V. Ramakrishnan et al.


V.Ramakrishnan1 and K.P.Ramesh2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ABSTRACT Fatigue life and endurance limits are the most important design parameters in bridges and pavements were cyclic and dynamic loadings are predominant. Structural designers usually adopt a deterministic approach to design; eventhough structural problems are often non-deterministic. Therefore in the face of an uncertainty, say an extreme loading due to earthquake or impact; there is a very high probability that the structure fails. There is a need to model the fatigue life of materials using a probabilistic approach. This paper presents the results of an extensive analytical investigation that was carried out using the data obtained by conducting fatigue tests on lightweight concrete in air and water, and also on fiber reinforced concretes. A power model for predicting the relationship between the fatigue stress ratio (S), a dependent variable, and the total number of cycles to failure (N), an independent variable, is presented. Prediction interval was used to measure the accuracy of the regression equation for predicting the future values for designing for fatigue resistance of structures. Hypothesis testing was also done to determine whether a strong and significant relation existed between S and N. A multiple regression analysis was carried out on all the fatigue data from all the mixes with varying compressive strengths. Adequacy of regression models was assessed using the values of coefficient of correlation, conditional estimation of standard deviation and the significance–F (p-value) of the hypothesis test. The different models thus presented can be used to predict the fatigue life of fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) and light weight concrete (LWC) with any compressive strength, at a given stress level and can be confidently used by designers. Keywords: Fiber Reinforced Concrete; Light Weight Concrete; Modeling; Fatigue Strength and Endurance Limit
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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Distinguished Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Graduate Student, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Rapid City, SD 57701-3995, USA

The fatigue cracking may occur from fatigue loading well below the static tensile strength of the material. In the case of sudden impact load such as missiles on structures there is every possibility that the loading can exceed that specified in building codes. Even other structures such as offshore structures. 2 INTRODUCTION Structures such as bridge elements and pavements are predominantly subjected to cyclic loading due to traffic. after a number of repeated load applications. which in turn induces the largest natural force.V. it is safe that we design structures using a probabilistic approach [1 to 9]. Since designers have always used a deterministic approach to the problem there is high risk of structural failure due to fatigue in the above cases. Ramakrishnan et al. in crack formation or a complete failure. Earthquake resistant buildings are designed on the basis of fatigue load cycles and the loading occurs at irregular time intervals and they transmit transient dynamic ground motions. Fatigue failure occurs without any warning and results in a brittle failure with no gross deformation. . Under this load the structural part undergoes progressive localized permanent change which may result. In this investigation fatigue strength is defined as the maximum flexural fatigue stress for which the beam can withstand two million cycles of nonreversed fatigue loading [1]. Endurance limit is defined as the flexural fatigue stress at which the beam could withstand 2 million cycles of non-reversed fatigue loading (fmax) expressed as a percentage of the modulus of rupture (fr) [10 to 13]. For these structures flexural fatigue strength and endurance limit are used as criteria for design. In general the term fatigue implies the application of an external dynamic loading on a structural part. and crane girders in the industrial buildings are subjected to cyclic loadings and impact loadings. Since there is always an uncertainty. parts of high rise buildings.

• If the beam did not fail even after completing 2 million cycles then 2 more specimens were tested to the same maximum load (stress) level. The modulus of rupture (fr) was determined by testing three beam specimens. Fatigue tests were done using the procedure given below. TESTING PROGRAM The specimens used for flexural fatigue test were concrete beams measuring 101. Data from a total of 119 fiber reinforced [13] and lightweight concrete [10.6mm (4in X 4in X 14in). load). . • To present and discuss the different results. the remaining beams (a minimum of 20) were subjected to a non reversed flexural fatigue with third point loading at a frequency of 25 cycles per second (25Hz).V. information and the models developed for prediction of fatigue life and failure stress. Ramakrishnan et al. fr represents the static modulus of rupture of the mix. according to ASTM C 78 (Third Point Loading).6mm X 355.11 and 12] specimens were collected and investigated. randomly selected from each mix. A minimum of 3 beams was tested at each stress level. 3 OBJECTIVES The objectives of the paper are to • To perform a statistical and probabilistic analysis to develop constitutive models for the prediction of flexural fatigue life for fiber reinforced and lightweight concretes. The average modulus of rupture. subjected to third point loading. • • • The lower limit was set at 10% of fr (average max. The upper limit (ffmax ) was set in between 50% to 90% of fr (average max. load).6mm X 101. If the beam failed before completing 2 million cycles the upper limit (ffmax ) was reduced for the next beam.

