The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management 6 – 7 September 2012, Phuket - Thailand

A Study of Constraints and Motivating Factors for Indian Women Entrepreneurs in Small Scale Industries
Poonam Vatharkar
Aditya Institute of Management, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Email: poonamvatharkar@yahoo.in Abstract
In this dynamic world, women entrepreneurs are a significant part of the global expedition for sustained economic development and social progress. In India, planning commission, central and state government recognise that women should be in the mainstream of economic development. In particular the development of small scale enterprises for women is seen as the appropriate way to attack the poverty at grassroots level by generating income. Industrial policy of government of India has high lightened the need for entrepreneurship programs for women to enable them to start small scale industries. Even after 65 years of independence women in India are struggling for entrepreneurial freedom. That is why women as entrepreneurial resource have not been widely recognized in India. There has been increasing turned in number of women owned enterprises in India, but despite government efforts, substantial growth could not be achieved. And hence in the current scenario this study focuses on examining the demographic profile of women entrepreneurs in small scale sector in Pune district, Maharashtra, India., tries to analyze the various motivational factors responsible for women entrepreneurship to start up their own enterprise, probe into challenges / constraints faced by women entrepreneurs to start up their own business and finally suggest the framework for the promotion of women entrepreneurship in current scenario. KeyWords - motivational factors, small scale sector, women entrepreneurs.

INTRODUCTION In this dynamic world, women entrepreneurs are a significant part of the global expedition for sustained economic development and social progress. Due to the growing industrialization, urbanization, social legislation and along with the spread of higher education and awareness, the emergence of women owned businesses are highly increasing in the economies of almost all countries.Indian women had undergone a long way and are becoming increasingly visible and successful in all spheres and have shifted from kitchen to higher level of professional activities. At a conference on entrepreneurship in the United States, entrepreneurship was defined as“Entrepreneurship is an attempt to create value through recognition of

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I. Phuket . At present. At the same time institutes like D.E. It is in this context that. 1 core. The National Standing Level committee on women entrepreneur (Ministry of Industry) defines women entrepreneurs as those who operate and control an enterprise and whose holding in the enterprise is at least 51 percent. which provides all the services and support facilities to the entrepreneurs for setting up small and village industries. Government of India has introduced the policy measures to promote the status and the level of female entrepreneurs in the country. M. the management of risk taking appropriate to the opportunity and through the communicative and management skills to mobilise human. the investment level was Rs.” Concept of small scale in India – In India.Thailand business opportunity.5 lakhs and the employment limit was less than 500 persons when using power and less than 100 persons without using power.The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management 6 – 7 September 2012.D. It is a training institute in the core area of entrepreneurship development.( District Industries Centre) & M. In the beginning. the question of women entrepreneurs has taken new significance especially when unemployment has become a matter of great concern for all.I.D (Maharashtra Centre for Entrepreneurship Development) MCED has been a pioneer in espousing social and economic entrepreneurship since 1988. Statement of the problem In India. after independence the definition of the small scale industry has been modified nine times.(Maharashtra centre for entrepreneurship Development) at the state and district level also aid entrepreneurship development. Role of government and institutional support in fostering entrepreneurship In India.C. processing and preservation of goods having investment in plant and machinery at an original cost not exceeding Rs.C. and financial and material resources necessary to bring the project to the fruition.E. D. repairing. the new Policy Initiatives in 1999-2000 defined small-scale industry as a unit engage in manufacturing. for small scale industry. central as well as state government are playing pivotal role in growth and enhancement of small scale industries.C. the need is now keenly felt that women should also work outside the home for getting better living standards for all.C – (District industries Centre) District Industries Centre is the institute at the district level. There has been increasing ~ 474 ~ .

