greater than Np, or "stepped down" by making Ns less than Np. The windings are coils wound

debugging software for these devices MPLAB IDE is an integrated development environment that provides development engineers with the flexibility

to develop and debugs firmware for various Microchip devices MPLAB IDE is a Windows-based Integrated Development Environment for the Microchip Technology Incorporated PIC microcontroller (MCU) and dsPIC digital signal controller (DSC) families.

that work with MPLAB IDE are also available. Make timing measurements. View variables in Watch windows. Program firmware into devices with

programmers such as PICSTART Plus The MPLAB X IDE is the new graphical, integrated debugging tool set for all of Microchips or PRO MATE II. more than 800 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit MCUs and digital signal controllers, and memory devices. It includes a feature-rich editor, source-level project to manager, software Finddebugger, quick answers the questions simulator, and supports Microchips popular hardware tools, such as IDE the MPLAB ICD 3 in from the MPLAB on-line Help. circuit debugger, PIC kit 3, and MPLAB PM3 programmer. Based on the open -source Net Beans platform, MPLAB X runs on Windows OS, MAC OS and Linux, supports many SYSTEM REQUIRES: third-party tools, and is compatible with many Net Beans Theplug-ins following minimum configuration is required to run MPLAB IDE (6.20): PC-compatible Pentium class system 5.2.1 MPLAB IDE FEATURES: In the MPLAB IDE, you can: Create source code using the built-in editor. Assemble, compile and link source code using various language tools. An assembler, linker and librarian come with MPLAB IDE. C compilers are available from Microchip and other third party vendors. Debug watching the executable flow logic with by a Microsoft Windows 98 SE,

Windows 2000 SP2, Windows NT 4.0 SP6,Windows ME, Windows XP 64 MB memory (128MB

recommended) 85 MB of hard disk space Internet Explorer 5.0 or greater 5.2.2 TEST CODE WITH

SIMULATOR: In order to test the code, we need some kind of software or hardware that will execute the PIC micro instructions. A debug execution tool is a hardware or software tool that is used to inspect code as it executes a program (in this case tutor84.asm). Hardware tools such as


simulator, such as MPLAB SIM, or in real time with an emulator, such as MPLAB ICE. Third party emulators

MPLAB ICE or MPLAB ICD 2 can execute code in real devices, but if we don't have hardware yet, the MPLAB simulator can be used to test the code. The simulator is a software

It does not run in "real time," since the simulator program is dependent upon the speed of the PC, the complexity of the code, overhead from the operating system and how many other tasks are running.

program that runs on the PC to simulate the instructions of the PIC micro MCU. SIMULATION OUTPUT

In the First Phase, The main modules in the projects like LCD interface, ADC routine, GSM routines. The results are shown in Fig 6.1 to Fig 6.4.

Figure 6.1 process1_GSM detection

Figure 6.2 process2_GSM detection

Figure 6.3 process3_Message Display in LCD

Figure 6.4 process4_ GSM at command FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS: Kva switchable transformer. The system may contain either embedded Ethernet The remote monitoring system that had been developed was very useful in understanding conditions of the units or computers or a combination of them. The use of embedded Ethernet units as a client and a server however provides the most compact system. The experimental results obtained in this research only used a limited amount of oil sample. Future work could utilize more samples that represent any common failure to the transformer. By collecting

transformer. It also enables operators to monitor the parameters away from the transformer. The result of the experimentations showed that the system could handle remote monitoring control tasks for the 1-

more samples, it is possible to achieve more robust and accurate diagnostic capability. The diagnostic module designed in this research still require a USB Connection to main computer in order to transfer the data. This limits the portability and increases the work needed for installation. An area of future research could focus on the development of a hardware and signal-processing module that would utilize wireless communication. Finally, there is also a great amount of work that can be done in the area of pattern recognition of faults and life expectancy. Once a large database of data has been collected from several different transformers and different types of

2. F. Poza, P. Marino, S. Otero, and F. Machado( Programmable 2006), electronic

instrument for condition monitoring of in-service power transformers,IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 625634. 3. Thomas Leibfried (1998) Online monitors service, application vol.11,no.3,pp.36-42 keep IEEE in transformers in power,

4. T. D. Poser, D. A. Yannucci, J. B. Templeton, and B. N. Lenderking,(1985) On-line

monitoring of power transformers, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-104, no. 1, pp. 207211

faults have been witnessed, it will be possible to try to classify behaviors and how they relate to impending failures. In the long term, the pattern classification could lead to life expectancy predictions for the transformer. REFERENCES 1. J. K. Pylvanainen, K. Nousiainen, and P. Verho( 2007), Studies to utilize condition loading guides and ANN for monitoring, IEEE Trans. 15.

5. H. Abniki, H. Afsharirad, A. Mohseni, F. Khoshkhati, H. Monsef, and P. Sahmsi, Effective on-line

parameters for transformer monitoring and protection, in Proc. NAPS, 2010, pp.

oil-immersed distribution transformer 6. B. Chatterjee, D. Dey, and S. Chakravorti, integrated, Implementation of an

Power Del., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 201 207.




Aug. 2010.

monitoring instrument in the classroom and on- site, IEEE Trans. Educ., vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 484489,