Offshore structures are predominantly subjected to cyclic and dynamic loading due to waves and wind. 4 The testing arrangement for the flexural fatigue test was the same as for the static flexure test. T6. Ramakrishnan et al. Plain concrete has a fatigue endurance limit of 50 to 55 % of static flexural strength and a properly designed FRC can achieve about 90 to 95 % endurance limit. W1.5mm.yard). flexural fatigue strength.V.69kg solid and 0.7]. earthquake resistant structures and missile silos. There was also a counter provided to keep track of the number of cycles. impact strength. NMFRC and NMFRC-2 with varying compressive strengths were tested. Fiber Reinforced Concrete Addition of fibers improves the static flexural strength. Silica fume was used for all the mixes in the form of liquid slurry having a weight of 1.. Chemical admixtures used included a high range water reducer (super plasticizer). The data collected from these 6 different FRC mixes were analyzed in this investigation. (0. a normal water reducing admixture (WRA) and an air-entraining admixture (AEA). ductility and failure toughness in concrete. The flexural fatigue strengths and endurance limits for these concretes were calculated and given in Table 1. The . FRC has been widely used in airport and highway pavements. sluiceways. Therefore there is a need to design these structures based on fatigue load cycles [6. whitetoppings.37 kg/lt. Light Weight Concrete The high performance lightweight concrete has great potential to be used in offshore structures because it has less submerged weight. lightweight expanded shale (series A) and crushed expanded shale (series B) provided in 2 sizes 19mm and 9. shock resistance. The control and the monitor system consisted of a MTS load cell.8kg/m3 (25lbs/cu. bridge deck overlays. Six mixes: DOT-T5. All above referred polyolefin FRC mixes had the same fiber loading of 14. bridge piers. spillways.68kg liquid). P1. Two types of lightweight aggregates were used viz.

Two batches were made for each mixture proportion and these batches were designated as FW1. FW3. 12 mixtures were made.V. M2. For lightweight aggregates from series A three different cement factors 415. The flexural fatigue test results show considerable scatter even in a given stress level under very carefully controlled testing . M4. with three mixes being made with 9. 3 respectively. FW4. For lightweight aggregates from series B. M5 and M6. In some cases a theoretical distribution closely fits the historical data that has been collected.5mm aggregates. These three mixtures were designated as mixture 1.11 and 12]. In the same way 6 more batches were made and these were designated as M1. 5 substitute seawater was prepared according to ASTM standard D1141-86. DEVELOPMENT OF THE THEORY Probabilistic Methods in Engineering Probabilistic distributions are useful for modeling and analyzing real world processes. Ramakrishnan et al. Experiments are concerned with results that are subjected to chance. six mixes (A to F) for fatigue testing in air and six mixes (G to L) for fatigue testing in water. a term that is used to describe any process by which several chance observations is generated. M3. They were tested for fatigue in air. 465. FW5 and FW6. FW2. in other cases we make judgement about the fundamental nature of the processes and choose an appropriate theoretical distribution without collecting the data. 515 kg/m3 of concrete were used. 2. They were tested for fatigue in water. for series A and series B are given in Table 2. The compression testing of a number of concrete cylinders is an example of a “statistical experiment”. 2 mix with 19mm aggregates and one mix was made with combination of two sizes of aggregates. For each test condition (air or water) principal variable was size of light weight concrete. The flexural fatigue strengths and endurance limits for the lightweight concrete tested in air and seawater [10. The field of statistics is concerned with making inferences about populations and population characteristics.