lack of capital. and cultural or religious constraints. Being an entrepreneur had a negative impact on their family life but a positive effect on their social. and individual lives. A study by Chinonye Okafor. A study in Taiwan by Saikou E. most of women entrepreneurs in SMEs are from the category of “forced” entrepreneurs seeking for better family incomes. (Ufuk & zgen. economic. From findings ~ 475 ~ . That is why women as entrepreneurial resource have not been widely recognized in India. the growth of women entrepreneurship is very crucial for not only economic but also social upliftment of the country. In examining the relationships between business and family roles of the female married entrepreneur in Turkey. Sanyang and 2Wen-Chi Huang (2008) proves those women entrepreneurs are capable as men running a business. but despite government efforts. Very few entrepreneurs could approach the government assistance which is the indication that there is a need to revitalise the whole system. The brief summary of some of these researches is given below International status – Coleman (2000) reported that lenders did indeed discriminate.The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management 6 – 7 September 2012. Roy Amalu (2010) reveled that positive relationship exists between motivational factors and women entrepreneurial challenges. substantial growth could not be achieved. but on the basis of firm size. Tulus Tambunan (2009) in the study found that the representation of women entrepreneurs is still relatively low which can be attributed to factors such as low level of education. REVIEW OF LITERATURE The topic “Women Entrepreneurship” is been researched around the globe. Even after 65 years on independence women in India are struggling for entrepreneurial freedom. Cultural differences between and within countries add another dimension to the consideration of personal and professional roles. respondents reported role conflict in their personal and professional lives. Phuket . preferring to lend to larger and more established firms. It is very essential to know what the reasons for women to opt for entrepreneurship and what are the major motivators for their growth and at the same time what are the various constraints /problems women are facing in this journey of entrepreneurship. 2001). And hence in today’s scenario of developing nation like India. thereby limiting their involvement with women-owned firms which were generally smaller.Thailand turned in number of women owned enterprises in India.

support and cooperation by society members. heavy schedule of work and long working hours. not being popular. S. their roles and expectations will change and they will provide moral support. The factors causable to these problems were. However. changes and relaxations in government policies. Dr. It allows them to stay in control of both their business & their personal lives to integrate their career roles & family. Sunil Deshpande and Ms. lack of rest and sleep and non-availability of raw material were the significant problems faced by entrepreneurs. and lack of transport facility. In the study from by Poland. Phuket .. diverted conservative mindset of society to modern one. While another study by Pooja Nayyar. Edwin Gnanadhas (2011) in their study revealed that husbands/fathers were the main motivators for taking up entrepreneurship. Sunita Sethi (2009) in their study concluded that because of attitude change. India. tough competition from larger and established units. between mid-30s and mid-40s.Thailand also suggests that women in middle ages. Indian woman entrepreneurs faced lower levels of work family conflicts and seem to differ in their reasons for starting and succeeding in business. difficulty in affording own vehicle. M. Once they get convinced about significance of women entrepreneurship then their attitude will change. Hanna Mizgajska (2007) confirmed that education and professional experience of women were decisive in prioritizing by them the external and internal factors which impacted the decision of setting up a company.The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management 6 – 7 September 2012. daring and risk-taking abilities of women. necessary guidance and help as needed. To examine the demographic profile of women entrepreneurs in small scale sector in Pune district. granting various upliftment schemes to women entrepreneurs etc. Maharashtra. are more likely to set up their own businesses. The study showed that a significant factor influencing company growth and company performance was training courses. the percentage of women participation in the field of entrepreneurship is increasing at a considerable rate. A study by Mallika Das (2001) concluded that The initial problems faced by the women seem similar to those faced by women in western countries. Avinash Sharma. Jatinder Kishtwaria. OBJECTIVES1. So motivation of husbands/fathers/family members would certainly prove to be fruitful. National Status – (In India) Neelam (1992) found that women chose micro enterprises because they value the quality of their lives. Vargheese Antony Jesurajan & Dr. Aruna Rana and Neena Vyasti (2007) suggested that Poor location of unit. ~ 476 ~ .

The total population of 250 enterprises is divided into various sub areas (sub areas being sub urban areas of Pune city). The area wise distribution of total population and the proportionately selected samples is shown in the following table – The primary data is collected through questionnaire and in depth interviews.e.C. 4.1 crore. Their attitudes may change with the change of times. 3. Hence the findings of the study are entirely applicable to this district only.Thailand 2.I. The firms that are in operation for at least last 5 years are included in the study. 2.C.D. To probe into challenges / constraints faced by women entrepreneurs to start up their own business.The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management 6 – 7 September 2012. The secondary data is also collected from D. the responses reflect their contemporary views on the prevailing conditions.( Maharashtra Centre for Entrepreneurship Development) Pune region offices and websites. who are registered under District Industries Centre ( D. For selecting the sample from each sub urban area convenient sampling method is used. The secondary data is collected through the review of existing literature related with the topic. The population of the study is 250 women run small scale enterprises. The cluster sampling method is used to derive the sample. The review is made using books.) Pune region. The population of the study is confined to the women entrepreneurs in Pune district.e. Pune regional office. magazines. LIMITATIONS1. The study is based on the perceptions of the women entrepreneurs. Therefore. To analyze the various motivational factors responsible for women entrepreneurs to start up their own enterprise. the firms having investment in plant and machinery at an original cost not exceeding Rs. journals and research thesis. To suggest the framework for entrepreneurship in current scenario. Out of the population of 250 women run enterprises 25 per cent i.I.C. the promotion of women ~ 477 ~ .I.C. The study covers only Pune district.E. (District Industries Centre) and M. For the purpose of this study the required database of women entrepreneurs is been collected from D. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The target industry for the study is small scale sector i. newspapers. 63 enterprises are taken as sample. Phuket .

79 per cent have children and 71 per cent have children above 10 years of age. Regarding the marital status 83 per cent are married. Table 1 Area wise Population & Sample Sub Urban Area of Pune Population in the Area City Narhe –Ambegaon 16 Bhosari 28 Pimpari –Chinchwad 20 Chakan 40 Dhayari 10 Kothrud 20 Karve Nagar 20 Bavadhan 32 Ranjangaon 42 Hinjewadi 22 Total 250 Samples selected from the area 4 7 5 10 2 5 5 8 11 6 63 To find out the factors motivating the women entrepreneurs to start their own enterprise and major constraints faced by them t-test has been administered. Percentage analysis has also been used to find out the demographic profiles of the respondents. 21 per cent are engaged in fashion ~ 478 ~ . Out of the 63 respondents taken for the study 40 per cent belong to the age –group of 33-40 years. DATA ANALYSIS & DISCUSSION Profile of the women entrepreneurs The demographic profile of the respondents is given in Table 1. in depth interviews and informal interaction with the respondents. Regarding the family type 73 per cent have nuclear families and 87 per cent get support of their family members. 40 per cent get the support in the form of emotional support. Phuket . The in depth interviews of 10 respondents were conducted in order to gain better understanding of their operations.Thailand The tools used for data collection are questionnaire. 38 per cent have completed their studies up to graduation and 59 per cent have the work experience.The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management 6 – 7 September 2012. Questionnaire was prepared for the respondents including open and closed ended questions. 51 per cent have their business premises as a part of their house. 76 per cent women entrepreneurs are first generation entrepreneurs.

Phuket . 40 per cent women spend 4-8 hours in their business. 60 per cent have used their own funds to start the business while 40 percent have borrowed from various sources of which 19 per cent have borrowed from their relatives.The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management 6 – 7 September 2012. Table 2 Particulars Demographic Profile Classification Number 5 14 25 16 3 52 11 0 0 50 13 6 12 45 7 12 14 24 4 2 37 26 46 17 55 8 28 40 29 13 48 Percentage 8 22 40 25 5 83 17 0 0 79 21 10 19 71 11 19 22 38 7 3 59 41 73 27 87 13 26 36 26 12 76 Below 25 years Age Group 25-32 years 33-40 years 40-55 years Above 55 years Married Marital Status Unmarried Widowed Divorced Children Yes No Age Group of Below 5 years Children 5-10 years Above 10 years Primary school Highest Educational Secondary School Qualification High school Graduate Post Graduate Illiterate Yes Work Experience No Family Type Nuclear family Joint family Yes Family Members No Support Form of Support Manual help Emotional support Financial help Advice Category of First generation Business entrepreneur ~ 479 ~ .Thailand designing and tailoring and 14 per cent run beauty parlor. For 59 per cent of the respondents their business is not the only source of income.