Prediction of Average Flexural Fatigue Life The relationship fit to a set of experimental data is characterized by a prediction equation called a regression equation. x2… xk are not random variables and therefore have no distributional properties. In the case of a single Y and a single x. This response depends on one or more independent or regressor variables say x1. There is a single ‘dependent variable’ or response Y. To predict the average life of a part. Most studies on the fatigue of concrete have so far been directed to interrelate the applied fatigue stress and the fatigue life of concrete. 6 environment. Several mathematical models have been used for statistical description of the fatigue life. The regression analysis is used to determine how the dependent variable changes with the independent variable (N). Ramakrishnan et al. the stress ratio (S) is the dependent variable. there is a clear distinction between the variables as far as their role in the experimental process is concerned. which is controlled in the experiment. It has been shown that a simple relationship between applied fatigue stress and the fatigue life is difficult to obtain [1].V. The Y values for a given x must be normally distributed. while correlation analysis is used to determine the degree of association between the variables. For k independent variables. x2… xk. Regression Analysis Regression analysis is used to solve problems involving sets of variables. the situation becomes regression of Y on x. we speak in terms of regression of Y on x1. It is therefore desirable to apply probabilistic or expected value procedures to ensure adequate resistance of concrete structures. For an S-N curve. Thus the independent variables x1. x2… xk which are measured with negligible error and are often controlled in the experiment. Some assumptions need to be recognized before the application of linear regression analysis to an experimental set of data. a number of test specimens are tested at various stress levels . In most applications. The Yi are random variables possessing the same variance σ2.

Lokvik [1] showed that the power model gave the best fit for the fatigue test data. and type and quantity of cement. Lokvik [1] used a log scale to solve this problem. which yields the equation. variation in aggregate. The power model is given below. S= Ff /Fr = Co Ncl In which Co and C1 are coefficients. water/cement ratio etc. identical parts subjected to the same fluctuating stress. Since the fatigue life is expressed in logarithm.V. Ramakrishnan et al. 7 until failure.e. Taking logarithms of both sides linearizes the power equation. The assumption of normality of the data must also be checked. Selection of a model to predict the fatigue life is based on the correlation coefficient. The correlation coefficient of the regression line was greatly improved and the data points were scattered on both side of the estimated regression line. After investigating various models.. ln(N) . Ff /Fr is the fatigue stress ratio. Selstad [1] had shown that the S-N curve couldn’t represent the fatigue data with adequate accuracy in a semi log scale from 100 to 2 million cycles. the under lying stress distribution reduces to a normal distribution. The fatigue results or the relationship between cycles to failure versus stress can either be plotted on semi-log or log paper with the stress on the ordinate and corresponding lives on the abscissa. ln(S) = ln(Co) + C1. This is done by producing a normal probability plot of the residuals and checking whether the points have formed approximately a straight line. Normal probability plots for all the lightweight concrete mixes showed that the fatigue data points approximately follow a linear trend. the average life is commonly used to describe the fatigue characteristics of the specimens. It was found that the number of cycles to failure was too large in the mid fatigue stress region. generally fail at different cycles. Due to non-homogeneity in material properties i. Since the best estimate of a sample is generally the average value..

027 (WATER) . Using regression analysis. problems of structural design must be resolved in the face of uncertainty and as a consequence. Hence it is reasonable to combine together the test results of all batches and analyze them as a single batch.3 Mpa and nearly same for all the six batches. Failure should be interpreted with respect to some predefined limit state: it may be excessive deflection. major cracking (first crack load). the following power model equations are obtained to predict the fatigue life N for a specified endurance limit (fmax/fr). This however requires a large number of fatigue data and an investigation of the fatigue life distribution of the data. Ramakrishnan et al. which is the type of loading that may be expected in concrete pavements and bridge decks. N D. The design life. Once the distribution function is determined. Standardized residuals were computed and almost all the standardized residuals fell within the range of –2 to +2. the design life may be selected corresponding to acceptable design reliability.958 c = -0. where fr is the modulus of rupture.044 (AIR) fmax/ fr=bNc b= 0. for both in seawater and in air. It is recognized that structural problems are often non-deterministic. and fmax is the maximum flexural fatigue stress. 8 The power model has been adopted for arriving at a relationship between S and N for all the lightweight concrete mixes. Linear regression analysis has been carried out for each of the mixes. risk the probability of an adverse event or failure is virtually unavoidable.17 c= -0. The proposed equation is valid only in the range of 103 to 2 x 106 cycles. Hence. fmax/ fr=bNc b= 1. Fatigue Life Prediction Light weight concrete The compressive strength is about 48. should be selected such that there is only a small probability that failure will occur. or the total collapse of a structure (ultimate flexural load). the stress-life probability relations are desirable to ensure adequate fatigue resistance of concrete structures.V. In fact.

000 to two million cycles for lightweight concrete with a compressive strength of 45 to 55 Mpa.032 (WATER) The above formatted equations are valid for 10. Therefore it is reasonable to combine together the test cells of all concretes tested and to analyze them as a single group both in water and air. Fig. The residual plots for variable N and fc’ are shown in Fig. 8 and 11. 9) is almost a linear line. fmax/ fr=bNc b= 1. The normal probability plot (Fig. therefore a separate analysis was done for these concretes.036 (AIR) fmax/ fr=bNc b=1.6 shows the estimated power model regression lines for series B in log-log scale for specimens in air and water. Using regression analysis the following equations were obtained to predict the fatigue life (N) for specified flexural fatigue stress (fmax) for the lightweight concrete when the modulus of rupture (fr) is known. The results of the analysis have been reported in Table 3. The predicted values of N and fc’ for mixtures M1-M6 (Air) are shown in Fig. Series B: The average compressive strength for the lightweight concrete tested in series B was higher than 55 Mpa. Ramakrishnan et al. Figure 5 shows the estimated power model regression lines for series-A in log-log scale for specimens tested in air and water. The average flexural fatigue strength was approximately 4 Mpa when tested in water and 3 Mpa when tested in air.V. This will provide a satisfactory significant sample and the prediction equation will be reliable and more accurate. 7 and 10. which indicates that there is a .13 c= -0. when a specimen withstood two million cycles of fatigue loading it never failed even after the loading was continued for 22 million cycles. The above equations are valid for thousand to two million cycles for lightweight concrete tested in air and in seawater. 9 The endurance limits were nearly the same for the lightweight concrete tested in the air and in seawater. The regression statistics of the model have been reported in table 3.066 c= -0. In earlier research [13] it has been observed that.

a ‘multiple regression model’ is needed. Combined Multiple Regression Model In most research problems where regression analysis is applied. It was found that the fatigue data of lightweight and fiber reinforced concrete are represented with adequate accuracy when plotted on a log-log scale. The power model equations are meant for lightweight and fiber reinforced concrete mixtures with specific compressive strengths. The range of applicability is a question of scientific judgement. It was observed that regression lines of the different mixes were aligned on one above the other depending upon their compressive strengths. The complexity of most scientific mechanisms is such that in order to be able to predict an important response. Regression statistics of the model have been reported in Table 3. . Ramakrishnan et al. The power model was employed to establish a relationship between the fatigue strength and the number of cycles for the two series having different compressive strengths.2) and then becomes a constant parallel to X-axis. The applicability of these equations is restricted to the specific compressive strength ranges for which they are meant. A compressive strength component is introduced in the power model for generalizing the model to encompass all compressive strength ranges. 10 linear relationship between S and N. The ratio of stress Vs Number of cycles forms a nonlinear curve upto a certain limit (Fig. more than one independent variable is needed in the regression model. The data points were equally distributed about the regression line. This gives the endurance limit of mixture M1-M6 (air).12.V. Fiber reinforced concrete Regression analysis was done by adopting the same procedure as in the case of lightweight concrete. Regression lines for all mixtures have been plotted in Log-Log scale in Fig.

N (independent variable I) and fc’ ((independent variable II) was also determined.V. Ramakrishnan et al. A ‘residual’ is defined as the error in the fit of the model of the ith data point. One of the ways of assessing the adequacy of regression model is to determine the multiple . 11 The suggested multiple regression models are given below. Multiple regression analysis was carried out on the entire fatigue data from all the lightweight concrete mixtures with varying compressive strengths. ei = Y-Yi SSE=∑ ei2 = ∑ (Y.Nc Light Weight Concrete a = 0.001348 b = 0. This component reflects near random variation or experimental error.fc’ + b.939015 c = -0. Adequacy of the regression model The error introduced in the regression model is due to the variation between the values of Y within given values of x.068756 -0. The minimization procedure for estimating the parameters is called the method of least squares.025488 Where fc’ is the compressive strength of the concrete mixture.Yi)2 The multiple regression coefficients are found by minimizing the sum of the squares of the residuals (SSE). fmax/ fr = a. Regression was also done using a method of least squares on linear regression.031562 Fiber Reinforced Concrete a= b= c= -2. The linear relationship between S (dependent variable). It is the difference between the estimated value of Y and the observed value Yi at that data point. Regression was done using the method of least squares as a non-linear regression.256E-05 1.