The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management 6 – 7 September 2012.Computed Data Factors motivating women to become entrepreneurs – 6 9 32 31 13 1 7 9 7 2 1 2 4 17 9 25 19 10 38 25 12 4 9 4 5 29 26 37 10 14 51 49 21 2 11 14 11 3 2 3 6 27 14 40 30 16 60 40 19 7 14 6 8 46 41 59 In order to find out the factors motivating the women to become entrepreneurs 23 attributes that can influence their decision to become entrepreneur were identified.Thailand Parents as entrepreneurs In-laws as entrepreneurs Nature of factory Part of house building Separate building Type of enterprise Fashion Designing & Tailoring Interior Designing Confectionary & Bakery Beauty Parlor Grocery Shop Internet / Mobile application services Financial Services Agriculture Medical & General Stores Other activities… Plz. The output of t-test performed to identify the significant factors motivating women entrepreneurs to start their own enterprise is shown in Table 2. Specify Time spent in Up to 4 hours business 4 – 8 hours 8-12 hours Above 12 hours Sources of Funds Own funds only Own funds & borrowed funds Sources of Relatives Borrowings Friends Commercial banks Co-operative banks Financial institutions NA Business as Main Yes source of income No Source . ~ 480 ~ . Phuket . The respondents were then requested to express their level of opinion on the influence of those factors on a 5 point Likert-scale.

001 .713 .667 .348 .712 Gaining respect from others for my 4.000 .000 .238 -.644 . social status.006 .e.653 -1.000 Mean Difference .315 Responsibility to run business due to -2.000 .05.761 4.728 3.001 .503 1.228 .520 Being entrepreneur was a lifelong goal 5.389 1.643 9. getting better life than before.241 .348 5. freedom form supervision.293 Source .046 . Phuket .439 4.000 .212 skills and talent Seeking challenging business venture To make more money Gaining control on my life Get better life than before To prove myself For self esteem Freedom from supervision To spend spare time Family business passed on to me To support family financially 3.000 . use of idle funds.046 2.528 . The decision rule used to find out the significant factor is t value > o and sigma < .863 death of member To advance myself 4.000 . gaining respect from others for skill and talent.000 .447 9.109 .278 4. market potential.Thailand Table 3 Motivating Factors Test Value = 3 T Economic Independence Dissatisfaction with current job Unemployment Use of idle funds Availability of Infrastructural facilities Market potential Social status No other income sources available Support from family 4. seeking challenging business venture.400 .740 .943 .012 .000 .521 .667 . to prove myself. gaining control on life.986 2.769 .172 . making more money.682 4.549 .000 . being entrepreneur was lifelong goal.207 .000 . self esteem.759 .717 .000 . economic independence.402 . ~ 481 ~ . support from family.245 3. (2-tailed) .000 .660 .851 5.092 .216 .746 1. accordingly 17 factors i. To support family financially.964 .150 df 59 20 39 50 50 49 52 35 57 49 56 51 62 56 57 55 52 51 23 28 55 44 58 Sig.462 -.Computed Data The above table shows the factors which are significant for motivating women entrepreneurs.821 .The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management 6 – 7 September 2012.733 1. to spend spare time and To advance myself these factors proved to be significant.