Often the problem of analyzing the quality of estimated regression line is handled through an ‘analysis of variance’ approach or a hypothesis test for the significance of the fitted line.value.05. r. The p value for all the . The lower the value of S2y/x.n-2. The null hypothesis is Ho is rejected when f > F1. Table 3 gives the regression statistics for all the lightweight concrete and fiber reinforced concrete mixtures. the conditional estimate of standard deviation ( Sy/x ) and the significance–F ( p value ) of the hypothesis test. The adequacy of the regression model can be assessed by the tabulated values of coefficient of correlation (r). The random variable F = ∑ (Yi.V.∝ . Thus it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between X and Y. 2 12 correlation coefficient squared (r ).∝ where ∝ is the level of significance. the better the performance of the regression model.F to a lower value of 0.85 for mix A. varies from high value of 0. which varies between +1 and –1. The measure of linear association between two variable X and Y is estimated by the sample correlation coefficient. stronger the rejection Ho. The standard deviation ( Sy/x ) values for all the mixtures fall in the range of 0. The parameters of the power model have been tabulated. can assess the strength of rejection.71 for mix T6.1 to 0. A point estimate (f) of the random variable F is compared with F1. The coefficient of correlation (r). which expresses the proportion of the total variation in the values of the variable Y that can be accounted for by a linear relationship with the values of variable X.n-2 distribution.n-2. which is within allowable limits.Y’)2/ S2y/x is distributed according to F1.value is the lowest possible value of ∝ for which the null hypothesis ( Ho) will be rejected. A hypothesis test is done with a null hypothesis (Ho) that ‘there is no significant relation between X and Y’ and an alternate hypothesis (HA) that ‘there is significant relation between X and Y’. The p. The statistic r2 should be used with caution because the value of r2 can be inflated by adding more terms to the regression model. Ramakrishnan et al. Computing the p – value. Thus lower the p. The value of r = +1 implies a perfect linear relationship with a positive slope.

The conditional estimate of the standard deviation (Sy/x ) is 0.V. The multiple regression models were formulated by carrying out multiple regression analysis on the fatigue data obtained from all the mixtures. it is desirable to use probabilistic concepts to predict fatigue life and to ensure adequate fatigue resistance of concrete structures. 13 lightweight concrete mixtures is almost 0.066 for light weight concrete .8234. The conditional estimate of the standard deviation ( Sy/x ) is 0.0832 for fiber reinforced concrete mixtures .The correlation is better than the corresponding values obtained from the individual regression analysis. The coefficient of correlation (r) of the multiple regression is 0. The coefficient of correlation (r) of the multiple regression is 0. The obtained standard deviation is less than the corresponding values obtained from regression analysis of individual lightweight concrete mixtures. Ramakrishnan et al. . A statistical analysis takes into account the variability associated with the experimental data. indicating a very strong rejection of null hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS • Since the fatigue test data of lightweight concrete shows considerable scatter and is random in nature. The resulting multiple regression equation is used to predict the fatigue life of lightweight and fiber reinforced concretes with a specific compressive strength at a given stress level.7311. A compressive strength term was included in the model to incorporate the varying compressive strengths of the different mixtures. The correlation is in the same range as the corresponding values obtained from individual regression analysis of all the mixtures. This suggests that a significant relationship does exist between S (Ff /Fr) and N for all the lightweight concrete and fiber reinforced concrete mixtures under consideration.