222 ~ 482 ~ .004 .123 .000 1.000 .000 .533 -.000 . family business passed on to me proved to be insignificant.018 .182 .574 Maintaining work life 14.The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management 6 – 7 September 2012.216 -.009 .Thailand Hence.355 Lack of motivation and 9.508 1.568 -. Personal Level Constraints In the category of personal level constraints 12 attributes were identified. total constraint were divided into 4 categories as constraint on personal level.Computed Data Df 50 61 62 62 51 62 62 38 43 44 44 62 Sig. the remaining 6 factors namely dissatisfaction with current job.826 .021 Lack of leadership qualities 14.210 1. unemployment.267 1. The t.222 1.716 pregnancy Lack of support from -3. Responsibility to run business due to death of family member.372 Lack of finance 22.381 -. no other income source available.212 Susceptibility about own -. Table 4 Personal Constraints Test Value = 3 T Poor Self Image -1.038 1.745 confidence Role conflict 21.222 decision making abilities Orthodox family background 22. environmental level and general constraint they are still facing.212 balance Source .084 husband and family Fear of failure and criticism -1.000 .test performed to identify the significant personal level constraints faced by women entrepreneurs gives the output shown in Table 4. social level. Constraints / challenges faced in a journey as entrepreneur In order to find out what constraint / challenges women entrepreneurs have faced in their journey as entrepreneur. (2-tailed) Mean Difference . Availability of Infrastructural facilities.481 Lack of security -2.465 Physical constraints like -2.397 -.000 .564 -. Phuket .

lack of finance. religion etc Source .proved to be insignificant. the reaming 3 factors i.e. Discriminating treatment was proved to be significant factor. fear of failure and criticism were proved to be insignificant.210 -. susceptibility about own decision making.807 -3. Hence.e.007 . language.448 -. lack of motivation and confidence.test performed to identify significant social level constraints is shown in Table 5 . The decision rule used to find out the significant factor is t value > o and sigma < . lack of security. The decision rule used to find out the significant factor is t value > o and sigma < . lack of support from husband and family.674 .562 Df 61 57 45 53 Mean Sig. lack of leadership qualities.552 related to the basic ethics of the society.000 . ~ 483 ~ . language.The output of t.Thailand The above table shows the factors which are personal level constraints for women entrepreneurs. role conflicts.Computed Data The above table shows the factors which are social level constraints for women entrepreneurs.05 accordingly only 1 factor i.e. Cultural values.093 socio-cultural problems . (2-tailed) Difference . socio-cultural problems related to the basic ethics of the society.001 . lack of social acceptance. maintaining work life balance proved to be significant factors. Table 5 Social Constraints Test Value = 3 T Discriminating treatment Lack of social acceptance Cultural values 9. Social Level Constraints In the category of social level constraints 4 attributes were identified . Phuket . physical constraints like pregnancy. orthodox family background. religion etc.583 1.05 accordingly 6 factors i.The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management 6 – 7 September 2012. the remaining 6 factors namely poor self image.Hence.745 -2.

508 1.458 . Understanding legal compliance proved to be insignificant.285 interpersonal relations Understanding legal .074 T Local competition -1. Maintaining cordial interpersonal relations. table shows the factors which are environmental level constraints for women entrepreneurs.061 . rules and regulations.Computed Data Df 54 62 51 62 62 61 48 53 The Hence.135 1. (2-tailed) Difference .455 compliance Source . Local competition.Lack of managerial education were proved to be significant factor.777 . The decision rule used to find out the significant factor is t value > o and sigma < .747 Management of the workforce 22.05. .000 . the reaming 4 factors i.381 1. Phuket .The output of T Test performed to identify significant constraints still faced by respondents is shown in Table 7.021 Lack of managerial education 9. The output of T Test performed to identify significant environmental level constraints is shown in Table 6.The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management 6 – 7 September 2012. Accordingly 4 factors namely Understanding govt. Management of the workforce . rules and 22. Lack of latest technology.113 . ~ 484 ~ .745 Maintaining cordial -.397 -. Table 6 Environmental constraints Test Value = 3 Mean Sig.481 regulations Marketing problems -. Marketing problems. Constraints Still Facing13 attributes were identified for the general constraints women entrepreneurs are still facing .273 1.372 Lack of latest technology 21.000 .e.Thailand Environmental Level Constraints In the category of Internal and external environmental level constraints 8 attributes were identified.000 .210 -.651 -.613 Understanding govt.000 .