Detroit. Detroit. Malhotra. American Concrete Institute. V. July 1981. 14 • Fatigue data is adequately represented when it is plotted in log-log scale. M.V. Malhotra. Report ACI 215-74.. “ Concrete Technology for the 21st Century”. “ Considerations for design of Concrete Structures subjected to Fatigue Loading”. T. 397-420. W. Bjorn J. November 5 & 6. • A combined multiple regression model was formulated to generalize the fatigue life model to encompass all compressive strength ranges. V. REFERENCES 1) Ramakrishnan. Proceedings.. V. pp. pp. “ Structural Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Performance”. Connecticut. Milwaukee. V78. 1986. SP-136. “ Fatigue of Plain Concrete”. V. Proceedings of the VII International Congress on Experimental Mechanics. C. 2) Ramakrishnan. ACI Special Publication. Regression analysis has been carried out and power model equations have been formulated for prediction of fatigue life.. pp.. Ramakrishnan et al. Journal of the American Concrete Institute. Revised 1986. W. 1992. Edited by Holm and Vaysburd. Lokvik and Henning Selstad. T. 3) ACI Committee 215.. T.395-403. and Langley. June 1992. . 4. No. “ Fatigue Strength and Endurance Limit of Lightweight Concrete”. “ Constitutive relations for Flexural fatigue Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete”. The non-linear multiple regression equation can be used to predict the fatigue life of lightweight concrete with any compressive strength. 1992. 5) Ramakrishnan.. Proceedings CBU/CANMET International Symposium.. “ Comparative Evaluation of Flexural Fatigue Behavior of High Volume Fly Ash and Plain Concrete”. Bremmer and V. American Concrete Institute... 4) Hsu. S. M. at a given stress level. 292-305.

. 1988. “Flexural Fatigue Performance Characteristice of Lightweight High Strength Concrete Under Water”. pp. G. Shankar. and Shankar. “ Flexural Performance Characteristics of High Strength Lightweight Concretes”. 10) Sokke K. pp. V. and Malhotra. Ramakrishnan et al. U. Norway. 20-24 June. University of California. V. 947-965.. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. pp. 13) Sivakumar Chockalingam “Fatigue Performance Characteristics of Polyolefin Fiber Reinforced Concrete”. Hoff. “Evaluation of Flexural Fatigue Strength of Lightweight Concrete Immersed in Sea Water”. Shivaraj. V. 8) Ramakrishnan. 187-212. Master of Science Thesis. W. “Flexural Fatigue Strength of Structural Lightweight Concrete Underwater”.. 251-267. Berkeley.. 1993. and Ramakrishnan. Master of Science Thesis. SP 145-51. “Low-Cycle Fatigue Behaviors of Plain Concrete and Concrete Members under Submerged Conditions”.. . 1998. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. ACI Publication.. “Fatigue Performance of High Strength Lightweight Concrete and Fiber Reinforced Refractory Concrete”. G.. 12) Yediyur U. “ Underwater Fatigue Performance of Structural Lightweight Concrete”. Y. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. 9) Muguruma. Master of Science Thesis. H. ACI Publication. C.. Mehta. M.. 1991. Proceedings of a Symposium International Experience with Durability of Concrete in Marine Environment. 15 6) Hoff. Edited by P. SP 144-13. V. 1991. 11) Eagala Sunil Kumar. K.V. Bremmer. 1989. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. 7) Ramakrishnan. T. Presented and Published in the Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Utilization of High Strength Concrete. C. Master of Science Thesis.

89 0.00057 0.03 LIGHT WEIGHT CONCRETE M 46.6 0.8 3.71 0.2 0.019 0.89 6.032 0.776 -0.0078 -0.49 0.9 2.0008 0.22 0.6 FW1 0.76 0.778 -0.055 PLAIN 42.021 0.0 2.77 0.027 0.7 TABLE 3 REGRESSION STATISTICS OF FRC AND LIGHT WEIGHT CONCRETE MIXTURES Mixture Comp Power Model Std Designation Strength Deviation fc Mpa Co C1 Sy/x FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE T5 49.72 0.0031 0.45 fc' Mpa 49.6 FW2 0.083 T6 52.019 0.18 4.853 -0.75 1. M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 fmax/fr.6 FW5 0.97 0.838 -0.3 5.85 0.044 0.25E-12 .81 0.38E-26 1. Ramakrishnan et al.V.15 6.6 0.54 41.6 FW4 0.65 1.036 0.77 0.96 0.92 5.068 G-L 55.54 7. Endurance Limit 0.1 2.39E-22 2.85 0.03 NMFRC2 35.5 5. Endurance Limit 0.1 fmax Mpa 3.776 -0.16 1.08 FW 49.011 0.09E-17 1.062 NMFRC 42.054 A-F 54.22 33.6 1. 16 TABLE 1 FATIGUE STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF FRC MIXES Endurance Limit % 68 57 60 70 64 68 67 Mixture Designation T5 T6 P1 W1 NMFRC NMFRC2 PLAIN fr Mpa 6.21 5 3. Batch No.54 1.13 -0.15 2.76 0.15 4.49 45.7 2.0 Tested in Sea Water Flexural fatigue Strength MPa 5.6 FW6 fmax/fr.049 0.77 42.17 -0.048 Coef of Significance Correlation F-P value r 0.97 42.0 4.85 0.84 0.3 Batch No.096 W1 31.027 0.34 5.036 0.6 FW3 0.6 0.2 5.039 0.6 0.924 -0.066 -0.014 0.0004 0.7 0.65 5.96 TABLE 2 FLEXURAL FATIGUE STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE LIMIT OF LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE TESTED IN AIR AND SEA WATER Tested in Air Flexural fatigue Strength MPa 3.07 P1 33.89 52.77 0.49 4.1 5.958 -0.