Change in lifestyle. the reaming 6 factors i.000 .218 Time Management . The decision rule used to find out the significant factor is t value > o and sigma < .005 . Lack of awareness about new trends in business proved to be insignificant. Time Management. Managing stress of decision making.039 .284 Lack of awareness about new trends -3.712 -. an open ended question was asked. Lack of training in my work area. Lack of awareness about legal compliance. Gender discrimination. Table 7 Constraints still facing Test Value = 3 T Change in lifestyle -1.222 . Lack of managerial excellence.210 -.304 -.000 .745 Competing in male dominated field -2. (2-tailed) Difference .210 1.659 Managing stress of decision making 9.201 in business Source .117 compliance Lack of knowledge about technical 14.e.000 .979 Gender discrimination -1.522 -.495 Lack of awareness about legal -2.532 ~ 485 ~ .404 1.000 .021 Reserve attitude of society 12.05 accordingly 7 factors Balancing work life. Lack of government support were proved to be significant factor. society & government for better leading the entreprise In order to find out what kind of support the women entrepreneurs are expecting form the family.397 1.381 1.212 aspects Lack of training in my work area 9. Phuket .145 1. Reserve attitude of society.745 Lack of managerial excellence 21.222 .Thailand The table below shows the constraints women entrepreneurs are still facing in their journey as entrepreneur.577 Lack of government support 5. The following are the major expectations identified by the respondents df 53 54 62 61 45 45 51 62 61 62 62 58 46 Mean Sig. Competing in male dominated field.000 .000 .The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management 6 – 7 September 2012.429 . Hence.142 .797 Balancing work life 15.000 .002 -.229 . Lack of knowledge about technical aspects.222 1.Computed Data Expectations form family. society and the government so as to overcome the constrains and better lead their enterprise.

Thailand Table 8 Major Expectations From Society From Family From Government Equal treatment and respect Improvement in mentality Change in attitude towards female Respect the profession Provide security Help in Business operations Help for maintaining Work Life Balance Provide motivation Respect my profession Financial help.The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management 6 – 7 September 2012. Maximum availability of loans Low rate of interest on loan Availability of training facilities Reduced octrai Guidance for license procedure Special grants. ~ 486 ~ . Phuket . incentives and subsidies for female entrepreneurs Reduced corruption Easy to understand policies Should check whether needy women are getting benefits of various schemes Help to grow market beyond the district Source .(Maharashtra centre for entrepreneurship Development) which will focus on potential in women to become entrepreneurs. 2) Development an education system and institutes that provides the girl child an opportunity and motivation to be an entrepreneur. It also calls for mental revolution of the society.Computed Data APPLICABILITY OF THE RESEARCH 1) “Women Only” training programs could be developed by the organizations like MITCON (Maharashtra Industrial and Technical Consultancy Organization) and MCED . 3) As the major lacunas found by the entrepreneurs in their way of success are the conservative mentality and attitude of their families and society as a whole towards female.

as many of them are not having any professional / managerial education. housewives as potential source of entrepreneurship ~ 487 ~ . Husband and other family members should share household activities. Government shall play active role in providing loan to needy women entrepreneurs through nationalized and cooperative banks. even. 6) Rather than working individually women can involve in “Group Entrepreneurship” or “ self Help Group” so as to overcome many problems. RECOMMENDATIONS The following suggestions are given for overall development of women entrepreneurship – 1) The problem of lack of finance is faced by many women and majority of them borrow money from their relatives. grants. so as to extract them as major source of entrepreneurship in the country. enhancing leadership qualities. At this level “Women entrepreneurship Cells” should be establish so as to identified pr the potential in girl child to be an entrepreneur and opportunity should be provided accordingly. All the required documentation should be in regional language. 3) For managing stress. Phuket . So that. women are still considered to be inferior to men. subsidies and various uplftment schemes to be provided to women entrepreneurs. incentives. so as to discuss their need. experiences and achievements. 2) In India. Women entrepreneurs play dual role and hence face role conflicts and difficulty in balancing work life.The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management 6 – 7 September 2012.women need to be trained. 7) For women entrepreneurship to work as a tool to eradicate poverty at grassroots level. Institutes like MCED and MITCON can identify their training needs and design “Women Oriented” training programs. problems. Bank loan procedure shall be less complicated and less time consuming. 5) Women entrepreneurs should form “ Women Entrepreneurs Association “where they can meet at central place. workforce management etc. illiterate women will feel that it is appropriate and trusted source of getting finance. 4) Fundamental changes are needed on school and college education level.Thailand 4) It would also help the Central and State government to decide their policies regarding loans. Reserve attitude of the society needs to be changed.