5 0. 17 Stress ratio (Normal Scale) 1 0.M6 0 Stress ratio (Normal Scale) Stress ratio (Log Scale) -0.6 0.4 -0.7 Number of Cycles (Log Scale) y = -0.2 0.6 -0. REGRESSION LINE FOR MIXTURE M1-M6 (Log-Log Scale) Stress ratio (Log Scale) Stress ratio (Normal Scale) 0 -0.0441x + 0.3 -0. Ramakrishnan et al.1 0 0 Endurance Limit = 0.9 0.2 1 0.6 0.3 -0. 5 S T R ES S R AT IO Vs N U M B E R O F C Y C LE S FO R M IX T U R E M 1-M 6(Air) and FW1-FW6(Wat er) FW1 -FW6 (Wa te r) L in ea r (FW1 -FW6 (W ate r)) M1-M6 (Air) L in ea r (M1 -M6 (Air)) Fig.5 -0.8 0.8 0.6 STRESS RATIO Vs NUMBER OF CYCLES FOR MIXTURE A-F(Air) and G-L (Water) A-F (Air) Linear (A-F (Air)) G-L (Water) Linear (G-L (Water)) .8 0.5 -0.2 1 0.4 0.0881 2 R = 0.2 -0.7 0.7485 Fig 3.4 -0.1 0 -0.4 0.2 0 0 5 10 15 20 Number of Cycles (Log Scale) y = -0.7 5 10 15 20 0 -0.6 1.3 -0.8092 R2 = 0.6 5 10 15 20 Num be r of Cycles (Log Sc a le ) Number of cycles (Normal Scale) Fig.2 -0.V.7284 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 1.4 0.6718 500000 1000000 1500000 2000000 2500000 Number of cycles (Normal Scale) Fig 1 REGRESSION LINE FOR MIXTURE M1.6 0.5 -0.3 0.1632 R2 = 0.1 -0.6 -0.4 -0.M6 (Log-Normal Scale) Fig 4.REGRESSION LINE FOR MIXTURE M1.2 0 0 500000 1000000 1500000 2000000 2500000 Number of cycles (Normal Scale) Stress ratio (Normal Scale) y = -1E-07x + 0.2 -0.M6 (Normal-Normal Scale) FIG.0322x + 1.1 0 -0. 2 NUMBER OF CYCLES Vs STRESS RATIO FOR MIXTURE M1.

1 0 -0.6 -0.8 -0.7 50 100 150 0.13. 10 X Variable 2 (fck) Residual Plot 0 Stress ratio (Log Scale) 0 5 10 15 20 T5 T6 P1 W1 PLAIN NMFRC NMFRC-2 0 3. 11 X Variable 2 (fck) Line Fit Plot Linear (T5) FIG.95 4 Y X Variable 2 FIG.4 -0.2 -0.5 -0.8 X Variable 1 Y 0 5 10 15 20 FIG.85 3.2 Residuals 0.1 0 -0. 7 X Variable 1(N) Residual Plot FIG.3 -0. 9 Normal Probability Plot FIG.6 -0.2 X Variable 1 0 5 10 15 20 0 -0. 18 0. 8 X Variable 1(N) Line Fit Plot 0 -0.1 -0.6 -0.9 3. Ramakrishnan et al.8 Number of Cycles (Log Scale) 3.5 -1 -0.2 3.2 -0.2 Residuals 0.1 0 -0.4 -0.4 -0.8 -0.85 3.V.12 STRESS RATIO Vs NUMBER OF CYCLES FOR FRC MIXES .2 -0.95 4 Y Sample Percentile X Variable 2 FIG.9 3.

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