society and Government can make these Women Entrepreneurs one of the crucial entrepreneurial resource and they can contribute towards the economic and social development of India . CONCLUSION This study examines the problems faced by women entrepreneurs in Pune district at various levels in their journey as entrepreneur. Entrepreneurial Motivations as Determinants of Women Entrepreneurship Challenges by . (2000). maintaining work life balance. REFERENCES Baporika N.67-77. Vol – LXII. Women entrepreneurs form India. Women entrepreneurs face lots of problems at start-up as well as operating stage like. Entrepreneurship Development and Project Management.The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management 6 – 7 September 2012. pp. For some of them factors motivating to start their own enterprise is to support family financially. Phuket . pp.and women owned small businesses. lack of motivation. New Delhi. when women are empowered. Further. Coleman.4. role conflict. Roy Amalu. Economic science series. discriminating treatment. It’s been found in the study that India is a male dominated society and women are assumed to be economically as well as socially dependent on male members.problems. understanding government rules and regulations etc.38.2. Himalaya Publishing House. in the words of Former President APJ Abdul Kalam "Empowering women is a prerequisite for creating a good nation. lack of finance. while for some of them it is the urge to be economically independent. To conclude. Chinonye Okafor . ~ 488 ~ .pp.No.Thailand should be targeted by government and NGOs. their potential should be identified and opportunities should be provided to them. Journal of Small Business Management. (2010). Vol. No. Access to capital and terms of credit: A comparison of men. Vol 15. society with stability is assured. it is noted that these women entrepreneurs are both “willing” as well as “forced” entrepreneurs.No. (2001). The right kind of assistance from family.(2009). motivators and success factors Journal of small business and entrepreneurship. 37-52 Das M. S.2. further the study also tries to probe in to the factors motivating these women to become entrepreneur and suggests a framework for the development of women entrepreneurship.67-81.

Thailand Desai V. Vargheese Antony Jesurajan & Dr. & Welsch.aspx ~ 489 ~ . (2007) .nic. Evidence from Poland. Small and Medium Enterprise for Women Entrepreneurs in Taiwan. pp. (2009). No.mced.. Nayyar P. Vol-2 .Kurukshetra.Shodh. Samiksha aur Mulyankan. No-2.No-5. L.(2009) . (2007). pp.1. H. Small Scale Industries and entrepreneurship. www. 99-102 Neelam M (1992). Journal of Social Sciences. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences. M. Entrepreneurship Development and Project Management. 453-470 Kulkarni M.P.2.. New Delhi Deshpande S.1.issue-9-10.Vol. Vyas N... No. Phuket . 2231-3699 Ufuk.Sharma A. Interaction between the business and family lives of women entrepreneurs in Turkey.Vol.95-106. H. (2001). Journal of Business Venturing.. Nirali prakashan.nic. pp-42-45 Saikou S.K. O. Edwin Gnanadhas (2011)..14.4.Vol-4.The 2012 International Conference on Business and Management 6 – 7 September 2012. Education as Determinant of Motivation and Performance of Women –Owned Small Firms. “Women’s Contribution to Economic Growth”. (2008). Asian Journal of Business and Economics. Causes and Constraints Faced by Women entrepreneurs in Entrepreneurial Process.mced. Vol.884-890 S. (2008). Kishtwaria J.16.Women Entrepreneurship In India (Problems. Rana A. Himalaya Publishing House. Study on the factors motivating women to become entrepreneurs in tirunelveli district. & Ozgen. Gundry T. Journal of Business Ethics. pp. International Research Journal.pp.in http://www. Solutions & Future Prospects of Development).in/AboutUs_Home.. Mizgajska H. Vol. Vol -31. New Delhi. pp. Sethi S.E.. (2001). Women entrepreneurship in Asian developing countries: Their development and main constraints.T.

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